Numbers Chapter 28

1The Lord spoke to: Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food for My fire offerings, a spirit of satisfaction for Me, you shall take care to offer to Me at its appointed time.   בצַ֚ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִ֨י לַחְמִ֜י לְאִשַּׁ֗י רֵ֚יחַ נִֽיחֹחִ֔י תִּשְׁמְר֕וּ לְהַקְרִ֥יב לִ֖י בְּמֽוֹעֲדֽוֹ:
Command the children of Israel: What is stated above? “Let the Lord…appoint” (27:16). The Holy One, blessed is He, said to him, “Before you command me regarding My children, command My children regarding Me.” This is analogous to a princess who was about to depart from the world and was instructing her husband about her children, [and he replied, “Before you instruct me about them, instruct them about me,”] as it is stated in Sifrei Pinchas 24.   צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: מָה אָמוּר לְמַעְלָה? יִפְקֹד ה', אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁאַתָּה מְצַוֵּנִי עַל בָּנַי, צַוֵּה אֶת בָּנַי עָלַי, מָשָׁל לְבַת מֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיְתָה נִפְטֶרֶת מִן הָעוֹלָם וְהָיְתָה מְפַקֶּדֶת בַּעְלָהּ עַל בָּנֶיהָ וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְסִפְרֵי:
My offering: This refers to the blood. — [Sifrei Pinchas 25]   קָרְבָּנִי: זֶה הַדָּם:
My food: This refers to the sacrificial parts, as it says, “the priest shall burn them [the fat-portions] on the altar; it is the food of the fire-offerings” (Lev. 3:16). - [Sifrei Pinchas 25]   לַחְמִי: אֵלּוּ אֵמוּרִין, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא ג') "וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה" (ספרי):
My fire-offerings: which are put on the fires of My altar.   לְאִשַּׁי: הַנִּתָּנִין לְאִשֵּׁי מִזְבְּחִי:
you shall take care: The Kohanim , Levites, and Israelites shall stand over them [to watch them]; hence they instituted the ma’amodoth [representatives of the people who were present at the sacrificial services]. — [Sifrei Pinchas 26, Taanith 26a]   תִּשְׁמְרוּ: שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹמְדִין עַל גַּבָּיו, מִכָּאן לָמְדוּ וְתִקְּנוּ מַעֲמָדוֹת (תענית כ"ו):
at its appointed time: Each day is the appointed time prescribed for the continual offerings. — [see Sifrei Pinchas 26]   בְּמֽוֹעֲדֽוֹ: בְּכָל יוֹם הוּא מוֹעֵד הַתְּמִידִים:
3And you shall say to them: This is the fire offering which you shall offer to the Lord: two unblemished lambs in their first year each day as a continual burnt offering.   גוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ לָהֶ֔ם זֶ֚ה הָֽאִשֶּׁ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כְּבָשִׂ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֧ה תְמִימִ֛ם שְׁנַ֥יִם לַיּ֖וֹם עֹלָ֥ה תָמִֽיד:
And you shall say to them: This is an admonition to the [rabbinical] court. — [Sifrei Pinchas 27]   וְאָֽמַרְתָּ לָהֶם: אַזְהָרָה לְבֵית דִּין (ספרי):
two…each day: Heb. שְׁנַיִם לְיוֹם. [To be understood] according to its simple meaning [that two sacrifices were to be offered up every day]. Primarily, however, it comes to teach that they should be slaughtered opposite the sun [also known as יוֹם]; the continual sacrifice of the morning to the west, and the one of the afternoon to the east of the rings [set in the floor of the Temple courtyard]. — [Yoma 62b]   שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם: כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ, וְעִקָּרוֹ בָא לְלַמֵּד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִשְׁחָטִין כְּנֶגֶד הַיּוֹם — תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר בַּמַּעֲרָב וְשֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם בְּמִזְרָחָן שֶׁל טַבָּעוֹת (ספרי; יומא ס"ב):
4The one lamb you shall offer up in the morning, and the other lamb you shall offer up in the afternoon.   דאֶת־הַכֶּ֥בֶשׂ אֶחָ֖ד תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה בַבֹּ֑קֶר וְאֵת֙ הַכֶּ֣בֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֥ין הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם:
the one lamb: Even though this is already stated in the portion of Ve’attah Tetzaveh ; “This is what you shall offer [upon the altar…The one lamb you shall offer up in the morning]” (Exod. 29:38, 39), that was an instruction for the days of the investitures [of the kohanim], whereas here He commanded it for all generations.   אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר בְּפָרָשַׁת וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה "וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה" וְגוֹ' (שמות כט לח), הִיא הָיְתָה אַזְהָרָה לִימֵי הַמִּלּוּאִים וְכָאן צִוָּה לַדּוֹרוֹת:
5And one tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a meal offering, mixed with a quarter of a hin of crushed [olive] oil.   הוַֽעֲשִׂירִ֧ית הָֽאֵיפָ֛ה סֹ֖לֶת לְמִנְחָ֑ה בְּלוּלָ֛ה בְּשֶׁ֥מֶן כָּתִ֖ית רְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִֽין:
fine flour for a meal-offering: The meal-offering of the libations [which accompanied the sacrifice].   סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה: מִנְחַת נְסָכִים:
6A continual burnt offering, as the one offered up at Mount Sinai, for a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord.   ועֹלַ֖ת תָּמִ֑יד הָֽעֲשֻׂיָה֙ בְּהַ֣ר סִינַ֔י לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
offered up at Mount Sinai: Like those offered up during the days of the investitures (Exod. 29:38-43). Another interpretation: “offered up at Mount Sinai”: the continual burnt offering is compared to the continual offering of Mount Sinai, the one offered before the giving of the Torah, about which it is written, “he put it [the blood] into the basins” (Exod. 24:6). This teaches us that it [the continual burnt offering] requires a vessel [for its blood]. — [Torath Kohanim , Tzav 18:8]   הָֽעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי: כְּאוֹתָן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בִּימֵי הַמִּלּוּאִים; דָּבָר אַחֵר — העשיה בהר סיני, הִקִּישׁ עוֹלַת תָּמִיד לְעוֹלַת הַר סִינַי — אוֹתָהּ שֶׁנִּתְקָרְבָה לִפְנֵי מַתַּן תּוֹרָה — שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (שם כ"ד) "וַיָּשֶֹם בָּאֲגָנֹת", מְלַמֵּד שֶׁטְּעוּנָה כְּלִי (ספרי):
7Its libation shall be one quarter of a hin for each lamb, to be poured on the holy [altar] as a libation of strong wine to the Lord.   זוְנִסְכּוֹ֙ רְבִיעִ֣ת הַהִ֔ין לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד בַּקֹּ֗דֶשׁ הַסֵּ֛ךְ נֶ֥סֶךְ שֵׁכָ֖ר לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
Its libation: of wine.   וְנִסְכּוֹ: יַיִן:
on the holy: They shall be poured on the altar.   בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ: עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ יִתְנַסְּכוּ:
a libation of strong wine: Intoxicating wine, [this comes] to exclude wine straight from the winepress [which has not fermented]. — [B.B. 97a]   נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר: יַיִן הַמְשַׁכֵּר, פְּרָט לְיַיִן מִגִּתּוֹ (בבא בתרא צ"ז):
8And the second lamb you shall offer up in the afternoon. You shall offer it up with the same meal offering and libation as the morning [sacrifice], a fire offering with a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord.   חוְאֵת֙ הַכֶּ֣בֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַרְבָּ֑יִם כְּמִנְחַ֨ת הַבֹּ֤קֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
a spirit of satisfaction: It is gratifying for Me that I spoke, and My will was carried out. — [Zev . 46b, Sifrei Pinchas 38]   רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ: נַחַת רוּחַ לְפָנַי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי וְנַעֲשָׂה רְצוֹנִי (ספרי):
9And on the Sabbath day, two unblemished lambs in the first year, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil, and its libation.   טוּבְיוֹם֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת שְׁנֵֽי־כְבָשִׂ֥ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֖ה תְּמִימִ֑ם וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֧לֶת מִנְחָ֛ה בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
10[This is] the burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath, in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   יעֹלַ֥ת שַׁבַּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ עַל־עֹלַ֥ת הַתָּמִ֖יד וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:
The burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath: But not the burnt offering of this Sabbath on another Sabbath. For if they did not offer one up on this Sabbath, I might think that two should be offered up on the following Sabbath. Scripture therefore says, “on its Sabbath” to instruct us that if its day passes, its offering is canceled. — [Sifrei Pinchas 40]   עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ: וְלֹא עוֹלַת שַׁבָּת זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת, הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְרִיב בְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי יַקְרִיב שְׁתַּיִם לַשַּׁבָּת הַבָּאָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ", מַגִּיד שֶׁאִם עָבַר יוֹמוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ (ספרי):
in addition to the continual burnt offering: This refers to the additional [musaf] offerings, besides those two lambs of the continual burnt offering. And it teaches us that they [the additional sacrifices] may be offered only between the two continual offerings. Similarly, in the case of all the additional offerings it says, “In addition to the continual burnt offering” for this teaching. — [Sifrei Pinchas 40]   עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד: אֵלּוּ מוּסָפִין, לְבַד אוֹתָן שְׁנֵי כְבָשִׂים שֶׁל עוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד, וּמַגִּיד שֶׁאֵין קְרֵבִין אֶלָּא בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַתְּמִידִין, וְכֵן בְּכָל הַמּוּסָפִין נֶאֱמַר עַל עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד לְתַלְמוּד זֶה:
11And on the beginning of your months, you shall offer up a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   יאוּבְרָאשֵׁי֙ חָדְשֵׁיכֶ֔ם תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ עֹלָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה פָּרִ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־בָקָ֤ר שְׁנַ֨יִם֙ וְאַ֣יִל אֶחָ֔ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:
12Three tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each bull, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each ram.   יבוּשְׁלשָׁ֣ה עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַפָּ֖ר הָֽאֶחָ֑ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לָאַ֖יִל הָֽאֶחָֽד:
Three tenths: As is the case with the libations brought with a bull, for thus they are fixed in the portion dealing with libations [see 15:9].   וּשְׁלשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים: כְּמִשְׁפַּט נִסְכֵּי פַר, שֶׁכֵּן הֵן קְצוּבִין בְּפָרָשַׁת נְסָכִים:
13And one tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil as a meal offering for each lamb. A burnt offering with a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord.   יגוְעִשָּׂרֹ֣ן עִשָּׂר֗וֹן סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד עֹלָה֙ רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
14And their libations: a half of a hin for each bull, a third of a hin for each ram, and a quarter of a hin for each lamb wine; this is the burnt offering of each new month in its month, throughout the months of the year.   ידוְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם חֲצִ֣י הַהִין֩ יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לַפָּ֜ר וּשְׁלִישִׁ֧ת הַהִ֣ין לָאַ֗יִל וּרְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִ֛ין לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ יָ֑יִן זֹ֣את עֹלַ֥ת חֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְחָדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה:
This is the burnt offering of each new month in its month: However, once the day passes, its offering is canceled, and there is no way to make it up. — [Sifrei Pinchas 43]   זֹאת עֹלַת חֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁוֹ: שֶׁאִם עָבַר יוֹמוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ וְשׁוּב אֵין לוֹ תַשְׁלוּמִין:
15And one young male goat for a sin offering to the Lord; it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   טווּשְׂעִ֨יר עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֛ד לְחַטָּ֖את לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה עַל־עֹלַ֧ת הַתָּמִ֛יד יֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
And one young male goat…: All the additional-offering goats were brought to atone for defiling the Sanctuary and its holy sacrifices, as is outlined in the Tractate of Shevuoth (9a). The young male goat [brought] on the first day of the month differs insofar as with regard to it Scripture says, “to the Lord.” This teaches you that it atones for a case where there is no awareness [of the person’s uncleanness] either before [entering the Temple or eating sacrificial food] or after [the sin has been committed]. The only One aware of the sin is the Holy One, blessed is He. We derive [the law of] the other young male goats from this one. In the Aggadah, it is expounded thus: The Holy One, blessed is He, said, “Bring atonement for Me because I diminished [the size of] the moon.” - [Shev. 9a]   וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים וגו': כָּל שְׂעִירֵי הַמּוּסָפִין בָּאִין לְכַפֵּר עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, הַכֹּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּמַסֶּכֶת שְׁבוּעוֹת (דף ט'), וְנִשְׁתַּנָּה שְׂעִיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ "לַה'"; לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁמְּכַפֵּר עַל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ יְדִיעָה לֹא בַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַסּוֹף — שֶׁאֵין מַכִּיר בַּחֵטְא אֶלָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִלְבָד, וּשְׁאָר הַשְּׂעִירִים לְמֵדִין מִמֶּנוּ; וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ בָּאַגָּדָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָבִיאוּ כַפָּרָה עָלַי עַל שֶׁמִּעַטְתִּי אֶת הַיָּרֵחַ (חולין ס'):
it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering: This entire offering [not just the young male goat].   עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵֽעָשֶׂה: כָּל הַקָּרְבָּן הַזֶּה:
and its libation: [The phrase] “and its libation” does not refer to the young male goat because sin-offerings have no libations.   וְנִסְכּֽוֹ: אֵין "וְנִסְכּוֹ" מוּסָב עַל הַשָּׂעִיר, שֶׁאֵין נְסָכִים לְחַטָּאת: