ב"ה

Torah Reading for Devarim

Parshat Devarim
Shabbat, 6 Av, 5784
10 August, 2024
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 1:1 - 3:22; Isaiah 1:1-27)
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First Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 1

1These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on that side of the Jordan in the desert, in the plain opposite the Red Sea, between Paran and Tofel and Lavan and Hazeroth and Di Zahav.   אאֵ֣לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּעֵ֖בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן בַּמִּדְבָּ֡ר בָּֽעֲרָבָה֩ מ֨וֹל ס֜וּף בֵּֽין־פָּארָ֧ן וּבֵֽין־תֹּ֛פֶל וְלָבָ֥ן וַֽחֲצֵרֹ֖ת וְדִ֥י זָהָֽב:
These are the words: Since these are words of rebuke and he [Moses] enumerates here all the places where they angered the Omnipresent, therefore it makes no explicit mention of the incidents [in which they transgressed], but rather merely alludes to them, [by mentioning the names of the places] out of respect for Israel (cf. Sifrei).   אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים: לְפִי שֶׁהֵן דִּבְרֵי תוֹכָחוֹת וּמָנָה כָאן כָּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהִכְעִיסוּ לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ סָתַם אֶת הַדְּבָרִים וְהִזְכִּירָם בְּרֶמֶז מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹדָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל (עי' ספרי):
to all Israel: If he had rebuked only some of them, those who were in the marketplace [i.e., absent] might have said, “You heard from [Moses] the son of Amram, and did not answer a single word regarding this and that; had we been there, we would have answered him!” Therefore, he assembled all of them, and said to them, “See, you are all here; if anyone has an answer, let him answer!” - [from Sifrei]   אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל: אִלּוּ הוֹכִיחַ מִקְצָתָן, הָיוּ אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק אוֹמְרִים אַתֶּם הֱיִיתֶם שׁוֹמְעִים מִבֶּן עַמְרָם וְלֹא הֲשִׁיבוֹתֶם דָּבָר מִכָּךְ וְכָךְ? אִלּוּ הָיִינוּ שָׁם הָיִינוּ מְשִׁיבִים אוֹתוֹ, לְכָךְ כִּנְּסָם כֻּלָּם וְאָמַר לָהֶם הֲרֵי כֻּלְּכֶם כָּאן, כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תְשׁוּבָה יָשִׁיב (ספרי):
in the desert: [At that time] they were not in the desert, but in the plains of Moab. [Accordingly,] what is [the meaning of] בַּמִּדְבָּר, in the desert? It means that he rebuked them for their having angered Him in the desert by saying, “If only we had died [by the hand of God]” (Exod. 16:3).   בַּמִּדְבָּר: לֹא בַמִּדְבָּר הָיוּ אֶלָּא בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב, וּמַהוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר? אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל מַה שֶּׁהִכְעִיסוּהוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר שֶׁאָמְרוּ (שמות ט"ז) "מִי יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ וְגוֹ'":
in the plain: in the plain [He rebuked them] regarding the plain, for they had sinned with [the worship of] Baal-Peor at Shittim in the plains of Moab (Num. 25:1-9). [from Sifrei]   בָּֽעֲרָבָה: בִּשְׁבִיל הָעֲרָבָה, שֶׁחָטְאוּ בְּבַעַל פְּעוֹר בְּשִּׁטִּים בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב:
opposite the Red Sea: [He rebuked] them regarding their rebellion at the Red Sea. When they arrived at the Red Sea, they said, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt [that you have taken us to die in the desert?]” (Exod. 14:11) Likewise, [they sinned] when they traveled from the midst of the sea, as it is said, “and they were rebellious by the sea, by the Red Sea” (Ps. 106:7), as is found in Arachin (15a).   מוֹל סוּף: עַל מַה שֶּׁהִמְרוּ בְיַם סוּף בְּבוֹאָם לְיַם סוּף, שֶׁאָמְרוּ (שם י"ד) "הֲמִבְּלִי אֵין קְבָרִים בְּמִצְרַיִם", וְכֵן בְּנָסְעָם מִתּוֹךְ הַיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהילים ק"ו) "וַיַּמְרוּ עַל יָם בְּיַם סוּף" כִּדְאִיתָא בַּעֲרָכִין (דף ט"ו):
Between Paran and Tofel and Lavan: Rabbi Yochanan said: We have reviewed the entire Bible, but we have found no place named Tofel or Lavan! However, [the explanation is that] he rebuked them because of the foolish things they had said (תָּפְלוּ) about the manna, which was white (לָבָן), saying “And our soul loathes this light bread” (Num. 21:5), and because of what they had done in the desert of Paran through the spies. [from Eileh Hadevarim Rabbah, Lieberman]   בֵּֽין־פָּארָן וּבֵֽין־תֹּפֶל וְלָבָן: אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן חָזַרְנוּ עַל כָּל הַמִּקְרָא וְלֹא מָצִינוּ מָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ תֹּפֶל וְלָבָן, אֶלָּא הוֹכִיחָן עַל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁתָּפְלוּ עַל הַמָּן, שֶׁהוּא לָבָן, שֶׁאָמְרוּ (במדבר כ"א) "וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל", וְעַל מַה שֶּׁעָשׂוּ בְמִדְבַּר פָּארָן עַל יְדֵי הַמְרַגְּלִים:
and Hazeroth: Concerning the insurrection of Korach [which took place in Hazeroth] (Eileh Hadevarim Rabbah , Lieberman). Another explanation: He said to them, “You should have learned from what I did to Miriam at Hazeroth because of slander; [nevertheless,] you spoke against the Omnipresent” (Sifrei).   וַֽחֲצֵרֹת: בְּמַחְלָקְתּוֹ שֶׁל קֹרַח; דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמַר לָהֶם הָיָה לָכֶם לִלְמֹד מִמַּה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתִי לְמִרְיָם בַּחֲצֵרוֹת בִּשְׁבִיל לָשׁוֹן הָרָע, וְאַתֶּם נִדְבַּרְתֶּם בַּמָּקוֹם:
and Di-Zahav: (lit., enough gold). He rebuked them for the calf they had made as a result of their abundance of gold, as it is said: “and I gave her much silver and gold, but they made it for Baal” (Hosea 2:10). (cf. Sifrei ; Ber. 32a, Eileh Hadevarim Rabbah , Lieberman).   וְדִי זָהָֽב: הוֹכִיחָן עַל הָעֵגֶל שֶׁעָשׂוּ בִּשְׁבִיל רֹב זָהָב שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ב') "וְכֶסֶף הִרְבֵּיתִי לָהּ וְזָהָב עָשׂוּ לַבָּעַל" (עי' ספרי; ברכות ל"ב):
2"It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by way of Mount Seir to Kadesh Barnea."   באַחַ֨ד עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ מֵֽחֹרֵ֔ב דֶּ֖רֶךְ הַר־שֵׂעִ֑יר עַ֖ד קָדֵ֥שׁ בַּרְנֵֽעַ:
It is eleven days journey from Horeb: Moses said to them: “See what you caused! There is no shorter route from Horeb to Kadesh-Barnea than the way through Mount Seir, and even that is a journey of eleven days. But you traversed it in three days!” For they traveled from Horeb on the twentieth of lyar, as it is said, “And it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth of the month [… the children of Israel traveled…]” (Num. 10:11-12). And on the twenty-ninth of Sivan, they sent out the spies from Kadesh Barnea, (an interval of 40 days; cf. Ta’anith 29a). Subtract from them the thirty days they spent at Kivroth Hataavah (Num. 11:34), where they ate the meat a “month of days,” and the seven days they spent at Hazeroth for Miriam to be confined [as a mezora’ath] (Num. 12:15); we find therefore, that this entire journey [from Horeb to Kadesh-Barnea] took [only] three days. And to such an extent did the Shechinah exert itself to hasten your arrival to the land of Canaan, but because you sinned, He made you travel around Mount Seir for forty years. [from Sifrei]   אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם מֵֽחֹרֵב: אָמַר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה רְאוּ מַה גְּרַמְתֶּם אֵין לָכֶם דֶּרֶךְ קְצָרָה מֵחוֹרֵב לְקָדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ כְּדֶרֶךְ הַר שֵׂעִיר, וְאַף הוּא מַהֲלַךְ י"א יוֹם, וְאַתֶּם הֲלַכְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁלֹוֹשָׁה יָמִים – שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּעֶשְׂרִים בְּאִיָּר נָסְעוּ מֵחוֹרֵב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר י') "וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּעֶשְׂרִים בַּחֹדֶשׁ וְגוֹ'", וּבְכ"ט בְּסִיוָן שָׁלְחוּ אֶת הַמְרַגְּלִים מִקָּדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ (תענית כ"ט), צֵא מֵהֶם ל' יוֹם שֶׁעָשׂוּ בְּקִבְרוֹת הַתַּאֲוָה שֶׁאָכְלוּ הַבָּשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ יָמִים, וְשִׁבְעָה יָמִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ בַחֲצֵרוֹת לְהִסָּגֵר שָׁם מִרְיָם, נִמְצָא בִשְׁלוֹשָׁה יָמִים הָלְכוּ כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַדֶּרֶךְ – וְכָל כָּךְ הָיְתָה הַשְּׁכִינָה מִתְלַבֶּטֶת בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם לְמַהֵר בִּיאַתְכֶם לָאָרֶץ, וּבִשְׁבִיל שֶׁקִּלְקַלְתֶּם הֵסֵב אֶתְכֶם סְבִיבוֹת הַר שֵׂעִיר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה (ע' ספרי):
3It came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel according to all that the Lord had commanded him regarding them;   גוַֽיְהִי֙ בְּאַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה בְּעַשְׁתֵּֽי־עָשָׂ֥ר חֹ֖דֶשׁ בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ דִּבֶּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֹת֖וֹ אֲלֵהֶֽם:
And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month [… Moses spoke]: This teaches us that he rebuked them only a short while before his death. From whom did he learn [to do] this? From Jacob, who rebuked his sons only a short while before his death. He said, “Reuben, my son, I will tell you why I have not reproved you [for your shortcomings] during all these years: So that you would not leave me and join my brother, Esau.” And for four reasons, one should not reprimand a person except shortly before one’s death: So that one should not rebuke and again have to rebuke him, so as not to cause his friend to feel ashamed when he sees him; etc. These appear in Sifrei. And similarly, Joshua rebuked Israel only shortly before his death (cf. Joshua 24:1-29), and so, Samuel, as it is said, “Behold, testify against me” (I Sam. 12:3) and so, also, David rebuked his son Solomon only shortly before his death (see I Kings 2:1-10).   וַֽיְהִי בְּאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בְּעַשְׁתֵּֽי־עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹּא הוֹכִיחָן אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַמִּיתָה; מִמִּי לָמַד? מִיַּעֲקֹב, שֶׁלֹּא הוֹכִיחַ אֶת בָּנָיו אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַמִּיתָה, אָמַר, רְאוּבֵן בְּנִי אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לְךָ מִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא הוֹכַחְתִּיךָ כָּל הַשָּׁנִים הַלָּלוּ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַנִּיחֵנִי וְתֵלֵךְ וְתִדְבַּק בְּעֵשָׂו אָחִי; וּמִפְּנֵי אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים אֵין מוֹכִיחִין אֶת הָאָדָם אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַמִּיתָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מוֹכִיחוֹ וְחוֹזֵר וּמוֹכִיחוֹ, וְשֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא חֲבֵרוֹ רוֹאֵהוּ וּמִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, כוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסִפְרֵי. וְכֵן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לֹא הוֹכִיחַ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַמִּיתָה, וְכֵן שְׁמוּאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א י"ב), "הִנְנִי עֲנוּ בִי", וְכֵן דָּוִד אֶת שְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ (מלכים א ב'):
4After he had smitten Sihon, king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og, king of the Bashan, who dwelt in Ashtaroth in Edrei.   דאַֽחֲרֵ֣י הַכֹּת֗וֹ אֵ֚ת סִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּחֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן וְאֵ֗ת ע֚וֹג מֶ֣לֶךְ הַבָּשָׁ֔ן אֲשֶׁר־יוֹשֵׁ֥ב בְּעַשְׁתָּרֹ֖ת בְּאֶדְרֶֽעִי:
After He had smitten [Sihon]: Moses said: If I rebuke them before they enter [at least] part of the land, they will say, “What [claim] has this [man] on us? What good has he ever done for us? He has come only to vex us and to find some pretext, for he does not have the power to bring us into the land.” Therefore he [Moses] waited until he had defeated Sihon and Og before them and had given them possession of their land, and [only] afterwards did he rebuke them. [Sifrei]   אַֽחֲרֵי הַכֹּתוֹ: אָמַר מֹשֶׁה אִם אֲנִי מוֹכִיחָם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ לִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ, יֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּזֶה עָלֵינוּ? מַה הֵיטִיב לָנוּ? אֵינוֹ בָא אֶלָּא לְקַנְתֵּר וְלִמְצֹא עִלָּה, שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כֹחַ לְהַכְנִיסֵנוּ לָאָרֶץ, לְפִיכָךְ הִמְתִּין עַד שֶׁהִפִּיל סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוֹרִישָׁם אֶת אַרְצָם וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוֹכִיחָן (ספרי):
Sihon… who dwelt in Heshbon: “Even if Sihon himself had not been powerful, but had dwelt in Heshbon, he would have [nevertheless] been powerful because the city was a powerful one; and even had it been another city, and Sihon had dwelt in it, it would have [also] been powerful because the king was powerful. How much more so now, since both the king and the city were powerful!” [Sifrei]   סִיחֹן אֲשֶׁר יוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן: אִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה סִיחוֹן קָשֶׁה וְהָיָה שָׁרוּי בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן, הָיָה קָשָׁה, שֶׁהַמְּדִינָה קָשָׁה, וְאִלּוּ הָיְתָה עִיר אַחֶרֶת וְסִיחוֹן שָׁרוּי בְּתוֹכָהּ, הָיְתָה קָשָׁה, שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ קָשֶׁה, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ קָשֶׁה וְהַמְּדִינָה קָשָׁה (שם):
[And Og…] who dwelt in Ashtaroth: [Here, too,] the king was powerful, and the city was powerful. [Sifrei]   אֲשֶׁר יוֹשֵׁב בְּעַשְׁתָּרֹת: הַמֶּלֶךְ קָשֶׁה וְהַמְּדִינָה קָשָׁה:
Ashtaroth: This is an expression denoting sharp cliffs and strength, just as “Ashteroth-karnaim” (Gen. 14:5) [the hard rocks of Karnaim]. And the Ashtaroth [referred to here] is indeed that same Ashteroth-karnaim where the Rephaim [the giants] were, whom Amraphel smote, as it is said, “And they smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim” (Gen. 14:5). And Og escaped from them, and that is the meaning of that which is stated, “And the fugitive came” (Gen. 14:13), and Scripture states (further, 3:11) “For only Og, king of the Bashan, remained from the remnant of the Rephaim.”   עשתרת: הוּא לְשׁוֹן צוּקִין וְקֹשִׁי, כְּמוֹ "עַשְׁתְּרֹת קַרְנַיִם" (בראשית י"ד) וְעַשְׁתָּרוֹת זֶה הוּא עַשְׁתְּרֹת קַרְנַיִם, שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם רְפָאִים שֶׁהִכָּה אַמְרָפֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) "וַיַּכּוּ אֶת רְפָאִים בְּעַשְׁתְּרֹת קַרְנַיִם". וְעוֹג נִמְלַט מֵהֶם, וְהוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) "וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט", וְאוֹמֵר (דברים ג') "כִּי רַק עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן נִשְׁאַר מִיֶּתֶר הָרְפָאִים":
in Edrei: the name of the kingdom. [Sifrei]   בְּאֶדְרֶֽעִי: שֵׁם הַמַּלְכוּת:
5On that side of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses commenced [and] explained this Law, saying,   הבְּעֵ֥בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מוֹאָ֑ב הוֹאִ֣יל משֶׁ֔ה בֵּאֵ֛ר אֶת־הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לֵאמֹֽר:
commenced: , Heb. הוֹאִיל, he commenced, just as “Behold, now I have commenced (הוֹאַלְתִּי)” (Gen. 18:27). [based on Sifrei]   הוֹאִיל: הִתְחִיל, כְּמוֹ (בראשית י"ח) "הִנֵּה נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי" (ע' ספרי):
explained this Law: He explained it to them in seventy languages. [from Midrash Tanchuma 2; Gen. Rabbah 49; see Sotah 32a). Hakethav Vehakabbalah explains this to mean that Moses gave them seventy interpretations to every passage.   בֵּאֵר אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה: בְּשִׁבְעִים לָשׁוֹן פֵּרְשָׁהּ לָהֶם (תנחומא; ע' סוטה ל"ב):
6"The Lord our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, 'You have dwelt long enough at this mountain.   ויְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ דִּבֶּ֥ר אֵלֵ֖ינוּ בְּחֹרֵ֣ב לֵאמֹ֑ר רַב־לָכֶ֥ם שֶׁ֖בֶת בָּהָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
You have dwelt long enough [at this mountain]: [This is to be interpreted] according to its simple meaning. But there also is an Aggadic explanation: I have given you much greatness and reward for your having dwelt at this mountain: you made the Mishkan , the menorah, and the [other] furnishings; you received the Torah; you appointed a Sanhedrin for yourselves, and captains over thousands and captains over hundreds. [Sifrei]   רַב־לָכֶם שֶׁבֶת: כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ; וְיֵשׁ מִקְרָא אַחֵר, הִרְבָּה לָכֶם גְדֻלָּה וְשָׂכָר עַל יְשִׁיבַתְכֶם בָּהָר הַזֶּה – עֲשִׂיתֶם מִשְׁכָּן, מְנוֹרָה, וְכֵלִים, קִבַּלְתֶּם תּוֹרָה, מִנִּיתֶם לָכֶם סַנְהֶדְרִין, שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת (ע' ספרי):
7Turn and journey, and come to the mountain of the Amorites and to all its neighboring places, in the plain, on the mountain, and in the lowland, and in the south and by the seashore, the land of the Canaanites, and the Lebanon, until the great river, the Euphrates River.   זפְּנ֣וּ | וּסְע֣וּ לָכֶ֗ם וּבֹ֨אוּ הַ֥ר הָֽאֱמֹרִי֘ וְאֶל־כָּל־שְׁכֵנָיו֒ בָּֽעֲרָבָ֥ה בָהָ֛ר וּבַשְּׁפֵלָ֥ה וּבַנֶּ֖גֶב וּבְח֣וֹף הַיָּ֑ם אֶ֤רֶץ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ וְהַלְּבָנ֔וֹן עַד־הַנָּהָ֥ר הַגָּדֹ֖ל נְהַר־פְּרָֽת:
Turn and journey: This is the way to Arad and Hormah.   פְּנוּ וּסְעוּ לָכֶם: זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ עֲרָד וְחָרְמָה:
and come to the mountain of the Amorites: This is to be understood literally.   וּבֹאוּ הַר הָֽאֱמֹרִי: כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ:
and to all its neighboring places: Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir.   וְאֶל־כָּל־שְׁכֵנָיו: עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב וְהַר שֵׂעִיר:
in the plain: This refers to the forested plain.   בָּֽעֲרָבָה: זֶה מִישׁוֹר שֶׁל יַעַר:
on the mountain: This is the king’s mountain.   בָהָר: זֶה הַר הַמֶּלֶךְ:
and in the lowland: This is the southern lowland.   וּבַשְּׁפֵלָה: זוֹ שְׁפֵלַת דָּרוֹם:
and in the south, and by the seashore: [This refers to] Ashkelon, Gaza and Caesarea, etc., as is stated in Sifrei .   וּבַנֶּגֶב וּבְחוֹף הַיָּם: אַשְׁקְלוֹן וְעַזָּה וְקֵיסָרִי וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסִפְרֵי:
until the great river [the Euphrates]: Since it [the Euphrates] is mentioned [in association] with the Land of Israel it is referred to as “great.” A popular parable says: A king’s servant is a king. Associate yourself with the ruler, and [people] will bow down to you; attach yourself to one who is anointed [with oil] and you will become anointed [with oil yourself] (Shevuoth 47b).   עַד־הַנָּהָר הַגָּדֹל: מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּזְכָּר עִם אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל קוֹרְאוֹ גָּדוֹל, מְשַׁל הֶדְיוֹט אוֹמֵר "עֶבֶד מֶלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ", "הִדַּבֵּק לַשַּׁחֲוָר וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְךָ", ״קְרַב לְגַבֵּי דְהִינָא וְאִדַּהֵן" (שבועות מ"ז):
8See, I have set the land before you; come and possess the land which the Lord swore to your forefathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them and their descendants after them.   חרְאֵ֛ה נָתַ֥תִּי לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ בֹּ֚אוּ וּרְשׁ֣וּ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבַּ֣ע יְ֠הֹוָ֠ה לַֽאֲבֹ֨תֵיכֶ֜ם לְאַבְרָהָ֨ם לְיִצְחָ֤ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ לָתֵ֣ת לָהֶ֔ם וּלְזַרְעָ֖ם אַחֲרֵיהֶֽם:
Behold! I have set [the land before you]: With your own eyes you can see [this]: I do not tell you this from guessing or hearsay (Sifrei).   רְאֵה נָתַתִּי: בְּעֵינֵיכֶם אַתֶּם רוֹאִים, אֵינִי אוֹמֵר לָכֶם מֵאֹמֶד וּמִשְּׁמוּעָה (ספרי):
Go in and possess [the land]: No one will contest the matter, and you will not need to go to war. If they [the Israelites] had not sent the spies, [but had trusted God] they would not have needed weapons of war (Sifrei).   בֹּאוּ וּרְשׁוּ: אֵין מְעַרְעֵר בַּדָּבָר, וְאֵינְכֶם צְרִיכִים לְמִלְחָמָה, אִלּוּ לֹא שָׁלְחוּ מְרַגְּלִים לֹא הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לִכְלֵי זַיִן (ע' שם):
to your forefathers: Why does he [Moses] further mention Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob [when the reference “your forefathers” clearly indicates them]? [Their names are mentioned to show that] Abraham is worthy [of God’s oath] by himself, Isaac is worthy by himself, [and] Jacob is worthy by himself (Sifrei).   לַֽאֲבֹתֵיכֶם: לָמָּה הִזְכִּיר שׁוּב לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב? אֶלָּא אַבְרָהָם כְּדַאי לְעַצְמוֹ, יִצְחָק כְּדַאי לְעַצְמוֹ, יַעֲקֹב כְּדַאי לְעַצְמוֹ (שם):
9And I said to you at that time, saying, 'I cannot carry you alone.   טוָֽאֹמַ֣ר אֲלֵכֶ֔ם בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹֽא־אוּכַ֥ל לְבַדִּ֖י שְׂאֵ֥ת אֶתְכֶֽם:
And I said to you at that time, saying: Heb. לֵאמֹר. What is the meaning of לֵאמֹר? Moses said to them, "Not by my own accord do I speak to you [and tell you that I cannot carry you alone] but by the command of the Holy One, blessed is He (Sifrei).   וָֽאֹמַר אֲלֵכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר: מַהוּ לֵאמֹר? אָמַר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה לֹא מֵעַצְמִי אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לָכֶם, אֶלָּא מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (שם):
I cannot alone: Is it possible that Moses could not judge Israel? The man who brought them out of Egypt, split the sea for them, brought down the manna, and caused the quails to fly, could not judge them? Rather, he said to them: “The Lord, your God, has multiplied you”- [i.e.,] He has made you superior and elevated you higher than your judges. He took the punishment away from you and imposed it upon the judges [in cases where they could have prevented your wrongdoing and did not]. Solomon made a similar statement: “For who is able to judge Your great people?” (I Kings 3:9) Is it possible that he [i. e., Solomon] of whom it is said (I Kings 5:11), “He was wiser than all men,” could say, “Who is able to judge?” But this is what Solomon meant: The judges of this people are not like the judges of other peoples, for if [one of the judges of other nations] gives judgment and sentences a person to death, to lashes, or to strangulation, or perverts judgment and robs him, it means nothing; if, however, I cause a person to pay unjustly, I am liable with my life, as it is said (Proverbs 22:23), “And He robs the life of those who rob them” (Sifrei , San. 7a).   לֹֽא־אוּכַל לְבַדִּי וגו': אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מֹשֶׁה יָכוֹל לָדוּן אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל? אָדָם שֶׁהוֹצִיאָם מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְקָרַע לָהֶם אֶת הַיָּם, וְהוֹרִיד אֶת הַמָּן, וְהֵגִיז הַשְּׂלָו, לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לְדוּנָם? אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר לָהֶם, ה' אלהיכם הרבה אתכם – הִגְדִּיל וְהֵרִים אֶתְכֶם עַל דַּיָּנֵיכֶם, נָטַל אֶת הָעֹנֶשׁ מִכֶּם וּנְתָנוֹ עַל הַדַּיָּנִין; וְכֵן אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה (מלכים א ג') "כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה"; אֶפְשָׁר מִי שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (שם ה') "וַיֶּחְכַּם מִכָּל הָאָדָם", אוֹמֵר מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט? אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה, אֵין דַּיָּנֵי אֻמָּה זוֹ כְדַיָּנֵי שְׁאָר הָאֻמּוֹת, שֶׁאִם דָּן וְהוֹרֵג וּמַכֶּה וְחוֹנֵק וּמַטֶּה אֶת דִּינוֹ וְגוֹזֵל אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, אֲנִי אִם חִיַּבְתִּי מָמוֹן שֶׁלֹּא כַדִּין, נְפָשׁוֹת אֲנִי נִתְבָּע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי כ"ב) "וְקָבַע אֶת קֹבְעֵיהֶם נָפֶשׁ" (ספרי; סנהדרין ז'):
10The Lord, your God, has multiplied you, and behold, you are today as the stars of the heavens in abundance.   ייְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם הִרְבָּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְהִנְּכֶ֣ם הַיּ֔וֹם כְּכֽוֹכְבֵ֥י הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם לָרֹֽב:
And, behold, you are today as the stars of the heavens: But were they [the Israelites] on that day as [many as] the stars of the heavens? Were they not only six hundred thousand? What, then, is [the meaning of] “And, behold, you are today…?” [It means]-Behold, you are compared to the sun, [signifying that you will] exist forever as do the sun, the moon, and the stars (cf. Sifrei).   וְהִנְּכֶם הַיּוֹם כְּכֽוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם: וְכִי כְכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם הָיוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, וַהֲלֹא לֹא הָיוּ אֶלָּא שִׁשִּׁים רִבּוֹא, מַהוּ וְהִנְּכֶם הַיּוֹם? הִנְּכֶם מְשׁוּלִים כַּיּוֹם – קַיָּמִים לְעוֹלָם כַּחַמָּה וְכַלְּבָנָה וְכַכּוֹכָבִים (עי' ספרי):
11May the Lord God of your forefathers add to you a thousandfold as many as you are, and may He bless you, as He spoke concerning you!   יאיְהֹוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֽוֹתֵכֶ֗ם יֹסֵ֧ף עֲלֵיכֶ֛ם כָּכֶ֖ם אֶ֣לֶף פְּעָמִ֑ים וִֽיבָרֵ֣ךְ אֶתְכֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר לָכֶֽם:
May… add to you a thousandfold as many as you are: What is [the purpose of] repeating further [in the verse]: “And He will bless you, as He has spoken concerning you?” They [the Israelites] said to him, “Moses, you are limiting our blessings [i.e., our numbers being multiplied only a thousandfold]. The Holy One, blessed is He, already promised to Abraham (Gen. 13:16), 'so that if a man will be able to count [the dust of the earth, so will your seed be counted]!’” [Moses] replied to them: “This [blessing of a thousandfold] is mine, but He will bless you as He spoke concerning you!” (Sifrei)   יֹסֵף עֲלֵיכֶם כָּכֶם אֶלֶף פְּעָמִים: מַהוּ שׁוּב ויברך אתכם כאשר דבר לכם? אֶלָּא אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מֹשֶׁה אַתָּה נוֹתֵן קִצְבָּה לְבִרְכוֹתֵינוּ? כְּבָר הִבְטִיחַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אַבְרָהָם "אֲשֶׁר אִם יוּכַל אִישׁ לִמְנוֹת וְגוֹ'" (בראשית י"ג), אָמַר לָהֶם זוֹ מִשֶּׁלִּי הִיא, אֲבָל הוּא יְבָרֵךְ אֶתְכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָכֶם (ספרי):

Second Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 1

12How can I bear your trouble, your burden, and your strife all by myself?   יבאֵיכָ֥ה אֶשָּׂ֖א לְבַדִּ֑י טָרְחֲכֶ֥ם וּמַשַּֽׂאֲכֶ֖ם וְרִֽיבְכֶֽם:
How can I bear…all by myself?: [Even] if I were to say, “I will do so in order to receive a reward,” I cannot do so. This is what I have already said to you, “Not by my own decision do I tell you [that I am unable to bear your trouble], but by the command of the Holy One, blessed is He.”   אֵיכָה אֶשָּׂא לְבַדִּי: אִם אֹמַר לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר, לֹא אוּכַל, זוֹ הִיא שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם לֹא מֵעַצְמִי אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לָכֶם אֶלָּא מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:
your trouble: This teaches us that the Israelites were troublesome [people]; if one saw his opponent in a lawsuit about to win, he would say, “I have [other] witnesses to bring, [more] evidence to introduce, I [will exercise my right to] add judges to you [in your tribunal]”.   טָרְחֲכֶם: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל טַרְחָנִין – הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶם רוֹאֶה אֶת בַּעַל דִּינוֹ נוֹצֵחַ בַּדִּין, אוֹמֵר יֵשׁ לִי עֵדִים לְהָבִיא, יֵשׁ לִי רְאָיוֹת לְהָבִיא, מוֹסִיף אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם דַּיָּנִין:
and your burden: This teaches that they [the Israelites] were heretics: If Moses was early leaving his tent they would say, “Why does the son of Amram leave so early? Perhaps he is not at ease inside his house?” If he left late, they would say, “Why does the son of Amram not leave? What do you think? He is [probably] sitting and devising evil schemes against you, and is thinking up plots against you. [Other editions of Rashi have”commandments and reckonings."]   וּמַשַּֽׂאֲכֶם: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ אֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין, הִקְדִּים מֹשֶׁה לָצֵאת, אָמְרוּ מָה רָאָה בֶן עַמְרָם לָצֵאת? שֶׁמָּא אֵינוֹ שָׁפוּי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ; אֵחַר לָצֵאת, אָמְרוּ מָה רָאָה בֶן עַמְרָם שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת? מָה אַתֶּם סְבוּרִים? יוֹשֵׁב וְיוֹעֵץ עֲלֵיכֶם עֵצוֹת רָעוֹת וְחוֹשֵׁב עֲלֵיכֶם מַחֲשָׁבוֹת:
and your strife: This teaches that they [the Israelites] were contentious (Sifrei).   ורבכם: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ רוֹגְנִים (ספרי):
13Prepare for yourselves wise and understanding men, known among your tribes, and I will make them heads over you.   יגהָב֣וּ לָ֠כֶ֠ם אֲנָשִׁ֨ים חֲכָמִ֧ים וּנְבֹנִ֛ים וִֽידֻעִ֖ים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲשִׂימֵ֖ם בְּרָֽאשֵׁיכֶֽם:
prepare for yourselves: Heb. לָכֶם הָבוּ. Prepare yourselves for this matter.   הָבוּ לָכֶם: הַזְמִינוּ עַצְמְכֶם לַדָּבָר:
men: Would it enter your mind [that] women [could be chosen]? What does [specifying] “men” teach us? [It signifies that they should pick] righteous men. (Sifrei).   אֲנָשִׁים: וְכִי תַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתְּךָ נָשִׁים, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אֲנָשִׁים? צַדִּיקִים, :
wise [men]: Desirable [men]. [According to the glosses of Rabbi Akiva Eiger on Sifrei, bashful men, men who are ashamed of doing anything wrong.] [According to Heidenheim, the word כְּסוּפִים is the definition of אֲנָשִׁים, not of חֲכָמִים According to him, the next heading reads:   חֲכָמִים : כְּסוּפִים:
understanding [men]: [I.e., men] who understand [and derive] one thing from another. This is what Arius asked Rabbi Yose: “What is the difference between wise men and understanding men?” [Rabbi Yose said] "A wise man is like a rich money changer: When people bring him dinars to examine, he examines them. When they do not bring [money] to him, he sits doing nothing. An understanding man, however, is like a merchant money changer: When they bring him money to examine, he examines it, and when they do not bring it to him, he goes out and brings his own [money-i.e., he does not wait for people to come to him-he goes to them] (Sifrei)   וּנְבֹנִים: מְבִינִים דָבָר מִתּוֹךְ דָּבָר; זוֹ הִיא שֶׁשָּׁאַל אֲרִיּוֹס אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי מַה בֵּין חֲכָמִים לִנְבוֹנִים? חָכָם דּוֹמֶה לְשֻׁלְחָנִי עָשִׁיר, כְּשֶׁמְּבִיאִין לוֹ דִּינָרִין לִרְאוֹת רוֹאֶה, וּכְשֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין לוֹ יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֵא, נָבוֹן דּוֹמֶה לְשֻׁלְחָנִי תַּגָּר, כְּשֶׁמְּבִיאִין לוֹ מָעוֹת לִרְאוֹת רוֹאֶה, וּכְשֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין לוֹ, הוּא מְחַזֵּר וּמֵבִיא מִשֶּׁלּוֹ (ספרי):
well-known among your tribes: Men whom you recognize, for if one were to come before me wrapped in his tallith, I would not know who he is and of what tribe he is, and whether he is suitable. But you know him, for you have raised him. Therefore, it says,“well-known among your tribes.” (Sifrei)   וִֽידֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם: שֶׁהֵם נִכָּרִים לָכֶם, שֶׁאִם בָּא לְפָנַי מְעֻטָּף בְּטַלִּיתוֹ, אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מִי הוּא וּמֵאֵי זֶה שֵׁבֶט הוּא, וְאִם הָגוּן הוּא, אֲבָל אַתֶּם מַכִּירִין בּוֹ, שֶׁאַתֶּם גִּדַּלְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר וִידֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם (ספרי):
and I will make them heads over you: As chiefs and respected persons over you, i.e., you should act towards them with respect and reverence.   בְּרָֽאשֵׁיכֶֽם: רָאשִׁים וּמְכֻבָּדִים עֲלֵיכֶם – שֶׁתִּהְיוּ נוֹהֲגִין בָּהֶם כָּבוֹד וְיִרְאָה:
And I will make them: [The word] וַאֲשִׂמֵם lacks a י [after the שׂ; our editions, however, have it]: This teaches us that Israel’s transgressions (אָשָׁם) are hung over the heads of their judges, since they [the judges] should have prevented them [from sinning], and directed them along the right path (Sifrei).   ואשמם: חָסֵר יוֹ"ד, לִמֵּד שֶׁאַשְׁמוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּלוּיוֹת בְּרָאשֵׁי דַּיָּנֵיהֶם, שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם לִמְחוֹת וּלְכַוֵּן אוֹתָם לַדֶּרֶךְ הַיְשָׁרָה (ספרי):
14And you answered me and said, 'The thing you have spoken is good for us to do.'   ידוַתַּֽעֲנ֖וּ אֹתִ֑י וַתֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ טוֹב־הַדָּבָ֥ר אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
And you answered me: You decided the matter for your benefit. You should have replied, “Our teacher, Moses! From whom is it proper to learn, from you or from your disciple? Is it not [better to learn] from you, who have taken such pains about them?” However, I knew your thoughts; you were saying [to yourselves], “Many judges will now be appointed over us; if one does not know us, we shall bring him a gift, and he will show us favor.” (Sifrei)   וַתַּֽעֲנוּ אֹתִי וגו': חֲלַטְתֶּם אֶת הַדָּבָר לַהֲנָאַתְכֶם; הָיָה לָכֶם לְהָשִׁיב, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, מִמִּי נָאֶה לִלְמֹד, מִמְּךָ אוֹ מִתַּלְמִידְךָ? לֹא מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּצְטַעַרְתָּ עָלֶיהָ? אֶלָּא יָדַעְתִּי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם, הֱיִיתֶם אוֹמְרִים עַכְשָׁו יִתְמַנּוּ עָלֵינוּ דַּיָּנִין הַרְבֵּה, אִם אֵין מַכִּירֵנוּ, אָנוּ מְבִיאִין לוֹ דוֹרוֹן וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא לָנוּ פָנִים (שם):
to do: If I was sluggish, you said, “Act quickly.” (Sifrei)   לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת: אִם הָיִיתִי מִתְעַצֵּל, אַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים עֲשֵׂה מְהֵרָה (שם):
15So I took the heads of your tribes, men wise and well known, and I made them heads over you, leaders over thousands, leaders over hundreds, leaders over fifties, and leaders over tens, and officers, over your tribes.   טווָֽאֶקַּ֞ח אֶת־רָאשֵׁ֣י שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֗ם אֲנָשִׁ֤ים חֲכָמִים֙ וִֽידֻעִ֔ים וָֽאֶתֵּ֥ן אוֹתָ֛ם רָאשִׁ֖ים עֲלֵיכֶ֑ם שָׂרֵ֨י אֲלָפִ֜ים וְשָׂרֵ֣י מֵא֗וֹת וְשָׂרֵ֤י חֲמִשִּׁים֙ וְשָׂרֵ֣י עֲשָׂרֹ֔ת וְשֹֽׁטְרִ֖ים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶֽם:
So I took the heads of your tribes: I attracted them through [fine] words: “How fortunate you are! Over whom are you to be appointed? Over the children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob-over the children of people who are called brothers and friends, [God’s] portion and inheritance, and every term of endearment.” (Sifrei)   וָֽאֶקַּח אֶת־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם: מְשַׁכְתִּים – אַשְׁרֵיכֶם, עַל מִי בָּאתֶם לְהִתְמַנּוֹת? עַל בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב, עַל בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ אַחִים וְרֵעִים, חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה, וְכָל לְשׁוֹן חִבָּה (שם):
[So I took…] men wise and well-known: But understanding men I could not find (Ned. 20b.). This is one of the seven qualities which Jethro described to Moses (Exod.18:21), but Moses found only three [of them]-righteous, wise, and well-known [men]. (Sifrei).   אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וִֽידֻעִים: אֲבָל נְבוֹנִים לֹא מָצָאתִי; זוֹ אַחַת מִשֶּׁבַע מִדּוֹת שֶׁאָמַר יִתְרוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה וְלֹא מָצָא אֶלָּא שָׁלוֹשׁ, אנשים צַדִּיקִים, חכמים, וידעים (שם):
[And I made them] heads over you: You should respect them- [think of them as] chiefs in buying, chiefs in selling, chiefs in all business matters, last to enter(the synagogue from his home) and first to leave [so that everyone should stand up out of respect] (Sifrei).   רָאשִׁים עֲלֵיכֶם: שֶׁתִּנְהֲגוּ בָהֶם כָּבוֹד, רָאשִׁים בְּמֶקַח, רָאשִׁים בְּמִמְכָּר, רָאשִׁים בְּמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן, נִכְנָס אַחֲרוֹן וְיוֹצֵא רִאשׁוֹן (שם):
leaders over thousands: one who is appointed over one thousand.   שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים: אֶחָד מְמֻנֶּה עַל אֶלֶף:
leaders over hundreds: one who is appointed over one hundred.   שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת: אֶחָד מְמֻנֶּה עַל מֵאָה:
and officers: I appointed [court officers] over you, for your tribe. These are the ones who bind and lash with a whip at the judges’ order (Sifrei).   וְשֹֽׁטְרִים: מִנִּיתִי עֲלֵיכֶם לשבטיכם – אֵלּוּ הַכּוֹפְתִין וְהַמַּכִּין בִּרְצוּעָה עַל פִּי הַדַּיָּנִין (עי' שם):
16And I commanded your judges at that time, saying, "Hear [disputes] between your brothers and judge justly between a man and his brother, and between his litigant.   טזוָֽאֲצַוֶּה֙ אֶת־שֹׁ֣פְטֵיכֶ֔ם בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹ֑ר שָׁמֹ֤עַ בֵּֽין־אֲחֵיכֶם֙ וּשְׁפַטְתֶּ֣ם צֶ֔דֶק בֵּֽין־אִ֥ישׁ וּבֵֽין־אָחִ֖יו וּבֵ֥ין גֵּרֽוֹ:
And I commanded your judges: I said to them: “Be patient in passing judgment. If a case comes before you once, twice, three times, do not say, ‘This [case] has already appeared before me several times,’ but debate it over again.’” (Sifrei)   וָֽאֲצַוֶּה אֶת־שֹׁפְטֵיכֶם: אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם הֱווּ מְתוּנִין בַּדִּין – אִם בָּא דִּין לְפָנֶיךָ פַּעַם אַחַת, שְׁתַּיִם, וְשָׁלוֹשׁ, אַל תֹּאמַר כְּבָר בָּא דִּין זֶה לְפָנַי פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה, אֶלָּא הֱיוּ נוֹשְׂאִים וְנוֹתְנִים בּוֹ (שם):
[And I commanded your judges] at that time: When I appointed them, I said to them, “Now is not like the past. Previously, you were your own masters, now you are subservient to the community.”- [Sifrei]   בָּעֵת הַהִוא: מִשֶּׁמִּנִּיתִים אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם אֵין עַכְשָׁיו כִּלְשֶׁעָבַר, לְשֶׁעָבַר הֱיִיתֶם בִּרְשׁוּת עַצְמְכֶם, עַכְשָׁו הֲרֵי אַתֶּם מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים לַצִּבּוּר (שם):
Hear: Heb. שָׁמֹעַ Present tense: odant in Old French, [always be] hearing, as in זָכוֹר, remembering, and שָׁמוֹר, keeping.   שָׁמֹעַ: לְשׁוֹן הֹוֶה, אודנ"ט בְּלַעַז, כְּמוֹ זָכוֹר, שָׁמוֹר:
and between his litigant: Heb. גֵּרוֹ. This (גֵּרוֹ) is his opponent in the lawsuit who accumulates (אוֹגֵר) arguments against him. Another explanation: (וּבֵין גֵּרוֹ) : Even in undertakings concerning a residence [גּוּר meaning to dwell], in the division of [property between inheriting] brothers, even if it is a dispute about [such minor things as] an oven and a stove (Sifrei ; San. 7b).   וּבֵֽין־גֵּרֽוֹ: זֶה בַּעַל דִּינוֹ שֶׁאוֹגֵר עָלָיו דְּבָרִים; דָּבָר אַחֵר ובין גרו, אַף עַל עִסְקֵי דִּירָה בֵּין חֲלֻקַּת אַחִים, אֲפִלּוּ בֵּין תַּנּוּר לְכִירַיִם (שם; סנהדרין ז'):
17You shall not favor persons in judgment; [rather] you shall hear the small just as the great; you shall not fear any man, for the judgment is upon the Lord, and the case that is too difficult for you, bring to me, and I will hear it."   יזלֹֽא־תַכִּ֨ירוּ פָנִ֜ים בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֗ט כַּקָּטֹ֤ן כַּגָּדֹל֙ תִּשְׁמָע֔וּן לֹ֤א תָג֨וּרוּ֙ מִפְּנֵי־אִ֔ישׁ כִּ֥י הַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט לֵֽאלֹהִ֣ים ה֑וּא וְהַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִקְשֶׁ֣ה מִכֶּ֔ם תַּקְרִב֥וּן אֵלַ֖י וּשְׁמַעְתִּֽיו:
You shall not favor persons in judgment: This refers to the person who appoints judges, that he should not say, “So-and-so is handsome or strong; I will appoint him as a judge” [or] “So-and-so is my relative; I will appoint him as a judge in the city,” even if he is not expert in the laws, and consequently he condemns the innocent and acquits the guilty. [God says:] I will hold it against the one who appointed him [this judge] as though he [himself] had shown partiality in judgment (Sifrei).   לֹֽא־תַכִּירוּ פָנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט: זֶה הַמְמֻנֶּה לְהוֹשִׁיב הַדַּיָּנִים, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי נָאֶה אוֹ גִּבּוֹר, אוֹשִׁיבֶנּוּ דַיָּן, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי קְרוֹבִי, אוֹשִׁיבֶנּוּ דַּיָּן בָּעִיר, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ בָּקִי בְדִינִין, נִמְצָא מְחַיֵּב אֶת הַזַּכַּאי וּמְזַכֶּה אֶת הַחַיָּב, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עַל מִי שֶׁמִּנָּהוּ כְּאִלּוּ הִכִּיר פָּנִים בַּדִּין:
You shall hear the small just as the great: A case regarding a perutah [small coin] should be as important to you as [a case] regarding a hundred maneh [a large sum], so that if it [the former] is presented before you first, do not postpone it for last (San. 8a). Another explanation of “You shall hear the words of the small as you do those of the great,” as per the Targum [The words of the small you shall hear like the words of the great]: You shall not say: “This is a poor man, and his friend [opponent] is rich, and it is a mitzvah to support him [the poor man]. I will favor the poor man, and he will thus be supported respectably.” Another explanation: You shall not say,“How can I affront the honor of this rich man because of one dinar ? I will favor him now and when he goes outside [leaves the court] I will tell him, 'Give it to him [to the poor man], for you really owe it to him!’” (Sifrei)   כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדֹל תִּשְׁמָעוּן: שֶׁיְּהֵא חָבִיב עָלֶיךָ דִּין שֶׁל פְּרוּטָה כְּדִין שֶׁל מֵאָה מָנֶה, שֶׁאִם קָדַם וּבָא לְפָנֶיךָ, לֹא תְסַלְּקֶנּוּ לָאַחֲרוֹן. דָּבָר אַחֵר — כקטן כגדל תשמעון כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר זֶה עָנִי הוּא וַחֲבֵרוֹ עָשִׁיר וּמְצֻוֶּה לְפַרְנְסוֹ, אֲזַכֶּה אֶת הֶעָנִי וְנִמְצָא מִתְפַּרְנֵס בִּנְקִיּוּת; דָּבָר אַחֵר — שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר הֵיאַךְ אֲנִי פּוֹגֵם כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל עָשִׁיר זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל דִּינָר, אֲזַכֶּנּוּ עַכְשָׁיו, וּכְשֶׁיּוֹצֵא לַחוּץ אֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן לוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה חַיָּב לוֹ (שם):
You shall not fear any man: Heb. לֹא תָגוּרוּ, meaning you shall not fear. Another explanation: You shall not gather in [stifle] your words because of any man. As in (Prov. 10:5),“It gathers (אוֹגֵר) in summer.” (See Sifrei.)   לֹֽא־תָגוּרוּ מִפְּנֵי־אִישׁ: לֹא תִּירְאוּ; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לא תגורו לֹא תַכְנִיס דְּבָרֶיךָ מִפְּנֵי אִישׁ, לְשׁוֹן "אֹגֵר בַּקַּיִץ" (משלי י'):
for the judgment is upon the Lord: Whatever you unjustly take from one, you will oblige Me to return to him. Consequently you have perverted a judgment against Me (San. 8a).   כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵֽאלֹהִים הוּא: מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה נוֹטֵל מִזֶּה שֶׁלֹּא כַדִּין, אַתָּה מַזְקִיקֵנִי לְהַחֲזִיר לוֹ, נִמְצָא שֶׁהִטֵּיתָ עָלַי הַמִּשְׁפָּט (סנהדרין ח'):
[And the case that is too difficult for you] bring to me: Because of this [presumptive] statement, Moses forgot the law regarding the daughters of Zelophchad [in Num. 27:1-5](San. 8a). Similarly, Samuel answered Saul and said (I Sam. 9:19),“I am the seer.” Whereupon, the Holy One, blessed is He, said to him, “By your life, I will let you know that you do not [always] see [with the holy spirit].” And when did He let him know [this]? When he came to anoint David, “And he saw Eliab [and] he said, ‘Surely, before the Lord is His anointed’ ” (I Sam. 16:6-7). The Holy One, blessed is He, said to him: “Did you not say, ‘I am the seer?’ Look not upon his appearance.” (Sifrei)   תַּקְרִבוּן אֵלַי: עַל דָּבָר זֶה נִסְתַּלֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפַּט בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד (שם); וְכֵן שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר לְשָׁאוּל (שמואל א ט') "אָנֹכִי הָרוֹאֶה", אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי מוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁאֵין אַתָּה רוֹאֶה, וְאֵימָתַי הוֹדִיעוֹ? כְּשֶׁבָּא לִמְשֹׁחַ אֶת דָּוִד (שמואל א ט"ז) "וַיַּרְא אֶת אֱלִיאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אַךְ נֶגֶד ה' מְשִׁיחוֹ", אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלֹא אָמַרְתָּ אָנֹכִי הָרֹאֶה? "אַל תַּבֵּט אֶל מַרְאֵהוּ" (ספרי):
18And I commanded you at that time all the things you should do.   יחוָֽאֲצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑וא אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּן:
[And I commanded you…] all the things which you should do: These are the ten things that distinguish monetary cases from capital cases (Sifrei.).   אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּן: אֵלּוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁבֵּין דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת לְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת (שם):
19And we journeyed from Horeb and went through all that great and fearful desert, which you saw, by the way of the mountain of the Amorites, as the Lord, our God, commanded us; and we came up to Kadesh barnea.   יטוַנִּסַּ֣ע מֵֽחֹרֵ֗ב וַנֵּ֡לֶךְ אֵ֣ת כָּל־הַמִּדְבָּ֣ר הַגָּדוֹל֩ וְהַנּוֹרָ֨א הַה֜וּא אֲשֶׁ֣ר רְאִיתֶ֗ם דֶּ֚רֶךְ הַ֣ר הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ אֹתָ֑נוּ וַנָּבֹ֕א עַ֖ד קָדֵ֥שׁ בַּרְנֵֽעַ:
[that] great and fearful desert: [It is termed fearful] because in it were serpents as [thick as] beams and scorpions as [big as] bows (Sifrei).   הַמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא: שֶׁהָיוּ בוֹ נְחָשִׁים כְּקוֹרוֹת, וְעַקְרַבִּים כִּקְשָׁתוֹת (שם):
20And I said to you, "You have come to the mountain of the Amorites, which the Lord, our God, is giving us.   כוָֽאֹמַ֖ר אֲלֵכֶ֑ם בָּאתֶם֙ עַד־הַ֣ר הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽנוּ:
21Behold, the Lord, your God, has set the land before you; go up and possess it, as the Lord, God of your fathers has spoken to you; you shall neither fear nor be dismayed."   כארְאֵ֠ה נָתַ֨ן יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ עֲלֵ֣ה רֵ֗שׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹתֶ֨יךָ֙ לָ֔ךְ אַל־תִּירָ֖א וְאַל־תֵּחָֽת:

Third Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 1

22And all of you approached me and said, "Let us send men ahead of us so that they will search out the land for us and bring us back word by which route we shall go up, and to which cities we shall come."   כבוַתִּקְרְב֣וּן אֵלַי֘ כֻּלְּכֶם֒ וַתֹּֽאמְר֗וּ נִשְׁלְחָ֤ה אֲנָשִׁים֙ לְפָנֵ֔ינוּ וְיַחְפְּרוּ־לָ֖נוּ אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְיָשִׁ֤בוּ אֹתָ֨נוּ֙ דָּבָ֔ר אֶת־הַדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נַֽעֲלֶה־בָּ֔הּ וְאֵת֙ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָבֹ֖א אֲלֵיהֶֽן:
And you approached me-all of you:: in a state of disorder. But further on (Deut. 5:20-21) it says, “You approached me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders, and you said, Behold [the Lord, our God] has shown us [His glory and His greatness].” That approach to me was proper-young people respecting their elders, sending these before them. Here, however, you approached me all of you, in a state of disorder, the young pushing aside their elders, the elders pushing aside their heads.   וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כֻּלְּכֶם: בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא; וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים ה') "וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ וְגוֹ'", אוֹתָהּ קְרִיבָה הָיְתָה הוֹגֶנֶת – יְלָדִים מְכַבְּדִים אֶת הַזְּקֵנִים וּשְׁלָחוּם לִפְנֵיהֶם, וּזְקֵנִים מְכַבְּדִים אֶת הָרָאשִׁים לָלֶכֶת לִפְנֵיהֶם, אֲבָל כָּאן "וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כֻּלְּכֶם" בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא – יְלָדִים דּוֹחֲפִין אֶת הַזְּקֵנִים, וּזְקֵנִים דּוֹחֲפִין אֶת הָרָאשִׁים (ספרי):
and bring us back word: [meaning that they will report] which language they [the Canaanites] speak.   וְיָשִׁבוּ אֹתָנוּ דָּבָר: בְּאֵיזֶה לָשׁוֹן הֵם מְדַבְּרִים:
by which route we shall go up: There is no road without a crooked portion.   אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר נַֽעֲלֶה־בָּהּ: אֵין דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עַקְמִימוּת:
and to which cities we shall come: first, to capture (Sifrei).   וְאֵת הֶֽעָרִים אֲשֶׁר נָבֹא אֲלֵיהֶֽן: תְּחִלָּה לִכְבֹּשׁ (שם):
23And the matter pleased me; so I took twelve men from you, one man for each tribe.   כגוַיִּיטַ֥ב בְּעֵינַ֖י הַדָּבָ֑ר וָֽאֶקַּ֤ח מִכֶּם֙ שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֣ר אֲנָשִׁ֔ים אִ֥ישׁ אֶחָ֖ד לַשָּֽׁבֶט:
And the matter pleased me: “It pleased me, but it did not please the Omnipresent.” But if it pleased Moses, why does he mention it in his rebukes? This may be compared to a man who says to his friend, “Sell me this donkey of yours.” He replies to him, “Yes.” “Will you give it to me to test it?” He replies, “Yes.” “May I test it on mountains and hills?” Again he replies, “Yes.” When he sees that his friend does not withhold anything from him, the purchaser thinks to himself, “This man is certain that I shall not find any defect in the donkey,” and he immediately says to him, “Take your money; I need not test it now.” I too, consented to your words, thinking that you would perhaps reconsider when you saw that I do not withhold it from you, but you did not reconsider (Sifrei).   וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינַי הַדָּבָר: בְּעֵינַי וְלֹא בְעֵינֵי הַמָּקוֹם; וְאִם בְּעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה הָיָה טוֹב לָמָּה אֲמָרָהּ בַּתּוֹכָחוֹת? מָשָׁל לְאָדָם שֶׁאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ מְכֹר לִי חֲמוֹרְךָ זֶה, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן, נוֹתְנוֹ אַתָּה לִי לְנִסָּיוֹן? אָמַר לוֹ הֵן, בֶּהָרִים וּבַגְּבָעוֹת? אָמַר לוֹ הֵן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁאֵין מְעַכְּבוֹ כְלוּם, אָמַר הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּלִבּוֹ בָּטוּחַ הוּא זֶה שֶׁלֹּא אֶמְצָא בוֹ מוּם, מִיָּד אָמַר לוֹ טֹל מְעוֹתֶיךָ אֵינִי מְנַסֵּהוּ מֵעַתָּה, אַף אֲנִי הוֹדֵיתִי לְדִבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁמָּא תַחְזְרוּ בָכֶם כְּשֶׁתִּרְאוּ שֶׁאֵינִי מְעַכֵּב, וְאַתֶּם לֹא חֲזַרְתֶּם בָּכֶם (ספרי):
so I took… from you: from the select that were among you, of the finest that were among you (Sifrei).   וָֽאֶקַּח מִכֶּם: מִן הַבְּרוּרִים שֶׁבָּכֶם, מִן הַמְסֻלָּתִים שֶׁבָּכֶם (שם):
twelve men… one man for each tribe: [This] tells [us] that the tribe of Levi was not with them. (Sifrei).   שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲנָשִׁים אִישׁ אֶחָד לַשָּֽׁבֶט: מַגִּיד שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה שֵׁבֶט לֵוִי עִמָּהֶם (שם):
24And they turned and went up to the mountain, and they came to the valley of Eshkol and spied it out.   כדוַיִּפְנוּ֙ וַיַּֽעֲל֣וּ הָהָ֔רָה וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ עַד־נַ֣חַל אֶשְׁכֹּ֑ל וַיְרַגְּל֖וּ אֹתָֽהּ:
[And they came] to the valley of Eshkol: [This] tells us that it [here it was so called] on account of a future event [that the spies took from there a cluster (אֶשְׁכֹּל) of grapes]. (Sifrei).   עַד־נַחַל אֶשְׁכֹּל: מַגִּיד שֶׁנִּקְרָא עַל שֵׁם סוֹפוֹ (שם):
and [they] spied it out: This teaches us that they traversed through it along four lines, along the length and the breadth (Sifrei.).   וַיְרַגְּלוּ אֹתָֽהּ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָלְכוּ בָהּ אַרְבָּעָה אֻמָּנִין שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב (שם):
25And they took some of the fruit of the land in their hand[s] and brought it down to us, brought us back word, and said, "The land the Lord, our God, is giving us is good."   כהוַיִּקְח֤וּ בְיָדָם֙ מִפְּרִ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ וַיּוֹרִ֖דוּ אֵלֵ֑ינוּ וַיָּשִׁ֨בוּ אֹתָ֤נוּ דָבָר֙ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ טוֹבָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽנוּ:
and brought it down to us: This tells us that the land of Israel is higher than all other lands (Sifrei).   וַיּוֹרִדוּ אֵלֵינוּ: מַגִּיד שֶׁאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל גְּבוֹהָה מִכָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת (שם):
And they said, The land… is good: Who were the ones who spoke about its goodness? Joshua and Caleb (Sifrei.).   וַיֹּאמְרוּ טוֹבָה הָאָרֶץ: מִי הֵם שֶׁאָמְרוּ טוֹבָתָהּ? יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָלֵב (שם):
26But you did not want to go up, and you rebelled against the commandment of the Lord, your God.   כווְלֹ֥א אֲבִיתֶ֖ם לַֽעֲלֹ֑ת וַתַּמְר֕וּ אֶת־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
and you rebelled: Heb. וַתַּמְרוּ. This is an expression denoting confrontation; you confronted His words.   וַתַּמְרוּ: לְשׁוֹן הַתְרָסָה – הִתְרַסְתֶּם כְּנֶגֶד מַאֲמָרוֹ:
27You murmured in your tents and said, "Because the Lord hates us, He took us out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand[s] of the Amorites to exterminate us."   כזוַתֵּרָֽגְנ֤וּ בְאָֽהֳלֵיכֶם֙ וַתֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ בְּשִׂנְאַ֤ת יְהֹוָה֙ אֹתָ֔נוּ הֽוֹצִיאָ֖נוּ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לָתֵ֥ת אֹתָ֛נוּ בְּיַ֥ד הָֽאֱמֹרִ֖י לְהַשְׁמִידֵֽנוּ:
You murmured: Heb. וַתֵּרָגְנוּ. This is an expression denoting slander. It is similar to (Prov. 18:8) “The words of a נִרְגָּן” i.e., of a slanderer.   וַתֵּרָֽגְנוּ: לָשׁוֹן הָרָע, וְכֵן "דִּבְרֵי נִרְגָּן" (משלי י"ח) – אָדָם הַמּוֹצִיא דִּבָּה:
Because the Lord hates us: Really, however, He loves you, but you hate Him. A common parable says: What is in your own heart about your friend, [you imagine] is in his heart about you (Sifrei).   בְּשִׂנְאַת ה' אֹתָנוּ: וְהוּא הָיָה אוֹהֵב אֶתְכֶם, אֲבָל אַתֶּם שׂוֹנְאִים אוֹתוֹ; מְשַׁל הֶדְיוֹט אוֹמֵר מַה דִּבְלִבָּךְ עַל רְחִמָּךְ מַה דִּבְלִבֵּהּ עֲלָךְ (ספרי):
Because the Lord hates us, He took us out of the land of Egypt: His taking us out was due to hatred [they claimed]. This may be compared to a mortal king who had two sons and two fields, one well irrigated, the other dependent upon rain only. To the son he loved, he gave the well irrigated field, and to the one he hated, he gave the one dependent upon rain only. The land of Egypt is a well irrigated country, for the Nile rises and irrigates it, while the land of Canaan is dependent upon rain only. He took us out of [the irrigated] Egypt to give us the arid land of Canaan (Num. Rabbah 17).   בְּשִׂנְאַת ה' אֹתָנוּ הֽוֹצִיאָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם: הוֹצָאָתוֹ לְשִׂנְאָה הָיְתָה; מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָנִים וְיֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי שָׂדוֹת, אַחַת שֶׁל שִׁקְיָא וְאַחַת שֶׁל בַּעַל, לְמִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹהֵב נוֹתֵן שֶׁל שִׁקְיָא, וּלְמִי שֶׁהוּא שׂוֹנֵא נוֹתֵן לוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל, אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם שֶׁל שִׁקְיָא הִיא, שֶׁנִּילוּס עוֹלֶה וּמַשְׁקֶה אוֹתָהּ, וְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן שֶׁל בַּעַל, וְהוֹצִיאָנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָתֵת לָנוּ אֶת אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן (במ"ר י"ז):
28Where shall we go up? Our brothers have discouraged us, saying, "A people greater and taller than we; cities great and fortified up to the heavens, and we have even seen the sons of Anakim there."   כחאָנָ֣ה | אֲנַ֣חְנוּ עֹלִ֗ים אַחֵ֩ינוּ֩ הֵמַ֨סּוּ אֶת־לְבָבֵ֜נוּ לֵאמֹ֗ר עַ֣ם גָּד֤וֹל וָרָם֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ עָרִ֛ים גְּדֹלֹ֥ת וּבְצוּרֹ֖ת בַּשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְגַם־בְּנֵ֥י עֲנָקִ֖ים רָאִ֥ינוּ שָֽׁם:
The cities are great and fortified up to the heavens: The Scriptural text here is talking in exaggerated terms (Sifrei; Chullin 90b).   עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וּבְצוּרֹת בַּשָּׁמָיִם: דִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לְשׁוֹן הֲבַאי (ספרי; חולין צ'):
29And I said to you, "Do not be broken or afraid of them.   כטוָֽאֹמַ֖ר אֲלֵכֶ֑ם לֹא־תַֽעַרְצ֥וּן וְלֹא־תִֽירְא֖וּן מֵהֶֽם:
Do not be broken: Heb. לֹא תַעַרְצוּן. This is an expression denoting breaking, as the Targum renders it: [Do not be broken], and similar to it (Job 30:6), “To dwell in the cleft of the valleys (בערוץ נחלים),” i.e., to break through the valleys.   לֹא־תַֽעַרְצוּן: לְשׁוֹן שְׁבִירָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ (איוב ל') "בַּעֲרוּץ נְחָלִים לִשְׁכֹּן"– שִׁבּוּר הַנְּחָלִים:
30The Lord, your God, Who goes before you He will fight for you, just as He did for you in Egypt before your very eyes,   ליְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ הַֽהֹלֵ֣ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם ה֖וּא יִלָּחֵ֣ם לָכֶ֑ם כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֧ה אִתְּכֶ֛ם בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם לְעֵֽינֵיכֶֽם:
will fight for you: Heb. יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם - [לָכֶם means] on your behalf.   יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם: בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם:
31and in the desert, where you have seen how the Lord, your God, has carried you as a man carries his son, all the way that you have gone, until you have come to this place.   לאוּבַמִּדְבָּר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאִ֔יתָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נְשָֽׂאֲךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשָּׂא־אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־בְּנ֑וֹ בְּכָל־הַדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֲלַכְתֶּ֔ם עַד־בֹּֽאֲכֶ֖ם עַד־הַמָּק֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
and in the desert, where you have seen: This refers to the preceding verse: “just as He did for you in Egypt,” and also what He did “in the desert, where you have seen how the Lord, your God, has carried you, etc.”   וּבַמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ: מוּסָב עַל מִקְרָא שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ – ככל אשר עשה אתכם במצרים, וְעָשָׂה אַף במדבר אשר ראית אשר נשאך וגו':
as a man carries his son: As I explained regarding [the verses]: “And the angel of God who went before the camp of the Israelites traveled and went behind, etc.” (Exod. 14:19-20). This may be compared to one who is traveling on a road, with his son in front of him. If bandits come to kidnap [the son, he removes him from in front of him and places him behind him].   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא־אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ: כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי אֵצֶל "וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ'" (שמות י"ד) מָשָׁל לִמְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וּבְנוֹ לְפָנָיו, בָּאוּ לִסְטִים לִשְׁבּוֹתוֹ, וְכוּ':
32But regarding this matter, you do not believe the Lord, your God,   לבוּבַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה אֵֽינְכֶם֙ מַֽאֲמִינִ֔ם בַּֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
Yet regarding this matter: that He promises you to bring you to the Land, you do not believe Him.   וּבַדָּבָר הַזֶּה: שֶׁהוּא מַבְטִיחֲכֶם לַהֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶל הָאָרֶץ – אֵינְכֶם מַאֲמִינִים בּוֹ:
33Who goes before you on the way, to search out a place for you, in which to encamp, in fire at night, to enable you to see on the way you should go, and in a cloud by day."   לגהַֽהֹלֵ֨ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶ֜ם בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ לָת֥וּר לָכֶ֛ם מָק֖וֹם לַֽחֲנֹֽתְכֶ֑ם בָּאֵ֣שׁ | לַ֗יְלָה לַרְאֹֽתְכֶם֙ בַּדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּֽלְכוּ־בָ֔הּ וּבֶֽעָנָ֖ן יוֹמָֽם:
to enable you to see: Heb. לַרְאוֹתְכֶם, like לְהַרְאוֹתְכֶם, and similarly, “to cause it to lead them (לַנְחֹתָם) on the way” (Exod. 13:21) [like (לְהַנְחֹתָם)] and also, “To proclaim (לַשְׁמִעַ)) thanksgiving with a loud voice” (Ps. 26:7), [like לְהַשְׁמִיעַ], and so, “to go to tell (לַגִּיד) in Jezreel” (II Kings 9:15), [like לְהַגִּיד].   לַרְאֹֽתְכֶם: כְּמוֹ לְהַרְאוֹתְכֶם, וְכֵן (שמות י"ג) "לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ", וְכֵן (תהלים כ"ו) "לַשְׁמִעַ בְּקוֹל תּוֹדָה", וְכֵן (מלכים ב ט') "לָלֶכֶת לַגִּיד בְּיִזְרְעֶאל":
34And the Lord heard the sound of your words, and He became angry and swore, saying,   לדוַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־ק֣וֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶ֑ם וַיִּקְצֹ֖ף וַיִּשָּׁבַ֥ע לֵאמֹֽר:
35'If any of these men of this evil generation sees the good land, which I swore to give your forefathers,   להאִם־יִרְאֶ֥ה אִישׁ֙ בָּֽאֲנָשִׁ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה הַדּ֥וֹר הָרָ֖ע הַזֶּ֑ה אֵ֚ת הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבַּ֔עְתִּי לָתֵ֖ת לַֽאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
36except Caleb the son of Jephunneh he will see it, and I will give him the land he trod upon, and to his children, because he has completely followed the Lord."   לוזֽוּלָתִ֞י כָּלֵ֤ב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּה֙ ה֣וּא יִרְאֶ֔נָּה וְלֽוֹ־אֶתֵּ֧ן אֶת־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דָּֽרַךְ־בָּ֖הּ וּלְבָנָ֑יו יַ֕עַן אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִלֵּ֖א אַֽחֲרֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
[And to him will I give the land] that he trod upon: [i.e.] Hebron, as it says, “And he [Caleb] came to Hebron” (Num. 13:22).   אֲשֶׁר דָּֽרַךְ־בָּהּ: — חֶבְרוֹן; שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר י"ג) "וַיָּבֹא עַד חֶבְרוֹן":
37The Lord was also angry with me because of you, saying, "Neither will you go there.   לזגַּם־בִּי֙ הִתְאַנַּ֣ף יְהֹוָ֔ה בִּגְלַלְכֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה לֹֽא־תָבֹ֥א שָֽׁם:
Was angry: Heb. הִתְאַנַּף, became filled with anger.   הִתְאַנַּף: נִתְמַלֵּא רֹגֶז:
38But Joshua the son of Nun, who stands before you he will go there; strengthen him, for he will cause Israel to inherit it.   לחיְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ בִּן־נוּן֙ הָֽעֹמֵ֣ד לְפָנֶ֔יךָ ה֖וּא יָ֣בֹא שָׁ֑מָּה אֹת֣וֹ חַזֵּ֔ק כִּי־ה֖וּא יַנְחִלֶ֥נָּה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:

Fourth Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 1

39[Moreover] your little ones, whom you said will be prey, and your children, who on that day did not know good and evil they will go there and I will give it to them, and they will possess it.   לטוְטַפְּכֶם֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲמַרְתֶּ֜ם לָבַ֣ז יִֽהְיֶ֗ה וּבְנֵיכֶ֠ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־יָֽדְע֤וּ הַיּוֹם֙ ט֣וֹב וָרָ֔ע הֵ֖מָּה יָבֹ֣אוּ שָׁ֑מָּה וְלָהֶ֣ם אֶתְּנֶ֔נָּה וְהֵ֖ם יִֽירָשֽׁוּהָ:
40But as for you, turn yourselves around and journey into the desert by way of the Red Sea."   מוְאַתֶּ֖ם פְּנ֣וּ לָכֶ֑ם וּסְע֥וּ הַמִּדְבָּ֖רָה דֶּ֥רֶךְ יַם־סֽוּף:
turn yourselves: I thought [previously] to let you pass through the breadth of the land of Edom northward, to enter the Land, but you sinned and caused delay for yourselves.   פְּנוּ לָכֶם: אָמַרְתִּי לְהַעֲבִיר אֶתְכֶם דֶּרֶךְ רֹחַב אֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם לְצַד צָפוֹן לִכָּנֵס לָאָרֶץ, קִלְקַלְתֶּם וּגְרַמְתֶּם לָכֶם עִכּוּב:
turn yourselves: Backwards, and proceed through the desert towards the Red Sea, for the desert in which they were traveling was south of Mount Seir, separating the Red Sea from Mount Seir. Now turn in the direction of the Sea and go around Mount Seir, along its entire southern side from west to east.   פְּנוּ לָכֶם: לַאֲחוֹרֵיכֶם וְתֵלְכוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר לְצַד יַם סוּף – שֶׁהַמִּדְבָּר שֶׁהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִים בּוֹ לִדְרוֹמוֹ שֶׁל הַר שֵׂעִיר הָיָה מַפְסִיק בֵּין יַם סוּף לְהַר שֵׂעִיר – עַתָּה הִמָּשְׁכוּ לְצַד הַיָּם וּתְסַבְּבוּ אֶת הַר שֵׂעִיר כָּל דְּרוֹמוֹ מִן הַמַּעֲרָב לַמִּזְרָח:
41Then you answered and said to me, "We have sinned against the Lord; we will go up and fight, according to all that the Lord, our God, has commanded us." So every one of you girded his weapons, and you prepared yourselves to go up to the mountain.   מאוַתַּֽעֲנ֣וּ | וַתֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֵלַ֗י חָטָ֘אנוּ֘ לַֽיהֹוָה֒ אֲנַ֤חְנוּ נַֽעֲלֶה֙ וְנִלְחַ֔מְנוּ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֖נוּ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וַתַּחְגְּר֗וּ אִ֚ישׁ אֶת־כְּלֵ֣י מִלְחַמְתּ֔וֹ וַתָּהִ֖ינוּ לַֽעֲלֹ֥ת הָהָֽרָה:
and you prepared yourselves: Heb. וַתָּהִינוּ, an expression of “Here we are (הִנֶּנּוּ) and we will go up to the place” (Num. 14:40). This expression which you used, denotes, “Yes” (הֵן) , as if to say: You prepared [to go up to the mountain].   וַתָּהִינוּ: לְשׁוֹן "הִנֶּנּוּ וְעָלִינוּ אֶל הַמָּקוֹם" (במדבר י"ד), זֶה הַלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁאֲמַרְתֶּם לְשׁוֹן "הֵן", כְּלוֹמַר נִזְדַּמַּנְתֶּם:
42And the Lord said to me, "Say to them, 'Neither go up nor fight, for I am not among you, lest you be struck down before your enemies.' "   מבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י אֱמֹ֤ר לָהֶם֙ לֹ֤א תַֽעֲלוּ֙ וְלֹֽא־תִלָּ֣חֲמ֔וּ כִּ֥י אֵינֶ֖נִּי בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם וְלֹא֙ תִּנָּ֣גְפ֔וּ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
Neither go up: There will be no ascent [victory] for you, but only a descent [defeat].   לֹא תַֽעֲלוּ: לֹא עֲלִיָּה תְהֵא לָכֶם אֶלָּא יְרִידָה:
43So I spoke to you, but you did not listen, and you rebelled against the command of the Lord, and you acted wickedly and went up to the mountain.   מגוָֽאֲדַבֵּ֥ר אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם וַתַּמְרוּ֙ אֶת־פִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַתָּזִ֖דוּ וַתַּֽעֲל֥וּ הָהָֽרָה:
44And the Amorites, dwelling in that mountain, came out towards you and pursued you as bees do, and beat you down in Seir, as far as Hormah.   מדוַיֵּצֵ֨א הָֽאֱמֹרִ֜י הַיּשֵׁ֨ב בָּהָ֤ר הַהוּא֙ לִקְרַאתְכֶ֔ם וַיִּרְדְּפ֣וּ אֶתְכֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ינָה הַדְּבֹרִ֑ים וַיַּכְּת֥וּ אֶתְכֶ֛ם בְּשֵׂעִ֖יר עַד־חָרְמָֽה:
As bees do: Just as a bee dies instantly after stinging a person, they too [the Amorites], upon touching you, died immediately.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר תַּֽעֲשֶׂינָה הַדְּבֹרִים: מַה הַדְּבוֹרָה הַזֹּאת כְּשֶׁהִיא מַכָּה אֶת הָאָדָם מִיָּד מֵתָה, אַף הֵם כְּשֶׁהָיוּ נוֹגְעִים בָּכֶם מִיָּד מֵתִים:
45So you returned and wept before the Lord, but the Lord would not hear your voice, nor would He listen to you.   מהוַתָּשֻׁ֥בוּ וַתִּבְכּ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְלֹֽא־שָׁמַ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ בְּקֹ֣לְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א הֶֽאֱזִ֖ין אֲלֵיכֶֽם:
But the Lord would not hear your voice: As if possible [to say of God], you made His attribute of mercy as though it were cruel.   וְלֹֽא־שָׁמַע ה' בְּקֹלְכֶם: כִּבְיָכוֹל עֲשִׂיתֶם מִדַּת רַחֲמָיו כְּאִלּוּ אַכְזָרִי:
46And you dwelled in Kadesh many days, as the days that you dwelled.   מווַתֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ בְקָדֵ֖שׁ יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים כַּיָּמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשַׁבְתֶּֽם:
And you dwelled in Kadesh many days: Nineteen years, as it says, “as the days that you dwelled” in the other stations. They totaled thirty-eight years; nineteen of them were spent at Kadesh, and for nineteen years they were continually wandering about, and they returned to Kadesh, as it says, (Num. 32:13), “And He made them wander about in the desert”-thus I have found in Seder Olam (ch. 8).   וַתֵּֽשְׁבוּ בְקָדֵשׁ יָמִים רַבִּים: י"ט שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כימים אשר ישבתם בִּשְׁאָר הַמַּסָּעוֹת, וְהֵם הָיוּ ל"ח שָׁנָה, י"ט מֵהֶם עָשׂוּ בְקָדֵשׁ וי"ט שָׁנָה הוֹלְכִים וּמְטֹרָפִים וְחָזְרוּ לְקָדֵשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ל"ב) "וַיְנִיעֵם בַּמִּדְבָּר"; כָּךְ מָצָאתִי בְּסֵדֶר עוֹלָם:

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 2

1Then we turned and journeyed into the desert by way of the Red Sea, as the Lord had spoken to me, and we circled Mount Seir for many days.   אוַנֵּ֜פֶן וַנִּסַּ֤ע הַמִּדְבָּ֨רָה֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ יַם־ס֔וּף כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י וַנָּ֥סָב אֶת־הַר־שֵׂעִ֖יר יָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים:
Then we turned and journeyed into the desert: Had they not sinned, they would have passed by way of Mount Seir to enter the Land from its south[ern end] to its north[ern end], but because they sinned, [it was decreed upon them that they remain in the desert; so] they turned towards the desert, which is between the Red Sea and the southern side of Mount Seir, and they traveled along its south side from the west to the east, by way of the Red Sea by the route they used when they went out of Egypt, which is at the southwest corner. From there they traveled towards the east.   וַנֵּפֶן וַנִּסַּע הַמִּדְבָּרָה: אִלּוּ לֹא חָטְאוּ הָיוּ עוֹבְרִים דֶּרֶךְ הַר שֵׂעִיר לִכָּנֵס לָאָרֶץ מִן דְּרוֹמוֹ לִצְפוֹנוֹ, וּבִשְׁבִיל שֶׁקִּלְקְלוּ הָפְכוּ לְצַד הַמִּדְבָּר, שֶׁהוּא בֵין יַם סוּף לִדְרוֹמוֹ שֶׁל הַר שֵׂעִיר, וְהָלְכוּ אֵצֶל דְּרוֹמוֹ מִן הַמַּעֲרָב לַמִּזְרָח דרך ים סוף. דֶּרֶךְ יְצִיאָתָן מִמִּצְרַיִם שֶׁהוּא בְּמִקְצוֹעַ דְּרוֹמִית מַעֲרָבִית; מִשָּׁם הָיוּ הוֹלְכִים לְצַד הַמִּזְרָח:
and we circled Mount Seir: the whole south side as far as the land of Moab.   וַנָּסָב אֶת־הַר־שֵׂעִיר: כָּל דְּרוֹמוֹ עַד אֶרֶץ מוֹאָב:

Fifth Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 2

2And the Lord spoke to me, saying,   בוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
3You have circled this mountain long enough; turn northward.   גרַב־לָכֶ֕ם סֹ֖ב אֶת־הָהָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה פְּנ֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם צָפֹֽנָה:
turn northward: Turn along the eastern side [of Moab], from the south to the north, facing northward. Consequently, they were traveling in an easterly direction, and this is what is meant by “And they came from the sun rise [i.e., east side] to the land of Moab” (Jud. 11:18).   פְּנוּ לָכֶם צָפֹֽנָה: סֹבּוּ לָכֶם לְרוּחַ מִזְרָחִית, מִן הַדָּרוֹם לַצָּפוֹן, פְּנֵיכֶם לַצָּפוֹן, נִמְצְאוּ הוֹלְכִים אֶת רוּחַ הַמִּזְרָחִית וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים י"א) "וַיָבוֹאוּ (וַיָּבֹא) מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב":
4And command the people saying, You are about to pass through the boundary of your kinsmen, the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, and they will be afraid of you. Be very careful.   דוְאֶת־הָעָם֘ צַ֣ו לֵאמֹר֒ אַתֶּ֣ם עֹֽבְרִ֗ים בִּגְבוּל֙ אֲחֵיכֶ֣ם בְּנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֔ו הַיֹּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּשֵׂעִ֑יר וְיִֽירְא֣וּ מִכֶּ֔ם וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם מְאֹֽד:
Be very careful: And what is this “being careful”? “You shall not provoke them.”   וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹֽד: וּמַהוּ הַשְּׁמִירָה? אל תתגרו בם:
5You shall not provoke them, for I will not give you any of their land not so much as a foot step, because I have given Mount Seir to Esau for an inheritance.   האַל־תִּתְגָּ֣רוּ בָ֔ם כִּי לֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֤ן לָכֶם֙ מֵֽאַרְצָ֔ם עַ֖ד מִדְרַ֣ךְ כַּף־רָ֑גֶל כִּֽי־יְרֻשָּׁ֣ה לְעֵשָׂ֔ו נָתַ֖תִּי אֶת־הַ֥ר שֵׂעִֽיר:
not so much as a foot step: meaning, even only for the sole of the foot to tread a single step, I do not permit you to enter their land without permission. An Aggadic interpretation is: [I will not give you of their land] until the day arrives when the foot will tread upon the Mount of Olives [the Messianic era], as it said: “And His [God’s] feet will [figuratively] stand [on that day upon the Mount of Olives]” (Zech. 14:4).   עַד מִדְרַךְ כַּף־רָגֶל: אֲפִלּוּ מִדְרַךְ כַּף רֶגֶל, כְּלוֹמַר אֲפִלּוּ דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל אֵינִי מַרְשֶׁה לָכֶם לַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצָם שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא יוֹם דְּרִיסַת כַּף רֶגֶל עַל הַר הַזֵּיתִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה י"ד) "וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו וְגוֹ'":
[I have given Mount Seir] to Esau for an inheritance: from Abraham. I gave ten nations to Abraham, seven of them for you [the seven of Canaan], and the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (Gen. 16:18-21), who are Ammon, Moab, and Seir. One of them is for Esau, and the other two are for the children of Lot (Gen. Rabbah 44). As a reward [for Lot] for going with him [Abraham] to Egypt and for keeping silent when Abraham said, regarding his wife, “She is my sister,” He treated him [Lot] as his [Abraham’s] son [to inherit part of the land promised to Abraham] (Gen. Rabbah 44).   יְרֻשָּׁה לְעֵשָׂו: מֵאַבְרָהָם, עֲשָׂרָה עֲמָמִים נָתַתִּי לוֹ, שִׁבְעָה לָכֶם וְקֵינִי וּקְנִזִּי וְקַדְמוֹנִי הֵן עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב וְשֵׂעִיר, אֶחָד מֵהֶם לְעֵשָׂו וְהַשְּׁנַיִם לִבְנֵי לוֹט, בִּשְׂכַר שֶׁהָלַךְ אִתּוֹ לְמִצְרַיִם וְשָׁתַק עַל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲחוֹתִי הִיא, עֲשָׂאוֹ כִּבְנוֹ (בראשית רבה נ"א):
6You shall buy food from them with money, that you may eat, and also water you shall buy from them with money, that you may drink.   ואֹ֣כֶל תִּשְׁבְּר֧וּ מֵֽאִתָּ֛ם בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֑ם וְגַם־מַ֜יִם תִּכְר֧וּ מֵֽאִתָּ֛ם בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וּשְׁתִיתֶֽם:
you shall buy: Heb. תִּכְרוּ. This is an expression of purchase. Similar is (Gen. 50:5), “which I have purchased (כָּרִיתִי) for myself.” In the coastal cities, for “selling” (מְכִירָה), they use the word “כִּירָה” (Rosh Hashanah 26a).   תִּכְרוּ: לְשׁוֹן מֶקַח, וְכֵן "אֲשֶׁר כָּרִיתִי לִי" (בראשית נ'), שֶׁכֵּן בִּכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם קוֹרִין לִמְכִירָה כִּירָה (ראש השנה כ"ו):
7For the Lord, your God, has blessed you in all the work of your hand; He knows of your walking through this great desert; these forty years that the Lord your God has been with you, you have lacked nothing.   זכִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ בֵּֽרַכְךָ֗ בְּכֹל֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֔ךָ יָדַ֣ע לֶכְתְּךָ֔ אֶת־הַמִּדְבָּ֥ר הַגָּדֹ֖ל הַזֶּ֑ה זֶ֣ה | אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֗ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א חָסַ֖רְתָּ דָּבָֽר:
For the Lord, your God, has blessed you: Therefore you should not be ungrateful for His goodness [to you] by acting as though you were poor. Rather, show yourselves as rich people.   כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּֽרַכְךָ: לְפִיכָךְ לֹא תִכְפּוּ אֶת טוֹבָתוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת כְּאִלּוּ אַתֶּם עֲנִיִּים, אֶלָּא הַרְאוּ עַצְמְכֶם עֲשִׁירִים:
8And we departed from our kinsmen, the children of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, by way of the plain from Elath and from Etzion Geber, and we turned and passed through the way of the desert of Moab.   חוַנַּֽעֲבֹ֞ר מֵאֵ֧ת אַחֵ֣ינוּ בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֗ו הַיּֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּשֵׂעִ֔יר מִדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ הָֽעֲרָבָ֔ה מֵֽאֵילַ֖ת וּמֵֽעֶצְיֹ֣ן גָּ֑בֶר וַנֵּ֨פֶן֙ וַנַּֽעֲבֹ֔ר דֶּ֖רֶךְ מִדְבַּ֥ר מוֹאָֽב:
and we turned and passed: towards the north; we turned to proceed on the eastern side.   וַנֵּפֶן וַנַּֽעֲבֹר: לְצַד צָפוֹן הָפַכְנוּ פָנִים לַהֲלֹךְ רוּחַ מִזְרָחִית:
9And the Lord said to me, Do not distress the Moabites, and do not provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land [as] an inheritance, because I have given Ar to the children of Lot [as] an inheritance.   טוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י אַל־תָּ֨צַר֙ אֶת־מוֹאָ֔ב וְאַל־תִּתְגָּ֥ר בָּ֖ם מִלְחָמָ֑ה כִּ֠י לֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֨ן לְךָ֤ מֵֽאַרְצוֹ֙ יְרֻשָּׁ֔ה כִּ֣י לִבְנֵי־ל֔וֹט נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־עָ֖ר יְרֻשָּֽׁה:
and do not provoke them to war: God forbade Israel only to wage war against Moab. However, Israel did frighten them, appearing before them, armed for battle. Therefore, it is written, “And Moab was very frightened of the people” (Num. 22:3) because Israel plundered and looted them. Regarding the children of Ammon, however, it says (verse 19), “Do not provoke them”-with any kind of provocation, as a reward for the modesty shown by their ancestress [Lot’s younger daughter], who did not publicize her father’s conduct, as did his elder daughter, who named her son Moab [מוֹאָב like מֵאָב, from the father] (Baba Kamma 38b).   וְאַל־תִּתְגָּר בָּם וגו': לֹא אָסַר לָהֶם עַל מוֹאָב אֶלָּא מִלְחָמָה, אֲבָל מְיָרְאִים הָיוּ אוֹתָם, וְנִרְאִים לָהֶם כְּשֵׁהֶם מְזֻיָּנִים, לְפִיכָךְ כְּתִיב (במדבר כ"ב) "וַיָּגָר מוֹאָב מִפְּנֵי הָעָם", שֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹלְלִים וּבוֹזְזִים אוֹתָם; אֲבָל בִּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן נֶאֱמַר (פסוק י"ט) "וְאַל תִּתְגָּר בָּם" – שׁוּם גֵּרוּי, בִּשְׂכַר צְנִיעוּת אִמָּם, שֶׁלֹּא פִרְסְמָה עַל אָבִיהָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשְׂתָה הַבְּכִירָה שֶׁקָּרְאָה שֵׁם בְּנָהּ מוֹאָב (בבא קמא ל"ח):
Ar: The name of the province.   עָר: שֵׁם הַמְּדִינָה:
10The Emim dwelt there formerly, a great and numerous people, and tall [in stature], as the Anakim;   יהָֽאֵמִ֥ים לְפָנִ֖ים יָ֣שְׁבוּ בָ֑הּ עַ֣ם גָּד֥וֹל וְרַ֛ב וָרָ֖ם כַּֽעֲנָקִֽים:
The Emim dwelt there formerly: You might think that this is the land of Rephaim which I gave [promised] to Abraham (Gen. 15:20), because the Emim, who are Rephaim, dwelt there before, but this is not that one, for those Rephaim I drove out and made the children of Lot settle there in their stead.   הָֽאֵמִים לְפָנִים וגו': אַתָּה סָבוּר שֶׁזּוֹ אֶרֶץ רְפָאִים שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם, לְפִי שֶׁהָאֵמִים שֶׁהֵם רְפָאִים יָשְׁבוּ בָהּ לְפָנִים, אֲבָל לֹא זוֹ הִיא, כִּי אוֹתָן רְפָאִים הוֹרַשְׁתִּי מִפְּנֵי בְנֵי לוֹט וְהוֹשַׁבְתִּים תַּחְתָּם:
11They also are considered Rephaim, as the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim.   יארְפָאִ֛ים יֵחָֽשְׁב֥וּ אַף־הֵ֖ם כַּֽעֲנָקִ֑ים וְהַמֹּ֣אָבִ֔ים יִקְרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם אֵמִֽים:
They… are considered Rephaim…: These Emim were considered Rephaim, just as the Anakim, who were called Rephaim, because whoever beheld them-his hands became weak (מִתְרַפּוּת) (Gen. Rabbah 26).   רְפָאִים יֵחָֽשְׁבוּ וגו': רְפָאִים הָיוּ נֶחֱשָׁבִין אוֹתָם אֵמִים, כָּעֲנָקִים הַנִּקְרָאִים רְפָאִים, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁכָּל הָרוֹאֶה אוֹתָם יָדָיו מִתְרַפּוֹת (בראשית רבה כ"ו):
Emim: so called, because their fear (אֵימָה) was cast over mankind. And similarly (verse 12), “The Horites dwelt in Seir” and [just as I gave the Rephaim over to the children of Lot,] I gave them [the Horites] over to the children of Esau.   אֵמִֽים: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁאֵימָתָם מֻטֶּלֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת (שם), וְכֵן בְּשֵׂעִיר יָשְׁבוּ הַחֹרִים וּנְתַתִּים לִבְנֵי עֵשָׂו:
12And the Horites formerly dwelt in Seir, and the children of Esau were driving them out, and they exterminated them from before them and dwelt in their stead, just as the Israelites did to the land of their inheritance, which the Lord gave them.   יבוּבְשֵׂעִ֞יר יָֽשְׁב֣וּ הַֽחֹרִים֘ לְפָנִים֒ וּבְנֵ֧י עֵשָׂ֣ו יִֽירָשׁ֗וּם וַיַּשְׁמִידוּם֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ תַּחְתָּ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֧ר עָשָׂ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְאֶ֨רֶץ֙ יְרֻשָּׁת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן יְהֹוָ֖ה לָהֶֽם:
were driving them out: Heb. יִירָשׁוּם [This is expressed in] the present tense, as if to say, I gave them power to go on constantly driving them out.   יִֽירָשׁוּם: לָשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה, כְּלוֹמַר נָתַתִּי בָהֶם כֹּחַ שֶׁהָיוּ מוֹרִישִׁים אוֹתָם וְהוֹלְכִים:
13Now get up and cross the brook of Zered. So we crossed the brook of Zered.   יגעַתָּ֗ה קֻ֛מוּ וְעִבְר֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־נַ֣חַל זָ֑רֶד וַנַּֽעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־נַ֥חַל זָֽרֶד:
14And the days when we went from Kadesh barnea, until we crossed the brook of Zered, numbered thirty eight years, until all the generation of the men of war expired from the midst of the camp, just as the Lord swore to them.   ידוְהַיָּמִ֞ים אֲשֶׁר־הָלַ֣כְנוּ | מִקָּדֵ֣שׁ בַּרְנֵ֗עַ עַ֤ד אֲשֶׁר־עָבַ֨רְנוּ֙ אֶת־נַ֣חַל זֶ֔רֶד שְׁלשִׁ֥ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה עַד־תֹּ֨ם כָּל־הַדּ֜וֹר אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ מִקֶּ֣רֶב הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה לָהֶֽם:
15Also the hand of the Lord was upon them, to destroy them from the midst of the camp, until they were consumed.   טווְגַ֤ם יַד־יְהֹוָה֙ הָ֣יְתָה בָּ֔ם לְהֻמָּ֖ם מִקֶּ֣רֶב הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה עַ֖ד תֻּמָּֽם:
[Also the hand of the Lord] was against them: to quickly destroy them within a period of forty years, so that they would not cause their children to tarry any longer in the desert.   הָיְתָה בָּם: לְמַהֵר וּלְהֻמָּם בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה, שֶׁלֹּא יִגְרְמוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם עוֹד לְהִתְעַכֵּב בַּמִּדְבָּר:
16So it was, when all the men of war finished dying from among the people,   טזוַיְהִ֨י כַֽאֲשֶׁר־תַּ֜מּוּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁ֧י הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה לָמ֖וּת מִקֶּ֥רֶב הָעָֽם:
17that the Lord spoke to me saying,   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
So it was, when [all the men of war] finished... that the Lord spoke to me: But since the spies were sent until now, the word וַיְּדַבֵּר [denoting God’s speaking to Moses with endearment] is not mentioned in [this] section, only וַיֹּאמֶר [denoting a less endearing form of communication], to teach us that during those entire thirty-eight years during which time the Israelites were under ban by God, the Divine speech was not directed towards him in an expression of affection, face to face, and with peace of mind-to teach us that the Divine Presence rests upon the prophets only for Israel’s sake (Sifrei , Lev. 6).   וַיְהִי כַֽאֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ וגו' וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֵלַי וגו': אֲבָל מִשִּׁלּוּחַ הַמְרַגְּלִים עַד כָּאן לֹא נֶאֱמַר בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא וַיֹּאמֶר, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל ל"ח שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נְזוּפִים, לֹא נִתְיַחֵד עִמּוֹ הַדִּבּוּר בִּלְשׁוֹן חִבָּה, פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים וְיִשּׁוּב הַדַּעַת – לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאֵין הַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה עַל הַנְּבִיאִים אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל (מכילתא שמות י"ב):
the men of war: [I.e.,] men from twenty years of age, who go forth to war.   אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה: מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה הַיּוֹצְאִים בַּצָּבָא:
18Today you are crossing the boundary of Moab at Ar.   יחאַתָּ֨ה עֹבֵ֥ר הַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־גְּב֥וּל מוֹאָ֖ב אֶת־עָֽר:
Today you are crossing the boundary of Moab… And when you approach opposite the children of Ammon: from here [we deduce] that the land of Ammon was towards the north.   אַתָּה עֹבֵר הַיּוֹם אֶת־גְּבוּל מוֹאָב וקרבת מול בני עמון: מִכָּאן שֶׁאֶרֶץ עַמּוֹן לְצַד צָפוֹן:
19And when you approach opposite the children of Ammon, neither distress them, nor provoke them, for I will not give you of the land of the children of Ammon as an inheritance, because I have given it to the children of Lot as an inheritance.   יטוְקָֽרַבְתָּ֗ מ֚וּל בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן אַל־תְּצֻרֵ֖ם וְאַל־תִּתְגָּ֣ר בָּ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹֽא־אֶ֠תֵּ֠ן מֵאֶ֨רֶץ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֤וֹן לְךָ֙ יְרֻשָּׁ֔ה כִּ֥י לִבְנֵי־ל֖וֹט נְתַתִּ֥יהָ יְרֻשָּֽׁה:
20It too is considered a land of Rephaim; Rephaim dwelt therein formerly, and the Ammonites call them Zamzummim.   כאֶֽרֶץ־רְפָאִ֥ים תֵּֽחָשֵׁ֖ב אַף־הִ֑וא רְפָאִ֤ים יָֽשְׁבוּ־בָהּ֙ לְפָנִ֔ים וְהָ֣עַמֹּנִ֔ים יִקְרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם זַמְזֻמִּֽים:
It too is considered a land of Rephaim: It too is considered a land of Rephaim because the Rephaim dwelt there formerly, but this is not the one I gave to Abraham.   אֶֽרֶץ־רְפָאִים תֵּֽחָשֵׁב: אֶרֶץ רְפָאִים נֶחְשֶׁבֶת אַף הִיא, לְפִי שֶׁהָרְפָאִים יָשְׁבוּ בָהּ לְפָנִים, אֲבָל לֹא זוֹ הִיא שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם:
21A great, numerous and tall people as the Anakim, but the Lord exterminated them before them, and they drove them out and dwelt in their stead.   כאעַ֣ם גָּד֥וֹל וְרַ֛ב וָרָ֖ם כַּֽעֲנָקִ֑ים וַיַּשְׁמִידֵ֤ם יְהֹוָה֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽירָשֻׁ֖ם וַיֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ תַחְתָּֽם:
22As He did to the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, when He exterminated the Horites from before them; and they drove them out and dwelt in their stead even to this day.   כבכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לִבְנֵ֣י עֵשָׂ֔ו הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּשֵׂעִ֑יר אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִשְׁמִ֤יד אֶת־הַֽחֹרִי֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽירָשֻׁם֙ וַיֵּֽשְׁב֣וּ תַחְתָּ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
23But the Avim, who dwell in open cities, up till Gaza -- the Caphtorites, who came forth of Caphtor, exterminated them, and dwelt in their stead.   כגוְהָֽעַוִּ֛ים הַיּֽשְׁבִ֥ים בַּֽחֲצֵרִ֖ים עַד־עַזָּ֑ה כַּפְתֹּרִים֙ הַיֹּֽצְאִ֣ים מִכַּפְתֹּ֔ר הִשְׁמִידֻ֖ם וַיֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ תַחְתָּֽם:
But the Avim who dwell in open cities: The Avim are of the Philistine people, for they are listed together with them in the Book of Joshua (13:3), as it says, “The five Philistine lords. The Gazites, the Ashdodites, the Ashkelonites, the Gittites, the Ekronites, and the Avim." But because of the oath which Abraham had sworn to Abimelech, (Gen. 21:23-24), the Israelites were unable to take their land away from them; so I brought the Caphtorites against them, and they destroyed them and dwelt in their stead. Now, you are permitted to take it [the land of the Avim] from their [the Caphtorites’] possession (Chullin 60b).   וְהָֽעַוִּים הַיּֽשְׁבִים בַּֽחֲצֵרִים וגו': עַוִּים מִפְּלִשְׁתִּים הֵם, שֶׁעִמָּהֶם הֵם נֶחֱשָׁבִים בְּסֵפֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע י"ג) "חֲמֵשֶׁת סַרְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים הָעַזָּתִי וְהָאַשְׁדּוֹדִי הָאֶשְׁקְלוֹנִי הַגִּתִּי וְהָעֶקְרוֹנִי וְהָעַוִּים", וּמִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע אַבְרָהָם לַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ לֹא יָכְלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהוֹצִיא אַרְצָם מִיָּדָם, וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיהֶם כַּפְתּוֹרִים וְהִשְׁמִידוּם וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם, וְעַכְשָׁיו אַתֶּם מֻתָּרִים לְקַחְתָּהּ מִיָּדָם (חולין ס'):
24Get up, journey, and cross the river Arnon. Behold, I have delivered into your hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land: Begin to possess it, and provoke him to war.   כדק֣וּמוּ סְּע֗וּ וְעִבְרוּ֘ אֶת־נַ֣חַל אַרְנֹן֒ רְאֵ֣ה נָתַ֣תִּי בְ֠יָֽדְךָ֠ אֶת־סִיחֹ֨ן מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶשְׁבּ֧וֹן הָֽאֱמֹרִ֛י וְאֶת־אַרְצ֖וֹ הָחֵ֣ל רָ֑שׁ וְהִתְגָּ֥ר בּ֖וֹ מִלְחָמָֽה:
25Today I will begin to put the dread of you and the fear of you upon the nations that are under the entire heaven, who will hear reports of you and shake and be in trepidation because of you.   כההַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה אָחֵל֙ תֵּ֤ת פַּחְדְּךָ֙ וְיִרְאָ֣תְךָ֔ עַל־פְּנֵי֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים תַּ֖חַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁמְעוּן֙ שִׁמְעֲךָ֔ וְרָֽגְז֥וּ וְחָל֖וּ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ:
under the entire heaven: This [statement that nations under the whole heaven will fear the Israelites] teaches that the sun stood still for Moses on the day of the battle with Og, [Other editions: Sihon,] and the matter became [consequently] known under the entire heaven [that is, to the whole world] (Avodah Zarah 25a).   תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם: לִמֵּד שֶׁעָמְדָה חַמָּה לְמֹשֶׁה בְּיוֹם מִלְחֶמֶת עוֹג וְנוֹדַע הַדָּבָר תַּחַת כָּל הַשָּׁמַיִם (עבודה זרה כ"ה):
26So I sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth to Sihon, king of Heshbon, with words of peace, saying,   כווָֽאֶשְׁלַ֤ח מַלְאָכִים֙ מִמִּדְבַּ֣ר קְדֵמ֔וֹת אֶל־סִיח֖וֹן מֶ֣לֶךְ חֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן דִּבְרֵ֥י שָׁל֖וֹם לֵאמֹֽר:
[And I sent messengers] from the desert of Kedemoth: Even though the Omnipresent had not commanded me to call to Sihon in peace, I learned to do so from the incident at the desert of Sinai, i.e., relating to the Torah which preceded (קָדְמָה) the world. When the Holy One, blessed be He, was about to give the Torah to Israel, He took it to Esau and Ishmael. Although it was clear to Him that they would not accept it, nevertheless, He began with them in peace. So too, I first called to Sihon with words of peace. Another explanation מִמִּדְבַּר קְדֵמוֹת Moses said to God, “I learned this from You, Who preceded (קָדַמְתָּ) the world. You could have sent one flash of lightning to consume the Egyptians, but instead, You sent me from the desert to Pharaoh. saying, (Exod. 5:1) ‘Let my people go’ patiently.” (Midrash Tanchuma)   מִמִּדְבַּר קְדֵמוֹת: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא צִוַּנִי הַמָּקוֹם לִקְרֹא לְסִיחוֹן לְשָׁלוֹם, לָמַדְתִּי מִמִּדְבַּר סִינַי – מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁקָּדְמָה לָעוֹלָם – כְּשֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִתְּנָהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חָזַר אוֹתָהּ עַל עֵשָׂו וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל, וְגָלוּי לְפָנָיו שֶׁלֹּא יְקַבְּלוּהָ וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן פָּתַח לָהֶם בְּשָׁלוֹם, אַף אֲנִי קִדַּמְתִּי אֶת סִיחוֹן בְּדִבְרֵי שָׁלוֹם; דָּבָר אַחֵר, ממדבר קדמות – מִמְּךָ לָמַדְתִּי, שֶׁקָּדַמְתָּ לָעוֹלָם, יָכוֹל הָיִיתָ לִשְׁלֹחַ בָּרָק אֶחָד וְלִשְֹרֹף אֶת הַמִּצְרִים, אֶלָּא שְׁלַחְתַּנִי מִן הַמִּדְבָּר אֶל פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר (שמות ה') "שַׁלַּח אֶת עַמִּי", בְּמִתּוּן (תנחומא):
27"Allow me to pass through your land: I will go along by the highway, I will turn neither to the right nor to the left."   כזאֶעְבְּרָ֣ה בְאַרְצֶ֔ךָ בַּדֶּ֥רֶךְ בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֵלֵ֑ךְ לֹ֥א אָס֖וּר יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹֽאול:
28You shall sell me food for money, that I may eat; and give to me water for money, that I may drink; I will only pass through by my feet.   כחאֹ֣כֶל בַּכֶּ֤סֶף תַּשְׁבִּרֵ֨נִי֙ וְאָכַ֔לְתִּי וּמַ֛יִם בַּכֶּ֥סֶף תִּתֶּן־לִ֖י וְשָׁתִ֑יתִי רַ֖ק אֶעְבְּרָ֥ה בְרַגְלָֽי:
29Just as the children of Esau who dwell in Seir, and the Moabites who dwell in Ar, did for me; until I cross the Jordan to the land which the Lord our God is giving us."   כטכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָֽשׂוּ־לִ֜י בְּנֵ֣י עֵשָׂ֗ו הַיּֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּשֵׂעִ֔יר וְהַמּ֣וֹאָבִ֔ים הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּעָ֑ר עַ֤ד אֲשֶֽׁר־אֶֽעֱבֹר֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽנוּ:
Just as the children of Esau…did for me: This is not referring to permission to pass through their land, [for Edom refused,] rather it refers to the selling of food and water.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר עָֽשׂוּ־לִי בְּנֵי עֵשָׂו: לֹא לְעִנְיַן לַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצָם, אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן מֶכֶר אֹכֶל וּמַיִם:
until I cross the Jordan: This refers to [Moses’ earlier request]“Allow me to pass through your land.” (verse 27)   עַד אֲשֶֽׁר־אֶֽעֱבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן: מוּסָב עַל אֶעְבְּרָה בְאַרְצֶךָ:
30But Sihon, king of Heshbon, did not wish to let us pass by him, for the Lord your God caused his spirit to be hardened and his heart to be obstinate, in order that He would give him into your hand, as this day.   לוְלֹ֣א אָבָ֗ה סִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ חֶשְׁבּ֔וֹן הַֽעֲבִרֵ֖נוּ בּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־הִקְשָׁה֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אֶת־רוּח֗וֹ וְאִמֵּץ֙ אֶת־לְבָב֔וֹ לְמַ֛עַן תִּתּ֥וֹ בְיָֽדְךָ֖ כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:

Sixth Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 2

31And the Lord said to me, "Behold I have begun to deliver Sihon and his land before you; begin to drive him out, that you may inherit his land."   לאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י רְאֵ֗ה הַֽחִלֹּ֨תִי֙ תֵּ֣ת לְפָנֶ֔יךָ אֶת־סִיחֹ֖ן וְאֶת־אַרְצ֑וֹ הָחֵ֣ל רָ֔שׁ לָרֶ֖שֶׁת אֶת־אַרְצֽוֹ:
I have begun to deliver… before you: God forced down the guardian angel of the Amorites from above, beneath Moses’ feet and made him tread upon his neck.   הַֽחִלֹּתִי תֵּת לְפָנֶיךָ: כָּפָה שַׂר שֶׁל אֱמוֹרִיִּים שֶׁל מַעְלָה תַּחַת רַגְלָיו שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה וְהִדְרִיכוֹ עַל צַוָּארוֹ:
32Then Sihon went forth towards us, he and all his people, to war at Jahzah.   לבוַיֵּצֵא֩ סִיחֹ֨ן לִקְרָאתֵ֜נוּ ה֧וּא וְכָל־עַמּ֛וֹ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה יָֽהְצָה:
Then Sihon went forth: He did not send for Og to assist him. This teaches us that they did not require each other’s assistance [so powerful was each one of them.]   וַיֵּצֵא סִיחֹן: לֹא שָׁלַח בִּשְׁבִיל עוֹג לַעֲזֹר לוֹ, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ צְרִיכִים זֶה לָזֶה:
33And the Lord our God delivered him to us; and we smote him and his sons and all his people.   לגוַיִּתְּנֵ֛הוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ לְפָנֵ֑ינוּ וַנַּ֥ךְ אֹת֛וֹ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֖יו (כתיב ואת־בנו) וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמּֽוֹ:
and his sons: It is written בנו [which can also be read as בְּנוֹ] “his son” [although traditionally it is read בָּנָיו “his sons”], for Sihon had a son who was as mighty as he (Midrash Tanchuma, Chukath 28; Num. Rabbah 32; Midrash Chaseroth Vietheroth, p. 279).   וְאֶת־בניו: בנו כְתִיב, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בֵן גִּבּוֹר כְּמוֹתוֹ (תנחומא חקת):
34And we conquered all his cities at that time, and utterly destroyed every city, the men, women, and the young children; we left over no survivor.   לדוַנִּלְכֹּ֤ד אֶת־כָּל־עָרָיו֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא וַנַּֽחֲרֵם֙ אֶת־כָּל־עִ֣יר מְתִ֔ם וְהַנָּשִׁ֖ים וְהַטָּ֑ף לֹ֥א הִשְׁאַ֖רְנוּ שָׂרִֽיד:
the men: Heb. מְתִם, which means “men.” Referring to the spoil taken from Sihon it is stated (verse 35), בָּזַזְנוּ לָנוּ, an expression denoting plunder בִּזָה, because it was precious to them, and every man plundered for himself. When they came to the spoils of Og, however, they were already satisfied and full, and it was contemptible in their eyes. They tore into pieces and threw away cattle and garments, and took only the silver and gold. Therefore, it states (3:7), בָּזוֹנוּ לָנוּ, which is an expression of “contempt.” It is also expounded in Sifrei, in the chapter beginning, “And Israel dwelt in Shittim” (Num. 25).   מְתִם: אֲנָשִׁים, בְּבִזַּת סִיחוֹן נֶאֱמַר בָּזַזְנוּ לָנוּ, לְשׁוֹן בִּזָּה, שֶׁהָיְתָה חֲבִיבָה עֲלֵיהֶם וּבוֹזְזִים אִישׁ לוֹ, וּכְשֶׁבָּאוּ לְבִזַּת עוֹג, כְּבָר הָיוּ שְׂבֵעִים וּמְלֵאִים, וְהָיְתָה בְּזוּיָה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם, וּמְקָרְעִין וּמַשְׁלִיכִין בְּהֵמָה וּבְגָדִים, וְלֹא נָטְלוּ כִּי אִם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר בַּזּוֹנוּ לָנוּ, לְשׁוֹן בִּזָּיוֹן, כָּךְ נִדְרָשׁ בְּסִפְרֵי בְּפַ' וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים:
35Only the cattle we took for a prey unto ourselves with the spoil of the cities which we had taken.   להרַ֥ק הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה בָּזַ֣זְנוּ לָ֑נוּ וּשְׁלַ֥ל הֶֽעָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָכָֽדְנוּ:
36From Aroer which is on the edge of the valley of Arnon, and from the city that is in the valley, even unto Gilead, there was not a city too high for us: the Lord our God delivered up all before us.   לומֵֽעֲרֹעֵ֡ר אֲשֶׁר֩ עַל־שְׂפַת־נַ֨חַל אַרְנֹ֜ן וְהָעִ֨יר אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּנַּ֨חַל֙ וְעַד־הַגִּלְעָ֔ד לֹ֤א הָֽיְתָה֙ קִרְיָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָֽׂגְבָ֖ה מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֶת־הַכֹּ֕ל נָתַ֛ן יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ לְפָנֵֽינוּ:
37Only to the land of the children of Ammon you came not near; all the side of the river Yabbok and the cities of the hill country, and wherever the Lord our God commanded us.   לזרַ֛ק אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֖וֹן לֹ֣א קָרָ֑בְתָּ כָּל־יַ֞ד נַ֤חַל יַבֹּק֙ וְעָרֵ֣י הָהָ֔ר וְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֖ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ:
all the side of the river Yabok: [means,] all the area beside the brook of Yabok.   כָּל־יַד נַחַל יַבֹּק: כָּל אֵצֶל נַחַל יַבֹּק:
and wherever the Lord our God commanded us: not to conquer, we left alone.   וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ: שֶׁלֹּא לִכְבֹּשׁ, הִנַּחְנוּ:

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 3

1Then we turned and went up the way of Bashan, and Og, the king of Bashan, came forth toward us, he and all his people, to war at Edrei.   אוַנֵּ֣פֶן וַנַּ֔עַל דֶּ֖רֶךְ הַבָּשָׁ֑ן וַיֵּצֵ֣א עוֹג֩ מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁ֨ן לִקְרָאתֵ֜נוּ ה֧וּא וְכָל־עַמּ֛וֹ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה אֶדְרֶֽעִי:
Then we turned and went up: The whole northern direction [from the wilderness toward Canaan] is an ascent.   וַנֵּפֶן וַנַּעַל: כָּל צַד צָפוֹן הוּא עֲלִיָּה:
2And the Lord said to me, "Do not fear him, for I have given him, all his people, and his land into your hand, and you shall do to him as you did to Sihon, king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon."   בוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ אַל־תִּירָ֣א אֹת֔וֹ כִּ֣י בְיָֽדְךָ֞ נָתַ֧תִּי אֹת֛וֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמּ֖וֹ וְאֶת־אַרְצ֑וֹ וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ לּ֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֗יתָ לְסִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּחֶשְׁבּֽוֹן:
Do not fear him: In the case of Sihon [however] it was not necessary to state, “Do not fear him.” But [in the case of Og,] Moses feared lest the merit that he [Og] had rendered service to Abraham might stand by him, as it says, “And the fugitive came” (Gen. 14:13), and this was Og.   אַל־תִּירָא אֹתוֹ: וּבְסִיחוֹן לֹא הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר אַל תִּירָא אֹתוֹ אֶלָּא מִתְיָרֵא הָיָה מֹשֶׁה שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲמֹד לוֹ זְכוּת שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ לְאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית י"ד) "וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט", וְהוּא עוֹג:
3So the Lord, our God, delivered into our hands also Og, the king of Bashan and all his people, and we smote him until no remnant remained of him.   גוַיִּתֵּן֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֵ֜ינוּ בְּיָדֵ֗נוּ גַּ֛ם אֶת־ע֥וֹג מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁ֖ן וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמּ֑וֹ וַנַּכֵּ֕הוּ עַד־בִּלְתִּ֥י הִשְׁאִֽיר־ל֖וֹ שָׂרִֽיד:
4And we conquered all his cities at that time; there was not a town that we did not take from them sixty cities, all the territory of Argob the kingdom of Og in Bashan.   דוַנִּלְכֹּ֤ד אֶת־כָּל־עָרָיו֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא לֹ֤א הָֽיְתָה֙ קִרְיָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־לָקַ֖חְנוּ מֵֽאִתָּ֑ם שִׁשִּׁ֥ים עִיר֙ כָּל־חֶ֣בֶל אַרְגֹּ֔ב מַמְלֶ֥כֶת ע֖וֹג בַּבָּשָֽׁן:
[All] the territory of Argob: This is rendered in the Targum as כָּל בֵּית פֶּלֶךְ טְרָכוֹנָא, “the province of Trachona,” and I saw the Targum Yerushalmi of Megillath Esther, which calls a palace טְרָכוֹנִין. Hence, I derive from this that חֶבֶל אַרְגֹּב means “the province of the royal palace,” denoting that the province is called after its name. [Consequently] I learned that the province אַרְגּוֹב is the province of the king’s palace, i.e. [the province] after which the kingdom was named. Similarly, the אֶת אַרְגּוֹב found in (II) Kings (15:25) means that near the king’s palace, Pekah the son of Remaliah killed Pekahiah the son of Menahem, I learn that thus (after the palace) was the province named.   חֶבֶל אַרְגֹּב: מְתַרְגְּמִינַן בֵּית פֶּלֶךְ טְרָכוֹנָא, וְרָאִיתִי תַּרְגּוּם יְרוּשַׁלְמִי בִּמְגִלַּת אֶסְתֵּר קוֹרֵא פָּלָטִין טְרָכוֹנִין, לָמַדְתִּי חֶבֶל אַרְגּוֹב הִפַּרְכִיָּא – הֵיכַל מֶלֶךְ, כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָהּ; וְכֵן אֶת הָאַרְגּוֹב דִּמְלָכִים (מלכים ב ט״ו:כ״ה), אֵצֶל הֵיכַל מֶלֶךְ הֲרָגוֹ פֶּקַח בֶּן רְמַלְיָהוּ לִפְקַחְיָה בֶן מְנַחֵם, לָמַדְתִּי שֶׁכָּךְ נִקְרָא שֵׁם הִפַּרְכִיָּא:
5All these cities were fortified with high walls, double doors, and bolts, in addition to a great many unwalled cities.   הכָּל־אֵ֜לֶּה עָרִ֧ים בְּצֻרֹ֛ת חוֹמָ֥ה גְבֹהָ֖ה דְּלָתַ֣יִם וּבְרִ֑יחַ לְבַ֛ד מֵֽעָרֵ֥י הַפְּרָזִ֖י הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד:
[in addition to…] unwalled cities: Heb. הַפְּרָזִי, unconfined and open, i.e., without a wall. Similarly, “Jerusalem will be inhabited like unwalled towns” (Zech. 2:8).   מֵֽעָרֵי הַפְּרָזִי: פְּרוּזוֹת וּפְתוּחוֹת בְּלֹא חוֹמָה, וְכֵן (זכריה ב') "פְּרָזוֹת תֵּשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלַיִם":
6And we utterly destroyed them as we did to Sihon, king of Heshbon, utterly destroying every city, the men, the women, and the young children.   ווַנַּֽחֲרֵ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔ינוּ לְסִיחֹ֖ן מֶ֣לֶךְ חֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן הַֽחֲרֵם֙ כָּל־עִ֣יר מְתִ֔ם הַנָּשִׁ֖ים וְהַטָּֽף:
utterly destroy: Heb. הַחִרֵם. This is the present tense: [i.e.,] continuously destroying.   הַֽחֲרֵם: לְשׁוֹן הֹוֶה – הָלוֹךְ וְכַלּוֹת:
7But all the beasts and the spoils of the cities, we took as spoil for ourselves.   זוְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָ֛ה וּשְׁלַ֥ל הֶֽעָרִ֖ים בַּזּ֥וֹנוּ לָֽנוּ:
8At that time we took the land out of the hands of the two kings of the Amorites who were on that side of the Jordan, from the brook of Arnon to Mount Hermon.   חוַנִּקַּ֞ח בָּעֵ֤ת הַהִוא֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ מִיַּ֗ד שְׁנֵי֙ מַלְכֵ֣י הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן מִנַּ֥חַל אַרְנֹ֖ן עַד־הַ֥ר חֶרְמֽוֹן:
out of the hand: [I.e.,] from the possession.   מִיַּד: מֵרְשׁוּת:
9The Sidonians call Hermon Sirion; and the Amorites call it Senir.   טצִֽידֹנִ֛ים יִקְרְא֥וּ לְחֶרְמ֖וֹן שִׂרְיֹ֑ן וְהָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י יִקְרְאוּ־ל֖וֹ שְׂנִֽיר:
The Sidonians call Hermon, etc.: But in another passage, it states, “Until Mount Sion, which is Hermon” (Deut. 4:48). So we see that it had four names [Hermon, Sirion, Senir, and Sion]. Why was it necessary for all of them to be written [in the Scriptures]? To extol the praise of the land of Israel, that there were four kingdoms priding themselves in it-one saying, “It shall be called by my name,” and another saying, “It shall be called by my name.”   צִֽידֹנִים יִקְרְאוּ לְחֶרְמוֹן וגו': וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים ד') "וְעַד הַר שִׂיאֹן הוּא חֶרְמוֹן", הֲרֵי לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה שֵׁמוֹת, לָמָּה הֻצְרְכוּ לִכָּתֵב? לְהַגִּיד שֶׁבַח אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל – שֶׁהָיוּ אַרְבַּע מַלְכֻיּוֹת מִתְפָּאֲרוֹת בְּכָךְ, זוֹ אוֹמֶרֶת עַל שְׁמִי יִקָּרֵא, וְזוֹ אוֹמֶרֶת עַל שְׁמִי יִקָּרֵא:
Senir: This means “snow” in German and Slavish. (See Berliner, p. 427.)   שְׂנִֽיר: הוּא שֶׁלֶג בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז וּבִלְשׁוֹן כְּנַעַן:
10All the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Bashan, to Salchah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.   יכֹּ֣ל | עָרֵ֣י הַמִּישֹׁ֗ר וְכָל־הַגִּלְעָד֙ וְכָל־הַבָּשָׁ֔ן עַד־סַֽלְכָ֖ה וְאֶדְרֶ֑עִי עָרֵ֛י מַמְלֶ֥כֶת ע֖וֹג בַּבָּשָֽׁן:
11For only Og, king of Bashan, was left from the remnant of the Rephaim. His bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbah of the children of Ammon? Nine cubits was its length, and four cubits its breadth, according to the cubit of a man.   יאכִּ֣י רַק־ע֞וֹג מֶ֣לֶךְ הַבָּשָׁ֗ן נִשְׁאַר֘ מִיֶּ֣תֶר הָֽרְפָאִים֒ הִנֵּ֤ה עַרְשׂוֹ֙ עֶ֣רֶשׂ בַּרְזֶ֔ל הֲלֹ֣ה הִ֔וא בְּרַבַּ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֑וֹן תֵּ֧שַׁע אַמּ֣וֹת אָרְכָּ֗הּ וְאַרְבַּ֥ע אַמּ֛וֹת רָחְבָּ֖הּ בְּאַמַּת־אִֽישׁ:
[Only Og… was left] from the remnant of the Rephaim: whom Amraphel and his allies killed in Ashteroth-Karnaim [see Gen. 14:5], and he [Og] escaped from the battle, as it is said, “And the fugitive came” (Gen. 14:13), and this is Og. — [Niddah 61a]   מִיֶּתֶר הָֽרְפָאִים: שֶׁהָרְגוּ אַמְרָפֶל וַחֲבֵרָיו בְּעַשְׁתְּרוֹת קַרְנַיִם, וְהוּא פָּלַט מִן הַמִּלְחָמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית י"ד) "וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט" – זֶהוּ עוֹג:
according to the cubit of a man: I.e., according to the cubit of Og [from the elbow to the end of the middle finger].   בְּאַמַּת־אִֽישׁ: בְּאַמַּת עוֹג:
12And this land, which we possessed at that time; from Aro'er, which is by the brook of Arnon, and half of Mount Gilead and its cities, I gave to the Reubenites and to the Gadites.   יבוְאֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ הַזֹּ֛את יָרַ֖שְׁנוּ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑וא מֵֽעֲרֹעֵ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־עַל־נַ֣חַל אַרְנֹ֗ן וַֽחֲצִ֤י הַר־הַגִּלְעָד֙ וְעָרָ֔יו נָתַ֕תִּי לָרֽאוּבֵנִ֖י וְלַגָּדִֽי:
And this land, which we possessed at that time: The one mentioned above, “from the brook of Arnon to Mount Hermon” (verse 8).   וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת: הָאֲמוּרָה לְמַעְלָה, מִנַּחַל אַרְנוֹן וְעַד הַר חֶרְמוֹן, ירשנו בעת ההיא:
from Aro’er, which is by the brook Arnon: This is not to be connected with the beginning of the verse [defining “this land”], but with its conclusion, [namely,] “I gave to the Reubenites and to the Gadites.” Regarding the possession, however, that was “[from the brook of Arnon] to Mount Hermon” (verse 8).   מֵֽעֲרֹעֵר אֲשֶׁר־עַל־נַחַל אַרְנֹן: אֵינוֹ מְחֻבָּר לְרֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא אֶלָּא לְסוֹפוֹ – עַל נָתַתִּי לָראוּבֵנִי וְלַגָּדִי, אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן יְרֻשָּׁה עַד הַר חֶרְמוֹן הָיָה:
13And the rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, the kingdom of Og, I gave to the half tribe of Manasseh; all the territory of Argob, all of Bashan; that is called the land of Rephaim.   יגוְיֶ֨תֶר הַגִּלְעָ֤ד וְכָל־הַבָּשָׁן֙ מַמְלֶ֣כֶת ע֔וֹג נָתַ֕תִּי לַֽחֲצִ֖י שֵׁ֣בֶט הַֽמְנַשֶּׁ֑ה כֹּ֣ל חֶ֤בֶל הָֽאַרְגֹּב֙ לְכָל־הַבָּשָׁ֔ן הַה֥וּא יִקָּרֵ֖א אֶ֥רֶץ רְפָאִֽים:
that is called the land of Rephaim: That is what I gave to Abraham.   הַהוּא יִקָּרֵא אֶרֶץ רְפָאִֽים: הִיא אוֹתָהּ שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם:
14Jair the son of Manasseh took all the territory of Argob to the boundaries of the Geshurites and the Maachathites, and he called them, even Bashan, after his own name, villages of Jair, to this day.   ידיָאִ֣יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֗ה לָקַח֙ אֶת־כָּל־חֶ֣בֶל אַרְגֹּ֔ב עַד־גְּב֥וּל הַגְּשׁוּרִ֖י וְהַמַּֽעֲכָתִ֑י וַיִּקְרָא֩ אֹתָ֨ם עַל־שְׁמ֤וֹ אֶת־הַבָּשָׁן֙ חַוֹּ֣ת יָאִ֔יר עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:

Seventh Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 3

15And to Machir I gave Gilead.   טווּלְמָכִ֖יר נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־הַגִּלְעָֽד:
16And to the Reubenites and to the Gadites I gave from Gilead to the brook of Arnon, the midst of the brook and the border, until the brook of Jabbok, which is the boundary of the children of Ammon,   טזוְלָרֽאוּבֵנִ֨י וְלַגָּדִ֜י נָתַ֤תִּי מִן־הַגִּלְעָד֙ וְעַד־נַ֣חַל אַרְנֹ֔ן תּ֥וֹךְ הַנַּ֖חַל וּגְבֻ֑ל וְעַד֙ יַבֹּ֣ק הַנַּ֔חַל גְּב֖וּל בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן:
The midst of the brook and the border: The entire brook and [the land] on its opposite bank. As if to say, עַד, “until” [the brook of Arnon,] including [the brook itself, i.e., the brook itself is included in the words תּוֹךְ הַנַּחַל] and then a bit more [namely, the opposite bank, referred to by the word וּגְבֻל].   תּוֹךְ הַנַּחַל וּגְבֻל: כָּל הַנַּחַל וְעוֹד מֵעֵבֶר לִשְׂפָתוֹ, כְּלוֹמַר עַד וְעַד בִּכְלָל וְיוֹתֵר מִכֵּן:
17the plain, the Jordan and the border thereof, from Kinnereth to the sea of the plain the Sea of Salt, under the waterfalls of Pisgah, eastward.   יזוְהָֽעֲרָבָ֖ה וְהַיַּרְדֵּ֣ן וּגְבֻ֑ל מִכִּנֶּ֗רֶת וְעַ֨ד יָ֤ם הָֽעֲרָבָה֙ יָ֣ם הַמֶּ֔לַח תַּ֛חַת אַשְׁדֹּ֥ת הַפִּסְגָּ֖ה מִזְרָֽחָה:
From Kinnereth: This was on the western side of the Jordan, and the inheritance of the children of Gad was on the eastern side of the Jordan; so the width of the Jordan adjoining their territory fell within their lot, and in addition, the land on its opposite bank until the Kinnereth. This is what it says, “And the Jordan and the border” of the Jordan and beyond it.   מִכִּנֶּרֶת: מֵעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן הַמַּעֲרָבִי, וְנַחֲלַת בְּנֵי גָד מֵעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן הַמִּזְרָחִי, וְנָפַל בְּגוֹרָלָם רֹחַב הַיַּרְדֵּן כְּנֶגְדָּם, וְעוֹד מֵעֵבֶר שְׂפָתוֹ עַד כִּנֶּרֶת, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר והירדן וגבל – הַיַּרְדֵּן וּמֵעֵבֶר לוֹ:
18And I commanded you at that time saying, "The Lord, your God, has given you this land to possess it; pass over, armed, before your brothers, the children of Israel, all who are warriors.   יחוָֽאֲצַ֣ו אֶתְכֶ֔ם בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹ֑ר יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם נָתַ֨ן לָכֶ֜ם אֶת־הָאָ֤רֶץ הַזֹּאת֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ חֲלוּצִ֣ים תַּֽעַבְר֗וּ לִפְנֵ֛י אֲחֵיכֶ֥ם בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כָּל־בְּנֵי־חָֽיִל:
And I commanded you: He was addressing the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad.   וָֽאֲצַו אֶתְכֶם: לִבְנֵי רְאוּבֵן וּבְנֵי גָד הָיָה מְדַבֵּר:
[pass over, armed] before your brothers: They would go in front of the [other] Israelites to battle, because they were mighty, and the enemies would fall before them, as it is said [of Gad], “He tears the arm together with the crown” (Deut. 33:20).   לִפְנֵי אֲחֵיכֶם: הֵם הָיוּ הוֹלְכִים לִפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַמִּלְחָמָה לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ גִּבּוֹרִים, וְאוֹיְבִים נוֹפְלִים לִפְנֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ל"ג) "וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף קָדְקֹד":
19But your wives, your young children, and your cattle for I know that you have much cattle shall dwell in your cities which I have given you,   יטרַק נְשֵׁיכֶ֣ם וְטַפְּכֶם֘ וּמִקְנֵכֶם֒ יָדַ֕עְתִּי כִּֽי־מִקְנֶ֥ה רַ֖ב לָכֶ֑ם יֵֽשְׁבוּ֙ בְּעָ֣רֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לָכֶֽם:
20until the Lord has given rest to your brothers, just as [He did] for you, and until they also possess the land which the Lord, your God, is giving them on the other side of the Jordan, then every man shall return to his possession, which I have given to you."   כעַד אֲשֶׁר־יָנִ֨יחַ יְהֹוָ֥ה | לַֽאֲחֵיכֶם֘ כָּכֶם֒ וְיָֽרְשׁ֣וּ גַם־הֵ֔ם אֶת־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֛ם נֹתֵ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וְשַׁבְתֶּ֗ם אִ֚ישׁ לִֽירֻשָּׁת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לָכֶֽם:
21And I commanded Joshua at that time, saying, "Your eyes have seen all that the Lord, your God, has done to these two kings. So will the Lord do to all the kingdoms through which you will pass.   כאוְאֶת־יְהוֹשׁ֣וּעַ צִוֵּ֔יתִי בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹ֑ר עֵינֶ֣יךָ הָֽרֹאֹ֗ת אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֜ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ לִשְׁנֵי֙ הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה כֵּֽן־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ לְכָל־הַמַּמְלָכ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה עֹבֵ֥ר שָֽׁמָּה:
22Do not fear them, for it is the Lord, your God, Who is fighting for you."   כבלֹ֖א תִּֽירָא֑וּם כִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם ה֖וּא הַנִּלְחָ֥ם לָכֶֽם:

Maftir Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 3

20until the Lord has given rest to your brothers, just as [He did] for you, and until they also possess the land which the Lord, your God, is giving them on the other side of the Jordan, then every man shall return to his possession, which I have given to you."   כעַד אֲשֶׁר־יָנִ֨יחַ יְהֹוָ֥ה | לַֽאֲחֵיכֶם֘ כָּכֶם֒ וְיָֽרְשׁ֣וּ גַם־הֵ֔ם אֶת־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֛ם נֹתֵ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וְשַׁבְתֶּ֗ם אִ֚ישׁ לִֽירֻשָּׁת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לָכֶֽם:
21And I commanded Joshua at that time, saying, "Your eyes have seen all that the Lord, your God, has done to these two kings. So will the Lord do to all the kingdoms through which you will pass.   כאוְאֶת־יְהוֹשׁ֣וּעַ צִוֵּ֔יתִי בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹ֑ר עֵינֶ֣יךָ הָֽרֹאֹ֗ת אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֜ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ לִשְׁנֵי֙ הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה כֵּֽן־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ לְכָל־הַמַּמְלָכ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה עֹבֵ֥ר שָֽׁמָּה:
22Do not fear them, for it is the Lord, your God, Who is fighting for you."   כבלֹ֖א תִּֽירָא֑וּם כִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם ה֖וּא הַנִּלְחָ֥ם לָכֶֽם:

Haftarah

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 1

1The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, [and] Hezekiah, kings of Judah.   א חֲזוֹן֙ יְשַׁעְיָ֣הוּ בֶן־אָמ֔וֹץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָזָ֔ה עַל־יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם בִּימֵ֨י עֻזִּיָּ֧הוּ יוֹתָ֛ם אָחָ֥ז יְחִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ מַלְכֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה:
the vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz: Said Rabbi Levi: We have a tradition from our ancestors that Amoz and Amaziah, king of Judah, were brothers.   חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ וגו': א"ר לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה מלך יהודה אחים היו:
which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem: Now, did he not prophesy concerning many nations, viz. the prophecy of Babylonia (ch. 13), the prophecy of Moab (ch. 15)? Thus you learn that this is not the beginning of the Book, and that the Book is not given its name for this prophecy. So we learned in the Baraitha of the Mechilta (Exod. 15:9,10): “In the year of King Uzziah’s death” (6:1) is the beginning of the Book, but there is no early and late in the order [i.e., the order of the chapters is no indication of the chronological order. (Others read: There is no early and late in the Book Parshandatha.) The context proves this point, for, on the day of the earthquake (see Zech. 14:5), the day Uzziah became a metzora (see 2 Chron. 26:19), it was said: “Whom shall I send and who will go for us?” And I said, “Here I am; send me” (6:8). We learn that this was the beginning of his mission, and this prophecy was said afterwards. And concerning this alone, it is stated: which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, just as Scripture says concerning each nation, “the prophecy of such and such a nation.” Here too, Scripture writes: “which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.” Since they are harsh reproofs, he calls them “chazon,” which is the harshest of the ten expressions by which prophecy is called, as is stated in Gen. Rabbah (44:7), and proof of this is the verse (infra 21:2), “A harsh prophecy (חָזוּת) was told to me.”   אשר חזה על יהודה וירושלים: והלא על כמה אומות נתנבא משא בבל משא מואב הא למדת שאין זה תחלת הספר ולא נקרא הספר על שם החזון הזה וכן שנינו בברייתא דמכילתא, בשנת מות המלך עוזיהו תחלת הספר אלא שאין מוקדם ומאוחר בסדר והדברים מוכיחים שהרי ביום הרעש יום שנצטרע עוזיהו נאמר ואשמע את קול ה' אומר את מי אשלח ומי ילך לנו (לקמן ו) ואמר הנני שלחני למדנו שהוא תחלת שליחותו ונבואה זו נאמרה אח"כ ועל זו לבדה נאמר אשר חזה על יהודה וירושלים כשם שאמר על משא כל אומה ואומה משא אומה פלוני אף כאן כתב חזון זה חזה על יהודה וירושלים ולפי שהם תוכחות קושי קראם חזון שהוא קשה מעשרה לשונות שנקראת נבואה כמש"א בב"ר וראיה לדבר חזות קשה הוגד לי (לקמן כא):
in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, [and] Hezekiah, kings of Judah.: These four kings he buried, [i.e. he outlived,] in his lifetime. On the day Uzziah became a metzora, the Shechinah rested upon him, and he prophesied all the days of these kings, until Manasseh arose and killed him. (And this prophecy was said in the days of Hezekiah after the ten tribes were exiled.)   בימי עוזיהו וגו': מלכי יהודה ד' מלכים הללו קפח בימיו ביום שנצטרע עוזיהו שרתה שכינה עליו ונתנבא כל ימי המלכים הללו עד שעמד מנשה והרגו (ונבואה זו נאמרה בימי חזקיהו אחר שגלו עשרת השבטים כת"י):
2Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth, for the Lord has spoken; Children I have raised and exalted, yet they have rebelled against Me.   בשִׁמְע֚וּ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְהַֽאֲזִ֣ינִי אֶ֔רֶץ כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה דִּבֵּ֑ר בָּנִים֙ גִּדַּ֣לְתִּי וְרוֹמַ֔מְתִּי וְהֵ֖ם פָּ֥שְׁעוּ בִֽי:
Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth: And Moses said, “Give ear, O heavens,… and may the earth hear” (Deut. 32:1). Why did Isaiah change the wording? Our masters taught concerning this matter, [and] many midrashim [are] in the section entitled “Ha’azinu” in Sifrei, but the Sages disagreed with them and said: A matter is not so unless witnesses come and testify. If their words coincide, their testimony is fulfilled; if not, their testimony is not fulfilled. Had Isaiah not addressed the heavens with giving ear and the earth with hearing, the heavens would testify and say, ‘When we were called to this testimony in Moses’ time, when he said, (Deut. 30:19) “I call heaven and earth to witness against you,” we heard with an expression of giving ear,’ and the earth would testify, ‘I was called with an expression of hearing,’ hence their testimony would not coincide. [Therefore,] Isaiah came and reversed the matter. Consequently, both are found to testify with an expression of giving ear and with an expression of hearing.   שמעו שמים והאזיני ארץ: משה אמר האזינו השמים ותשמע הארץ (דברים ל״ב:א׳) למה שינה ישעיה את הלשון שנו רבותינו בדבר זה ומדרשות רבים בפ' האזינו בספרי ונחלקו חכמים עליהם ואמרו אין הדבר כן אלא בזמן שהעדים באים ומעידים ונמצאו דבריהם מכוונין עדותן קיימת ואם לאו אין עדותן קיימת אילו לא בא ישעיה ונתן שמיעה לשמים והאזנה לארץ היו שמים מעידים ואומרים כשנקראו לעדות זו בימי משה שאמר העידותי בכם היום בהאזנה שמענו והארץ מעידה אני נקראתי בלשון שמיעה ואין עדותן מכוונת בא ישעיה וחלף את הדבר נמצאו שניהם מעידים בלשון האזנה ובלשון שמיעה:
for the Lord has spoken: That you should be witnesses in this matter, when I warned them in Moses’ time. Therefore, come and hear what I reason with them, for they transgressed the warning, I did not sin against them, but I raised them and exalted them, yet they rebelled against me. [Another version reads:] That you should be witnesses in this matter. Now, where did He speak? “Give ear, O heavens and I will speak” (ibid. 32:1). [So this was taught] in Mechilta (Bo 12).   כי ה' דבר: (שתהיו עדים בדבר כשהתרתי בם בימי משה לכן באו ושמעו שאני מתווכח עמם שעברו על ההתראה אני לא סרחתי בהם אלא גידלתים ורוממתים והם פשעו בי, ס"א) שתהיו עדים לדבר והיכן דבר האזינו השמים ואדברה (שם) במכילתא:
3An ox knows his owner and a donkey his master's crib; Israel does not know, my people does not consider.   גיָדַ֥ע שׁוֹר֙ קֹנֵ֔הוּ וַֽחֲמ֖וֹר אֵב֣וּס בְּעָלָ֑יו יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔ע עַמִּ֖י לֹ֥א הִתְבּוֹנָֽן:
his owner: Heb. קֹנֵהוּ [is] like מְתַקְּנוֹ, the one who affixes him to the plowshare for plowing by day, and since he has accustomed him to this, he knows him. The dull donkey, however, does not recognize his master until he feeds him. Israel was not intelligent like the ox, to know, when I called him and said, “Israel will be your name” (Gen. 35:10), and I informed them of several of My statutes, yet they deserted Me, as is related in Ezekiel (20:39): “Let each one go and worship his idols.” Even after I took them out of Egypt and fed them the manna and called them, “My people, the children of Israel,” they did not consider even as a donkey. Another explanation is An ox knows its owner An ox recognizes his owner so that his fear is upon him. He did not deviate from what I decreed upon him, by saying, I will not plow today. Neither did a donkey say to his owner, I will not bear burdens today. Now, these [creatures,] who were created to serve you, and are not destined to receive reward if they merit, or to be punished if they sin, did not change their manner, which I decreed upon them. Israel, however, who, if they merit receive reward, and if they sin are punished. :   קונהו: מתקנו בחרישה ביום ומאחר שהרגילו בכך יודע בו אבל חמור אטום אינו מבין בעליו עד שיאכילנו וישראל לא נתפקח לידע כשור כשקראתיו ישראל יהיה שמך והודעתיו קצת חוקותי והם עזבוני כדמפורש (ביחזקאל כ ל"ט) ואומר איש את גלולי וגו' ואף לאחר שהוצאתים ממצרים והאכלתים את המן וקראתי אותם עמי בני ישראל לא התבוננו כחמור (סא"א) ד"א ידע שור קונהו מכיר השור קונהו להיות מוראו עליו לא שינה מה שגזרתי עליו לומר איני חורש היום וחמור לא אמר לבעליו איני טוען היום ומה אלו שנבראו לשמשכם ואינם לא לקיבול שכר אם יזכו ולא לשילום פורענות אם חוטאים לא שינו את מדתם שגזרתי עליהם וישראל שאם זוכים מקבלים שכר ואם חוטאים מקבלים פורענות:
does not know: i.e., did not want to know; they knew but trod with their heels, and my people did not take heart to consider.   לא ידע: לא אבו לידע וידעו ודשו בעקב ועמי לא נתן לב להתבונן:
4Woe to a sinful nation, a people heavy with iniquity, evildoing seed, corrupt children. They forsook the Lord; they provoked the Holy One of Israel; they drew backwards.   דה֣וֹי | גּ֣וֹי חֹטֵ֗א עַם כֶּ֣בֶד עָו‍ֹ֔ן זֶ֣רַע מְרֵעִ֔ים בָּנִ֖ים מַשְׁחִיתִ֑ים עָזְב֣וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֗ה נִֽאֲצ֛וּ אֶת־קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נָזֹ֥רוּ אָחֽוֹר:
Woe: Every instance of הוֹי in Scripture is an expression of complaining and lamenting, like a person who sighs from his heart and cries, “Alas!” There are, however, several, which are an expression of a cry, the vocative voice, e.g., “Ho, ho, flee from the land of the north” (Zech. 2:10), which the Targum renders, אַכְלוּ, an expression of announcing.   הוי: כל הוי שבמקרא לשון קובל וקונה כאדם הגונח מלבו וצועק אהה אלא שיש מהם מועטין שהם ל' צעקת קריאת קול כמו הוי הוי ונוסו מארץ צפון (זכריה ב׳:י׳) ותרגומו אכלו לשון הכרזה:
Woe: There is a reason to cry about a holy nation that turned into a sinful nation, and a people referred to by the expression, “for you are a holy people” (Deut. 7:6), turned into a people with iniquity.   הוי: יש לזעוק על גוי קדוש הנהפך להיות גוי חוטא ועם שנאמר בו כי עם קדוש אתה נהפך להיות עם כבד עון:
a people heavy with iniquity: The heaviness of iniquity. The word denotes a person who is heavy, pesant in French, ponderous. The word כֶבֶד is a substantive of heaviness, pesantoma in French, and is in the construct state, and is connected with the word עָוֹן, iniquity.   עם כבד עון: כבדות עון, כבד אדם שהוא כבד פישנ"ט בלעז כבד שם דבר של כבדות פישנטומ"א בלעז ודבוק עם תיבת עון:
evildoing seed: And they were seed whom the Lord blessed (Isa. 61:9). Similarly, they were children of the Holy One, blessed be He, and they became corrupt.   זרע מרעים: והם היו זרע ברך ה', בנים היו להקב"ה נהפכו למשחיתים:
they provoked: Heb. נִאֲצוּ, they angered.   נאצו: הרגיזו:
they drew backwards: [The root נְזִירָה,] wherever it appears, is only an expression of separation. Similarly, Scripture states: “And they shall separate (וְיִנָּזְרוּ) from the holy things of the children of Israel” (Lev. 22:2), “the one separated (נְזִיר) from his brothers” (Gen. 49:26). Here too, they drew away from being near the Omnipresent.   נזורו אחור: אין נזירה בכל מקום אלא לשון פרישות וכה"א וינזרו מקדשי בני ישראל (ויקר' כב) נזיר אחיו (בראשית מ״ט:כ״ו) אף כאן נזורו נסוגו לאחוריהם מאצל המקום:
5Why are you beaten when you still continue to rebel? Every head is [afflicted] with illness and every heart with malaise.   העַ֣ל מֶ֥ה תֻכּ֛וּ ע֖וֹד תּוֹסִ֣יפוּ סָרָ֑ה כָּל־רֹ֣אשׁ לָֽחֳלִ֔י וְכָל־לֵבָ֖ב דַּוָּֽי:
Why are you beaten…: A person who was punished (lit. beaten) and repeats his sin his friend admonishes him and says to him, For this you have been punished, yet you do not take heart to say, ‘For this I have been punished. I will not repeat it again.’ Here too, why are you beaten since you continue disobedience, to turn away from following the Omnipresent? Is not every head afflicted with illness and every heart with malaise? Why then do you not understand?   על מה תוכו וגו': אדם שלקה וחוזר על סרחונו חברו מוכיחו ואומר לו על זה לקיתה ואינך נותן לב לומר על סורחן זה לקיתי לא אשוב לעשות עוד אף כאן על מה תוכו מאחר שעדיין אתם מוסיפים סרה לסור מאחרי המקום הלא כבר כל ראש לחלי ולמה לא תבינו:
6From the sole of the foot until the head there is no soundness-wounds and contusions and lacerated sores; they have not sprinkled, neither have they been bandaged, nor was it softened with oil.   ומִכַּף־רֶ֚גֶל וְעַד־רֹאשׁ֙ אֵין־בּ֣וֹ מְתֹ֔ם פֶּ֥צַע וְחַבּוּרָ֖ה וּמַכָּ֣ה טְרִיָּ֑ה לֹא־זֹ֙רוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א חֻבָּ֔שׁוּ וְלֹ֥א רֻכְּכָ֖ה בַּשָּֽׁמֶן:
soundness: An expression of perfection, sound without pain.   מתום: לשון תמימות שלם מאין מכאוב:
wounds: Heb. פֶּצַע, i.e., a wound of a sword.   פצע: מכת חרב:
contusions: Heb. חַבּוּרָה, an expression of a bruise. [Some editions read:] Other bruises.   חבורה: ל' חבלה:
and lacerated sores: Jonathan renders: מְרַסְסָא, lacerated and crushed.   ומכה טריה: תירגם יונתן מרססא כתותה ומרוססת:
and lacerated sores: demarcejjre, in O.F., and in the language of the Talmud, we find, “he bumped (טַרְיֵה) his head” (Chullin 45b). Menahem explained it as an expression of moisture, i.e., moist and wet, always oozing [muyte in O.F.].   טריה: דמיצייד"א בלע"ז ובל' גמרא יש טרייה לרישיה מנחם פי' לשון לחות כלומר לחה ורטובה תמיד נובעת מוישט"א בלע"ז:
they have not been sprinkled: These lesions were not sprinkled with medicinal powders by physicians. This is an expression of: (Job 18:15) “Sulphur shall be sprinkled (יְזֹרֶה) on his dwelling.” Menahem explained it as an expression of healing, as in (Jeremiah 30:13): “No one pronounced your judgment for healing (לְמָזוֹר).”   לא זורו: הנגעים האלה לא זורו ע"י רופאים אבקת סממני תחבושת לשון יזורה על נוהו גפרית (איוב י״ח:ט״ו) ומנחם פי' לשון רפואה כמו אין דן דינך למזור (ירמיהו ל׳:י״ג) ולא חובשו. לשון רפואה:
neither was it softened with oil: Their wound was not softened with oil, as is customary with other wounds. It would be inappropriate to say here, “They were not softened with oil,” for they soften only the place of the sore, not the wound and the contusion but the sprinkling and the bandaging applies to all three, [i.e., the wound, the contusion, and the lacerated sore.] Therefore, the plural number applies to them; the lesions were not sprinkled and not bandaged. Jonathan interprets the entire verse figuratively, referring to the fact that they were soiled and afflicted with iniquity. Accordingly, he rendered, “From the sole of the foot until the head,” from the smallest to the greatest, there is no soundness. There is none good among them, wounds and contusions, rebellious deeds, iniquities, and inadvertent sins.   ולא רוככה בשמן: לא רככה מכתם בשמן כמשפט שאר מכות ואין נופל כאן לומר לא רוככו בשמן שאין מרככין אלא במקום המכה אבל המזור והחבישה נופל לשונם על כל הגוף לפיכך נופל בם לשון רבים לא זורו הנגעים ולא חובשו ויונתן פתר כל המקרא בלשון דוגמא על שהם מלוכלכים ומנוגעים בעון ותרגם מכף רגל ועד ראש מקטנים ועד גדולים אין בו מתום אין טוב בו פצע וחבורה פשע ועונות וחטאים, לא זורו וגו' כלומר לא נתרפאו לשוב בתשובה שלימה ולא רככה בשמן אפילו צד הרהור תשובה אין בלבם:
they have not been sprinkled…: i.e., they have not been healed by repenting wholeheartedly, nor has it been softened with oil, not even a trace of repentant thought has entered their heart.   לא זורו וגו': כלומר לא נתרפאו לשוב בתשובה שלימה ולא רככה בשמן אפילו צד הרהור תשובה אין בלבם:
7Your land is desolate; your cities burnt with fire. Your land-in your presence, strangers devour it; and it is desolate as that turned over to strangers.   זאַרְצְכֶ֣ם שְׁמָמָ֔ה עָֽרֵיכֶ֖ם שְׂרֻפ֣וֹת אֵ֑שׁ אַדְמַתְכֶ֗ם לְנֶגְדְּכֶם֙ זָרִים֙ אֹֽכְלִ֣ים אֹתָ֔הּ וּשְׁמָמָ֖ה כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֥ת זָרִֽים:
in your presence, strangers devour it: Before your eyes, your enemies will devour it.   לנגדכם זרים אוכלים אותה: לעיניכם יאכלוה אויביכם:
and desolate: of you as a heritage turned over to strangers, which is desolate of its owners. Jonathan renders in this manner.   ושממה: מכם כנחלה הנהפכת לזרים והיא שממה מבעליה כך תירגם יונתן:
8And the daughter of Zion shall be left like a hut in a vineyard, like a lodge in a cucumber field, like a besieged city.   חוְנֽוֹתְרָ֥ה בַת־צִיּ֖וֹן כְּסֻכָּ֣ה בְכָ֑רֶם כִּמְלוּנָ֥ה בְמִקְשָׁ֖ה כְּעִ֥יר נְצוּרָֽה:
And the daughter of Zion shall be left: devoid of its inhabitants, for they will be exiled from its midst, as a hut in a vineyard, made by a watchman, and when the produce of the vineyard is gathered, he leaves his hut and goes away, after they gather it.   ונותרה בת ציון: ריקנית מיושביה כי יגלו מתוכה כאשר תותר סוכת הכרם שעשאה נוצר ובעת יבצר הכרם מניח סוכתו והולך, בתר דקטפוהי לאחר שבצרו אותה:
like a lodge in a cucumber field: As the lodge, which the watchman made at the end of a cucumber field, to watch its cucumber, is left, for after it is gathered, he leaves it and goes away; the one in the vineyard is called a hut since he lives in it day and night; by day, he guards it from the birds and by night from the thieves, but cucumbers are hard, and there is no fear of the birds, and one need not watch them by day. It is, therefore, called a lodge since it is a place of lodging at night. Jonathan renders: Like a bed in a lodge (again repeated in Hebrew), [in] a cucumber field, in a cucumber field after it has been picked (בָּתַר דְאַבְעָיוּהִי), after it has been picked. [This is the expression of the Mishnah] (Peah 4: 5): “There are three gatherings (אַבְעָיוֹת) a day.”   כמלונה במקשה: כאשר תעזב המלונה שעשה נוצר בראש המקשה לשמור קישואין שלה ומשתלקט מניחה והולך, זו שבכרם קרויה סוכה לפי שהוא גר שם יומם ולילה ביום שומרה מן העופות ובלילה מן הגנבים אבל הקישואין קשין הם ואין לירא מן העופות ואין צריך לשומרה ביום לפיכך נקראת מלונה על שהיא לינת הלילות כערסל מבתותא כמשכב המלונ' במקשה, במקשיא בתר דאבעיוהי לאחר שלקטוהו לשון המשנה שלש אבעיות ביום:
like a besieged city: Like a city which was besieged, and they make huts around it to hide the troops, and when they give up the siege [lit., when they go away from it], they leave them and go away. All this is Jonathan’s translation.   כעיר נצורה: כעיר שצרו עליה ועושים סוכות סביב לה להסתתר שם החיילות וכשמסתלקים מעליה מניחין אותם והולכין כל זה ת"י:
9"Had not the Lord of Hosts left us a remnant, we would soon be like Sodom; we would resemble Gomorrah."   טלוּלֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הוֹתִ֥יר לָ֛נוּ שָׂרִ֖יד כִּמְעָ֑ט כִּסְדֹ֣ם הָיִ֔ינוּ לַֽעֲמֹרָ֖ה דָּמִֽינוּ:
Had not the Lord of Hosts left us a remnant: by His own volition and with His mercy, not because of our merits.   לולי וגו': הותיר לנו שריד מאליו וברחמיו ולא בצדקותינו:
we would soon be like Sodom: All of us would be destroyed.   כמעט כסדום היינו: כולנו כלים:
10Hear the word of the Lord, O rulers of Sodom; give ear to the law of our God, O people of Gomorrah!   ישִׁמְע֥וּ דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה קְצִינֵ֣י סְדֹ֑ם הַֽאֲזִ֛ינוּ תּוֹרַ֥ת אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ עַ֥ם עֲמֹרָֽה:
rulers of Sodom: Princes whose deeds are like those of Sodom. From here, [the Rabbis] deduced that a person should not open his mouth to Satan.   קציני סדום: שרים שמעשיהם כסדום מכאן אמרו אל יפתח אדם פיו לשטן:
11Of what use are your many sacrifices to Me? says the Lord. I am sated with the burnt-offerings of rams and the fat of fattened cattle; and the blood of bulls and sheep and hegoats I do not want.   יאלָמָּה־לִּ֚י רֹֽב־זִבְחֵיכֶם֙ יֹאמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה שָׂבַ֛עְתִּי עֹל֥וֹת אֵילִ֖ים וְחֵ֣לֶב מְרִיאִ֑ים וְדַ֨ם פָּרִ֧ים וּכְבָשִׂ֛ים וְעַתּוּדִ֖ים לֹ֥א חָפָֽצְתִּי:
I am sated with the burnt-offerings of rams: This is similar to: “Lest he have too much of you and hate you,” (Proverbs 25:18).   שבעתי עולות אילים: כמו פן ישבעך וישנאך (משלי כה יז):
fattened cattle: Fattened cattle and sheep.   מריאים: בהמות צאן פטומות:
I do not want: Since you transgress My Torah, the sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination [from Prov. 21:27].   לא חפצתי: אחר שאתם עוברים על תורתי זבח רשעים תועבה:
12When you come to appear before Me, who requested this of you, to trample My courts?   יבכִּ֣י תָבֹ֔אוּ לֵרָא֖וֹת פָּנָ֑י מִי־בִקֵּ֥שׁ זֹ֛את מִיֶּדְכֶ֖ם רְמֹ֥ס חֲצֵרָֽי:
who requested this of you, to trample My courts: to trample [the preposition is absent in the Hebrew] My courts, since your heart is not whole with Me.   מי בקש זאת מידכם רמס חצרי: לרמוס את חצרי אחרי שאין לבבכם שלם עמי:
13You shall no longer bring vain meal-offerings, it is smoke of abomination to Me; New Moons and Sabbaths, calling convocations, I cannot [bear] iniquity with assembly.   יגלֹ֣א תוֹסִ֗יפוּ הָבִיא֙ מִנְחַת־שָׁ֔וְא קְטֹ֧רֶת תּֽוֹעֵבָ֛ה הִ֖יא לִ֑י חֹ֚דֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת֙ קְרֹ֣א מִקְרָ֔א לֹֽא־אוּכַ֥ל אָ֖וֶן וַעֲצָרָֽה:
You shall bring no more vain meal-offerings: I warn you, you shall not bring Me your vain meal-offering, for the smoke that rises from it is smoke of abomination to Me, and not for My satisfaction.   לא תוסיפו הביא מנחת שוא: מתרה אני בכם לא תביאו לי מנחת שוא שלכם שהעשן עולה ממנה קיטור של תיעוב הוא לי ולא לנחת הרוח:
New moons and Sabbaths, calling, convocations, I cannot…: and [sic, does not appear in Parshandatha] to call convocations, i.e., New Moons and Sabbaths when you gather to call a convocation and an assembly on them, I cannot bear the iniquity in your hearts that is inclined to paganism, and the convocation with it, for these two things are incompatible: to call a convocation to gather before Me, and the iniquity that is in your hearts for paganism, and you do not take it out of your hearts.   חדש ושבת קרא מקרא לא אוכל וגו': ולקרוא מקרא חדש ושבת שאתם נאספי' לקרא עצרה ואסיפה בהם לא אוכל לסבול און שבלבבכם הנוטה לעכו"ם והעצרה עמו שאין שני הדברים כאלו ראוין יחד לקרוא עצרה ליאסף לפני והאון שבלבבכם לעכו"ם ואין אתם מוציאין אותו מתוך לבבכם:
14Your New Moons and your appointed seasons My soul hates, they are a burden to Me; I am weary of bearing [them].   ידחָדְשֵׁיכֶ֚ם וּמֽוֹעֲדֵיכֶם֙ שָֹֽנְאָ֣ה נַפְשִׁ֔י הָי֥וּ עָלַ֖י לָטֹ֑רַח נִלְאֵ֖יתִי נְשֽׂא:
15And when you spread out your hands, I will hide My eyes from you, even when you pray at length, I do not hear; your hands are full of blood.   טווּבְפָֽרִשְׂכֶ֣ם כַּפֵּיכֶ֗ם אַעְלִּ֚ים עֵינַי֙ מִכֶּ֔ם גַּ֛ם כִּֽי־תַרְבּ֥וּ תְפִלָּ֖ה אֵינֶ֣נִּי שֹׁמֵ֑עַ יְדֵיכֶ֖ם דָּמִ֥ים מָלֵֽאוּ:
And when you spread out your hands, I will hide My eyes from you: because your hands are full of blood.   ובפרשכם כפיכם אעלים עיני מכם: לפי שידכם דמים מלאו:
blood: Murder.   דמים: רציחה:
16Wash, cleanse yourselves, remove the evil of your deeds from before My eyes, cease to do evil.   טזרַֽחֲצוּ֙ הִזַּכּ֔וּ הָסִ֛ירוּ רֹ֥עַ מַֽעַלְלֵיכֶ֖ם מִנֶּ֣גֶד עֵינָ֑י חִדְל֖וּ הָרֵֽעַ:
Wash, cleanse yourselves: Voweled with a ‘patach,’ the imperative form, since it is derived from רְחַץ, but רָחֲצוּ, [in the past tense, is voweled with a ‘kamatz’ because it is derived from רָחַץ].   רחצו הזכו: (פתח הוא) ל' צווי לפי שהוא מגזרת רחץ, אבל רחצו קמץ לשון עבר שהוא מגזרת רחץ:
Wash, cleanse yourselves, remove, learn, seek, strengthen, perform justice, plead, go: Ten exhortations of the expression of repentance are [listed] here, corresponding to the Ten Days of Penitence and to the ten verses of Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofaroth [in the musaf service of Rosh Hashanah].   רחצו הזכו הסירו חדלו למדו דרשו אשרו שפטו ריבו לכו: י' אזהרות של ל' תשובה יש כאן כנגד עשרת ימי תשובה וכנגד עשרה מלכיות זכרונות ושופרות:
cease to do evil: Desist from your evil deeds.   חדלו הרע: חדלו ממעשים הרעים:
to do evil: Heb. הרע, like לְהָרֵעַ, to do evil. [Rashi explains this because the preposition is absent in Hebrew.] Scripture does not have to write מֵהָרֵעַ, desist from doing evil, for so does the Biblical language treat the expression of חֲדָלָה, stopping, [e.g.,] “and he failed to make (לַעֲשׂוֹת) the Pesach” (Num. 9:13); “until he stopped counting (לִסְפֹּר)” (Gen. 41:49). That is to say, the counting stopped, the making failed, here too, stop the evildoing.   הרע: כמו להרע א"צ לכתוב מלהרע שכן לשון המקרא נופל על ל' חדלה וחדל לעשות הפסח (מדבר ט) עד כי חדל לספור (ברא' מא מט) כלומר חדלה הספירה חדלה העשיה אף כאן תחדלו הרעה:
17Learn to do good, seek justice, strengthen the robbed, perform justice for the orphan, plead the case of the widow.   יזלִמְד֥וּ הֵיטֵ֛ב דִּרְשׁ֥וּ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט אַשְּׁר֣וּ חָמ֑וֹץ שִׁפְט֣וּ יָת֔וֹם רִ֖יבוּ אַלְמָנָֽה:
Learn: It is punctuated ‘raphe,’ weak, without a dagesh. This is from the form לָמֹד, learn to do good. One who teaches himself is of the ‘kal’ form. Therefore, its imperative plural is voweled with a ‘chirik’ like אִמְרוּ, שִׁמְעוּ, but one who teaches others is of the form of the ‘heavy conjugation’ (pi’el) with a ‘dagesh,’ and if one comes to command a number of people, the word is voweled לַמְּדוּ. And so, דִּרְשׁוּ, from the form דְרשׁ, but אַשְּׁרוּ in which the ‘shin’ has a ‘dagesh,’ is from the ‘heavy conjugation,’ and from the form אַשֵּׁר; therefore, the imperative plural is voweled with a ‘patach’ like בַּשְּׂרוּ, סַפְּרוּ, דַּבְּרוּ.   למדו: רפי נקוד והוא מגזרת למוד היו למדין להטיב המלמד לעצמו הוא ממשקולת ל' קל לפיכך צווי ל' רבים שלו נקוד בחירק כמו אמרו שמעו אבל המלמ' לאחרי' הוא ממשקולת ל' כבד המדגיש ואם בא לצוות את הרבים הוא נקוד למדו וכן דרשו מגזרת דרוש אבל אשרו שהשי"ן מודגש' ממשקולת ל' כבד ומגזרת אשר לפיכך ל' צווי לרבים נקוד פתח (כמו אשרו דברו ספרו בשרו):
strengthen the robbed: Heb. אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ. This is a Mishnaic term, אֲשַׁרְנוּהִי, “we have verified it” (Ketuboth 21a); “if I had strength (אֲיַשֵּׁר)” (Gittin 30b); “May your strength be strengthened (יִישַׁר)” (Shabbath 87a). Another explanation is: Lead him in the path of truth to acquire what rightfully belongs to him. An expression of: (Job 23:11) “My foot held its path (בֲּאֲשׁוּרוֹ);” (Prov. 23:19) “And go (וְאַשֵׁר) in the way of your heart.”   אשרו חמוץ: החזיקו את הגזול והוא לשון משנה אשרנוהי אי אישר חילי ישר כחך ל"א הדריכוהו בנתיב אמת לזכות בשלו לשון באשורו אחזה רגלי (איוב כג יא) ואשר בדרך לבך (משלי כג יט):
perform justice: So-and-so is innocent and so-and-so is guilty.   שפטו יתום: פלוני זכאי פלוני חייב:
plead the case of the widow: Endeavor in their quarrel to plead for her, for she cannot go out to pursue her opponents.)   ריבו אלמנה: השתדלו בריבה להתווכח בעדה שאינה יוצאת לחזור אחרי בעלי דינה (סא"א):
the robbed: Heb. חָמוֹץ, similar to (Ps. 71:4) “from the hand of the unrighteous and the robber (וּמְחַמֵּץ).”   חמוץ: גזול ודומה לו מכף מעול וחומץ (תהילים ע״א:ד׳):
18Come now, let us debate, says the Lord. If your sins prove to be like crimson, they will become white as snow; if they prove to be as red as crimson dye, they shall become as wool.   יחלְכוּ־נָ֛א וְנִוָּֽכְחָ֖ה יֹאמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה אִם־יִֽהְי֨וּ חֲטָֽאֵיכֶ֚ם כַּשָּׁנִים֙ כַּשֶּׁ֣לֶג יַלְבִּ֔ינוּ אִם־יַאְדִּ֥ימוּ כַתּוֹלָ֖ע כַּצֶּ֥מֶר יִֽהְיֽוּ:
Come now, let us debate: together, I and you, and we will know who offended whom, and if you offended Me, I still give you hope to repent.   לכו נא ונוכחה: יחד אני ואתם ונדע מי סרח על מי ואם אתם סרחתם עלי עודני נותן לכם תקוה לשוב:
If your sins prove to be like crimson: Stained before Me like crimson red, I will make them as white as snow.   אם יהיו חטאיכם כשנים: כתומים לפני כאודם שנים אלבינם כשלג:
says the Lord: [The verb is in the future form to denote that] He always says this to you, like: (Num. 9: 20) “By the word of the Lord they would camp (יַחֲנוּ),” also a future form. Another explanation is: Come now, let us debate. What is written above this? “Cease to do evil; learn to do good.” And after you return to Me, come now, and let us debate together, to notify Me, “We have done what is incumbent upon us; You do what is incumbent upon You;” and I say, “If your sins prove to be like crimson, they will become white as snow…”   יאמר ה': תמיד הוא אומר לכם כן כמו על פי ה' יחנו (מדבר ט כ), ד"א לכו נא ונוכחה מה כתוב למעלה ממנו חדלו הרע למדו היטב ואחר שתשובו אלי לכו ונוכחה יחד להודיעני עשינו מה שעלינו עשה מה שעליך ואני אומר אם יהיו חטאיכם כשנים כשלג וגו':
as crimson dye: Heb. תּוֹלָע, lit. a worm. Dye with which they dye fabrics red. They are kernels, each one of which has a worm inside it. Hence the name תּוֹלָע.   כתולע: צבע שצובעים בו אדום גרעינים הם ויש תולעים בכל אחד ואחד:
19If you be willing and obey, you shall eat the best of the land.   יטאִם־תֹּאב֖וּ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם ט֥וּב הָאָ֖רֶץ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
20But if you refuse and rebel, you shall be devoured by the sword, for the mouth of the Lord spoke.   כוְאִם־תְּמָֽאֲנ֖וּ וּמְרִיתֶ֑ם חֶ֣רֶב תְּאֻכְּל֔וּ כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר:
for the mouth of the Lord spoke: Where did He speak? (Lev. 26:25) “And I will bring upon you a sword.”   כי פי ה' דבר: והיכן דבר והבאתי עליכ' חרב (ויקר' כו כה):
21How has she become a harlot, a faithful city; full of justice, in which righteousness would lodge, but now murderers.   כאאֵיכָה֙ הָֽיְתָ֣ה לְזוֹנָ֔ה קִרְיָ֖ה נֶֽאֱמָנָ֑ה מְלֵֽאֲתִ֣י מִשְׁפָּ֔ט צֶ֛דֶק יָלִ֥ין בָּ֖הּ וְעַתָּ֥ה מְרַצְּחִֽים:
a harlot: Astray from her God.   לזונה: תועה מעל אלהיה:
city: which was faithful and full of justice, and righteousness would lodge therein, but now murderers.   קריה: שהיתה נאמנה ומליאה משפט וצדק היה לן בה ועתה מרצחים:
full of justice: Heb. מְלֵאֲתִי מִשְׁפָּט [equivalent to מְלֵאַתמִשְׁפָּט, the ‘yud’ being superfluous,] as in (Lamentations 1: 1) רַבָּתִי עָם, “great in population” [equivalent to רַבַּתעָם].   מלאתי משפט: כגון רבתי עם (איכה א):
in which righteousness would lodge: The daily dawn sacrifice would atone for the sins [committed] at night, and the daily afternoon [sacrifice] would atone for those of the day. Another explanation is that they would allow capital cases to rest overnight when they could find no merit for him, [i.e., for the defendant;] they would not conclude his verdict until the morrow, perhaps they would find a merit for him, and now they have become murderers. [We find in] Pesikta [d’Rav Kahana p. 121a]: Rabbi Menahem bar Oshia [according to Parshandatha,] Rabbi Phinehas in the name of Rabbi Oshia said: Four hundred eighty-one synagogues were in Jerusalem, corresponding to the numerical value of מְלֵאֲתִי.   צדק ילין בה: תמיד של שחר היה מכפר על עבירות של הלילה ושל בין הערבים מכפר על של היום, ד"א שהיו מלינים בה דיני נפשות כשלא היו מוצאין לו זכות ביום הא' לא היו גומרין את דינו עד למחרת אולי ימצאו לו זכות ועתה נעשו רוצחין ומצינו בפסיקתא ר' מנחם בר אושעיה אמר תפ"א בתי כנסיות היו בירושלים כמנין מלאתי בגי':
and now murderers: They killed Uriah; they killed Zechariah.   ועתה מרצחים: הרגו את אוריה הרגו את זכריה:
22Your silver has become dross; your wine is diluted with water.   כבכַּסְפֵּ֖ךְ הָיָ֣ה לְסִיגִ֑ים סָבְאֵ֖ךְ מָה֥וּל בַּמָּֽיִם:
Your silver has become dross: They would make copper coins and plate them with silver, in order to cheat with them.   כספך היה לסיגים: שהיו עושין מעות נחשת ומצפין אותן בכסף להונות בהם:
your wine is diluted with water: Your drinks are mixed with water, as is stated in Pesikta (122b). [The word] means ‘mixed,’ although there is no similar word in Scripture to prove it, but the Midrash Aggadah explains (Ecc. 2:2): “Of laughter I said, it makes one mad (מְהוֹלָל)” to mean that it is confused, or mixed up.   סבאך מהול מים: משקים שלכם מעורבים במים כדאיתא בפסיקתא, מהול מעורב ואין לו דמיון במקרא ומ"א פותר לשחוק אמרתי מהולל (קהלת ב' ב') מעורבב:
23Your princes are rebellious and companions of thieves; everyone loves bribes and runs after payments; the orphan they do not judge, and the quarrel of the widow does not come to them.   כגשָׂרַ֣יִךְ סֽוֹרְרִ֗ים וְחַבְרֵי֙ גַּנָּבִ֔ים כֻּלּוֹ֙ אֹהֵ֣ב שֹׁ֔חַד וְרֹדֵ֖ף שַׁלְמֹנִ֑ים יָתוֹם֙ לֹ֣א יִשְׁפֹּ֔טוּ וְרִ֥יב אַלְמָנָ֖ה לֹֽא־יָב֥וֹא אֲלֵֽיהֶֽם:
rebellious: Deviating from the straight path.   סוררים: סרים מן הדרך הישרה:
and runs after payments: This word is similar to the Talmudic תַּשְׁלוּמִין. Jonathan paraphrases: One man says to another, Do me a favor in my case, and I will repay you in your case. This refers to a judge who was a robber, and the robbery victim complains about him before another judge. This one says to him, Declare me innocent today, and I will repay you when they complain about you before me. This is the meaning of running after payments.   ורודף שלמונים: תשלומין ת"י אמרין גבר לחבריה עביד לי טב בדיני ואשלם לך בדינך שופט שהיה גזלן והנגזל צועק עליו בפני שופט אחר, זה אומר לו צדקני היום ואני אשלם גמולך כשיצעקו עליך בפני הוי רודף תשלום גמולות:
and the quarrel of the widow does not come to them: The widow comes to complain, and the orphan is coming out, when this one meets him and asks him, What did you accomplish in your case? He replies, All day long I toiled at work, but I did not accomplish anything. And this one turns around and says, If this one, who is a man, did not accomplish anything, surely I will not. This is the meaning of, “the orphan they do not judge, and the quarrel of the widow does not come to them” at all.   וריב אלמנה לא יבא אליהם: האלמנה באה לצעוק והיתום יוצא וזו פוגעת בו ושאלתו מה הועלת בצעקתך לפני השופט והוא אומר כל היום הזה יגעתי לו במלאכה וסופו לא הועלתי וזו חוזרת לאחוריה ואומרת ומה זה שהוא איש לא הועיל אני לא כ"ש הוי יתום לא ישפטו וריב אלמנה לא יבא אליהם כלל:
24"Therefore," says the Master, the Lord of Hosts, the Mighty One of Israel, "Oh, I will console Myself from My adversaries, and I will avenge Myself of My foes.   כדלָכֵ֗ן נְאֻ֚ם הָֽאָדוֹן֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲבִ֖יר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הוֹי אֶנָּחֵ֣ם מִצָּרַ֔י וְאִנָּֽקְמָ֖ה מֵאֽוֹיְבָֽי:
says the Master: Who possesses everything, and in Whose power it is to uproot you from your land and to settle others in it.   נאם האדון: שהכל שלו ובידו לעקור אתכם מארצכם ולנטוע בה אחרים:
the Mighty One of Israel: the strength of Israel.   אביר ישראל: תקפו של ישראל:
Oh: Heb. הוי. An expression of preparation and announcement, and similar to this is (Zech. 2: 10): “Ho, ho, (הוי הוי) flee from the land of the north.” And let all know that I will console Myself of My adversaries, who angered Me with their deeds.   הוי: ל' הזמנה והכרזה ודומה לו הוי ונוסו מארץ צפון (זכריה ב' י') וידעו הכל כי אנחם מצרי שהכעיסוני במעשיהם:
25And I will return My hand upon you and purge away your dross as with lye, and remove all your tin.   כהוְאָֽשִׁ֚יבָה יָדִי֙ עָלַ֔יִךְ וְאֶצְרֹ֥ף כַּבֹּ֖ר סִיגָ֑יִךְ וְאָסִ֖ירָה כָּל־בְּדִילָֽיִךְ:
And I will return My hand upon you: One blow after another, until the transgressors have been completely destroyed.   ואשיבה ידי עליך: מכה אחר מכה עד כלות הפושעים:
as with lye: This is an expression meaning soap [sbon in O.F., savon (in modern French)]. Its deviation is an expression of cleanliness, similar to (Ps. 24:4): “and pure (בַּר) of heart,” since it cleanses the garment of its stains.   כבור: ל' בורית סבו"ן בלע"ז ולשונו ל' נקיון כמו ובר לבב (תהילים כ״ד:ד׳) ע"ש שהוא מנקה הבגד מכתמיו:
your dross: mentioned above, as: “Your silver has become dross”; a mixture of silver with copper is called dross. Here too, a mixture of the wicked with the righteous. I will destroy the transgressors, who are all dross.   סיגיך: האמור למעלה כמו כספך היה לסיגים תערובת נחשת בכסף קרוי סיג אף כאן תערוב' רשעים עם הכשרים אני אכלה הפושעי' שהם הסיג:
all your tin: The tin mixed with silver, that is to say, the wicked among you. בְדִיל is called estejjn [etain] in O.F. [tin].   כל בדיליך: בדיל המעורב בכסף כלומר הרשעים שבך בדיל אשטיי"ס בלע"ז:
26And I will restore your judges as at first and your counsellors as in the beginning; afterwards you shall be called City of Righteousness, Faithful City.   כווְאָשִׁ֚יבָה שֹֽׁפְטַ֙יִךְ֙ כְּבָרִ֣אשֹׁנָ֔ה וְיֹֽעֲצַ֖יִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּ֑ה אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן יִקָּ֚רֵא לָךְ֙ עִ֣יר הַצֶּ֔דֶק קִרְיָ֖ה נֶֽאֱמָּנָֽה:
as at first: I will appoint for you pious judges.   כבראשונה: אעמיד לכם שופטים כשרים:
City of Righteousness: As in the beginning, righteousness will lodge therein.   עיר הצדק: כבתחלה צדק ילין בה:
27Zion shall be redeemed through justice and her penitent through righteousness.   כזצִיּ֖וֹן בְּמִשְׁפָּ֣ט תִּפָּדֶ֑ה וְשָׁבֶ֖יהָ בִּצְדָקָֽה:
shall be redeemed through justice: Since there will be in it people who practice justice.   במשפט תפדה: ע"י שיהיו בה עושה משפט:
shall be redeemed: from her iniquities.   תפדה: מעונותיה:
and her penitent: those penitent among them. (through righteousness through those who make themselves righteous through justice and through righteousness that are in her midst [or,] among them.)   ושביה: עושי תשובה שבתוכה (בצדקה במצדיקים עצמם במשפט ובצדק' שבתוכה):
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