ב"ה

Torah Reading for Bamidbar

Parshat Bamidbar
Shabbat, 29 Iyar, 5783
20 May, 2023
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Complete: (Numbers 1:1 - 4:20; Samuel I 20:18-42)
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First Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 1

1The Lord spoke to Moses in the Sinai Desert, in the Tent of Meeting on the first day of the second month, in the second year after the exodus from the land of Egypt, saying.   אוַיְדַבֵּ֨ר יְהוָֹ֧ה אֶל־משֶׁ֛ה בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינַ֖י בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד בְּאֶחָד֩ לַחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֜י בַּשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשֵּׁנִ֗ית לְצֵאתָ֛ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לֵאמֹֽר:
The Lord spoke... in the Sinai Desert... on the first of the month : Because they were dear to Him, He counted them often. When they left Egypt, He counted them (Exod. 12:37); when [many] fell because [of the sin] of the golden calf, He counted them to know the number of the survivors (Exod. 32:28); when He came to cause His Divine Presence to rest among them, He counted them. On the first of Nissan, the Mishkan was erected, and on the first of Iyar, He counted them.   וידבר. בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ וגו': מִתּוֹךְ חִבָּתָן לְפָנָיו מוֹנֶה אוֹתָם כָּל שָׁעָה — כְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם מְנָאָן, וּכְשֶׁנָּפְלוּ בָּעֵגֶל מְנָאָן לֵידַע מִנְיַן הַנּוֹתָרִים, כְּשֶׁבָּא לְהַשְׁרוֹת שְׁכִינָתוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם מְנָאָם, בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן וּבְאֶחָד בְּאִיָּר מְנָאָם:
2Take the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, by families following their fathers' houses; a head count of every male according to the number of their names.   בשְׂא֗וּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֙ כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמ֔וֹת כָּל־זָכָ֖ר לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָֽם:
by families: To ascertain the number of [people in] each tribe.   לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם: לֵידַע מִנְיַן כָּל שֵׁבֶט וָשֵׁבֶט:
following their fathers’ houses: If one’s father was from one tribe and his mother from another tribe, he is counted with his father’s tribe.   לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם: מִי שֶׁאָבִיו מִשֵּׁבֶט אֶחָד וְאִמּוֹ מִשֵּׁבֶט אַחֵר יָקוּם עַל שֵׁבֶט אָבִיו (עי' בבא בתרא ק"ט):
a head count: Heb. לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם, by means of shekels; “a bekka (half a shekel) per head (לְגֻלְגֹּלֶת.)”   לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָֽם: עַל יְדֵי שְׁקָלִים — בֶּקַע לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת:
3From twenty years old and upwards, all who are fit to go out to the army in Israel, you shall count them by their legions you and Aaron.   גמִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כָּל־יֹצֵ֥א צָבָ֖א בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל תִּפְקְד֥וּ אֹתָ֛ם לְצִבְאֹתָ֖ם אַתָּ֥ה וְאַֽהֲרֹֽן:
all who are fit to go out to the army: This informs [us] that no one went out to the army below the age of twenty.   כָּל־יֹצֵא צָבָא: מַגִּיד שֶׁאֵין יוֹצֵא בַּצָּבָא פָּחוּת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים:
4With you there shall be a man from each tribe, one who is head of his father's house.   דוְאִתְּכֶ֣ם יִֽהְי֔וּ אִ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ לַמַּטֶּ֑ה אִ֛ישׁ רֹ֥אשׁ לְבֵית־אֲבֹתָ֖יו הֽוּא:
With you: When you count them, there should be with you a prince from each tribe.   וְאִתְּכֶם יִֽהְיוּ: כְּשֶׁתִּפְקְדוּ אוֹתָם יִהְיוּ עִמָּכֶם נְשִׂיא כָל שֵׁבֶט וָשֵׁבֶט:
5These are the names of the men who shall stand with you; for Reuben, Elitzur the son of Shedeur.   הוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ שְׁמ֣וֹת הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַֽעַמְד֖וּ אִתְּכֶ֑ם לִרְאוּבֵ֕ן אֱלִיצ֖וּר בֶּן־שְׁדֵיאֽוּר:
6For Simeon, Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.   ולְשִׁמְע֕וֹן שְׁלֻֽמִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־צוּרִֽישַׁדָּֽי:
7For Judah, Nahshon the son of Amminadab.   זלִֽיהוּדָ֕ה נַחְשׁ֖וֹן בֶּן־עַמִּֽינָדָֽב:
8For Issachar, Nethanel the son of Zu'ar.   חלְיִ֨שָּׂשכָ֔ר נְתַנְאֵ֖ל בֶּן־צוּעָֽר:
9For Zebulun, Eliab the son of Helon.   טלִזְבוּלֻ֕ן אֱלִיאָ֖ב בֶּן־חֵלֹֽן:
10For the children of Joseph: for Ephraim, Elishama' the son of 'Ammihud; for Manasseh, Gamliel the son of Pedazur.   ילִבְנֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף לְאֶפְרַ֕יִם אֱלִֽישָׁמָ֖ע בֶּן־עַמִּיה֑וּד לִמְנַשֶּׁ֕ה גַּמְלִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־פְּדָהצֽוּר:
11For Benjamin, Abidan the son of Gideoni.   יאלְבִ֨נְיָמִ֔ן אֲבִידָ֖ן בֶּן־גִּדְעֹנִֽי:
12For Dan, Ahi'ezer the son of 'Ammishaddai.   יבלְדָ֕ן אֲחִיעֶ֖זֶר בֶּן־עַמִּֽישַׁדָּֽי:
13For Asher, Pag'iel the son of 'Ochran.   יגלְאָשֵׁ֕ר פַּגְעִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עָכְרָֽן:
14For Gad, Eliasaph the son of De'uel.   ידלְגָ֕ד אֶלְיָסָ֖ף בֶּן־דְּעוּאֵֽל:
15For Naphtali, Ahira' the son of 'Enan.   טולְנַ֨פְתָּלִ֔י אֲחִירַ֖ע בֶּן־עֵינָֽן:
16These were the ones summoned by the congregation, the princes of the tribes of their fathers; they are the heads of the thousands of Israel.   טזאֵ֚לֶּה קְרוּאֵ֣י (כתיב קריאי) הָֽעֵדָ֔ה נְשִׂיאֵ֖י מַטּ֣וֹת אֲבוֹתָ֑ם רָאשֵׁ֛י אַלְפֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הֵֽם:
the ones summoned of the congregation: They were summoned for every important matter concerning the congregation.   אֵלֶּה קרואי הָֽעֵדָה: הַנִּקְרָאִים לְכָל דְּבַר חֲשִׁיבוּת שֶׁבָּעֵדָה:
17Then Moses and Aaron took these men, who were indicated by [their] names,   יזוַיִּקַּ֥ח משֶׁ֖ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֑ן אֵ֚ת הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִקְּב֖וּ בְּשֵׁמֽוֹת:
these men: These twelve princes.   הָֽאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה: אֶת שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר נְשִׂיאִים הַלָּלוּ:
who were indicated: to him here by their names.   אֲשֶׁר נִקְּבוּ: לוֹ כָּאן בשמות:
18and they assembled all the congregation on the first day of the second month, and they declared their pedigrees according to their families according to their fathers' houses; according to the number of names, a head count of every male from twenty years old and upward.   יחוְאֵ֨ת כָּל־הָֽעֵדָ֜ה הִקְהִ֗ילוּ בְּאֶחָד֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וַיִּתְיַֽלְד֥וּ עַל־מִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמ֗וֹת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֥ים שָׁנָ֛ה וָמַ֖עְלָה לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָֽם:
and they declared their pedigrees according to their families: They brought the records of their pedigrees and witnesses of their birth claims, so that each one should trace his genealogy to a tribe.   וַיִּתְיַֽלְדוּ עַל־מִשְׁפְּחֹתָם: הֵבִיאוּ סִפְרֵי יִחוּסֵיהֶם וְעֵדֵי חֶזְקַת לֵדָתָם, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לְהִתְיַחֵס עַל הַשֵּׁבֶט (עי' ילקוט תרפ"ד):
19As the Lord commanded Moses, so did he count them in the Sinai desert.   יטכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶת־משֶׁ֑ה וַיִּפְקְדֵ֖ם בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי:

Second Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 1

20This was [the sum of] the children of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כוַיִּֽהְי֤וּ בְנֵֽי־רְאוּבֵן֙ בְּכֹ֣ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֤ר שֵׁמוֹת֙ לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָ֔ם כָּל־זָכָ֗ר מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
21Those counted from the tribe of Reuben [were] forty six thousand, five hundred.   כאפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה רְאוּבֵ֑ן שִׁשָּׁ֧ה וְאַרְבָּעִ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
22Of the tribe of Simeon, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; his tally, according to the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כבלִבְנֵ֣י שִׁמְע֔וֹן תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם פְּקֻדָ֗יו בְּמִסְפַּ֤ר שֵׁמוֹת֙ לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָ֔ם כָּל־זָכָ֗ר מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
23Those counted from the tribe of Simeon: fifty nine thousand, three hundred.   כגפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה שִׁמְע֑וֹן תִּשְׁעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וּשְׁל֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
24Of the tribe of Gad, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כדלִבְנֵ֣י גָ֔ד תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמ֗וֹת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
25Those counted from the tribe of Gad: forty five thousand, six hundred and fifty.   כהפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה גָ֑ד חֲמִשָּׁ֤ה וְאַרְבָּעִים֙ אֶ֔לֶף וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת וַֽחֲמִשִּֽׁים:
26Of the tribe of Judah, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כולִבְנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
27Those counted from the tribe of Judah: seventy four thousand, six hundred.   כזפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה יְהוּדָ֑ה אַרְבָּעָ֧ה וְשִׁבְעִ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
28Of the tribe of Issachar, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   כחלִבְנֵ֣י יִשָּׂשכָ֔ר תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
29Those counted from the tribe of Issachar: fifty four thousand, four hundred.   כטפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה יִשָּׂשכָ֑ר אַרְבָּעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
30Of the tribe of Zebulun, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   ללִבְנֵ֣י זְבוּלֻ֔ן תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
31Those counted from the tribe of Zebulun: fifty seven thousand, four hundred.   לאפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה זְבוּלֻ֑ן שִׁבְעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
32Of the children of Yosef: of the tribe of Ephraim, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לבלִבְנֵ֤י יוֹסֵף֙ לִבְנֵ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
33Those counted from the tribe of Ephraim: forty thousand, five hundred.   לגפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה אֶפְרָ֑יִם אַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
34Of the tribe of Manasseh, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לדלִבְנֵ֣י מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמ֗וֹת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
35Those counted from the tribe of Manasseh: thirty two thousand, two hundred.   להפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה שְׁנַ֧יִם וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וּמָאתָֽיִם:
36Of the tribe of Benjamin, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לולִבְנֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֔ן תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
37Those counted from the tribe of Benjamin: thirty five thousand, four hundred.   לזפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה בִנְיָמִ֑ן חֲמִשָּׁ֧ה וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
38Of the tribe of Dan, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   לחלִבְנֵ֣י דָ֔ן תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
39Those counted from the tribe of Dan: sixty two thousand, seven hundred.   לטפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה דָ֑ן שְׁנַ֧יִם וְשִׁשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וּשְׁבַ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
40Of the tribe of Asher, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   מלִבְנֵ֣י אָשֵׁ֔ר תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
41Those counted from the tribe of Asher: forty one thousand, five hundred.   מאפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה אָשֵׁ֑ר אֶחָ֧ד וְאַרְבָּעִ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
42Of the tribe of Naphtali, their descendants according to their families, according to their fathers' houses; the number of individual names of every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   מבבְּנֵ֣י נַפְתָּלִ֔י תּֽוֹלְדֹתָ֥ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שֵׁמֹ֗ת מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כֹּ֖ל יֹצֵ֥א צָבָֽא:
43Those counted from the tribe of Naphtali: fifty three thousand, four hundred.   מגפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה נַפְתָּלִ֑י שְׁלשָׁ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
44These are the numbered ones, whom Moses and Aaron and the twelve princes of Israel counted each one [representing] his fathers' house.   מדאֵ֣לֶּה הַפְּקֻדִ֡ים אֲשֶׁר֩ פָּקַ֨ד משֶׁ֤ה וְאַֽהֲרֹן֙ וּנְשִׂיאֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר אִ֑ישׁ אִֽישׁ־אֶחָ֥ד לְבֵֽית־אֲבֹתָ֖יו הָיֽוּ:
45All the children of Israel were counted according to their fathers' houses, from twenty years and upward, all who were fit to go out to the army.   מהוַיִּֽהְי֛וּ כָּל־פְּקוּדֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה כָּל־יֹצֵ֥א צָבָ֖א בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
46The sum of all those who were counted: six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty.   מווַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים שֵׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֖לֶף וּשְׁל֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֑ים וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת וַֽחֲמִשִּֽׁים:
47But the Levites, according to their father's tribe were not numbered among them.   מזוְהַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם לְמַטֵּ֣ה אֲבֹתָ֑ם לֹ֥א הָתְפָּֽקְד֖וּ בְּתוֹכָֽם:
48The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   מחוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
49Only the tribe of Levi you shall not number, and you shall not reckon their sum among the children of Israel.   מטאַ֣ךְ אֶת־מַטֵּ֤ה לֵוִי֙ לֹ֣א תִפְקֹ֔ד וְאֶת־רֹאשָׁ֖ם לֹ֣א תִשָּׂ֑א בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Only the tribe of Levi you shall not number: The legion of the king deserves to be counted on its own (Tanchuma). Another explanation: The Holy One, Blessed Be He, foresaw that a decree was destined to be enacted against all those counted from twenty years and upward [condemning them] to die in the desert. He said,“Let these not be included, for they are Mine, since they did not err in [the sin of] the [golden] calf.” - [B.B. 121]   אַךְ אֶת־מַטֵּה לֵוִי לֹא תִפְקֹד: כְּדַאי הוּא לִגְיוֹן שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ לִהְיוֹת נִמְנֶה לְבַדּוֹ (תנחומא); דָּבָר אַחֵר, צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁעֲתִידָה לַעֲמֹד גְּזֵרָה עַל כָּל הַנִּמְנִין מִבֶּן עֶשְֹרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ בַמִּדְבָּר, אָמַר אַל יִהְיוּ אֵלּוּ בִכְלָל, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם שֶׁלִּי, שֶׁלֹּא טָעוּ בָעֵגֶל (שם; בבא בתרא קכ"א):
50But you shall appoint the Levites over the Tabernacle of the Testimony, over all its vessels and over all that belong to it; they shall carry the Tabernacle and they shall minister to it, and they shall encamp around the Tabernacle.   נוְאַתָּ֡ה הַפְקֵ֣ד אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּם֩ עַל־מִשְׁכַּ֨ן הָֽעֵדֻ֜ת וְעַ֣ל כָּל־כֵּלָיו֘ וְעַ֣ל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֒ הֵ֜מָּה יִשְׂא֤וּ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָ֔יו וְהֵ֖ם יְשָֽׁרְתֻ֑הוּ וְסָבִ֥יב לַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן יַֽחֲנֽוּ:
But you shall appoint the Levites: Heb. הַפְקֵד, as the Targum renders, מַנִי, appoint ; it is an expression of appointing to control the thing over which one is appointed, as it says,“Let the king appoint (וְיַפְקֵד) officers (פְקִידִים)” (Esther 2:3).   וְאַתָּה הַפְקֵד אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּם: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "מַנִּי", לְשׁוֹן מִנּוּי שְׂרָרָה עַל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עָלָיו, כְּמוֹ "וְיַפְקֵד הַמֶּלֶךְ פְּקִידִים" (אסתר ב'):
51When the Tabernacle is set to travel, the Levites shall dismantle it; and when the Tabernacle camps, the Levites shall erect it; any outsider [non Levite] who approaches shall be put to death.   נאוּבִנְסֹ֣עַ הַמִּשְׁכָּ֗ן יוֹרִ֤ידוּ אֹתוֹ֙ הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם וּבַֽחֲנֹת֙ הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן יָקִ֥ימוּ אֹת֖וֹ הַֽלְוִיִּ֑ם וְהַזָּ֥ר הַקָּרֵ֖ב יוּמָֽת:
shall dismantle it: Heb. יוֹרִידוּ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders, “They shall take it apart.” Whenever they were about to set out on a journey in the desert from one station to another, they dismantled the structure and carried it to the place where the cloud would settle. They would encamp there and set it up.   יוֹרִידוּ אֹתוֹ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "יְפָרְקוּן", כְּשֶׁבָּאִין לִסַּע בַּמִּדְבָּר מִמַּסָּע לְמַסָּע הָיוּ מְפָרְקִין אוֹתוֹ מֵהֲקָמָתוֹ, וְנוֹשְׂאִין אוֹתוֹ עַד מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכֹּן שָׁם הֶעָנָן, וְיַחֲנוּ שָׁם וּמְקִימִין אוֹתוֹ:
any outsider who approaches: [to participate] in this work.   וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב: לַעֲבוֹדָתָם זוֹ:
shall be put to death: at the hands of heaven.   יוּמָֽת: בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם:
52The children of Israel shall encamp, each man by his own camp and each man by his division.   נבוְחָנ֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אִ֧ישׁ עַל־מַֽחֲנֵ֛הוּ וְאִ֥ישׁ עַל־דִּגְל֖וֹ לְצִבְאֹתָֽם:
and each man by his division: As the divisions are arranged in this Book [of Numbers], three tribes for every division.   ואישׁ עַל־דִּגְלוֹ: כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַדְּגָלִים סְדוּרִים בְּסֵפֶר זֶה – שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁבָטִים לְכָל דֶּגֶל:
53The Levites shall encamp around the Mishkan of the Testimony, so that there be no wrath upon the congregation of the children of Israel and the Levites shall keep the charge of the Mishkan of the Testimony.   נגוְהַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם יַֽחֲנ֤וּ סָבִיב֙ לְמִשְׁכַּ֣ן הָֽעֵדֻ֔ת וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה קֶ֔צֶף עַל־עֲדַ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְשָֽׁמְרוּ֙ הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם אֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת מִשְׁכַּ֥ן הָֽעֵדֽוּת:
so that there be no wrath: If you act in accordance with My command, there will be no wrath, but if not, and outsiders take part in this service, there will be wrath, as we find with the incident with Korah [that is says,]“for the wrath has gone forth from the Lord” (Num. 17:11).   וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶה קֶצֶף: אִם תַּעֲשׂוּ כְּמִצְוֹתַי לֹא יִהְיֶה קֶצֶף, וְאִם לָאו, שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ זָרִים בַּעֲבוֹדָתָם זוֹ, יִהְיֶה קֶצֶף, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בְמַעֲשֵׂה קֹרַח (במדבר י"ז), כִּי יָצָא הַקֶּצֶף וְגוֹ':
54And the children of Israel did according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses thus did they do.   נדוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהוָֹ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה כֵּ֥ן עָשֽׂוּ:

Third Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 2

1God spoke to Moses and Aaron saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוָֹ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2The children of Israel shall encamp each man by his division with the flag staffs of their fathers' house; some distance from the Tent of Meeting they shall encamp.   באִ֣ישׁ עַל־דִּגְל֤וֹ בְאֹתֹת֙ לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֔ם יַֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מִנֶּ֕גֶד סָבִ֥יב לְאֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד יַֽחֲנֽוּ:
with the flag staffs: Heb. בְאֹתֹת. Every division shall have its own flag staff, with a colored flag hanging on it; the color of one being different from the color of any other. The color of each one was like the hue of its stone, set in the choshen [worn by the Kohen Gadol], and in this way, everyone could recognize his division. Another explanation: “with the signs [the literal translation of בְאֹתֹת] of his fathers’ house”—according to the sign their father Jacob gave them when they carried him out of Egypt, as it says, “His sons did for him just as he had commanded them” (Gen. 50:12), [which was that] Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun should bear him [his body] from the east, Reuben, Simeon, and Gad from the south etc. as it states in the [Midrash] Tanchuma on this section. — [Rashi]   בְאֹתֹת: כָּל דֶּגֶל יִהְיֶה לוֹ אוֹת מַפָּה צְבוּעָה תְלוּיָה בוֹ, צִבְעוֹ שֶׁל זֶה לֹא כְצִבְעוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, צֶבַע כָּל אֶחָד כְּגוֹן אַבְנוֹ הַקְּבוּעָה בַחֹשֶׁן, וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ יַכִּיר כָּל אֶחָד אֶת דִּגְלוֹ; דָּבָר אַחֵר: בְּאוֹתוֹת לְבֵית אֲבוֹתָם, בְּאוֹת שֶׁמָּסַר לָהֶם יַעֲקֹב אֲבִיהֶם כְּשֶׁנְּשָׂאוּהוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית נ') "וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו לוֹ כֵּן כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּם, יְהוּדָה וְיִשָּׂשכָר וּזְבוּלוּן יִשָּׂאוּהוּ מִן הַמִּזְרָח, וּרְאוּבֵן וְשִׁמְעוֹן וְגָד מִן הַדָּרוֹם וְכוּ'", כִּדְאִיתָא בְתַנְחוּמָא בְּפַרָשָׁה זוֹ:
some distance: At a distance of a mil, as it is stated in Joshua (3:4),“However, there shall be some distance between you and it; about two thousand cubits.” [The reason for this distance, which is the distance permitted to travel on a Sabbath day, was] so that they would be able to come [to the Mishkan] on the Sabbath, [for] Moses, Aaron and his sons, and the Levites were encamped close to it.   מִנֶּגֶד: מֵרָחוֹק מִיל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בִּיהוֹשֻׁעַ "אַךְ רָחוֹק יִהְיֶה בֵּינֵיכֶם וּבֵנָיו כְּאַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה" (יהושע ג'), שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לָבֹא בְּשַׁבָּת; מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו וְהַלְוִיִּם חוֹנִים בְּסָמוּךְ לוֹ:
3Those camping in front, to the east, were the legions under the division of the camp of Judah. The prince of the children of Judah was Nahshon the son of Amminadab.   גוְהַֽחֹנִים֙ קֵ֣דְמָה מִזְרָ֔חָה דֶּ֛גֶל מַֽחֲנֵ֥ה יְהוּדָ֖ה לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה נַחְשׁ֖וֹן בֶּן־עַמִּֽינָדָֽב:
in front: The front side, which is called קֶדֶם, and which is this? The east side. The west is called the rear side [of the world]. — [Rashi]   קֵדְמָה: לְפָנִים הַקְּרוּיָה קֶדֶם: וְאֵיזוֹ זוֹ רוּחַ מִזְרָחִית, וְהַמַּעֲרָב קָרוּי אָחוֹר:
4His legion numbered seventy four thousand, six hundred.   דוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם אַרְבָּעָ֧ה וְשִׁבְעִ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
5Camping next to him, the tribe of Issachar; the prince of the children of Issachar was Nethanel the son of Zu'ar.   הוְהַֽחֹנִ֥ים עָלָ֖יו מַטֵּ֣ה יִשָּׂשכָ֑ר וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשָּׂשכָ֔ר נְתַנְאֵ֖ל בֶּן־צוּעָֽר:
6His legion numbered fifty four thousand, four hundred.   ווּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻדָ֑יו אַרְבָּעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
7[Then] the tribe of Zebulun, and the prince of the children of Zebulun was Eliab the son of Helon.   זמַטֵּ֖ה זְבוּלֻ֑ן וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י זְבוּלֻ֔ן אֱלִיאָ֖ב בֶּן־חֵלֹֽן:
8His legion numbered fifty seven thousand, four hundred.   חוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻדָ֑יו שִׁבְעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
9The total sum for the legions of Judah's camp was one hundred and eighty six thousand, four hundred; these shall journey first.   טכָּל־הַפְּקֻדִ֞ים לְמַֽחֲנֵ֣ה יְהוּדָ֗ה מְאַ֨ת אֶ֜לֶף וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים אֶ֛לֶף וְשֵֽׁשֶׁת־אֲלָפִ֥ים וְאַרְבַּע־מֵא֖וֹת לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם רִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה יִסָּֽעוּ:
these shall journey first: When the cloud was seen departing, the kohanim would sound the trumpets, and the camp of Judah would set off first. And when they traveled, they journeyed forward retaining the same positions in which they camped: the Levites and the wagons in the center, the division of Judah to the east, that of Reuben to the south, that of Ephraim to the west, and that of Dan to the north.   רִֽאשֹׁנָה יִסָּֽעוּ: כְּשֶׁרוֹאִין הֶעָנָן מִסְתַּלֵּק, תּוֹקְעִין הַכֹּהֲנִים בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת, וְנוֹסֵעַ מַחֲנֵה יְהוּדָה תְחִלָּה, וּכְשֶׁהוֹלְכִין הוֹלְכִין כְּדֶרֶךְ חֲנִיָּתָן — הַלְוִיִּם וְהָעֲגָלוֹת בָּאֶמְצָע, דֶּגֶל יְהוּדָה בַּמִּזְרָח, וְשֶׁל רְאוּבֵן בַּדָּרוֹם, וְשֶׁל אֶפְרַיִם בַּמַּעֲרָב, וְשֶׁל דָּן בַּצָּפוֹן:
10The legions under the division of the camp of Reuben were to the south. The prince of the children of Reuben was Elitzur the son of Shedeur.   ידֶּ֣גֶל מַֽחֲנֵ֧ה רְאוּבֵ֛ן תֵּימָ֖נָה לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י רְאוּבֵ֔ן אֱלִיצ֖וּר בֶּן־שְׁדֵיאֽוּר:
11His legion numbered forty six thousand, five hundred.   יאוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻדָ֑יו שִׁשָּׁ֧ה וְאַרְבָּעִ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
12Camping next to him, the tribe of Simeon. The prince of the children of Simeon was Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.   יבוְהַֽחוֹנִ֥ם עָלָ֖יו מַטֵּ֣ה שִׁמְע֑וֹן וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י שִׁמְע֔וֹן שְׁלֻֽמִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־צוּרִֽישַׁדָּֽי:
13His legion numbered fifty nine thousand, three hundred.   יגוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם תִּשְׁעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וּשְׁל֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
14[Then] the tribe of Gad. The prince of the children of Gad was Eliasaph the son of Re'uel.   ידוּמַטֵּ֖ה גָּ֑ד וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י גָ֔ד אֶלְיָסָ֖ף בֶּן־רְעוּאֵֽל:
15His legion numbered forty five thousand, six hundred and fifty.   טווּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם חֲמִשָּׁ֤ה וְאַרְבָּעִים֙ אֶ֔לֶף וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת וַֽחֲמִשִּֽׁים:
16The total sum for the legions of Reuben's camp was one hundred and fifty one thousand, four hundred and fifty; they shall be the second to set out.   טזכָּל־הַפְּקֻדִ֞ים לְמַֽחֲנֵ֣ה רְאוּבֵ֗ן מְאַ֨ת אֶ֜לֶף וְאֶחָ֨ד וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אֶ֛לֶף וְאַרְבַּע־מֵא֥וֹת וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם וּשְׁנִיִּ֖ם יִסָּֽעוּ:
17Then the Tent of Meeting shall set out, [with] the Levite camp, in the center of the other camps. Just as they camp, so shall they travel, each man in his place, by their divisions.   יזוְנָסַ֧ע אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֛ד מַֽחֲנֵ֥ה הַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם בְּת֣וֹךְ הַמַּֽחֲנֹ֑ת כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר יַֽחֲנוּ֙ כֵּ֣ן יִסָּ֔עוּ אִ֥ישׁ עַל־יָד֖וֹ לְדִגְלֵיהֶֽם:
Then the Tent of Meeting shall set out: After these two divisions.   וְנָסַע אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵד: לְאַחַר שְׁנֵי דְגָלִים הַלָּלוּ:
just as they camp, so shall they travel: As I explained, they journeyed as they camped; each division marching on its designated side.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יַֽחֲנוּ כֵּן יִסָּעוּ: כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי, הֲלִיכָתָן כַּחֲנִיָּתָן, כָּל דֶּגֶל מְהַלֵּךְ לָרוּחַ הַקָּבוּעַ לוֹ:
in his place: Heb. עַל יָדוֹ, lit., on his hand. On his place. The term יָד does not depart from its usual meaning; the direction of his side is called עַל יָדוֹ, that which is by his hand, closest to him and within reach of his hand; en son aise in Old French. [According to Greenberg, on his place, i.e., the place adjacent to him. According to Gukovitski, at his ease (i.e., within easy reach). According to Berliner, on his side.]   עַל־יָדוֹ: עַל מְקוֹמוֹ, וְאֵין לְשׁוֹן יָד זָז מִמַּשְׁמָעוֹ, רוּחַ שֶׁל צִדּוֹ קָרוּי עַל יָדוֹ – הַסְּמוּכָה לוֹ לְכָל הוֹשָׁטַת יָדוֹ, אינשו"ן איש"א בְּלַעַז:
18The legions under the division of the camp of Ephraim were to the west. The prince of the children of Ephraim was Elishama the son of Amihud.   יחדֶּ֣גֶל מַֽחֲנֵ֥ה אֶפְרַ֛יִם לְצִבְאֹתָ֖ם יָ֑מָּה וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם אֱלִֽישָׁמָ֖ע בֶּן־עַמִּיהֽוּד:
19His legion numbered forty thousand, five hundred.   יטוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם אַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
20Next to him, the tribe of Manasseh. The prince of the children of Manasseh was Gamliel the son of Pedahzur.   כוְעָלָ֖יו מַטֵּ֣ה מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה גַּמְלִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־פְּדָהצֽוּר:
Next to him: Heb. וְעָלָיו, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it:“and those closest to him.”   וְעָלָיו: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "וְדִסְמִיכִין עֲלוֹהִי":
21His legion numbered thirty two thousand, two hundred.   כאוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם שְׁנַ֧יִם וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וּמָאתָֽיִם:
22[Then] the tribe of Benjamin. The prince of the children of Benjamin was Abidan the son of Gid'oni.   כבוּמַטֵּ֖ה בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֔ן אֲבִידָ֖ן בֶּן־גִּדְעֹנִֽי:
23His legion numbered thirty five thousand, four hundred.   כגוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם חֲמִשָּׁ֧ה וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
24The total sum for the legions under the division of the camp of Ephraim was one hundred and eight thousand, one hundred; they shall be the third to set out.   כדכָּל־הַפְּקֻדִ֞ים לְמַֽחֲנֵ֣ה אֶפְרַ֗יִם מְאַ֥ת אֶ֛לֶף וּשְׁמֹֽנַת־אֲלָפִ֥ים וּמֵאָ֖ה לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם וּשְׁלִשִׁ֖ים יִסָּֽעוּ:
25The legions under the division of the camp of Dan were to the north. The prince of the children of Dan was Ahi'ezer the son of Ammishaddai.   כהדֶּ֣גֶל מַֽחֲנֵ֥ה דָ֛ן צָפֹ֖נָה לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י דָ֔ן אֲחִיעֶ֖זֶר בֶּן־עַמִּֽישַׁדָּֽי:
26His legion numbered sixty two thousand, seven hundred.   כווּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם שְׁנַ֧יִם וְשִׁשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וּשְׁבַ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
27Camping next to him was the tribe of Asher. The prince of the children of Asher was Pag'iel the son of 'Ocran.   כזוְהַֽחֹנִ֥ים עָלָ֖יו מַטֵּ֣ה אָשֵׁ֑ר וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י אָשֵׁ֔ר פַּגְעִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עָכְרָֽן:
28His legion numbered forty one thousand, five hundred.   כחוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם אֶחָ֧ד וְאַרְבָּעִ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
29[Then] the tribe of Naphtali. The prince of the children of Naphtali was Ahira' the son of 'Enan.   כטוּמַטֵּ֖ה נַפְתָּלִ֑י וְנָשִׂיא֙ לִבְנֵ֣י נַפְתָּלִ֔י אֲחִירַ֖ע בֶּן־עֵינָֽן:
30His legion numbered fifty three thousand, four hundred.   לוּצְבָא֖וֹ וּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם שְׁלשָׁ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֽוֹת:
31The total sum for the legions under the division of the camp of Dan was one hundred and fifty seven thousand, six hundred; they shall be the last to set out.   לאכָּל־הַפְּקֻדִים֙ לְמַ֣חֲנֵה דָ֔ן מְאַ֣ת אֶ֗לֶף וְשִׁבְעָ֧ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֛ים אֶ֖לֶף וְשֵׁ֣שׁ מֵא֑וֹת לָאַֽחֲרֹנָ֥ה יִסְע֖וּ לְדִגְלֵיהֶֽם:
32These are the numbers of the Israelites according to their fathers' houses. The total number of legions of the camps was six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty.   לבאֵ֛לֶּה פְּקוּדֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם כָּל־פְּקוּדֵ֤י הַמַּֽחֲנֹת֙ לְצִבְאֹתָ֔ם שֵׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֨לֶף֙ וּשְׁל֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֔ים וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת וַֽחֲמִשִּֽׁים:
33However, the Levites were not counted with the rest of the Israelites, as the Lord commanded Moses.   לגוְהַ֨לְוִיִּ֔ם לֹ֣א הָתְפָּֽקְד֔וּ בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
34The Israelites did all that the Lord had commanded Moses; they encamped by their divisions, and so did they journey each man with his family, according to his father's house.   לדוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֨ה יְהוָֹ֜ה אֶת־משֶׁ֗ה כֵּן־חָנ֤וּ לְדִגְלֵיהֶם֙ וְכֵ֣ן נָסָ֔עוּ אִ֥ישׁ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖יו עַל־בֵּ֥ית אֲבֹתָֽיו:

Fourth Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 3

1These are the descendants of Aaron and Moses on the day that the Lord spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai.   אוְאֵ֛לֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹ֥ת אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּמשֶׁ֑ה בְּי֗וֹם דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהוָֹ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה בְּהַ֥ר סִינָֽי:
These are the descendants of Moses and Aaron: Yet only the sons of Aaron are mentioned. However, they are considered descendants of Moses because he taught them Torah. This teaches us that whoever teaches Torah to the son of his fellow man, Scripture regards it as if he had begotten him - [Sanh. 19b]   וְאֵלֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹת אַֽהֲרֹן וּמשֶׁה: וְאֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר אֶלָּא בְנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְנִקְרְאוּ תוֹלְדוֹת מֹשֶׁה, לְפִי שֶׁלִּמְּדָן תּוֹרָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל הַמְלַמֵּד אֶת בֶּן חֲבֵרוֹ תּוֹרָה מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ יְלָדוֹ (סנהדרין י"ט):
on the day that the Lord spoke to Moses: they became his descendants, because he taught them what he had learned from the Almighty.   בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר ה' אֶת־משֶׁה: נַעֲשׂוּ אֵלּוּ הַתּוֹלָדוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁלִּמְּדָן מַה שֶּׁלָּמַד מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה:
2These are the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab the firstborn Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.   בוְאֵ֛לֶּה שְׁמ֥וֹת בְּנֵי־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן הַבְּכֹ֣ר | נָדָ֑ב וַֽאֲבִיה֕וּא אֶלְעָזָ֖ר וְאִֽיתָמָֽר:
3These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the anointed kohanim, whom he consecrated to serve as kohanim.   גאֵ֗לֶּה שְׁמוֹת֙ בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים הַמְּשֻׁחִ֑ים אֲשֶׁר־מִלֵּ֥א יָדָ֖ם לְכַהֵֽן:
4Nadab and Abihu died before the Lord when they brought alien fire before the Lord in the Sinai desert, and they had no children. Eleazar and Ithamar, however, served as kohanim in the presence of Aaron, their father.   דוַיָּ֣מָת נָדָ֣ב וַֽאֲבִיה֣וּא לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָֹ֡ה בְּהַקְרִבָם֩ אֵ֨שׁ זָרָ֜ה לִפְנֵ֤י יְהוָֹה֙ בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר סִינַ֔י וּבָנִ֖ים לֹֽא־הָי֣וּ לָהֶ֑ם וַיְכַהֵ֤ן אֶלְעָזָר֙ וְאִ֣יתָמָ֔ר עַל־פְּנֵ֖י אַֽהֲרֹ֥ן אֲבִיהֶֽם:
in the presence of Aaron: During his lifetime. [Num. Rabbah 2:26, Lev. Rabbah 20:11, Pesikta d’Rav Kahana p. 173b]   עַל־פְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן: בְּחַיָּיו:
5The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   הוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
6Bring forth the tribe of Levi and present them before Aaron the kohen, that they may serve him.   והַקְרֵב֙ אֶת־מַטֵּ֣ה לֵוִ֔י וְהַֽעֲמַדְתָּ֣ אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְשֵֽׁרְת֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ:
that they may serve him: What form does this service take? “They shall keep his charge” (verse 7). Since guarding the Sanctuary so that no stranger (non- kohen) should come near is his obligation, as it says, “You, your sons, and your father’s house with you, shall bear the iniquity of the Sanctuary” (Num. 18:1), and these Levites assisted him this was the service.   וְשֵֽׁרְתוּ אֹתוֹ: וּמַהוּ הַשֵּׁרוּת? "ושמרו אֶת־משמרתו" לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁמִירַת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרַב זָר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבֵית אָבִיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת עֲוֹן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ (במדבר י"ח), וְהַלְוִיִּם הַלָּלוּ מְסַיְּעִין אוֹתָם, זוֹ הִיא הַשֵּׁרוּת:
7They shall keep his charge and the charge of the entire community before the Tent of Meeting, to perform the service of the Mishkan.   זוְשָׁמְר֣וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתּ֗וֹ וְאֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֨רֶת֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־עֲבֹדַ֥ת הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
They shall keep his charge: Any office to which a person is appointed and [the duty] he is bound to carry out, is מִשְׁמֶרֶת in Scripture and in Mishnaic idiom, as in reference to Bigthan and Teresh [where it says], “But my duty is not similar to your duty” (Meg. 13b), [meaning that the hours of my service do not coincide with those of yours]. Similarly [we find the word used in the clause],“The watches (מִשְׁמְרוֹת) of the kehuna and of the Levites.”   וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתּוֹ: כָּל מִנּוּי שֶׁהָאָדָם מְמֻנֶּה עָלָיו וּמֻטָּל עָלָיו לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ קָרוּי מִשְׁמֶרֶת בְּכָל הַמִּקְרָא וּבִלְשׁוֹן הַמִּשְׁנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמוּר בְּבִגְתָן וָתֶרֶשׁ "וַהֲלֹא אֵין מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וּמִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ שָׁוָה" (מגילה י"ג), וְכֵן מִשְׁמְרוֹת כְהֻנָּה וּלְוִיָּה:
8They shall take charge of all the vessels of the Tent of Meeting and the charge of the children of Israel, to perform the service of the Mishkan.   חוְשָֽׁמְר֗וּ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי֙ אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד וְאֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־עֲבֹדַ֥ת הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
the charge of the children of Israel: All of them were bound [to take care of] the needs of the Sanctuary, but the Levites were in their stead, as their agents. Thus, in reward, they [the Levites] take tithes from them [the Israelites], as it says,“for it is your reward, in exchange for your service” (Num. 18: 31).   וְאֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: שֶׁכֻּלָּן הָיוּ זְקוּקִין לְצָרְכֵי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַלְוִיִּם בָּאִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶם בִּשְׁלִיחוּתָם, לְפִיכָךְ לוֹקְחִים מֵהֶם הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת בִּשְׂכָרָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כִּי שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם" (במדבר י"ח):
9You shall give over the Levites to Aaron and his sons; they shall be wholly given over to him from the children of Israel.   טוְנָֽתַתָּה֙ אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו נְתוּנִ֨ם נְתוּנִ֥ם הֵ֨מָּה֙ ל֔וֹ מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Given over to him: for assistance.   נְתוּנִם הֵמָּה לוֹ: לְעֶזְרָה:
from the children of Israel: Heb. מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, like מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, from among the children of Israel, that is to say, they have been singled out for this purpose from the rest of the congregation by the decree of the Omnipresent, and He gave them to him, as it says, “And I have given the Levites, they are… given” (Num. 8:19).   מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: כְּמוֹ מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשׂרָאֵל, כְּלוֹמַר מִשְּׁאָר כָּל הָעֵדָה נִבְדְּלוּ לְכָךְ בִּגְזֵרַת הַמָּקוֹם וְהוּא נְתָנָם לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת הַלְוִיִּם נְתֻנִים" וְגוֹ' (במדבר ח'):
10You shall appoint Aaron and his sons, and they shall keep their kehunah; any outsider [non kohen] who approaches shall be put to death.   יוְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו֙ תִּפְקֹ֔ד וְשָֽׁמְר֖וּ אֶת־כְּהֻנָּתָ֑ם וְהַזָּ֥ר הַקָּרֵ֖ב יוּמָֽת:
You shall appoint Aaron…: [The word תִּפְקֹד is] an expression of appointment, not of counting.   וְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תִּפְקֹד: לְשׁוֹן פְּקִידוּת, וְאֵינוֹ לְשׁוֹן מִנְיָן:
They shall observe their kehunah: [This refers to] receiving the blood [in a basin], dashing the blood, burning [the fats], and other rites entrusted to the priests.   וְשָֽׁמְרוּ אֶת־כְּהֻנָּתָם: קַבָּלַת דָּמִים וּזְרִיקָה וְהַקְטָרָה וַעֲבוֹדוֹת הַמְּסוּרוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים:
11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying.   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12As for Me I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel in place of all firstborns among the children of Israel who have opened the womb, and the Levites shall be Mine.   יבוַֽאֲנִ֞י הִנֵּ֧ה לָקַ֣חְתִּי אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם מִתּוֹךְ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל תַּ֧חַת כָּל־בְּכ֛וֹר פֶּ֥טֶר רֶ֖חֶם מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י הַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
As for Me: I have taken-As for Me; what right do I have to them ?   וַֽאֲנִי הִנֵּה לָקַחְתִּי: וַאֲנִי מֵהֵיכָן זָכִיתִי בָהֶן :
from among the children of Israel: That the Israelites should have to hire them for My service? I gained My right to them through the [Israelite] firstborns, taking them [the Levites] in their place. For [originally] the service was performed by the firstborns, but when they sinned by [worshipping] the [golden] calf, they became disqualified. The Levites, who had not committed idolatry, were chosen in their stead. [Midrash Aggadah]   מתוך בני ישראל: שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שׂוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן לְשֵׁרוּת שֶׁלִּי? עַל יְדֵי הַבְּכוֹרוֹת זָכִיתִי בָהֶם וּלְקַחְתִּים תְּמוּרָתָם. לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה הָעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת, וּכְשֶׁחָטְאוּ בָעֵגֶל נִפְסְלוּ, וְהַלְוִיִּם שֶׁלֹּא עָבְדוּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה נִבְחֲרוּ תַחְתֵּיהֶם (עי' זבחים קי"ב):
13For all the firstborns are Mine; since the day I smote all the firstborns in the land of Egypt, I sanctified for Myself all the firstborns of Israel, both man and beast they shall become Mine, I am the Lord.   יגכִּ֣י לִי֘ כָּל־בְּכוֹר֒ בְּיוֹם֩ הַכֹּתִ֨י כָל־בְּכ֜וֹר בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם הִקְדַּ֨שְׁתִּי לִ֤י כָל־בְּכוֹר֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵֽאָדָ֖ם עַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה לִ֥י יִֽהְי֖וּ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֹֽה:

Fifth Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 3

14The Lord spoke to Moses in the Sinai desert, saying:   ידוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוָֹה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינַ֖י לֵאמֹֽר:
15Count the children of Levi according to their fathers' house according to their families. Count all males from the age of one month and upward.   טופְּקֹד֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י לֵוִ֔י לְבֵ֥ית אֲבֹתָ֖ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם כָּל־זָכָ֛ר מִבֶּן־חֹ֥דֶשׁ וָמַ֖עְלָה תִּפְקְדֵֽם:
From the age of one month and upward: When he is no longer in the category of [possible] premature birth, he is counted among those called, “keepers of the holy charge.” R. Judah the son of R. Shalom said: That tribe is accustomed to being counted from the womb, as it says, “whom she bore to Levi in Egypt” ; as she entered the gate of Egypt, she bore her [Jochebed], yet she [Jochebed] was counted as one of the seventy souls. For if you count their total, you find only sixty-nine, but she completed the number. [Mid. Tanchuma , Bamidbar 16]   מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וָמַעְלָה: מִשֶּׁיָּצָא מִכְּלַל נְפָלִים הוּא נִמְנֶה לִקָּרֵא שׁוֹמֵר מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ; אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי שָׁלוֹם לָמוּד הוּא אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁבֶט לִהְיוֹת נִמְנֶה מִן הַבֶּטֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֹתָהּ לְלֵוִי בְּמִצְרָיִם" (במדבר כ״ו:נ״ט), — עִם כְּנִיסָתָהּ בְּפֶתַח מִצְרַיִם יָלְדָה אוֹתָהּ וְנִמְנֵית בְּשִׁבְעִים נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאַתָּה מוֹנֶה חֶשְׁבּוֹנָם לֹא תִמְצָאֵם אֶלָּא שִׁבְעִים חָסֵר אֶחָד, וְהִיא הִשְׁלִימָה אֶת הַמִּנְיָן (תנחומא):
16So Moses counted them according to God's word, just as he was commanded.   טזוַיִּפְקֹ֥ד אֹתָ֛ם משֶׁ֖ה עַל־פִּ֣י יְהוָֹ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צֻוָּֽה:
according to God’s word: Moses said to the Holy One, blessed is He, “How can I enter their tents to know the number of their sucklings?” The Holy One, blessed is He, replied to him, “You do yours, and I will do Mine.” Moses went and stood at the entrance to the tent, and the Divine Presence preceded him. A heavenly voice then emanated from the tent, saying, “There are this many babies in this tent.” That is why it says, “according to God’s word.” [Num. Rabbah 3:9]   עַל־פִּי ה': אָמַר מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֵיאַךְ אֲנִי נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ אָהֳלֵיהֶם לָדַעַת מִנְיַן יוֹנְקֵיהֶם? אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, עֲשֵׂה אַתָּה שֶׁלְּךְ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה שֶׁלִּי, הָלַךְ מֹשֶׁה וְעָמַד עַל פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהַשְּׁכִינָה מַקְדֶּמֶת לְפָנָיו, וּבַת קוֹל יוֹצְאָה מִן הָאֹהֶל וְאוֹמֶרֶת כָּךְ וָכָךְ תִּינוֹקוֹת יֵשׁ בְּאֹהֶל זֶה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר עַל פִּי ה':
17These were the names of Levi's sons: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.   יזוַיִּֽהְיוּ־אֵ֥לֶּה בְנֵֽי־לֵוִ֖י בִּשְׁמֹתָ֑ם גֵּֽרְשׁ֕וֹן וּקְהָ֖ת וּמְרָרִֽי:
18The names of the sons of Gershon according to their families were Libni and Shim'ei.   יחוְאֵ֛לֶּה שְׁמ֥וֹת בְּנֵי־גֵֽרְשׁ֖וֹן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם לִבְנִ֖י וְשִׁמְעִֽי:
19And the sons of Kohath according to their families were Amram, Itzhar, Hebron, and Uziel.   יטוּבְנֵ֥י קְהָ֖ת לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם עַמְרָ֣ם וְיִצְהָ֔ר חֶבְר֖וֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵֽל:
20And the sons of Merari according to their families were Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of Levi according to their fathers' houses.   כוּבְנֵ֧י מְרָרִ֛י לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם מַחְלִ֣י וּמוּשִׁ֑י אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֛ם מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הַלֵּוִ֖י לְבֵ֥ית אֲבֹתָֽם:
21For Gershon, the Libnite family and the Shim'eite family; these are the Gershonite families.   כאלְגֵ֣רְשׁ֔וֹן מִשְׁפַּ֨חַת֙ הַלִּבְנִ֔י וּמִשְׁפַּ֖חַת הַשִּׁמְעִ֑י אֵ֣לֶּה הֵ֔ם מִשְׁפְּחֹ֖ת הַגֵּֽרְשֻׁנִּֽי:
For Gershon, the Libnite family: That is to say, from Gershon, those counted were the Libnite family and Shim’eite family; their numbers were so many and so many.   לְגֵרְשׁוֹן מִשְׁפַּחַת הַלִּבְנִי: כְּלוֹמַר, לְגֵרְשׁוֹן הָיוּ הַפְּקוּדִים מִשְׁפַּחַת הַלִּבְנִי וּמִשְׁפַּחַת הַשִּׁמְעִי — פְּקוּדֵיהֶם כָּךְ וְכָךְ:
22Their sum was made according to the number of males from the age of one month and upward; the tally amounted to seven thousand, five hundred.   כבפְּקֻֽדֵיהֶם֙ בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר כָּל־זָכָ֔ר מִבֶּן־חֹ֖דֶשׁ וָמָ֑עְלָה פְּקֻ֣דֵיהֶ֔ם שִׁבְעַ֥ת אֲלָפִ֖ים וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
23The Gershonite families shall camp behind the Mishkan, to the west.   כגמִשְׁפְּחֹ֖ת הַגֵּֽרְשֻׁנִּ֑י אַֽחֲרֵ֧י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ן יַֽחֲנ֖וּ יָֽמָּה:
24The prince of the father's house of the Gershonites is Eliasaph the son of Lael.   כדוּנְשִׂ֥יא בֵית־אָ֖ב לַגֵּֽרְשֻׁנִּ֑י אֶלְיָסָ֖ף בֶּן־לָאֵֽל:
25The charge of the sons of Gershon in the Tent of Meeting [included] the Mishkan, the Tent, its cover, and the screen for the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.   כהוּמִשְׁמֶ֤רֶת בְּנֵי־גֵֽרְשׁוֹן֙ בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן וְהָאֹ֑הֶל מִכְסֵ֕הוּ וּמָסַ֕ךְ פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
the Mishkan: The bottom curtains.   הַמִּשְׁכָּן: יְרִיעוֹת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת:
the Tent: The curtains made of goats’ hair, which served as the roof.   וְהָאֹהֶל: יְרִיעוֹת עִזִּים הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת לְגַג:
its cover: Ram skins and tachash skins.   מִכְסֵהוּ: עוֹרוֹת אֵילִים וּתְחָשִׁים:
the screen for the entrance: This is the curtain.   וּמָסַךְ פֶּתַח: הוּא הַוִּילוֹן:
26The hangings of the courtyard, the screen at the entrance to the courtyard, which is around the Mishkan and the altar, its ropes, as well as all the work involved.   כווְקַלְעֵ֣י הֶֽחָצֵ֗ר וְאֶת־מָסַךְ֙ פֶּ֣תַח הֶֽחָצֵ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֧ר עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ן וְעַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִ֑יב וְאֵת֙ מֵֽיתָרָ֔יו לְכֹ֖ל עֲבֹֽדָתֽוֹ:
and its ropes: of the Mishkan and the tent, but not of the courtyard.   וְאֶת־מֵֽיתָרָיו: שֶׁל הַמִשְׁכָּן וְהָאֹהֶל, וְלֹא שֶׁל חָצֵר:
27For Kohath, the Amramite family, the Izharite family, the Hebronite family, and the Uzielite family; these are the families of Kohath.   כזוְלִקְהָ֗ת מִשְׁפַּ֤חַת הָֽעַמְרָמִי֙ וּמִשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַיִּצְהָרִ֔י וּמִשְׁפַּ֨חַת֙ הַֽחֶבְרֹנִ֔י וּמִשְׁפַּ֖חַת הָֽעָזִּֽיאֵלִ֑י אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הַקְּהָתִֽי:
28The number of all males from the age of one month and upward amounted to eight thousand six hundred, the keepers of the charge of the holy.   כחבְּמִסְפַּר֙ כָּל־זָכָ֔ר מִבֶּן־חֹ֖דֶשׁ וָמָ֑עְלָה שְׁמֹנַ֤ת אֲלָפִים֙ וְשֵׁ֣שׁ מֵא֔וֹת שֹֽׁמְרֵ֖י מִשְׁמֶ֥רֶת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
29The families of the sons of Kohath shall camp to the south side of the Mishkan.   כטמִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־קְהָ֖ת יַֽחֲנ֑וּ עַ֛ל יֶ֥רֶךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן תֵּימָֽנָה:
The families of the sons of Kohath shall camp to the south: Near them was the division of Reuben, who camped to the south. Woe to the wicked, woe to his neighbor! This explains why Dathan, Abiram, and two hundred and fifty men were smitten with Korah and his congregation, for they were drawn into the dispute along with them. [Tanchuma, Bamidbar 12]   מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵֽי־קְהָת יַֽחֲנוּ … תֵּימָֽנָה: וּסְמוּכִין לָהֶם דֶּגֶל רְאוּבֵן הַחוֹנִים תֵּימָנָה — אוֹי לָרָשָׁע אוֹי לִשְׁכֵנוֹ, לְכָךְ לָקוּ מֵהֶם דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם וּמָאתַיִם וַחֲמִשִּׁים אִישׁ עִם קֹרַח וַעֲדָתוֹ, שֶׁנִּמְשְׁכוּ עִמָּהֶם בְּמַחֲלָקְתָּם (תנחומא):
30The prince of the father's house of the Kohathite families is Elizaphan the son of Uziel.   לוּנְשִׂ֥יא בֵית־אָ֖ב לְמִשְׁפְּחֹ֣ת הַקְּהָתִ֑י אֱלִֽיצָפָ֖ן בֶּן־עֻזִּיאֵֽל:
31Their charge [included] the ark, the table, the menorah, the altars, and the holy utensils with which they would minister, and the screen and all the work involved.   לאוּמִשְׁמַרְתָּ֗ם הָֽאָרֹ֤ן וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן֙ וְהַמְּנֹרָ֣ה וְהַמִּזְבְּחֹ֔ת וּכְלֵ֣י הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשָֽׁרְת֖וּ בָּהֶ֑ם וְהַ֨מָּסָ֔ךְ וְכֹ֖ל עֲבֹֽדָתֽוֹ:
the screen: This refers to the dividing curtain [at the entrance to the Holy of Holies], for it is also known as [a screen, as in the phrase] “the screening dividing curtain” (Ex. 40:21).   וְהַמָּסָךְ: הִיא הַפָּרֹכֶת, שֶׁאַף הִיא קְרוּיָה פָּרֹכֶת הַמָּסָךְ:
32The prince over all the princes of the Levites shall be Eleazar the son of Aaron the kohen, the appointment of all the keepers of the charge of the Holy.   לבוּנְשִׂיא֙ נְשִׂיאֵ֣י הַלֵּוִ֔י אֶלְעָזָ֖ר בֶּן־אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֑ן פְּקֻדַּ֕ת שֹֽׁמְרֵ֖י מִשְׁמֶ֥רֶת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
The prince over all the princes of the Levites: He was appointed over all of them. In what regard was he prince over them? “The appointment of all the keepers of the charge of the Holy” - they were all appointed by him.   וּנְשִׂיא נְשִׂיאֵי הַלֵּוִי: מְמֻנֶּה עַל כֻּלָּם, וְעַל מַה הִיא נְשִׂיאוּתוֹ פְּקֻדַּת שֹֽׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמֶרֶת עַל יָדוֹ הִיא פְּקֻדַּת כֻּלָּם: —
33For Merari, the Machlite family and the Mushite family; these are the families of Merari.   לגלִמְרָרִ֕י מִשְׁפַּ֨חַת֙ הַמַּחְלִ֔י וּמִשְׁפַּ֖חַת הַמּוּשִׁ֑י אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת מְרָרִֽי:
34Their tally according to the number of males from the age of one month and upward was six thousand two hundred.   לדוּפְקֻֽדֵיהֶם֙ בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר כָּל־זָכָ֔ר מִבֶּן־חֹ֖דֶשׁ וָמָ֑עְלָה שֵׁ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים וּמָאתָֽיִם:
35The prince of the father's house of the Merarite families is Zuriel the son of Abihail; they shall camp on the north side of the Mishkan.   להוּנְשִׂ֤יא בֵית־אָב֙ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹ֣ת מְרָרִ֔י צֽוּרִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־אֲבִיחָ֑יִל עַ֣ל יֶ֧רֶךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ן יַֽחֲנ֖וּ צָפֹֽנָה:
36The appointment of the charge of the sons of Merari [included] the planks of the Mishkan, its bars, its pillars, and its sockets, all its utensils, and all the work involved.   לווּפְקֻדַּ֣ת מִשְׁמֶ֘רֶת֘ בְּנֵ֣י מְרָרִי֒ קַרְשֵׁי֙ הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן וּבְרִיחָ֖יו וְעַמֻּדָ֣יו וַֽאֲדָנָ֑יו וְכָ֨ל־כֵּלָ֔יו וְכֹ֖ל עֲבֹֽדָתֽוֹ:
37Also the pillars of the surrounding courtyard, their sockets, their stakes, and their ropes.   לזוְעַמֻּדֵ֧י הֶֽחָצֵ֛ר סָבִ֖יב וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֑ם וִיתֵֽדֹתָ֖ם וּמֵֽיתְרֵיהֶֽם:
38Camping in front of the Mishkan, in front of the Tent of Meeting to the east were Moses, Aaron and his sons, the keepers of the charge of the Sanctuary as a trust for the children of Israel; any outsider who approaches shall be put to death.   לחוְהַֽחֹנִ֣ים לִפְנֵ֣י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֡ן קֵ֣דְמָה לִפְנֵי֩ אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֨ד | מִזְרָ֜חָה משֶׁ֣ה | וְאַֽהֲרֹ֣ן וּבָנָ֗יו שֹֽׁמְרִים֙ מִשְׁמֶ֣רֶת הַמִּקְדָּ֔שׁ לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהַזָּ֥ר הַקָּרֵ֖ב יוּמָֽת:
Moses, Aaron and his sons: Near them was the division of the camp of Judah, next to whom camped Issachar and Zebulun. It is good for the righteous, and it is good for his neighbor; because they were neighbors of Moses, who was engaged in Torah study, they became great Torah scholars, as it says, “Judah is my lawgiver” (Ps. 60:9). The descendants of Issachar were those “who had understanding of the times” (I Chron. 12:32)… the two hundred heads of the Sanhedrin,“and from Zebulun came those who wield the scribe’s quill” (Jud. 5:14). [Tanchuma 12]   משֶׁה וְאַֽהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו: וּסְמוּכִין לָהֶם דֶּגֶל מַחֲנֵה יְהוּדָה, וְהַחוֹנִים עָלָיו יִשָּׂשכָר וּזְבוּלֻן — טוֹב לַצַּדִיק טוֹב לִשְׁכֵנוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁכֵנָיו שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה שֶׁהָיָה עוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה, נַעֲשׂוּ גְדוֹלִים בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "יְהוּדָה מְחֹקְקִי" (תהלים ס, ט), "וּמִבְּנֵי יִשָּׂשכָר יוֹדְעֵי בִינָה וְגוֹ' מָאתַיִם" (דהי"א י"ב) — רָאשֵׁי סַנְהֶדְרָאוֹת, "וּמִזְּבוּלֻן מֹשְׁכִים בְּשֵׁבֶט סֹפֵר" (שופטים ה, יד) (תנחומא):
39The sum of the male Levites according to their families, from the age of one month and upward, counted by Moses and Aaron according to the word of the Lord, was twenty two thousand.   לטכָּל־פְּקוּדֵ֨י הַֽלְוִיִּ֜ם אֲשֶׁר֩ פָּקַ֨ד משֶׁ֧ה וְ֗אַֽ֗הֲ֗רֹ֛֗ן֗ עַל־פִּ֥י יְהוָֹ֖ה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם כָּל־זָכָר֙ מִבֶּן־חֹ֣דֶשׁ וָמַ֔עְלָה שְׁנַ֥יִם וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים אָֽלֶף:
counted by Moses and Aaron: There are dots over the word וְאַהֲרֹן to show that he was not included in the sum of the Levites. [Bech. 4a]   אֲשֶׁר פָּקַד משֶׁה וְאַֽהֲרֹן: נָקוּד עַל וְאַהֲרֹן, לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְּמִנְיַן הַלְוִיִּם (בכורות ד'):
twenty-two thousand: But when you count them individually, you will find another three hundred: the descendants of Gershon were seven thousand, five hundred; the descendants of Kohath were eight thousand, six hundred, and the descendants of Merari, six thousand, two hundred. Why were they not included with the rest to redeem the firstborn, thus exempting the two hundred and seventy-three firstborns who were in excess [of the number of Levites] from redemption (see verses 46-48)? Our Sages in Tractate Bechorot (5a) answer that those three hundred Levites were firstborns, and it was enough that they exempt themselves from redemption.   שְׁנַיִם וְעֶשְׂרִים אָֽלֶף: וּבִפְרָטָן אַתָּה מוֹצֵא שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת יְתֵרִים — בְּנֵי גֵּרְשׁוֹן שִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת, בְּנֵי קְהָת שְׁמוֹנַת אֲלָפִים וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת, בְּנֵי מְרָרִי שֵׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּמָאתָיִם; וְלָמָּה לֹא כְלָלָן עִם הַשְּׁאָר וְיִפְדּוּ אֶת הַבְּכוֹרוֹת וְלֹא יִהְיוּ זְקוּקִים הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה וְשִׁבְעִים וּמָאתַיִם בְּכוֹרוֹת הָעוֹדְפִים עַל הַמִּנְיָן לְפִדְיוֹן? אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בְמַסֶּכֶת בְּכוֹרוֹת (דף ה'), אוֹתָן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת לְוִיִּם בְּכוֹרוֹת הָיוּ, וְדַיָּם שֶׁיַּפְקִיעוּ עַצְמָם מִן הַפִּדְיוֹן:

Sixth Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 3

40The Lord said to Moses: Count every firstborn male aged one month and upward of the children of Israel, and take the number of their names.   מוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָֹ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה פְּקֹ֨ד כָּל־בְּכֹ֤ר זָכָר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִבֶּן־חֹ֖דֶשׁ וָמָ֑עְלָה וְשָׂ֕א אֵ֖ת מִסְפַּ֥ר שְׁמֹתָֽם:
Count every firstborn male aged one month and upward: From the time he is no longer categorized as possibly a premature birth.   פְּקֹד כָּל־בְּכֹר זָכָר מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וָמָעְלָה: מִשֶּׁיָּצָא מִכְּלַל סְפֵק נְפָלִים:
41And you shall take the Levites for Me I am the Lord instead of all firstborns among the children of Israel. And [take] the Levites' animals instead of all the firstborn animals of the children of Israel.   מאוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֙ אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֥ם לִי֙ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָֹ֔ה תַּ֥חַת כָּל־בְּכֹ֖ר בִּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְאֵת֙ בֶּֽהֱמַ֣ת הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם תַּ֣חַת כָּל־בְּכ֔וֹר בְּבֶֽהֱמַ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
42So Moses counted every firstborn of Israel, as the Lord had commanded him.   מבוַיִּפְקֹ֣ד משֶׁ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֹ֖ה אֹת֑וֹ אֶת־כָּל־בְּכ֖וֹר בִּבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
43The firstborn males aged one month and upward, according to the number of names, was twenty two thousand, two hundred and seventy three.   מגוַיְהִי֩ כָל־בְּכ֨וֹר זָכָ֜ר בְּמִסְפַּ֥ר שֵׁמֹ֛ת מִבֶּן־חֹ֥דֶשׁ וָמַ֖עְלָה לִפְקֻֽדֵיהֶ֑ם שְׁנַ֤יִם וְעֶשְׂרִים֙ אֶ֔לֶף שְׁלשָׁ֥ה וְשִׁבְעִ֖ים וּמָאתָֽיִם:
44The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   מדוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
45Take the Levites instead of all the firstborns among the children of Israel and the Levites' animals instead of their animals, and the Levites shall be Mine I am the Lord.   מהקַ֣ח אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם תַּ֤חַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר֙ בִּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶת־בֶּֽהֱמַ֥ת הַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם תַּ֣חַת בְּהֶמְתָּ֑ם וְהָֽיוּ־לִ֥י הַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֹֽה:
and the Levites animals…: The Levites’ animals did not redeem the clean firstborn animals of the Israelites, but their firstborn donkeys. One lamb belonging to a Levite could exempt many firstborn donkeys of an Israelite. The proof is that [Scripture] counts the excess number of [firstborn] men, but not the extra animals. [Bech. 4b]   וְאֶת־בֶּֽהֱמַת הַֽלְוִיִּם וגו': לֹא פָדוּ בְהֵמוֹת הַלְוִיִּם אֶת בְּכוֹרֵי בְהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא אֶת פִּטְרֵי חֲמוֹרֵיהֶם, וְשֶׂה אֶחָד שֶׁל בֶּן לֵוִי פָּטַר כַּמָּה פִטְרֵי חֲמוֹרִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. תֵּדַע, שֶׁהֲרֵי מָנָה הָעוֹדְפִים בָּאָדָם וְלֹא מָנָה הָעוֹדְפִים בַּבְּהֵמָה (שם ד'):
46As for the two hundred and seventy three of the children of Israel who required redemption, who are in excess of the Levites,   מווְאֵת֙ פְּדוּיֵ֣י הַשְּׁלשָׁ֔ה וְהַשִּׁבְעִ֖ים וְהַמָּאתָ֑יִם הָעֹֽדְפִים֙ עַל־הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם מִבְּכ֖וֹר בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
As for the two hundred and seventy-three of the children of Israel who required redemption: The firstborn among them who require redemption-these are the two hundred and seventy-three in excess of the Levites; from them you shall take five shekels per head. Such was the sale [price] of Joseph, the firstborn of Rachel, [for the price was] twenty silver pieces [i.e., twenty dinarim, four of which equal a sela]. [Gen. Rabbah 84:18]   וְאֵת פְּדוּיֵי הַשְּׁלשָׁה וגו': וְאֶת הַבְּכוֹרוֹת הַצְּרִיכִין לְהִפָּדוֹת בָּהֶם, אֵלּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְשִׁבְעִים וּמָאתַיִם הָעֹדְפִים בָּהֶם יְתֵרִים עַל הַלְוִיִּם, מֵהֶם תִּקַּח חמשת שקלים לגלגלת; כָּךְ הָיְתָה מְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף, עֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף, שֶׁהָיָה בְּכוֹרָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל (ב"ר פ"ד):
47you shall take five shekels per head, according to the holy shekel, by which the shekel is twenty gerahs.   מזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֗ חֲמֵ֧שֶׁת חֲמֵ֛שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים לַגֻּלְגֹּ֑לֶת בְּשֶׁ֤קֶל הַקֹּ֨דֶשׁ֙ תִּקָּ֔ח עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל:
48You shall give the money to Aaron and his sons, in redemption for the firstborns who are in excess of them.   מחוְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה הַכֶּ֔סֶף לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו פְּדוּיֵ֕י הָעֹֽדְפִ֖ים בָּהֶֽם:
49So Moses took the redemption money for those in excess of those redeemed by the Levites.   מטוַיִּקַּ֣ח משֶׁ֔ה אֵ֖ת כֶּ֣סֶף הַפִּדְי֑וֹם מֵאֵת֙ הָעֹ֣דְפִ֔ים עַ֖ל פְּדוּיֵ֥י הַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
in excess of those redeemed by the Levites: Those remaining after the Levites had redeemed them with their very selves.   הָעֹדְפִים עַל פְּדוּיֵי הַֽלְוִיִּֽם: עַל אוֹתָן שֶׁפָּדוּ הַלְוִיִּם בְּגוּפָן:
50He took the money from the firstborn of the children of Israel; one thousand, three hundred and sixty five of the holy shekels.   נמֵאֵ֗ת בְּכ֛וֹר בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לָקַ֣ח אֶת־הַכָּ֑סֶף חֲמִשָּׁ֨ה וְשִׁשִּׁ֜ים וּשְׁל֥שׁ מֵא֛וֹת וָאֶ֖לֶף בְּשֶׁ֥קֶל הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
one thousand, three hundred and sixty-five: This is the sum total, at five shekels per head: for two hundred firstborn, a thousand shekels. For seventy firstborn, three hundred and fifty shekels; for three firstborn, fifteen shekels. He [Moses] said, “How shall I do it? If I tell a firstborn to give five shekels, he will tell me, 'I am one of those redeemed by the Levites.’” What did he do? He brought twenty-two thousand slips [of paper] and wrote on them, “Levite.” [Then] two hundred and seventy-three slips and wrote on them, “five shekels.” He jumbled them and put them into an urn and told them,“Come and take your slips according to lot.” [Sanh. 17a]   חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת וָאֶלֶף: כָּךְ סְכוּם הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן: חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת — לְמָאתַיִם בְּכוֹרוֹת אֶלֶף שֶׁקֶל, לְשִׁבְעִים בְּכוֹרוֹת שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל, וְשָׁלֹשׁ בְּכוֹרוֹת חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שֶׁקֶל; אָמַר, כֵּיצַד אֶעֱשֶׂה? בְּכוֹר שֶׁאֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים, יֹאמַר לִי "אֲנִי מִפְּדוּיֵי הַלְוִיִּם". מֶה עָשָׂה? הֵבִיא שְׁנַיִם וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף פְּתָקִין וְכָתַב עֲלֵיהֶם "בֶּן לֵוִי" וּמָאתַיִם וְשִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה פְּתָקִין כָּתַב עֲלֵיהֶן "חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים", בְּלָלָן וּנְתָנָן בַּקַּלְפִּי, אָמַר לָהֶם, בּוֹאוּ וּטְלוּ פִתְקֵיכֶם לְפִי הַגּוֹרָל (סנהדרין י"ז):
51Then Moses gave the money of those redeemed to Aaron and his sons, in accordance with the word of the Lord, as the Lord had commanded Moses.   נאוַיִּתֵּ֨ן משֶׁ֜ה אֶת־כֶּ֧סֶף הַפְּדֻיִּ֛ם לְאַֽהֲ֥רֹן וּלְבָנָי֖ו עַל־פִּ֣י יְהוָֹ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:

Seventh Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 4

1The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוָֹ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2Make a count of the sons of Kohath from among the children of Levi by their families, according to their fathers' houses.   בנָשׂ֗א אֶת־רֹאשׁ֙ בְּנֵ֣י קְהָ֔ת מִתּ֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י לֵוִ֑י לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לְבֵ֥ית אֲבֹתָֽם:
Make a count: Count those among them who are fit for the service of carrying, and are from the age of thirty until the age of fifty. One under thirty has not reached the peak of his strength; from this our Sages said, “At thirty for [full] strength” (Avoth 5:21). Over the age of fifty, one’s strength begins to wane.   נָשׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ וגו': מְנֵה מֵהֶם אֶת הָרְאוּיִין לַעֲבוֹדַת מַשָּׂא, וְהֵם מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים וְעַד בֶּן חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה, וְהַפָּחוּת מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים לֹא נִתְמַלֵּא כֹחוֹ, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ (אבות פ"ה) "בֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים לַכֹּחַ", וְהַיּוֹתֵר עַל בֶּן חֲמִשִּׁים כֹּחוֹ מַכְחִישׁ מֵעַתָּה:
3From the age of thirty until the age of fifty, all who enter the service, to do work in the Tent of Meeting.   גמִבֶּ֨ן שְׁלשִׁ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה וְעַ֖ד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה כָּל־בָּא֙ לַצָּבָ֔א לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת מְלָאכָ֖ה בְּאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
4The following is the service of the sons of Kohath in the Tent of Meeting-the Holy of Holies.   דזֹ֛את עֲבֹדַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־קְהָ֖ת בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד קֹ֖דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִֽׁים:
The Holy of Holies: The holiest of all-the ark, the table, the menorah, the altars, the dividing curtain, and the service utensils.   קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִֽׁים: הַמְקֻדָּשׁ שֶׁבְּכֻלָּן – הָאָרוֹן וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַמְּנוֹרָה וְהַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וְהַפָּרֹכֶת וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת:
5When the camp is about to travel, Aaron and his sons shall come and take down the dividing screen; with it, they shall cover the Ark of the Testimony.   הוּבָ֨א אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וּבָנָיו֙ בִּנְסֹ֣עַ הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְהוֹרִ֕דוּ אֵ֖ת פָּרֹ֣כֶת הַמָּסָ֑ךְ וְכִ֨סּוּ־בָ֔הּ אֵ֖ת אֲרֹ֥ן הָֽעֵדֻֽת:
Aaron and his sons shall come: They shall put each vessel into its holder specified for it in this section. The Levite sons of Kohath need only carry them.   וּבָא אַֽהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו וגו': יַכְנִיסוּ כָל כְּלִי וּכְלִי לְנַרְתֵּקוֹ הַמְפֹרָשׁ לוֹ בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ, וְלֹא יִצְטָרְכוּ הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי קְהָת אֶלָּא לָשֵׂאת:
When the camp is about to travel: When the cloud withdraws, they know that they are to travel.   בִּנְסֹעַ הַמַּֽחֲנֶה: כְּשֶׁהֶעָנָן מִסְתַּלֵּק, הֵן יוֹדְעִין שֶׁיִּסְּעוּ:
6They shall place upon it a covering of tachash skin and on top of that they shall spread a cloth of pure blue wool. Then they shall put its poles in place.   ווְנָֽתְנ֣וּ עָלָ֗יו כְּסוּי֙ ע֣וֹר תַּ֔חַשׁ וּפָֽרְשׂ֧וּ בֶֽגֶד־כְּלִ֛יל תְּכֵ֖לֶת מִלְמָ֑עְלָה וְשָׂמ֖וּ בַּדָּֽיו:
7They shall spread a cloth of blue wool on the Show Table and they shall place on it the forms, spoons, supports, and covering frames; the continual bread can then be placed upon it.   זוְעַ֣ל | שֻׁלְחַ֣ן הַפָּנִ֗ים יִפְרְשׂוּ֘ בֶּ֣גֶד תְּכֵ֒לֶת֒ וְנָֽתְנ֣וּ עָ֠לָ֠יו אֶת־הַקְּעָרֹ֤ת וְאֶת־הַכַּפֹּת֙ וְאֶת־הַמְּנַקִּיֹּ֔ת וְאֵ֖ת קְשׂ֣וֹת הַנָּ֑סֶךְ וְלֶ֥חֶם הַתָּמִ֖יד עָלָ֥יו יִֽהְיֶֽה:
forms, spoons, supports, and covering frames: I have already described [these] in [the chapter dealing with] the work of the Mishkan (Ex. 25).   קערת וכפת וקשות ומנקית: כְּבָר פֵּרַשְׁתִּי בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
covering: Heb. הַנָּסֶךְ, from the term מָסָךְ [a screen] as it is written, with which they are covered (יֻסַּךְ)" (Ex. 25:29).   הַנָּסֶךְ: הַכִּסּוּי, לְשׁוֹן מָסָךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב "אֲשֶׁר יֻסַּךְ בָּהֵן" (שמות כ"ה):
8They shall spread upon them a cloth of crimson wool and cover that with a covering of tachash skin. Then they shall put its poles into place.   חוּפָֽרְשׂ֣וּ עֲלֵיהֶ֗ם בֶּ֚גֶד תּוֹלַ֣עַת שָׁנִ֔י וְכִסּ֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ בְּמִכְסֵ֖ה ע֣וֹר תָּ֑חַשׁ וְשָׂמ֖וּ אֶת־בַּדָּֽיו:
9They shall take a blue cloth and cover the menorah for lighting and its lamps, its tongs, and its scoops, and all its oil vessels used in performing its service.   טוְלָֽקְח֣וּ | בֶּ֣גֶד תְּכֵ֗לֶת וְכִסּ֞וּ אֶת־מְנֹרַ֤ת הַמָּאוֹר֙ וְאֶת־נֵ֣רֹתֶ֔יהָ וְאֶת־מַלְקָחֶ֖יהָ וְאֶת־מַחְתֹּתֶ֑יהָ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־כְּלֵ֣י שַׁמְנָ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשָֽׁרְתוּ־לָ֖הּ בָּהֶֽם:
its tongs: A type of tweezers with which the wick was drawn to the desired direction.   מַלְקָחֶיהָ: כְּמִין צְבַת שֶׁמּוֹשֵׁךְ בָּהּ אֶת הַפְּתִילָה לְכָל צַד שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:
its scoops: Heb. מַחְתֹּתֶיהָ, a sort of small spoon, with a level bottom, not rounded. It had no wall in the front, only at its sides, and he uses it to rake the ashes from the [menorah] lamps when he cleans them.   מַחְתֹּתֶיהָ: כְּמִין כַּף קְטַנָּה, וְשׁוּלֶיהָ פְשׁוּטִין וְלֹא סְגַלְגַּלִּים, וְאֵין לָהּ מְחִצָּה לְפָנֶיהָ אֶלָּא מִצִּדֶּיהָ, וְחוֹתֶה בָהּ אֶת דֶּשֶׁן הַנֵּרוֹת כְּשֶׁמְּטִיבָן:
its lamps: Heb. נֵרֹתֶיהָ, loces in Old French, in which the oil and wicks are placed.   נֵרֹתֶיהָ: לוצי"ש בְּלַעַז, שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים בָּהֶן הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַפְּתִילוֹת:
10They shall put it and its vessels into a covering of tachash skin and place it on a pole.   יוְנָֽתְנ֤וּ אֹתָהּ֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלֶ֔יהָ אֶל־מִכְסֵ֖ה ע֣וֹר תָּ֑חַשׁ וְנָֽתְנ֖וּ עַל־הַמּֽוֹט:
into a covering of tachash skin: A type of [large] sack.   אֶל־מִכְסֵה עוֹר תָּחַשׁ: כְּמִין מַרְצוּף:
11They shall spread a cloth of blue wool over the golden altar and cover it with a covering of tachash skin, and then set its poles in place.   יאוְעַ֣ל | מִזְבַּ֣ח הַזָּהָ֗ב יִפְרְשׂוּ֙ בֶּ֣גֶד תְּכֵ֔לֶת וְכִסּ֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ בְּמִכְסֵ֖ה ע֣וֹר תָּ֑חַשׁ וְשָׂמ֖וּ אֶת־בַּדָּֽיו:
12They shall then take all the vessels used in the Holy, put them into a cloth of blue wool, cover them with a covering of tachash skin, and put them onto a pole.   יבוְלָֽקְחוּ֩ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵ֨י הַשָּׁרֵ֜ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר יְשָֽׁרְתוּ־בָ֣ם בַּקֹּ֗דֶשׁ וְנָֽתְנוּ֙ אֶל־בֶּ֣גֶד תְּכֵ֔לֶת וְכִסּ֣וּ אוֹתָ֔ם בְּמִכְסֵ֖ה ע֣וֹר תָּ֑חַשׁ וְנָֽתְנ֖וּ עַל־הַמּֽוֹט:
all the vessels used in the Holy: That is, within the Mishkan [as opposed to the courtyard], which is holy. These are the incense vessels with which they ministered on the inner altar.   אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אֲשֶׁר יְשָֽׁרְתוּ־בָם בַּקֹּדֶשׁ: בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּן שֶׁהוּא קֹדֶשׁ, וְהֵן כְּלֵי הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁמְּשָׁרְתִין בָּהֶם בְּמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי:
13They shall remove the ashes from the altar and spread a cloth of purple wool over it.   יגוְדִשְּׁנ֖וּ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וּפָֽרְשׂ֣וּ עָלָ֔יו בֶּ֖גֶד אַרְגָּמָֽן:
They shall remove the ashes from the altar: The copper altar.   וְדִשְּׁנוּ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת:
They shall remove: remove the ashes from upon [the altar].   וְדִשְּׁנוּ: יִטְּלוּ אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן מֵעָלָיו:
and spread a purple cloth over it: The fire that descended from heaven crouched under the cloth like a lion during their travels, but it did not burn it because they covered it with a large copper pot.   וּפָֽרְשׂוּ עָלָיו בֶּגֶד אַרְגָּמָֽן: וְאֵשׁ שֶׁיָּרְדָה מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם רְבוּצָה תַּחַת הַבֶּגֶד כַּאֲרִי בִּשְׁעַת הַמַּסָּעוֹת, וְאֵינָהּ שׂוֹרַפְתּוֹ, שֶׁהָיוּ כוֹפִין עָלֶיהָ פְּסַכְתֵּר שֶׁל נְחֹשֶׁת (יומא כ"א):
14They shall place on it all the utensils with which they minister upon it: the scoops, the forks, the shovels, and the basins-all the implements of the altar. Then they shall spread over it a covering of tachash skin and set its poles into place.   ידוְנָֽתְנ֣וּ עָ֠לָ֠יו אֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָ֞יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְשָֽׁרְת֧וּ עָלָ֣יו בָּהֶ֗ם אֶת־הַמַּחְתֹּ֤ת אֶת־הַמִּזְלָגֹת֙ וְאֶת־הַיָּעִ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקֹ֔ת כֹּ֖ל כְּלֵ֣י הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וּפָֽרְשׂ֣וּ עָלָ֗יו כְּס֛וּי ע֥וֹר תַּ֖חַשׁ וְשָׂמ֥וּ בַדָּֽיו:
scoops: Heb. מַחְתֹּת, with which they raked (חוֹתִין) the coals during the separation of the ashes. It was shaped like a three-sided pan, and the coals were gathered up with its front end.   מחתת: שֶׁבָּהֶם חוֹתִין גֶּחָלִים לִתְרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן, הָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּמִין מַחֲבַת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ אֶלָּא שָׁלֹשׁ מְחִצּוֹת, וּמִלְּפָנֶיהָ שׁוֹאֶבֶת אֶת הַגְּחָלִים:
forks: Heb. מִזְלָגֹת, copper hooks used to prod the limbs on the altar and turn them over, so they would be consumed properly and quickly.   מזלגת: צִנּוֹרִיּוֹת שֶׁל נְחֹשֶׁת שֶׁבָּהֶן מַכִּין בָּאֵבָרִים שֶׁעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְהָפְכָן, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַכְּלוּ יָפֶה וּמַהֵר:
shovels: Heb. יָעִים. These were shovels, in Old French, videl , which were made of copper and used to sweep the ashes off the altar.   יעים: הֵם מַגְרֵפוֹת, וּבְלַעַז וודי"ל, וְהֵן שֶׁל נְחֹשֶׁת, וּבָהֶן מְכַבְּדִין אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
15Aaron and his sons shall finish covering the Holy and all the vessels of the Holy when the camp is set to travel, and following that, the sons of Kohath shall come to carry [them], but they shall not touch the sacred objects for [then] they will die. These are the burden of the sons of Kohath for the Tent of Meeting.   טווְכִלָּ֣ה אַֽהֲרֹן־וּ֠בָנָ֠יו לְכַסֹּ֨ת אֶת־הַקֹּ֜דֶשׁ וְאֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵ֣י הַקֹּ֘דֶשׁ֘ בִּנְסֹ֣עַ הַמַּֽחֲנֶה֒ וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן יָבֹ֤אוּ בְנֵֽי־קְהָת֙ לָשֵׂ֔את וְלֹֽא־יִגְּע֥וּ אֶל־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ וָמֵ֑תוּ אֵ֛לֶּה מַשָּׂ֥א בְנֵֽי־קְהָ֖ת בְּאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
the covering of the Holy: The ark and the altar.   לְכַסֹּת אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ: הָאָרוֹן וְהַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
vessels of the Holy: The menorah and the service utensils.   וְאֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ: הַמְּנוֹרָה וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת:
they will die: If they touch [the sacred objects] they are punishable by death at the hands of heaven.   וָמֵתוּ: שֶׁאִם יִגְּעוּ — חַיָּבִין מִיתָה בִידֵי שָׁמַיִם:
16The charge of Eleazar the son of Aaron the kohen: oil for lighting, the incense of spices, the continual [daily] meal offering, and the anointing oil; the charge for the entire Mishkan and all that is in it, of the Holy and its furnishings.   טזוּפְקֻדַּ֞ת אֶלְעָזָ֣ר | בֶּן־אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֗ן שֶׁ֤מֶן הַמָּאוֹר֙ וּקְטֹ֣רֶת הַסַּמִּ֔ים וּמִנְחַ֥ת הַתָּמִ֖יד וְשֶׁ֣מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָ֑ה פְּקֻדַּ֗ת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן֙ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּ֔וֹ בְּקֹ֖דֶשׁ וּבְכֵלָֽיו:
The charge of Eleazar: who was assigned to carry them: the oil, the incense, and the anointing oil.   וּפְקֻדַּת אֶלְעָזָר: שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם לָשֵֹאת אוֹתָם, שֶׁמֶן וּקְטֹרֶת וְשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה:
the continual [daily] meal offering: His duty was to issue orders, to urge [the other workers] so that it be sacrificed at the time of their encampment.   ומנחת התמיד: עָלָיו מֻטָּל לְצַוּוֹת וּלְזָרֵז וּלְהַקְרִיב בְּעֵת חֲנִיָּתָן (תלמוד ירושלמי שבת פ"י):
the charge for the entire Mishkan: He was also appointed over the load [assigned to] the children of Kohath, to direct each man as to his task and burden, and this is [what the verse means when it says] “the… Mishkan and all that is in it” - all the items mentioned above, in this section. But the burden of the sons of Gershon and Merari, which did not consist of the Holy of Holies, was by order of Ithamar, as written in the portion of Naso.   פְּקֻדַּת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן: וְעוֹד הָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל מַשָּׂא בְנֵי קְהָת, לְצַוּוֹת אִישׁ עַל עֲבוֹדָתוֹ וְעַל מַשָּׂאוֹ, וְהוּא המשכן וכל אשר בו, כָּל הַסְּדוּרִים לְמַעְלָה בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ, אֲבָל מַשָּׂא בְנֵי גֵרְשׁוֹן וּמְרָרִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים עַל פִּי אִיתָמָר הָיָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּפָרָשַׁת נָשֹׂא:
17The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron saying:   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוָֹ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
18Do not cause the tribe of the families of Kohath to be cut off from among the Levites.   יחאַל־תַּכְרִ֕יתוּ אֶת־שֵׁ֖בֶט מִשְׁפְּחֹ֣ת הַקְּהָתִ֑י מִתּ֖וֹךְ הַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
Do not cause… to be cut off: Do not cause them to die.   אַל־תַּכְרִיתוּ: אַל תִּגְרְמוּ לָהֶם שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ:
19Do this for them, so they should live and not die, when they approach the Holy of Holies. Aaron and his sons shall first come and appoint each man individually to his task and his load.   יטוְזֹ֣את | עֲשׂ֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם וְחָיוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יָמֻ֔תוּ בְּגִשְׁתָּ֖ם אֶת־קֹ֣דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁ֑ים אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וּבָנָיו֙ יָבֹ֔אוּ וְשָׂמ֣וּ אוֹתָ֗ם אִ֥ישׁ אִ֛ישׁ עַל־עֲבֹֽדָת֖וֹ וְאֶל־מַשָּׂאֽוֹ:
20They shall not come in to see when the holy [vessels] are being wrapped up, lest they die.   כוְלֹֽא־יָבֹ֧אוּ לִרְא֛וֹת כְּבַלַּ֥ע אֶת־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ וָמֵֽתוּ:
They shall not come in to see when the holy [vessels] are being wrapped up: In their covering, as I explained above in this section: They shall spread such and such a cloth over it, and cover it with such and such a cover. The wrapping up of it [mentioned here] is identical with the covering [mentioned above].   וְלֹֽא־יָבֹאוּ לִרְאוֹת כְּבַלַּע אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ: לְתוֹךְ נַרְתֵּק שֶׁלּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי לְמַעְלָה בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ, וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו בֶּגֶד פְּלוֹנִי וְכִסּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּמִכְסֶה פְּלוֹנִי, וּבִלּוּעַ שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא כִסּוּיוֹ:

Maftir Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 4

17The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron saying:   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוָֹ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
18Do not cause the tribe of the families of Kohath to be cut off from among the Levites.   יחאַל־תַּכְרִ֕יתוּ אֶת־שֵׁ֖בֶט מִשְׁפְּחֹ֣ת הַקְּהָתִ֑י מִתּ֖וֹךְ הַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
Do not cause… to be cut off: Do not cause them to die.   אַל־תַּכְרִיתוּ: אַל תִּגְרְמוּ לָהֶם שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ:
19Do this for them, so they should live and not die, when they approach the Holy of Holies. Aaron and his sons shall first come and appoint each man individually to his task and his load.   יטוְזֹ֣את | עֲשׂ֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם וְחָיוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יָמֻ֔תוּ בְּגִשְׁתָּ֖ם אֶת־קֹ֣דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁ֑ים אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וּבָנָיו֙ יָבֹ֔אוּ וְשָׂמ֣וּ אוֹתָ֗ם אִ֥ישׁ אִ֛ישׁ עַל־עֲבֹֽדָת֖וֹ וְאֶל־מַשָּׂאֽוֹ:
20They shall not come in to see when the holy [vessels] are being wrapped up, lest they die.   כוְלֹֽא־יָבֹ֧אוּ לִרְא֛וֹת כְּבַלַּ֥ע אֶת־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ וָמֵֽתוּ:
They shall not come in to see when the holy [vessels] are being wrapped up: In their covering, as I explained above in this section: They shall spread such and such a cloth over it, and cover it with such and such a cover. The wrapping up of it [mentioned here] is identical with the covering [mentioned above].   וְלֹֽא־יָבֹאוּ לִרְאוֹת כְּבַלַּע אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ: לְתוֹךְ נַרְתֵּק שֶׁלּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי לְמַעְלָה בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ, וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו בֶּגֶד פְּלוֹנִי וְכִסּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּמִכְסֶה פְּלוֹנִי, וּבִלּוּעַ שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא כִסּוּיוֹ:

Haftarah

Shmuel I (I Samuel) Chapter 20

18And Jonathan said to him, "Tomorrow is the new moon, and you will be remembered, for your seat will be vacant.   יחוַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן מָחָ֣ר חֹ֑דֶשׁ וְנִפְקַ֕דְתָּ כִּ֥י יִפָּקֵ֖ד מוֹשָׁבֶֽךָ:
Tomorrow is the new moon: and it is the custom of all those who eat at the king’s table to come on the festive day to the table.   מחר חדש: ודרך כל אוכלי שולחן המלך לבא ביום מועד אל השולחן:
and you will be remembered: My father will remember you, and ask where you are.   ונפקדת: אבי יפקדך וישאל היכן אתה:
for your seat will be vacant: for your seat in which you sit, will be vacant, and so did Jonathan render: and you will be sought, for your seat will be vacant.   כי יפקד מושבך: שיהיה מושבך חסר, שאתה יושב בו וכן תרגם יונתן: ותתבעי ארי יהי מרוח בית אסחרותך:
and you will be remembered: [ונפקדת is] an expression of remembering.   ונפקדת: לשון זכרון:
will be vacant: [יפקד is] an expression of lacking.   כי יפקד: לשון חסרון:
19And for three days, you shall hide very well, and you shall come to the place where you hid on the day of work, and you shall stay beside the traveler's stone.   יטוְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ תֵּרֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד וּבָאתָ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִסְתַּ֥רְתָּ שָּׁ֖ם בְּיּ֣וֹם הַֽמַּעֲשֶֹ֑ה וְיָ֣שַׁבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖צֶל הָאֶ֥בֶן הָאָֽזֶל:
And for three days you shall hide very well: And you shall triple the days, and then you shall descend very much, i.e., when the third day arrives, you shall descend into a secret place, and hide very well, for then they will seek you. And you shall come to this secret place, wherein you are hiding today, which is a workday. And so did Jonathan render: on the weekday, for he hid on that day, as it is stated: (infra v. 24) “And David hid in the field;” immediately, “and it was the new moon” on the morrow.   ושלשת: שלשת ימים, ואז תרד מאוד, כלומר לכשתגיע היום השלישי, תרד במקום סתר ותתחבא הרבה, כי אז יבקשוך, ובאת אל המקום הסתר הזה אשר אתה נסתר בו היום, שהוא יום מעשה מלאכה וכן תרגם יונתן: ביומא דחולא, שאותו היום נסתר, כמה שנאמר (פסוק כד): 'ויסתר דוד בשדה' מיד, 'ויהי החדש' מחר:
the travelers’ stone: (Heb. ‘even-ha azel,’ lit., the going stone, i.e.) a stone which was a sign (a landmark) for travelers.   האבן האזל: אבן שהיתה אות להולכי דרכים:
Ha-azel: those who go on the road. And so did Jonathan render: even atha, the stone which was a sign.   האזל: הולכי הדרך, וכן תרגם יונתן: אבן אתא, אבן האות:
20And I shall shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a mark.   כוַאֲנִ֕י שְׁל֥שֶׁת הַחִצִּ֖ים צִדָּ֣ה אוֹרֶ֑ה לְשַֽׁלַּֽח־לִ֖י לְמַטָּרָֽה:
to the side, I shall shoot: This is not a ‘mappiq-heh’ (aspirate ‘heh’). צדה is to be interpreted like לצד, to a side, for every word which requires a ‘lamed’ as a prefix, the Scripture gives a ‘he’ as a suffix. (Jeb. 13b) At the side of that stone, I shall shoot arrows to a mark, so that the youth will not understand, and this sign shall be for you to divine whether you must flee.   צדה אורה: לא מפיק ה"א, ופתרון צדה כמו לצד, כל תיבה שצריכה למ"ד בתחלתה, הטיל לה ה"א בסופה, בצד אותה אבן, אורה חצים למטרה, כדי שלא יבין הנער, וזה סימן יהיה לך לנחש אם אתה צריך לברוח:
21And behold, I shall send the youth, (saying,) 'Go, find the arrows.' If I say to the youth, 'Behold, the arrows are on this side of you,' take it and come, for it is well with you, and there is nothing the matter, as the Lord lives.   כאוְהִנֵּה֙ אֶשְׁלַ֣ח אֶת־הַנַּ֔עַר לֵ֖ךְ מְצָ֣א אֶת־הַחִצִּ֑ים אִם־אָמֹר֩ אֹמַ֨ר לַנַּ֜עַר הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֣ים | מִמְּךָ֣ וָהֵ֗נָּה קָחֶ֧נּוּ | וָבֹ֛אָה כִּֽי־שָׁל֥וֹם לְךָ֛ וְאֵ֥ין דָּבָ֖ר חַי־יְהֹוָֽה:
And behold, I shall send, etc.: And it is customary for one who seeks an arrow which has been shot, to go to the place where he sees the arrow flying, but he cannot ascertain exactly. Sometimes he searches for it, and the arrow is beyond him, and sometimes he goes beyond the arrow and searches for it, and you shall have this sign.   והנה אשלח וגו': ודרך המבקש חץ הירוי, הולך עד מקום שרואה שהחץ הולך, ואינו יכול לכוין יפה, פעמים שהוא מחפשה והחץ להלן ממנו, ופעמים שהוא הולך להלן מן החץ ומחפשה, והניחוש הזה יהיה לך:
If I say to the youth… take it and come: you yourself emerge from your hiding place, and take it, and come to me, for you have not to fear, for it is well with you. The Holy One Blessed be He, desires that you be here, and even if I have heard evil from Father.   אם אמור אומר לנער וגו' קחנו ובואה: צא אתה בעצמך ממקום מחבואך, וקחנו ובוא אלי, כי אין לך לירא, כי שלום לך, הקב"ה חפץ שתהא כאן ולא תירא, ואפילו שמעתי מאבא רעה:
22But, if I say thus to the youth, 'Behold, the arrows are beyond you,' go! For the Lord has sent you away.   כבוְאִם־כֹּ֚ה אֹמַר֙ לָעֶ֔לֶם הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֖ים מִמְּךָ֣ וָהָ֑לְאָה לֵ֕ךְ כִּ֥י שִֽׁלַּחֲךָ֖ יְהֹוָֽה:
But, if I say thus… Go! For the Lord has sent you away: The Holy One Blessed be He tells you to flee and escape.   ואם כה אומר וגו' לך כי שלחך: הקב"ה אומר לך לברוח ולהמלט:
23And (concerning) the matter which we have spoken, I and you, behold, the Lord is between me and you forever."   כגוְהַ֨דָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְנוּ אֲנִ֣י וָאָ֑תָּה הִנֵּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינְךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
And concerning the matter which we have spoken: the covenant which we made together.   והדבר אשר דברנו: ברית שכרתנו יחד:
behold, the Lord is between me and you: as Witness concerning that matter.   הנה ה' ביני וביניך: עד על אותו דבר:
24And David hid in the field, and when it was the new moon, Saul sat down to the meal to eat.   כדוַיִּסָּתֵ֥ר דָּוִ֖ד בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וַיְהִ֣י הַחֹ֔דֶשׁ וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־ (כתיב עֶל־) הַלֶּ֖חֶם לֶאֱכֽוֹל:
25And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, upon the seat by the wall, and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat down beside Saul, and David's place was vacant.   כהוַיֵּ֣שֶׁב הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ עַל־מ֨וֹשָׁב֜וֹ כְּפַ֣עַם | בְּפַ֗עַם אֶל־מוֹשַׁב֙ הַקִּ֔יר וַיָּ֙קָם֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אַבְנֵ֖ר מִצַּ֣ד שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֥וֹם דָּוִֽד:
the seat by the wall: at the head of the couch beside the wall.   אל מושב הקיר: בראש המטה אצל הקיר:
and Jonathan arose: He got up from his place, since it is not proper for a son to recline beside his father. Since their custom was to eat reclining on couches and David would recline between Jonathan and Saul, now that David did not come, Jonathan did not recline until Abner sat down beside Saul, and afterwards, Jonathan sat beside Abner. And if you say that he did not sit at all, the Scripture states: (infra v. 34) “And Jonathan arose from the table,” implying that he had been sitting.   ויקם יהונתן: עמד ממקומו, לפי שאין דרך הבן להיות מיסב אצל אביו, שדרכן היה לאכול מסובין על המטות, והיה דוד מיסב בין יהונתן ובין שאול, עכשיו שלא בא דוד, לא היסב יהונתן, עד שישב אבנר מצד שאול, ואחר כך ישב יהונתן מצד אבנר ואם תאמר לא ישב כלל, הרי הוא אומר (פסוק לד): ויקם יהונתן מעל השלחן, מכלל שישב:
26And Saul did not say anything on that day, for he thought, "It is an incident; he is not clean, for he is not clean."   כווְלֹֽא־דִבֶּ֥ר שָׁא֛וּל מְא֖וּמָה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֚י אָמַר֙ מִקְרֶ֣ה ה֔וּא בִּלְתִּ֥י טָה֛וֹר ה֖וּא כִּֽי־לֹ֥א טָהֽוֹר:
It is an incident: He has experienced a seminal emission.   מקרה הוא: קרי ראה:
he is not clean: and he has not yet immersed himself, for had he immersed himself for the uncleanness of his emission, he would not have to wait until sunset in order to eat ordinary food.   בלתי טהור הוא: ועדיין לא טבל לקריו, שאלו טבל לקריו, אין צריך הערב שמש לחולין:
for he is not clean: This clause gives the reason for the matter; i.e., since he is not clean, he, therefore, did not come, lest he contaminate the feast.   כי לא טהור: זו היא נתינת טעם לדבר, לפי שאינו טהור, לפיכך לא בא, שלא יטמא את הסעודה:
27And it was, on the morrow of the new moon, the second (day of the month), that David's place was vacant, and Saul said to Jonathan, his son, "Why has not the son of Jesse come to the meal either yesterday or today?"   כזוַיְהִ֗י מִֽמָּחֳרַ֚ת הַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֣וֹם דָּוִ֑ד ס וַיֹּ֚אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֔וֹ מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־בָ֧א בֶן־יִשַׁ֛י גַּם־תְּמ֥וֹל גַּם־הַיּ֖וֹם אֶל־הַלָּֽחֶם:
on the morrow of the new moon: on the morrow of the renewal of the moon.   ממחרת החדש: ממחרת חידוש הלבנה:
the second: on the second day of the month.   השני: ביום שני לחדש:
28And Jonathan answered Saul, "David asked leave of me (to go) to Bethlehem.   כחוַיַּ֥עַן יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן אֶת־שָׁא֑וּל נִשְׁאֹ֨ל נִשְׁאַ֥ל דָּוִ֛ד מֵעִמָּדִ֖י עַד־בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם:
29And he said, 'Let me go away now, for we have a family sacrifice in the city, and he, my brother, commanded me, and now, if I have found favor in your eyes, let me slip away now, and see my brothers. ' He, therefore, did not come to the king's table."   כטוַיֹּ֡אמֶר שַׁלְּחֵ֣נִי נָ֡א כִּ֣י זֶבַח֩ מִשְׁפָּחָ֨ה לָ֜נוּ בָּעִ֗יר וְה֚וּא צִוָּֽה־לִי֙ אָחִ֔י וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־מָצָ֚אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ אִמָּ֥לְטָה נָּ֖א וְאֶרְאֶ֣ה אֶת־אֶחָ֑י עַל־כֵּ֣ן לֹא־בָ֔א אֶל־שֻׁלְחַ֖ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
and he, my brother, commanded me: The eldest of the house, commanded me that I be there. And he is my brother Eliab.   והוא צוה לי אחי: גדול הבית צוה לי שאהיה שם, והוא אחי אליאב:
let me slip away: ‘Escamoter’ in French. I shall go away for one day and come back.   אמלטה: אשקמוצי"ד בלע"ז, אלך יום אחד ואבוא:
30And Saul's wrath was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, "You son of a straying woman deserving of punishment! Did I not know that you choose the son of Jesse, to your shame and to the shame of your mother's nakedness?   לוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֚ף שָׁאוּל֙ בִּיה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ בֶּֽן־נַעֲוַ֖ת הַמַּרְדּ֑וּת הֲל֣וֹא יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־בֹחֵ֚ר אַתָּה֙ לְבֶן־יִשַׁ֔י לְבָ֨שְׁתְּךָ֔ וּלְב֖שֶׁת עֶרְוַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ:
a straying woman, deserving of punishment: (בן נעות המרדות) An expression of straying and wandering, נע ונד, a gadding woman. Just as you say זעוה from זע, and the ‘tav’ is for the construct state, for it is connected to the word המרדות.   נעות המרדות: לשון נע, אשה נעה ונדה, יוצאנית, כאשר תאמר 'זעוה' מן 'זע', כן תאמר 'נעוה' מן 'נע', והתי"ו מן הדיבוק, שהוא דבוק למרדות:
deserving of punishment: (Heb. המרדות), who deserves to be chastised and disciplined. Another explanation is as follows: When the men of Benjamin grabbed the girls of Shiloh, who came out to dance in the vineyards (Jud. 21:21), Saul was bashful, and did not want to grab [a girl], until she came herself, behaving insolently, and pursued him.   המרדות: שהיא ראויה לרדות ולייסר דבר אחר: כשחטפו בני בנימן מבנות שילה שיצאו לחול בכרמים, היה שאול ביישן ולא רצה לחטוף, עד שבאתה היא עצמה והעיזה פניה ורדפה אחריו:
straying woman: because of the vineyards. And that is a winepress, like (the Talmudical passage): Purge the winepress (which was used for forbidden wine) (Ab. Zarah 74b); His winepresses will drip with wine (Targum Onkelos, Gen. 40:12)….(The last three words of Rashi are incomprehensible, and are probably erroneous. The correct version is unknown to us.)   נעות: על שם הכרמים, והיא גת, כמו (עבודה זרה עד ב): נעוה ארתחו. יטופון נעווהי בחמר (תרגום פרשת ויחי פסוק חכלילי עינים (בראשית מט יב)), ולא מן השם:
31For all the days that the son of Jesse is living on the earth, you and your kingdom will not be established. And now, send and take him to me, for he is condemned to death."   לאכִּ֣י כָל־הַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֚ר בֶּן־יִשַׁי֙ חַ֣י עַל־הָאֲדָמָ֔ה לֹ֥א תִכּ֖וֹן אַתָּ֣ה וּמַלְכוּתֶ֑ךָ וְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁלַ֨ח וְקַ֚ח אֹתוֹ֙ אֵלַ֔י כִּ֥י בֶן־מָ֖וֶת הֽוּא:
32And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, "Why should he be put to death? What has he done?"   לבוַיַּ֙עַן֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל אָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו לָ֥מָּה יוּמַ֖ת מֶ֥ה עָשָֹֽה:
33And Saul cast the spear upon him to strike him; and Jonathan knew that it had been decided upon by his father, to put David to death.   לגוַיָּ֨טֶל שָׁא֧וּל אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֛ית עָלָ֖יו לְהַכֹּת֑וֹ וַיֵּ֙דַע֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן כִּֽי־כָ֥לָה הִ֛יא מֵעִ֥ם אָבִ֖יו לְהָמִ֥ית אֶת־דָּוִֽד:
34And Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger; and he did not eat any food on the second day of the new moon, for he was grieved concerning David, for his father had put him to shame.   לדוַיָּ֧קָם יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן מֵעִ֥ם הַשֻּׁלְחָ֖ן בָּחֳרִי־אָ֑ף וְלֹא־אָכַ֞ל בְּיוֹם־הַחֹ֚דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי֙ לֶ֔חֶם כִּ֚י נֶעְצַב֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד כִּ֥י הִכְלִמ֖וֹ אָבִֽיו:
he was grieved (lit.) to David: concerning David.   נעצב אל דוד: בשביל דוד:
for his father had put him to shame: concerning David.   כי הכלימו אביו: בשביל דוד:
35And it was in the morning, that Jonathan went out at David's appointed time, and a small boy was with him.   להוַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיֵּצֵ֧א יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְמוֹעֵ֣ד דָּוִ֑ד וְנַ֥עַר קָטֹ֖ן עִמּֽוֹ:
at David’s appointed time: at the time which David had set for him.   למועד דוד: למועד אשר קבע לו דוד:
36And he said to his boy, "Run, find now the arrows which I shoot." The boy ran; and he shot the arrow to cause it to go beyond him.   לווַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְנַעֲר֔וֹ רֻ֗ץ מְצָ֥א נָא֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י מוֹרֶ֑ה הַנַּ֣עַר רָ֔ץ וְהֽוּא־יָרָ֥ה הַחֵ֖צִי לְהַעֲבִרֽוֹ:
to cause it to go beyond him.: The arrow went beyond the boy.   להעבירו: החצי עבר את הנער:
37And the lad came up to the place of the arrow, which Jonathan had shot. And Jonathan called after the lad, and said, "Isn't the arrow beyond you?"   לזוַיָּבֹ֚א הַנַּ֙עַר֙ עַד־מְק֣וֹם הַחֵ֔צִי אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָרָ֖ה יְהוֹנָתָ֑ן וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אַחֲרֵ֚י הַנַּ֙עַר֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הֲל֥וֹא הַחֵ֖צִי מִמְּךָ֥ וָהָֽלְאָה:
38And Jonathan called after the lad, "Quickly, hasten, do not stand!" And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.   לחוַיִּקְרָ֚א יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַנַּ֔עַר מְהֵרָ֥ה ח֖וּשָׁה אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֑ד וַיְלַקֵּ֞ט נַ֚עַר יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים (כתיב הַ֣חִצִּ֔י) וַיָּבֹ֖א אֶל־אֲדֹנָֽיו:
39And the lad knew nothing; only Jonathan and David knew the matter.   לטוְהַנַּ֖עַר לֹֽא־יָדַ֣ע מְא֑וּמָה אַ֚ךְ יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ וְדָוִ֔ד יָדְע֖וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר:
40And Jonathan gave his weapons to his boy, and said to him, "Go, bring (them) to the city."   מוַיִּתֵּ֚ן יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו אֶל־הַנַּ֖עַר אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֵ֖ךְ הָבֵ֥יא הָעִֽיר:
41The lad departed, and David arose from (a place) toward the south; and he fell upon his face to the ground three times, and prostrated himself three times. And they kissed one another, and wept one with the other, until David exceeded.   מאהַנַּעַר֘ בָּא֒ וְדָוִ֗ד ֤קָם מֵאֵ֣צֶל הַנֶּ֔גֶב וַיִּפֹּ֨ל לְאַפָּ֥יו אַ֛רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ שָׁל֣שׁ פְּעָמִ֑ים וַֽיִּשְּׁק֣וּ | אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֗הוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ עַד־דָּוִ֖ד הִגְדִּֽיל:
from a place toward the south: (lit., from by the south. Jonathan renders:) from the side of the travelers’ (or sign) stone which was toward the south.   מאצל הנגב: (תרגום:) מסטר אבן אתא דלקבל דרומא:
until David exceeded: He cried more.   עד דוד הגדיל: הרבה לבכות:
42And Jonathan said to David, "Go in peace! (And bear in mind) that we have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, saying, 'May the Lord be between me and you, and between my descendants and your descendants forever.' "   מבוַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן לְדָוִ֖ד לֵ֣ךְ לְשָׁל֑וֹם אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨עְנוּ שְׁנֵ֜ינוּ אֲנַ֗חְנוּ בְּשֵׁ֚ם יְהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהֹוָ֞ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה | בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֗ךָ וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעִ֛י וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
Go in peace!: And the oath which we have sworn, may the Lord be witness thereon forever.   לך לשלום: והשבועה אשר נשבענו, ה' יהיה עד עליה עד עולם:
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