Torah Reading for Bechukotai

Parshat Bechukotai
Shabbat, 24 Iyar, 5784
1 June, 2024
Select a portion:
Complete: (Leviticus 26:3 - 27:34; Jeremiah 16:19 - 17:14)
Show content in:

First Portion

Leviticus Chapter 26

3If you follow My statutes and observe My commandments and perform them,   גאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֖י תֵּלֵ֑כוּ וְאֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמְר֔וּ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָֽם:
If you follow My statutes: I might think that this refers to the fulfillment of the commandments. However, when Scripture says, “and observe My commandments,” the fulfillment of the commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “If you follow My statutes”? It means that you must toil in the study of Torah [for the word for “follow” here, תֵּלֵכוּ, literally means “walk,” which is a strenuous activity (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   אם בחקתי תלכו: יכול זה קיום המצות, כשהוא אומר ואת מצותי תשמרו, הרי קיום המצות אמור, הא מה אני מקיים אם בחקתי תלכו, שתהיו עמלים בתורה:
and observe My commandments: You shall toil in the study of Torah in order to observe and fulfill [the commandments (Torath Kohanim 26:2). This is similar to, “[Hear, O Israel, the statutes and ordinances…] and learn them, and keep in mind to do them” (Deut. 5:1) [i.e., learn the Torah in order to keep them in your heart and perform them]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   ואת מצותי תשמרו: הוו עמלים בתורה על מנת לשמור ולקיים, כמו שנאמר (דברים ה א) ולמדתם אותם ושמרתם לעשותם:
4I will give your rains in their time, the Land will yield its produce, and the tree of the field will give forth its fruit.   דוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י גִשְׁמֵיכֶ֖ם בְּעִתָּ֑ם וְנָֽתְנָ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה יִתֵּ֥ן פִּרְיֽוֹ:
[I will give your rains] in their time: at a time when people do not usually go out, for example, on Sabbath Eve. — [Ta’anith 23a]   בעתם: בשעה שאין דרך בני אדם לצאת, כגון בלילי שבתות ובלילי ימים טובים:
the tree of the field: This refers to trees [planted in the field, as opposed to the orchard,] that do not bear fruit, but are destined to bear fruit in the future. — [Torath Kohanim 26:5]   ועץ השדה: הן אילני סרק, ועתידין לעשות פירות:
5Your threshing will last until the vintage, and the vintage will last until the sowing; you will eat your food to satiety, and you will live in security in your land.   הוְהִשִּׂ֨יג לָכֶ֥ם דַּ֨יִשׁ֙ אֶת־בָּצִ֔יר וּבָצִ֖יר יַשִּׂ֣יג אֶת־זָ֑רַע וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם לַחְמְכֶם֙ לָשׂ֔בַע וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לָבֶ֖טַח בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם:
Your threshing will last until the vintage [and the vintage will last until the sowing]: For the threshing will be so plentiful that you will be occupied with it until the vintage, and you will be occupied with the vintage until the sowing season. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   והשיג לכם דיש את בציר: שיהא הדיש מרובה ואתם עסוקים בו עד הבציר, ובבציר תעסקו עד שעת הזרע:
you will eat your food to satiety: One will eat only a little [food], but it will become blessed in one’s innards. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   ואכלתם לחמכם לשבע: אוכל קמעא והוא מתברך במעיו:

Second Portion

Leviticus Chapter 26

6And I will grant peace in the Land, and you will lie down with no one to frighten [you]; I will remove wild beasts from the Land, and no army will pass through your land;   ווְנָֽתַתִּ֤י שָׁלוֹם֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין מַֽחֲרִ֑יד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּ֞י חַיָּ֤ה רָעָה֙ מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְחֶ֖רֶב לֹא־תַֽעֲבֹ֥ר בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם:
And I will grant peace: You might say, “Here is food, and here is drink, but if there is no peace, there is nothing!” Scripture, therefore, states, after all this [blessing], “I will grant peace in the Land.” From here, [we learn] that peace is equal to everything else. And so, [this is illustrated in our morning prayers,] when we say: “[Blessed are You, O Lord…] Who… makes peace and creates everything” [a paraphrase of the verse] (Isaiah 45:7). - [see Ber. 11b; Torath Kohanim 26:7]   ונתתי שלום: שמא תאמרו הרי מאכל והרי משתה, אם אין שלום אין כלום, תלמוד לומר אחר כל זאת ונתתי שלום בארץ, מכאן שהשלום שקול כנגד הכל. וכן הוא אומר עושה שלום ובורא את הכל:
and no army will pass through your land: It is unnecessary to state that they will not come to wage war, but [they will not come] even to pass through your land from one country to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   וחרב לא תעבר בארצכם: אין צריך לומר שלא יבאו למלחמה, אלא אפילו לעבור דרך ארצכם ממדינה למדינה:
7You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall by the sword before you;   זוּרְדַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְנָֽפְל֥וּ לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב:
[And they will fall] by the sword before you: each man [falling] by the sword of his fellow. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   לפניכם לחרב: איש בחרב רעהו:
8Five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand, and your enemies will fall by the sword before you.   חוְרָֽדְפ֨וּ מִכֶּ֤ם חֲמִשָּׁה֙ מֵאָ֔ה וּמֵאָ֥ה מִכֶּ֖ם רְבָבָ֣ה יִרְדֹּ֑פוּ וְנָֽפְל֧וּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֛ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב:
of you will pursue: [It will require only five] of your weakest [to pursue a hundred enemies], and not of your strongest [i.e., מִכֶּם means “the weakest (מָךְ) of you.”]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:10]   ורדפו מכם: מן החלשים שבכם, ולא מן הגבורים שבכם:
Five… will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand: But is this calculation correct? [Since five will pursue a hundred, this means that each Jew will pursue twenty enemies;] therefore, should Scripture not have written here: “and a hundred of you will pursue two thousand”? But, [the Torah teaches us that] there is no comparison between a few who fulfill the Torah and many who fulfill the Torah [and thus, here, the larger the group of pursuers, the higher proportionately is the number pursued]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:10]   חמשה מאה ומאה מכם רבבה: וכי כך הוא החשבון, והלא לא היה צריך לומר אלא מאה מכם שני אלפים ירדופו, אלא אינו דומה מועטין העושין את התורה למרובין העושין את התורה:
and your enemies will fall [by the sword before you]: [This promise, already stated in verse 7, is repeated here to teach us (Torath Kohanim 26:10)] that the enemy will fall before you, not in the usual manner [i.e., that many of them will fall by the hand of only a few. — [Rash MiShantz ad loc.]   ונפלו איביכם וגו': שיהיו נופלין לפניכם שלא כדרך הארץ:
9I will turn towards you, and I will make you fruitful and increase you, and I will set up My covenant with you.   טוּפָנִ֣יתִי אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהִפְרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֖י אֶתְכֶ֑ם וַֽהֲקִֽימֹתִ֥י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתְּכֶֽם:
I will turn towards you: “I will turn away (אֶפְנֶה) from all My affairs to pay your reward.” To what may this be compared? To a king who hired some workers [only one of whom worked for him for a long time, while all the others did not. When they presented themselves to receive payment, the king quickly paid the others a small amount, while to the one who had worked long, he said, “They worked merely a little for me, but with you, I must now turn my attention to calculate the substantial amount that I owe you.” Likewise, God will quickly pay the nations the small amount He owes them for their little good deeds, and then He will turn His attention, as it were, to the Jewish people, to calculate their great reward,] as is taught in Torath Kohanim 26:11.]   ופניתי אליכם: אפנה מכל עסקי לשלם שכרכם, משל למה הדבר דומה, למלך ששכר פועלים וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים:
and I will make you fruitful: [Unlike the usual expression of פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה in Scripture, here, the two parts of this expression are separated by the word אֶתְכֶם (Sifthei Chachamim quoting Maharai). The first part, וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם, refers to the blessing of] being fruitful and multiplying. — [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והפריתי אתכם: בפריה ורביה:
and increase you: [while the second part,] וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם [refers to the blessing of having] dignity of stature [(הִתְרַבְרְבוּת) i.e., being able to hold one’s head up high due to dignity]. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והרביתי אתכם: בקומה זקופה:
and I will set up My covenant with you: a new covenant, not like the first covenant, which you broke, but a new covenant, which will not be broken, as it is said, “I will form a new covenant with the House of Israel and with the House of Judah-not like the covenant [that I formed with their forefathers… that they broke]” (Jer. 31:30-31). - [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והקימתי את בריתי אתכם: ברית חדשה, לא כברית הראשונה שהפרתם אותה, אלא ברית חדשה שלא תופר, שנאמר (ירמיה לא ל) וכרתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה ברית חדשה לא כברית הראשונה:

Third Portion

Leviticus Chapter 26

10You will eat very old [produce], and you will clear out the old from before the new.   י וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֥ם יָשָׁ֖ן נוֹשָׁ֑ן וְיָשָׁ֕ן מִפְּנֵ֥י חָדָ֖שׁ תּוֹצִֽיאוּ:
You will eat very old [produce]: [But what blessing is it to eat old food? The Torah, means, however, that] the produce will remain well preserved, growing mellow with age, so that very old produce from three years ago will be better to eat than that of last year. — [B.B. 91b]   ואכלתם ישן נושן: הפירות יהיו משתמרין וטובים להתיישן, שיהא ישן הנושן של שלש שנים יפה לאכול משל אשתקד:
and you will clear out the old from before the new: The threshing floors will be full of new [grain, which would decay if left there, and, therefore, must be stored]. The storehouses, however, will be filled with the [abundant] old produce. Therefore, you will have to remove what is in the storehouses and take it elsewhere [in your house], in order to put the new produce into them. - [Sifthei Chachamim and see preceding Rashi; B.B. 91b]   וישן מפני חדש תוציאו: שיהיו הגרנות מלאות חדש והאוצרות מלאות ישן, וצריכים אתם לפנות האוצרות למקום אחר לתת החדש לתוכן:
11And I will place My dwelling in your midst, and My Spirit will not reject you;   יאוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י מִשְׁכָּנִ֖י בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִגְעַ֥ל נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם:
And I will place My dwelling: This is the Holy Temple. — [see Er. 2a and Rashi there; Torath Kohanim 26:14]   ונתתי משכני: זה בית המקדש:
and My Spirit will not reject you: My Spirit will not be disgusted with you. Every [expression of] גְּעִילָה is an expression of the purging of something that had been absorbed by something else, as in the verse, “For there, the shield of the mighty was rejected (נִגְעֲל),” (II Sam. 1:21), it did not accept that anointment, that [warriors] used to anoint their leather shields with cooked fat, in order to have attacking arrows or spears glide off it, rather than pierce the leather.   ולא תגעל נפשי: אין רוחי קצה בכם. כל געילה לשון פליטת דבר הבלוע בדבר אחר, כמו (שמואל ב' א כא) כי שם נגעל מגן גבורים, לא קבל המשיחה שמושחין מגן של עור בחלב מבושל, כדי להחליק מעליו מכת חץ או חנית, שלא יקוב העור:
12I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be My people.   יבוְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וְאַתֶּ֖ם תִּֽהְיוּ־לִ֥י לְעָֽם:
I will walk among you: [God promises a blessing of special spiritual quality, involving intimate knowledge of Him (Zeidah Laderech):] “I will stroll with you in the Garden of Eden, as if I were one of you, and you will not be terrified of Me.” Now, one might think that you will not fear Me [under such “familiar” circumstances]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “and be your God.” - [Torath Kohanim 26: 15]   והתהלכתי בתוככם: אטייל עמכם בגן עדן כאחד מכם, ולא תהיו מזדעזעים ממני. יכול לא תיראו ממני, תלמוד לומר והייתי לכם לא-להים:
13I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt from being slaves to them; and I broke the pegs of your yoke and led you upright.   יגאֲנִ֞י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצֵ֤אתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם עֲבָדִ֑ים וָֽאֶשְׁבֹּר֙ מֹטֹ֣ת עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וָֽאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אֶתְכֶ֖ם קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת:
I am the Lord, your God, [Who took you out of the land of Egypt]: It is worthwhile for you to believe Me that I can do all these things, for indeed “I took you out of the land of Egypt” and performed great miracles for you. — [Torath Kohanim 26:16]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כדאי אני שתאמינו בי שאני יכול לעשות כל אלה, שהרי הוצאתי אתכם מארץ מצרים ועשיתי לכם נסים גדולים:
the pegs: [A plowing yoke consists of a bar that is placed over the animal’s neck and reins that are placed under its neck and threaded through two holes at each end of the bar. This term מוֹט refers to] a type of peg, which is inserted into the two [holes at the] ends of the yoke. [These pegs therefore jam the reins tightly through the holes,] preventing the reins from coming off the ox’s head and [preventing the] undoing of the knot. [The term is] as [it appears] in the verse, “Make yourself reins and yoke-pegs (מֹטוֹת) ” (Jer. 27:2); cheville in French.   מטת: כמין יתד [התחובה] בשני ראשי העול המעכבים המוסרה שלא תצא מראש השור ויתיר הקשר, כמו (ירמיה כז ב) עשה לך מוסרות ומוטות קוניונגל"א בלע"ז [רצועת העול]:
upright: Erect in stature [due to relief from bondage]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:17]   קוממיות: בקומה זקופה:
14But if you do not listen to Me and do not perform all these commandments,   ידוְאִם־לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְלֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֹ֖ת הָאֵֽלֶּה:
But if you do not listen to Me: to toil in [the study of] Torah in order to know the exposition of the Sages [corresponding to verse 3]. I might think that this refers to fulfilling the commandments. When Scripture says, “and you do not perform all these commandments,” the fulfillment of commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “if you do not listen to Me”? To toil in [the study of] Torah. And what is the meaning of “to Me”? This is speaking only about someone who knows his Master, and yet willfully rebels against Him (Sanh. 109a). Likewise, regarding Nimrod [whom Scripture calls], “a powerful hunter before the Lord ” (Gen. 10:9), [it means that] he recognized God but intentionally rebelled against Him; likewise, regarding the people of Sodom, [referred to as], “very evil and sinful against the Lord ” (Gen. 13:13)- [it means that] they recognized their Master but intentionally rebelled against Him. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ואם לא תשמעו לי: להיות עמלים בתורה, לדעת מדרש חכמים. יכול לקיום המצות, כשהוא אומר ולא תעשו וגו', הרי קיום מצות אמור, הא מה אני מקיים ואם לא תשמעו לי, להיות עמלים בתורה. ומה תלמוד לומר לי, אין לי אלא זה המכיר את רבונו ומתכוין למרוד בו, וכן בנמרוד (בראשית י ט) גבור ציד לפני ה', שמכירו ומתכוין למרוד בו, וכן באנשי סדום (שם יג יג) רעים וחטאים לה' מאד, מכירים את רבונם ומתכוונים למרוד בו:
and do not perform: If you do not learn [the Torah], you will not perform. Scripture hereby enumerates two transgressions [namely, (a) not learning the Torah and therefore (b) not fulfilling its commandments properly]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ולא תעשו: משלא תלמדו לא תעשו הרי שתי עבירות:
15and if you despise My statutes and reject My ordinances, not performing any of My commandments, thereby breaking My covenant   טווְאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֣י תִּמְאָ֔סוּ וְאִ֥ם אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֖י תִּגְעַ֣ל נַפְשְׁכֶ֑ם לְבִלְתִּ֤י עֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֔י לְהַפְרְכֶ֖ם אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי:
and if you despise My statutes: [This refers to one who] despises others who perform [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ואם בחקתי תמאסו: מואס באחרים העושים:
and reject My ordinances: [refers to one who] hates the Sages - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   משפטי תגעל נפשכם: שונא החכמים:
not performing: [refers to someone who] prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   לבלתי עשות: מונע את אחרים מעשות:
any of my commandments: [refers to one who] denies that I [God,] commanded them. This is why the verse says “any of My commandments” and “not any of the commandments.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   את כל מצותי: כופר המצוות שלא צויתים, לכך נאמר את כל מצותי, ולא נאמר את כל המצות:
thereby breaking My covenant: [This refers to one who] denies the main tenet [of Judaism, namely, that God is the Omnipotent Creator of all existence (Torath Kohanim 26:18).] Hence, [this verse has enumerated] seven sins, the first leading to the second, and so on, until the seventh, [and the process of degeneration is] as follows: [First, a person] does not learn [the Torah]; then, he [subsequently] does not fulfill [the commandments]; he then despises others who do [fulfill them]; then, he hates the Sages, prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments], denies the [authenticity of the] commandments and [finally] denies the very omnipotence of God.   להפרכם את בריתי: כופר בעיקר הרי שבע עבירות, הראשונה גוררת השניה, וכן עד השביעית ואלו הן לא למד, ולא עשה, מואס באחרים העושים, שונא את החכמים, מונע את האחרים, כופר במצות, כופר בעיקר:
16then I too, will do the same to you; I will order upon you shock, consumption, fever, and diseases that cause hopeless longing and depression. You will sow your seed in vain, and your enemies will eat it.   טזאַף־אֲנִ֞י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־זֹּ֣את לָכֶ֗ם וְהִפְקַדְתִּ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֤ם בֶּֽהָלָה֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁחֶ֣פֶת וְאֶת־הַקַּדַּ֔חַת מְכַלּ֥וֹת עֵינַ֖יִם וּמְדִיבֹ֣ת נָ֑פֶשׁ וּזְרַעְתֶּ֤ם לָרִיק֙ זַרְעֲכֶ֔ם וַֽאֲכָלֻ֖הוּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
I will order: I will order upon you.   והפקדתי עליכם: וצויתי עליכם:
consumption: This is a disease that consumes the flesh; anpoles in Old French, blisters. [The afflicted] appears like one who has had swellings and whose swellings have abated, thereby causing a sad appearance to his face [due to the stretched skin sagging after the swellings have abated].   שחפת: חולי שמשחף את הבשר, אנפולי"ש בלע"ז [בועות], דומה לנפוח שהוקלה נפיחתו ומראית פניו זעופה:
fever: Heb. קַדַּחַת, an illness that makes the body feverish, heating it up and making it burn, like, “For a fire blazed (קָדְחָה) in My wrath” (Deut. 32:22).   קדחת: חולי שמקדיח את הגוף ומחממו ומבעירו, כמו (דברים לב כב) כי אש קדחה באפי:
that cause hopeless longing and depression: Heb. מְכַלּות עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ. The eyes (עֵינַיִם) look with anticipation, longing (כָּלוֹת) to see that the illness will abate, and he will recover, but, he eventually does not recover, and depression (מְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ) falls upon his family members when he dies. Any desire that is not realized or some prolonged yearning [for something], is termed כִּלְיוּן עֵינַיִם.   מכלות עינים ומדיבת נפש: העינים צופות וכלות לראות שיקל וירפא, וסוף שלא ירפא, וידאבו הנפשות של משפחתו במותו. כל תאוה שאינה באה ותוחלת ממושכה קרויה כליון עינים:
You will sow [your seed] in vain [and your enemies will eat it]: You will sow, but it will not grow, and if it does grow-“your enemies will eat it.”   וזרעתם לריק: תזרעו ולא תצמח, ואם תצמח ואכלוהו אויביכם:
17I will set My attention against you, and you will be smitten before your enemies. Your enemies will rule over you; you will flee, but no one will be pursuing you.   יזוְנָֽתַתִּ֤י פָנַי֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְנִגַּפְתֶּ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְרָד֤וּ בָכֶם֙ שֽׂנְאֵיכֶ֔ם וְנַסְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵֽין־רֹדֵ֥ף אֶתְכֶֽם:
I will set my attention: [The word here פָנַי, means] My leisure. [Thus, God is saying here:] “I will turn (פּוֹנֶה) away from all My affairs, to harm you.”   ונתתי פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי להרע לכם:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ. [This expression is to be understood] literally, namely, [that they] will rule over you. Now, the Aggadic explanation of this passage (beginning from verse 16), as taught in Torath Kohanim (26:19-24), is as follows: [16]   ורדו בכם שנאיכם: כמשמעו ישלטו בכם. אגדת תורת כהנים מפרשה זו:
Then I too, will do the same: Heb., אַף אֲנִי אֶעשֶׂה זֹּאת. I will speak only out of wrath (אַף). Likewise, וְהָלַכְתִּי אַף אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם בְּקֶרִי (verse 24 below);   אף אני אעשה זאת: איני מדבר אלא באף, וכן והלכתי אף אני עמכם בקרי (פסוק כד):
I will order upon you: Heb., וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם. The plagues will address (פּוֹקְדוֹת) you one immediately after the other; i.e., the first plague will not have even finished, when I will bring the next one upon you, right next to it.   והפקדתי עליכם: שיהיו המכות פוקדות אתכם מזו לזו, עד שהראשונה פקודה אצלכם אביא אחרת ואסמכנה לה:
shock: Heb., בֶּהָלָה. This is a plague that shocks (מַבְהֶלֶת) people. And what is this? A plague [whose cure is anxiously] awaited, [and when the afflicted dies suddenly, people are (נִבְהָלִים) shocked];   בהלה: מכה המבהלת את הבריות, ואיזו, זו מכת מותן:
Consumption…: Heb. אֶת הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ . Sometimes, a person is sick and lies in bed, but his flesh is well preserved on him-therefore, Scripture states, שַׁחֶפֶת, [a disease that] consumes the flesh. Or occasionally, a person may be worn away [from disease], but is comfortable in that he has no burning fever. Therefore, Scripture states, וְאֶת הַקַדַּחַת, which teaches us that [the afflicted] will be burning with fever. Or sometimes, a person may be burning with fever, but he himself believes that he will survive. Therefore, Scripture states, “[and diseases] that cause hopeless longing” [explained above in Rashi to mean that he will not recover]. Or, although he himself does not believe that he will survive, nevertheless, others may believe that he will. Therefore, Scripture states, מְדִיבוֹת נֶפֶשׁ [explained above in Rashi to mean that the family members of the afflicted will be depressed due to his death];   את השחפת: יש לך אדם שהוא חולה ומוטל במטה אבל בשרו שמור עליו, תלמוד לומר שחפת, שהוא נשחף. או עתים שהוא נשחף אבל נוח ואינו מקדיח, תלמוד לומר ואת הקדחת, מלמד שהוא מקדיח. או עתים שהוא מקדיח אבל סבור הוא בעצמו שיחיה, תלמוד לומר מכלות עינים. או הוא אינו סבור בעצמו שיחיה אבל אחרים סבורים שיחיה, תלמוד לומר ומדיבות נפש:
You will sow your seed in vain: You will sow your seed, but it will not grow. If this is the case, though, what would your enemies come and eat, that the verse should then state, “and your enemies will eat it”? What circumstance are we speaking about here? You will sow your seed one particular year, and it will not grow [then]; in the following year, however, it will grow, but then, your enemies will come and find the produce for the time of the siege. Thus, those inside [the besieged cities] will be dying of starvation, because they had not gathered in produce from the previous year. Another explanation of “You will sow your seed in vain” is that Scripture here is alluding to sons and daughters, namely, that you will invest hard work in your children, rearing them, but [the punishment of your] sin will come and consume them, as the verse says, “Those whom I have reared and brought up-my enemy has consumed” (Lam. 2:22). [17]   וזרעתם לריק זרעכם: זורעה ואינה מצמחת, ומעתה מה אויביכם באים ואוכלים, ומה תלמוד לומר ואכלוהו אויביכם, הא כיצד, זורעה שנה ראשונה ואינה מצמחת, שנה שניה מצמחת ואויבים באים ומוצאים תבואה לימי המצור, ושבפנים מתים ברעב, שלא לקטו תבואה אשתקד. דבר אחר וזרעתם לריק זרעכם, כנגד הבנים והבנות הכתוב מדבר, שאתה עמל בהם ומגדלן, והחטא בא ומכלה אותם, שנאמר (איכה ב כב) אשר טפחתי ורביתי אויבי כלם:
I will set My attention against you: Just as it is said regarding the good, “I will turn towards you” (verse 9), so it is said regarding the bad, “I will set My attention [against you.” Our Sages] drew a parable to a king, who said to his servants [when they had not obeyed him]: “I am now turning my attention away from all my affairs, and I am occupying myself with you, to do [you] harm!”   ונתתי פני בכם: כמו שנאמר בטובה ופניתי אליכם, כך נאמר ברעה ונתתי פני. משלו משל, למלך שאמר לעבדיו פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק אני עמכם [לרעה]:
and you will be smitten before your enemies: Heb. וְנִגַּפְתֶּם, [lit., “and you will fall by the plague before your enemies,”] that the deathly plague will kill you inside [the besieged cities] while your enemies surround you from the outside [and rejoice that you are dying off within, from the plague];- [Sifthei Chachamim]   ונגפתם לפני איביכם: שיהא המות הורג אתכם מבפנים ובעלי דבביכון מקיפין אתכם מבחוץ:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ בָכֶם. I will make your enemies stem from within your very own people. For at the time that the nations stand up against Israel, they seek out only what is visible, as it is said, “And it happened, when Israel sowed, that Midian, Amalek, and the children of the East came up… and they camped against them and destroyed the Land’s produce” (Jud. 6:3-4). However, when I will set up [enemies] against you from within your very own camp, they will seek out your hidden treasures [within]. Thus, says the verse, “who ate the flesh of My people and flayed their skin from upon them [and opened their bones and broke them” (Micah 3:3)-the metaphor of breaking the bone to get to the marrow within, alluding to the enemy seeking out the hidden treasure within (Yosef Hallel)].   ורדו בכם שנאיכם: שאיני מעמיד שונאים אלא מכם ובכם, שבשעה שאומות העולם עומדים על ישראל אינם מבקשים אלא מה שבגלוי, שנאמר (שופטים ו ג - ד) והיה אם זרע ישראל ועלה מדין ועמלק ובני קדם וגו' ויחנו עליהם וישחיתו את יבול הארץ, אבל בשעה שאעמיד עליכם מכם ובכם, הם מחפשים אחר המטמוניות שלכם, וכן הוא אומר (מיכה ג ג) ואשר אכלו שאר עמי ועורם מעליהם הפשיטו וגו':
you will flee: out of fright,   ונסתם: מפני אימה:
but no one will be pursuing you: for lack of strength [left to pursue you.] - [Torath Kohanim 26:24] [This is the end of the Aggadic explanation given by Torath Kohanim. Now Rashi resumes his commentary, although sometimes quoting Torath Kohanim.]   ואין רדף אתכם: מבלי כח:
18And if, during these, you will not listen to Me, I will add another seven punishments for your sins:   יחוְאִ֨ם־עַד־אֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְיָֽסַפְתִּי֙ לְיַסְּרָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
And if, during these: Heb. וְאִםעַדאֵלֶּה, [equivalent to:] וְאִםבְּעוֹדאֵלֶּה, lit., “and if, while (עוֹד) these [are transpiring], you [still] will not listen to Me.”   ואם עד אלה: ואם בעוד אלה המכות עמכם לא תשמעו:
I will add: more sufferings of a different [nature].   ויספתי: עוד יסורין אחרים:
another seven… for your sins: Seven retributions for your seven sins that have been enumerated earlier [not sevenfold for your sins]. — [see Rashi verse 15 above; Torath Kohanim 26:26]   שבע על חטאתיכם: שבע פורעניות על שבע העבירות האמורות למעלה:
19I will break the pride of your strength and make your skies like iron and your land like copper.   יטוְשָֽׁבַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן עֻזְּכֶ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֤י אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם֙ כַּבַּרְזֶ֔ל וְאֶת־אַרְצְכֶ֖ם כַּנְּחֻשָֽׁה:
I will break the pride of your strength: This is the Temple, and so Scripture says, “Behold I profaning My Sanctuary, the pride of your strength” (Ezek. 24:21). - [Torath Kohanim 26:27]   ושברתי את גאון עזכם: זה בית המקדש, וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל כד כא) הנני מחלל את מקדשי גאון עוזכם:
and make your skies like iron and your land like copper: This is more severe than that of Moses, for there he says, “And your sky above you will be [like] copper and the earth beneath you (like) iron” (Deut. 28:23), that the sky will sweat as copper sweats, and the earth will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, [the earth] will preserve [any of] its [existing] fruit. Here, however, [in this harsher curse, pronounced by God Himself,] the sky will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, there will be drought in the world, while the earth will sweat, just as copper sweats, thus causing its fruits to rot [through its dampness]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   ונתתי את שמיכם כברזל ואת ארצכם כנחשה: זו קשה משל משה, ששם הוא אומר (דברים כח כג) והיו שמיך אשר על ראשך נחשת וגו', שיהיו השמים מזיעין כדרך שהנחשת מזיעה והארץ אינה מזיעה כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע והיא משמרת פירותיה, אבל כאן השמים לא יהיו מזיעין כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע ויהא חורב בעולם והארץ תהא מזיעה כדרך שהנחשת מזיעה והיא מאבדת פירותיה:
20Your strength will be expended in vain; your land will not yield its produce, neither will the tree of the earth give forth its fruit.   כוְתַ֥ם לָרִ֖יק כֹּֽחֲכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִתֵּ֤ן אַרְצְכֶם֙ אֶת־יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֣ץ הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יִתֵּ֖ן פִּרְיֽוֹ:
Your strength will be expended in vain: In the case of a man who did not toil, not having plowed, sown, weeded, cut off [the thorns], or hoed-at the time of harvest, if blight comes and ruins everything [that others worked on], it does not affect him at all. However, a man who did toil, who plowed, sowed, weeded, cut off [the thorns], and hoed-if blight comes and ruins everything, this man’s teeth become blunt [i.e., his spirit will surely be broken]! [Thus is the force of the retribution described here]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   ותם לריק כחכם: הרי אדם שלא עמל שלא חרש שלא זרע שלא נכש שלא כסח שלא עדר ובשעת הקציר בא שדפון ומלקה אותו, אין בכך כלום, אבל אדם שעמל וחרש וזרע ונכש וכסח ועדר ובא שדפון ומלקה אותו, הרי שניו של זה קהות:
your land will not yield its produce: [Heb. יְבוּלָה. Even [that quantity of seed] that you “bring forth (מוֹבִיל) ” to [the field] at the time of sowing. — Torath Kohanim 26:29]   ולא תתן ארצכם את יבולה: אף מה שאתה מוביל לה בשעת הזרע:
and the tree of the earth [will not give forth its fruit]: [Why the expression “tree of the earth”? It means that] the trees will be smitten even from the earth, for they will not be able to put forth their fruits in the season when fruits sprout forth. [The production of fruit originates from the earth in which the tree is rooted. The tree will blossom, but the earth will have no power to bring forth fruit.] - [Sefer Hazikkaron; Torath Kohanim 26:29]   ועץ הארץ: אפילו מן הארץ יהא לקוי, שלא יחניט פירותיו בשעת החנטה:
will not give forth: [This phrase comes after “the tree of the land” and before “its fruit” and must be understood here to] refer to both that [phrase] which is before it and that which comes after it, the trees and the fruits [and therefore, there are two separate retributions specified here (see next Rashi)].   לא יתן: משמש למעלה ולמטה אעץ ואפרי:
will not give forth its fruit: i.e., if a tree will produce any fruit (Mizrachi), they will drop off (Torath Kohanim 26:29). Thus, this [clause, “the tree of the land will not give forth its fruit”] represents two separate curses and [by so identifying them as two separate curses here, Rashi has shown that verses 19-20 have] now enumerated seven retributions here (see Rashi on verse 18) [namely: (a) Breaking the pride of your strength, (b) making your skies like iron, and (c) your land like copper, (d) that your strength will be expended in vain, (e) your land will not yield its produce, (f) trees will not be able to give forth their fruits altogether (see preceding Rashi), and (g) any fruit produced will drop off the tree]. [Torath Kohanim]   לא יתן פריו: כשהוא מפרה משיר פירותיו, הרי שתי קללות, ויש כאן שבע פורעניות:
21And if you treat Me as happenstance, and you do not wish to listen to Me, I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins:   כאוְאִם־תֵּֽלְכ֤וּ עִמִּי֙ קֶ֔רִי וְלֹ֥א תֹאב֖וּ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ לִ֑י וְיָֽסַפְתִּ֤י עֲלֵיכֶם֙ מַכָּ֔ה שֶׁ֖בַע כְּחַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
And if you treat me as happenstance: Heb. קֶרִי. Our Rabbis said that [this word means] temporary, by chance (מִקְרֶה), something that happens only sometimes. Thus, [our verse means:] “If you treat the commandments as happenstance, a temporary concern.” Menachem [Ben Saruk], (Machbereth, p. 1158) however, explains קֶרִי as refraining. Similar is, “hold back (הֹקֵר) your steps” (Prov. 25:17), and also, “he who keeps back (יְקַר) his breath” (Prov. 17:27). And this explanation [of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] resembles Onkelos’s translation, namely, denoting hardness (קשִׁי), i.e., [those who commit the sin of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] harden (מַקְשִׁין) their hearts to refrain from coming close to Me.   ואם תלכו עמי קרי: רבותינו אמרו עראי, במקרה, שאינו אלא לפרקים, כן תלכו עראי במצות. ומנחם פירש לשון מניעה, וכן (משלי כה יז) הוקר רגלך, וכן יקר רוח (משלי יז כז), וקרוב לשון זה לתרגומו של אונקלוס לשון קושי, שמקשים לבם להמנע מהתקרב אלי:
I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins: Seven other punishments, with the number seven, corresponding to your sins. - [Torath Kohanim 26:30]   שבע כחטאתיכם: שבע פורעניות אחרים במספר שבע כחטאתיכם:
22I will incite the wild beasts of the field against you, and they will bereave you, utterly destroy your livestock and diminish you, and your roads will become desolate.   כבוְהִשְׁלַחְתִּ֨י בָכֶ֜ם אֶת־חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וְשִׁכְּלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִכְרִ֨יתָה֙ אֶת־בְּהֶמְתְּכֶ֔ם וְהִמְעִ֖יטָה אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְנָשַׁ֖מּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם:
I will incite: Heb. הִשְׁלַחְתּי, an expression of inciting.   והשלחתי: לשון גירוי:
and they will bereave you: [From this verse,] I know only that wild beasts will bereave you, for this is their nature. How do I know that domestic animals, which are not accustomed [to kill people, that they too, will kill]? Therefore, Scripture says, “I will incite the teeth of livestock upon them” (Deut. 32:24). Thus, there are two [punishments-both wild beasts and domestic animals attacking people]. How do I know that they will kill through their bite? Because that verse continues, “with the venom of the creatures that slither in the dust”-just as those [snakes] kill through their bite, these also will kill through their bite, and indeed, there were years in the Land of Israel, when [domestic] donkeys used to bite and kill, wild donkeys bit and killed. — [see Rashi Deut. 32:24; Torath Kohanim 26:31] [Be’er Mayim Chayim writes that the wild donkey is basically a domestic animal, but, as Leket Bahir comments, it lives in the wilderness and is therefore considered a wild animal. See also Sefer Hazikkaron. Extant editions of Torath Kohanim read: Donkeys would bite and kill; oxen would bite and kill.]   ושכלה אתכם: אין לי אלא חיה משכלת שדרכה בכך, בהמה שאין דרכה בכך מנין, תלמוד לומר (דברים לב כד) ושן בהמות אשלח בם, הרי שתים. ומנין שתהא ממיתה בנשיכתה, תלמוד לומר (שם) עם חמת זוחלי עפר. מה אלו נושכין וממיתין, אף אלו נושכין וממיתין. כבר היו שנים בארץ ישראל חמור נושך וממית, ערוד נושך וממית:
and they will bereave you: these are the young children.   ושכלה אתכם: אלו הקטנים:
utterly destroy your livestock: from outside [your city].   והכריתה את בהמתכם: מבחוץ:
and diminish you: from within [your city].   והמעיטה אתכם: מבפנים:
and your roads will become desolate: The major trails and the minor trails. Here you have seven punishments: 1) the teeth of domestic animals, 2) the teeth of wild animals, 3) the venom of the crawling things of the dust, 4) and they will bereave [you], 5) utterly destroy [you], 6) and diminish [you], 7) and [your roads] will become desolate.   ונשמו דרכיכם: שבילים גדולים ושבילים קטנים, הרי שבע פורעניות שן בהמה, ושן חיה, חמת זוחלי עפר, ושכלה, והכריתה, והמעיטה, ונשמו:
23And if, through these, you will still not be chastised [to return] to Me, and if you [continue to] treat Me happenstance,   כגוְאִ֨ם־בְּאֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִוָּֽסְר֖וּ לִ֑י וַֽהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י קֶֽרִי:
you will not be chastised to Me: to return to Me.   לא תוסרו לי: לשוב אלי:
24Then I too, will treat you as happenstance. I will again add seven punishments for your sins:   כדוְהָֽלַכְתִּ֧י אַף־אֲנִ֛י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בְּקֶ֑רִי וְהִכֵּיתִ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ גַּם־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
25I will bring upon you an army that avenges the avenging of a covenant, and you will gather into your cities. I will incite the plague in your midst, and you will be delivered into the enemy's hands,   כהוְהֵֽבֵאתִ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֜ם חֶ֗רֶב נֹקֶ֨מֶת֙ נְקַם־בְּרִ֔ית וְנֶֽאֱסַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶל־עָֽרֵיכֶ֑ם וְשִׁלַּ֤חְתִּי דֶ֨בֶר֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְנִתַּתֶּ֖ם בְּיַד־אוֹיֵֽב:
the avenging of a covenant: [Since] there is also an avenging which is not of the covenant [i.e., not stated here in the Torah, such as those] in the manner of other avengings and this is the blinding of the eyes of Zedekiah (see II Kings, 25:7) [i.e., blinding is not one of the punishments enumerated here]. Another explanation of “the avenging of a covenant” : The avenging [here] will be because you broke My covenant [namely, the Torah] (Sifthei Chachamim and Onkelos; Shab. 33a). Wherever the expression of “bringing חֶרֶב ” appears in Scripture, it refers to a war of enemy armies.   נקם ברית: ויש נקם שאינו בברית כדרך שאר נקמות, וזהו סמוי עיניו של צדקיהו. דבר אחר נקם ברית נקמת בריתי אשר עברתם. כל הבאת חרב שבמקרא היא מלחמת חיילות אויבים:
and you will gather [into your cities]: from the outside, to the inside of the cities, due to the siege. — [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   ונאספתם: מן החוץ אל תוך הערים מפני המצור:
I will then incite the plague in your midst [and you will be delivered into the enemy’s hands]: Through this plague, you will be delivered over to the hands of your enemies who are besieging you (see preceding Rashi); because since one may not allow a dead person to remain [unburied] overnight in Jerusalem (B.K. 82b), when they bring out their dead for burial, they will then be “delivered into the enemy’s hands.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   ושלחתי דבר בתוככם: ועל ידי הדבר ונתתם ביד האויבים הצרים עליכם, לפי שאין מלינים את המת בירושלים, וכשהם מוציאים את המת לקברו, נתנים ביד אויב:
26when I break for you the staff of bread, and ten women will bake your bread in one oven, and they will bring back your bread by weight, and you will eat, yet not be satisfied.   כובְּשִׁבְרִ֣י לָכֶם֘ מַטֵּה־לֶ֒חֶם֒ וְ֠אָפ֠וּ עֶ֣שֶׂר נָשִׁ֤ים לַחְמְכֶם֙ בְּתַנּ֣וּר אֶחָ֔ד וְהֵשִׁ֥יבוּ לַחְמְכֶ֖ם בַּמִּשְׁקָ֑ל וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם וְלֹ֥א תִשְׂבָּֽעוּ:
the staff of bread: Heb. מַטֵּה. [This expression] denotes [a source of] “support” [namely, food or bread, just as a staff (מַטֵּה) supports a person (Mizrachi)], similar to “staff (מַטֵּה) of strength” (Jer. 48:17).   מטה לחם: לשון משען, כמו (ירמיה מח יז) מטה עז:
When I break for you the staff of bread: I will break every support of bread that you have. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34] This refers to “the arrows of hunger” (see Ezek. 5:16 where both of these expressions appear, and Redak identifies the “arrows of hunger” as blight, mildew, and locusts, which destroy some or most of the grain).   בשברי לכם מטה לחם: אשבור לכם כל מסעד אוכל, והם חצי רעב:
and ten women will bake your bread in one oven: because of lack of wood. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   ואפו עשר נשים לחמכם בתנור אחד: מחוסר עצים:
and they will bring back your bread by weight: The grain will rot, and the bread will become crumbly, breaking apart inside the oven. The women, therefore, will sit and weigh the broken pieces, to divide them among themselves. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   והשיבו לחמכם במשקל: שתהא התבואה נרקבת ונעשית פת נפולה ומשתברת בתנור, והן יושבות ושוקלות את השברים לחלקם ביניהם:
and you will eat, yet not be satisfied: This describes a curse within the intestines. [Once again,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 25-26) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: (a) the attacking armies, (b) the siege, (c) the plague, (d) the destruction of food supply, (e) a lack of wood, (f) crumbly bread and (g) a curse in the intestines. The clause, “you will be delivered [into the enemy’s hand]” (in verse 25), does not count [as a separate retribution because it] is [part of] the attacking armies.   ואכלתם ולא תשבעו: זה מארה בתוך המעים, הרי שבע פורעניות חרב, מצור, דבר, שבר מטה לחם, חוסר עצים, פת נפולה, מארה במעים. ונתתם (פסוק כה) אינה מן המנין, שהיא החרב:
27And if, despite this, you still do not listen to Me, still treating Me as happenstance,   כזוְאִ֨ם־בְּזֹ֔את לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וַֽהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי:
28I will treat you with a fury of happenstance, adding again seven [chastisements] for your sins:   כחוְהָֽלַכְתִּ֥י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בַּֽחֲמַת־קֶ֑רִי וְיִסַּרְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ אַף־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
29You will eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters you will eat.   כטוַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם בְּשַׂ֣ר בְּנֵיכֶ֑ם וּבְשַׂ֥ר בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
30I will demolish your edifices and cut down your sun idols; I will make your corpses [fall] upon the corpses of your idols, and My Spirit will reject you.   לוְהִשְׁמַדְתִּ֞י אֶת־בָּמֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם וְהִכְרַתִּי֙ אֶת־חַמָּ֣נֵיכֶ֔ם וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶ֔ם עַל־פִּגְרֵ֖י גִּלּֽוּלֵיכֶ֑ם וְגָֽעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם:
your edifices: Towers and castles.   במתיכם: מגדלים ובירניות:
your sun-idols: A type of idol that they would place upon the rooftops, and since they would stand in the sun (חַמָּה), they are called “sun idols.” (חַמָּנִים) - [Torath Kohanim 19:7]   חמניכם: מין עבודה זרה שמעמידין על הגגות. ועל שם שמעמידין בחמה קרויין חמנים:
I will make your corpses [fall] upon [the corpses of your idols]: [How so?] The people would be swollen from starvation; [and in a futile gesture of homage,] they would take out their idol from their bosom and kiss it; their bellies would burst open, and they would fall down [dead] on top of it. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   ונתתי את פגריכם: תפוחי רעב היו, ומוציאים יראתם מחיקם ומנשקים אותם, וכרסו נבקעת ונופל עליה:
and My Spirit will reject you: This is the departure of the Divine Presence. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   וגעלה נפשי אתכם: זה סילוק שכינה:
31I will lay your cities waste and make your holy places desolate, and I will not partake of your pleasant fragrances.   לאוְנָֽתַתִּ֤י אֶת־עָֽרֵיכֶם֙ חָרְבָּ֔ה וַֽהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֖י אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א אָרִ֔יחַ בְּרֵ֖יחַ נִיחֹֽחֲכֶֽם:
I will lay your cities waste: I might think that this means [desolate] of people [who reside there (Mizrachi)]. When the [next verse] says, “I will make the Land desolate,” [desolation of] people [who reside there] is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “waste”? [It means that the Land will be desolate] of any passerby. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   ונתתי את עריכם חרבה: יכול מאדם, כשהוא אומר והשימותי אני את הארץ (פסוק לב) הרי אדם אמור, הא מה אני מקיים חרבה מעובר ושב:
and make your holy places (מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם) desolate: I might think that this means [desolate] of sacrifices. [However,] when [Scripture] states, “and I will not partake [of your pleasant fragrances],” [desolation of] sacrifices is stated. So what is the meaning of “and make your holy places desolate”? It means [desolate] of throngs (Torath Kohanim 26: 4) - these are the caravans of Israelites who prepare themselves (מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת) and gather to go there [to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem]. [Here also,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 29-31) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: eating the flesh of sons and daughters, edifices being demolished; thus we have two [retributions enumerated]. The cutting down of sun-idols is not [counted as a separate] retribution, but rather, [part of this second one, for] as a consequence of the edifices being demolished, the sun-idols that had been erected on the rooftops (see Rashi verse 30 above) will fall off [these tall buildings] and be destroyed; I will make your corpses [(fall) upon the corpses of your idols]-that makes three; the departure of the Divine Presence-four; the cities being laid waste, the desolation of the holy places from throngs, and I will not partake [of the pleasant fragrances of] your sacrifices-in total, seven [even though the ensuing verses go on to mention several other additional hardships that are not actually part of these seven, but that Israel will have to endure if they sin (Mizrachi)].   והשמותי את מקדשיכם: יכול מן הקרבנות, כשהוא אומר ולא אריח הרי קרבנות אמורים, הא מה אני מקיים והשימותי את מקדשיכם, מן הגדודיות, שיירות של ישראל שהיו מתקדשות ונועדות לבא שם. הרי שבע פורעניות אכילת בשר בנים ובנות, והשמדת במות, הרי שתים. כריתת חמנים אין כאן פורענות אלא על ידי השמדת הבירניות יפלו החמנים שבראשי הגגות ויכרתו. ונתתי את פגריכם וגו' הרי שלש. סלוק שכינה ארבע. חרבן ערים, שממון מקדש מן הגדודיות, ולא אריח קרבנות, הרי שבע:
32I will make the Land desolate, so that it will become desolate [also] of your enemies who live in it.   לבוַֽהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֥י אֲנִ֖י אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשָֽׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֔ם הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בָּֽהּ:
I will make the Land desolate: This is actually a good thing for Israel, namely, that since the Land will be desolate of people living in it, the enemies will not find contentment in Israel’s Land [and will have to leave]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:38]   והשמתי אני את הארץ: זו מדה טובה לישראל שלא ימצאו האויבים נחת רוח בארצם, שתהא שוממה מיושביה:
33And I will scatter you among the nations, and I will unsheathe the sword after you. Your land will be desolate, and your cities will be laid waste.   לגוְאֶתְכֶם֙ אֱזָרֶ֣ה בַגּוֹיִ֔ם וַֽהֲרִֽיקֹתִ֥י אַֽחֲרֵיכֶ֖ם חָ֑רֶב וְהָֽיְתָ֤ה אַרְצְכֶם֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְעָֽרֵיכֶ֖ם יִֽהְי֥וּ חָרְבָּֽה:
And you, I will scatter among the nations: This [though,] is a harsh thing [for Israel], for when the people of a country are exiled to the same place, they see each other and find solace. However, Israel was scattered as if through a winnowing basket, just as a person who scatters barley through a sieve [so that] not one of them is attached to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26: 39]   ואתכם אזרה בגוים: זו מדה קשה, שבשעה שבני מדינה גולים למקום אחד רואים זה את זה ומתנחמין, וישראל נזרו כבמזרה, כאדם הזורה שעורים בנפה ואין אחת מהן דבוקה בחברתה:
and I will unsheathe: Heb. וַהֲרִיקֹתִי, [lit., “I will empty out,” which means here to unsheathe, because] when one unsheathes a sword, the sheath is emptied out (מִתְרוֹקֵֵן). And the Midrashic explanation [based on the term לְהָרִיק, often used to mean “to empty out water,” is as follows]: The sword that will be taken out against you will not return quickly [to its sheath]. This is like a person who empties out (מֵרִיק) [a pitcher of] water, which does not return [to the pitcher]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:39]   והריקתי: כששולף החרב מתרוקן הנדן. ומדרשו חרב הנשמטת אחריכם אינה חוזרת מהר, כאדם שמריק את המים ואין סופן לחזור:
Your land will be desolate: For you will not hasten to return into it, and subsequently, “your cities will be laid waste,” i.e., they will appear to you as having been [permanently] laid waste. For when a person is exiled from his house, from his vineyard, and from his city, but he [knows that he] that he will ultimately return, [in his eyes,] it is as though his vineyard and house are not laid waste [whereas here, since Israel will give up hope of returning to their Land, it will appear to them as having been laid waste]; thus is it taught in Torath Kohanim (26:40).   והיתה ארצכם שממה: שלא תמהרו לשוב לתוכה ומתוך כך עריכם יהיו חרבה, נראות לכם חרבות שבשעה שאדם גולה מביתו ומכרמו ומעירו וסופו לחזור כאלו אין כרמו וביתו חרבים, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים:
34Then, the land will be appeased regarding its sabbaticals. During all the days that it remains desolate while you are in the land of your enemies, the Land will rest and thus appease its sabbaticals.   לדאָז֩ תִּרְצֶ֨ה הָאָ֜רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ כֹּ֚ל יְמֵ֣י הָשַּׁמָּ֔ה וְאַתֶּ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם אָ֚ז תִּשְׁבַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהִרְצָ֖ת אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶֽיהָ:
Then, the Land will be appeased: [This verb is in the reflexive form and the meaning is: Then, the Land will be appeased, and in turn,] appease the anger of the Omnip resent, Who had been angry regarding the Land’s Shemittah years (Mizrachi) [and thus appease [God regarding them].   אז תרצה: תפייס את כעס המקום שכעס על שמטותיה:
and thus appease: [This verb is in the causative form, meaning: The Land will appease] the King regarding its sabbaticals (Mizrachi).   והרצת: למלך את שבתותיה:
35It will rest during all the days that it remains desolate, whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals, when you lived upon it.   להכָּל־יְמֵ֥י הָשַּׁמָּ֖ה תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־שָֽׁבְתָ֛ה בְּשַׁבְּתֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ:
all the days that it remains desolate: [This word הָשַּׁמָּה is in the passive form, just] like the word הֵעָשׂוֹת [and means “being desolate”]. The [root of the word, שׁמם, actually has two letters מ, and our word should therefore appear as הָשַּׁמָמָּה Since this is difficult to pronounce, however, the first] “mem” is vocalized with a dagesh, which replaces the [second, omitted “mem,” rather than having the full word with a] double [“mem” in it, as in the noun form,] שְׁמָמָה.   כל ימי השמה: לשון העשות ומ"ם דגש במקום כפל שממה:
whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals: The seventy years of the Babylonian exile [i.e., between the destruction of the first Temple and the building of the second,] corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah and Jubilee years that took place during the years that Israel angered the Omnipresent while in their Land, [a total of] 430 years. Three hundred and ninety years were the years of their sinning from when they entered the land until the Ten Tribes were exiled, and the people of Judah angered Him for forty more years from the time the Ten Tribes were exiled until the destruction of Jerusalem. This is what is referred to in Ezek. (4:4-5) [when God makes Ezekiel figuratively suffer one day for each year Israel sinned, in order to atone for their sins], “And you shall lie on your left side (symbolizing the house of Israel, i.e., the ten tribes)… [Now I have made for you the years of their iniquity by the number of days, three hundred and ninety days, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Israel]. And when you complete these, you shall lie on your right side a second time, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Judah: forty days [a day for a year, a day for a year, I have given it to you].” Now, this prophecy was stated to Ezekiel in the fifth year of King Jehoiachin’s exile. And [since the people of Judah] spent another six years [in the Land] until Zedekiah’s exile, totaling forty-six [sinful years of the house of Judah, and hence, of the 850 years the people of Israel spent from the time of their entry into the Land until their eventual exile from it after the destruction of the first Holy Temple, they sinned for a total of 436 years]. Now, you might object, saying that King Manasseh [who was born immediately after the ten tribes were exiled, and who] ruled for fifty-five years [and so, even without taking into account the sinful years during the reigns of all the other kings of Judah, fifty-five years alone is more than forty-six, so surely the calculation is incorrect]! [However,] Manasseh repented [his evil ways] for thirty-three [of the fifty-five] years [of his reign], and thus, his sinful years [amounted to] twenty-two years, as it is written, “and he made an asherah as Ahab, the king of Israel, had made” (II Kings 21:3), and Ahab ruled for twenty-two [sinful] years, [so did Manasseh sin for twenty-two of his fifty-five year reign,] as is taught in the Aggadah of [the eleventh chapter of Tractate Sanh. (103a), entitled] Cheilek. [Thus, the number of years that the house of Judah sinned was: 22 years during the reign of Manasseh,] two during [the reign of] Amon, eleven during [the reign of] Jehoiakim and the same [i.e., another eleven] during [the reign of] Zedekiah [making a total of 46 years. The other kings of Judah are not included in the calculation, because during the righteous Josiah’s reign, Israel did not sin, while Jehoachaz and Jehoiachin each ruled for only three months. Let us now] go and calculate, for the [period of] 436 years [of sin], how many Shemittah and Jubilee years transpired during the years, at a rate of sixteen in every hundred years: 14 Shemittah years and two Jubilee years [totaling 16 sabbatical years]. Therefore, for 400 years, we have 64, and for the remaining 36 years, there are five [cycles of seven years and thus five] Shemittah years, making a total of [64 and 5 =] seventy minus one [i.e., 69 unobserved sabbatical years in that total of 436 sinful years in that period]. And [we must add to this calculation] an extra year-this extra year was the [last sinful] year [of the 436,] which began another Shemittah cycle [and God exiled Israel then and did not wait for the completion of that cycle for them to desecrate the seventieth Shemittah year-out of mercy for them, so that they would not have to endure the punishment of utter destruction, God forbid.] - [see Deut. 4:25 and Rashi there; Sifthei Chachamim] [This extra year, nevertheless, is included in the calculation here, as though another sabbatical had gone by unobserved, thereby] completing the seventy [unobserved sabbatical years of that period]. And for these [unobserved sabbaticals], a full seventy years [of exile] were decreed. And thus is it stated in (II) Chron. (36: 21), “until the Land was appeased regarding its Sabbaths; [for all the days of its desolation it rested,] until the completion of seventy years.” - [See Sefer Hazikkaron for the explanation of this Rashi.]   את אשר לא שבתה: שבעים שנה של גלות בבל הן היו כנגד שבעים שנות השמטה ויובל שהיו בשנים שהכעיסו ישראל בארצם לפני המקום ארבע מאות ושלשים שנה. שלש מאות ותשעים היו שני עונם משנכנסו לארץ עד שגלו עשרת השבטים, ובני יהודה הכעיסו לפניו ארבעים שנה משגלו עשרת השבטים עד חרבות ירושלים, הוא שנאמר ביחזקאל (יחזקאל ד ד - ו) ואתה שכב על צדך השמאלי וגו' וכלית את אלה ושכבת על צדך הימני שנית ונשאת את עון בית יהודה ארבעים יום. ונבואה זו נאמרה ליחזקאל בשנה החמישית לגלות המלך יהויכין. ועוד עשו שש שנים עד גלות צדקיהו, הרי ארבעים ושש. ואם תאמר, שנות מנשה חמשים וחמש היו, מנשה עשה תשובה שלשים ושלש שנה וכל שנות רשעו עשרים ושתים שנה, דכתיב ויעש אשרה כאשר עשה אחאב (מלכים ב' כא ג) ואחאב מלך עשרים ושתים שנה, כמו שאמרו באגדת חלק (סנהדרין קג א) ושל אמון שתים, ואחת עשרה ליהויקים, וכנגדן לצדקיהו. צא וחשוב לארבע מאות ושלשים ושש שנה שמיטין ויובלות שבהם, והם שש עשרה למאה, י"ד שמיטין וב' יובלות, הרי לארבע מאות שנה ששים וארבע. לשלשים ושש שנה חמש שמיטות, הרי שבעים חסר אחת, ועוד שנה יתירה שנכנסה בשמטה המשלמת לשבעים. ועליהם נגזר שבעים שנה שלמים. וכן הוא אומר בדברי הימים (דה"ב לו כא) עד רצתה הארץ את שבתותיה למלאות שבעים שנה:
36And those of you who survive I will bring fear in their hearts in the lands of their enemies, and the sound of a rustling leaf will pursue them; they will flee as one flees the sword, and they will fall, but there will be no pursuer.   לווְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם וְהֵבֵ֤אתִי מֹ֨רֶךְ֙ בִּלְבָבָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֑ם וְרָדַ֣ף אֹתָ֗ם ק֚וֹל עָלֶ֣ה נִדָּ֔ף וְנָס֧וּ מְנֻֽסַת־חֶ֛רֶב וְנָֽפְל֖וּ וְאֵ֥ין רֹדֵֽף:
I will bring fear: Heb. מֹרֶךְ, fear and timidity (רֹךְ) of heart (see Torath Kohanim 26:43). The letter “mem” of מֹרֶךְ is [actually part of] the root [of the word, but occasionally] is omitted (see Rashi on Gen. 17:11 and 49:10) [and does not appear in other forms of the word, e.g., אַל יֵרַךְ לְבַבְכֶם (Deut. 20:3)], like the “mem” of מוֹעֵד and מוֹקֵשׁ [where the “mem” is also part of the root, but is omitted in different forms of these words, e.g., וְנוֹעַדְתּי שָׁמָה (Exod. 29:43) and, יָקוּשׁ (Hos. 9:8)]. — [Meira Dachya]   והבאתי מרך: פחד ורך לבב. מ"ם של מרך יסוד נופל הוא, כמו מ"ם של מועד ושל מוקש:
they will flee as one flees the sword: i. e., as if murderers are pursuing them [but only “as if,” because “there will be no pursuer.” - [Mizrachi]   ונסו מנסת חרב: כאילו רודפים הורגים אותם:
a rustling leaf: Heb., עָלֶה נִדָּף, lit., a “ pushed” leaf, that the wind “pushes,” striking it against another leaf, so that it knocks and makes a sound. And so does the Targum [Onkelos] render: קַל טַרְפָא דְשָׁקִיף, an expression of striking, like שְׁדוּפוֹת קָדִים, beaten by the east wind (Gen. 41:6), [which Onkelos renders:] שְׁקִיפָן קִדּוּם, [and it is like] the term מַשְׁקוֹף, lintel, the place where the door slams. Similar is [Onkelos’s] translation of חַבּוּרָה [“bruise” (Exod. 21:25), which he renders:], מַשְׁקוֹפֵי [which actually means “blow,” since the bruise is a result of a blow on the body (see Rashi there)]. [Although the word נִדָּף actually means “pushed,” Onkelos conveys the result of one leaf being pushed against another, namely, that it “strikes” its neighboring leaf. (Mizrachi).]   עלה נדף: שהרוח דוחפו ומכהו על עלה אחר ומקשקש ומוציא קול, וכן תרגומו קל טרפא דשקיף, לשון חבטה, שדופות קדים (בראשית מא ו) שקיפן קידום, לשון משקוף, מקום חבטת הדלת, וכן תרגומו של חבורה (שמות כא כה) משקופי:
37Each man will stumble over his brother, [fleeing] as if from the sword, but without a pursuer. You will not be able to stand up against your enemies.   לזוְכָֽשְׁל֧וּ אִֽישׁ־בְּאָחִ֛יו כְּמִפְּנֵי־חֶ֖רֶב וְרֹדֵ֣ף אָ֑יִן וְלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ תְּקוּמָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
Each man will stumble over his brother: When they run away to flee, they will stumble over each other, because they will flee in panic.   וכשלו איש באחיו: כשירוצו לנוס, יכשלו זה בזה, כי יבהלו לרוץ:
as if from the sword: i.e., as if fleeing from [people] who want to kill them, for they will have fear in their hearts, and every moment, they will think that someone is chasing them. And the Midrashic explanation of וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו is: “Each man will stumble because of his brother,” i.e., one person will stumble because of someone else’s sin, because all Jews are guarantors for one another. - [Torath Kohanim 26:45, Sanh. 27b]   כמפני חרב: כאילו בורחים מלפני הורגים, שיהא בלבבם פחד וכל שעה סבורים שאדם רודפם. ומדרשו וכשלו איש באחיו, זה נכשל בעונו של זה, שכל ישראל ערבין זה לזה:
38You will become lost among the nations, and the land of your enemies will consume you.   לחוַֽאֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם וְאָֽכְלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֶ֖רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
You will become lost among the nations: When you will be scattered, you will become lost from one another.   ואבדתם בגוים: כשתהיו פזורים תהיו אבודים זה מזה:
and the land of your enemies will consume you: This refers to those [Jews] who will die in the Diaspora.   ואכלה אתכם: אלו המתים בגולה:
39And because of their iniquity, those of you who survive will rot away in the lands of your enemies; moreover, they will rot away because the iniquities of their fathers are still within them.   לטוְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם יִמַּ֨קּוּ֙ בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְאַ֛ף בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנֹ֥ת אֲבֹתָ֖ם אִתָּ֥ם יִמָּֽקּוּ:
because the iniquities of their fathers are still with them: If they hold onto the [evil] practices of their forefathers in their hands. — [Sanh. 27b]   בעונת אבתם אתם: כשאוחזים מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם:
they will rot away: Heb. יִמָּקּוּ, an expression of melting, and has the same meaning as יִמַּסּוּ, “they will melt.” Similar is, “their eyes will melt (תִּמַּקְנָה) in their sockets” (Zech. 14:12), and, “my bruises are… decayed (נָמַקּוּ) ” (Ps. 38:6).   ימקו: לשון המסה, כמו ימסו, וכמו (זכריה יד יב) תמקנה בחוריהן, (תהלי' לח ו) נמקו חבורותי:
40They will then confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their fathers their betrayal that they dealt Me, and that they also treated Me as happenstance.   מוְהִתְוַדּ֤וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָם֙ וְאֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן אֲבֹתָ֔ם בְּמַֽעֲלָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָֽעֲלוּ־בִ֑י וְאַ֕ף אֲשֶׁר־הָֽלְכ֥וּ עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי:
41Then I too, will treat them as happenstance and bring them [back while] in the land of their enemies. If then, their clogged heart becomes humbled, then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity,   מאאַף־אֲנִ֞י אֵלֵ֤ךְ עִמָּם֙ בְּקֶ֔רִי וְהֵֽבֵאתִ֣י אֹתָ֔ם בְּאֶ֖רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֑ם אוֹ־אָ֣ז יִכָּנַ֗ע לְבָבָם֙ הֶֽעָרֵ֔ל וְאָ֖ז יִרְצ֥וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָֽם:
Then I too, will… bring them [… (back while) in the land of their enemies]: “I Myself will bring them [back]!” This is a good thing for Israel, so that they should not say, “Since we have been exiled among the nations, we may as well behave like them!” [Says God in answer to this:] “I will not allow them [to do this]! Rather, I will set up My prophets, and bring them back [to Me] under My very wings!” as it is said, “But what enters your mind shall not come about, [what you say, 'Let us be like the nations, like the families of the lands, serving wood and stone’]. As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm and with poured out fury, will I reign over you!” (Ezek. 20:32-33). - [Torath Kohanim 26:48]   והבאתי אתם: אני בעצמי אביאם, זו מדה טובה לישראל, שלא יהיו אומרים, הואיל וגלינו בין האומות נעשה כמעשיהם, אני איני מניחם, אלא מעמיד אני את נביאי ומחזירן לתחת כנפי, שנאמר (יחזקאל כ לב - לג) והעולה על רוחכם היו לא תהיה וגו' חי אני וגו' אם לא ביד חזקה וגו':
If then… becomes humbled: Heb. אוֹ אָז יִכָּנַע [This unusual expression, אוֹ אָז, is] similar to that in the verse, אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא, “If it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull” (Exod. 21:36). [Thus, the meaning of this verse is: If they want to become like the nations, I will have to take them back to Me against their will] but, if (אוֹ) their clogged heart then (אָז) becomes humbled [without force, their sufferings will atone for them…] (Sifthei Chachamim). Another meaning [of אוֹ אָז is:] Perhaps. [Thus, the verse means:] “Perhaps then, their blocked heart will become humbled….”   או אז יכנע: כמו (שמות כא לו) או נודע כי שור נגח הוא, אם אז יכנע. לשון אחר אולי שמא אז יכנע לבבם וגו':
then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity: [means that] they will gain atonement for their iniquity through their sufferings.   ואז ירצו את עונם: יכפרו על עונם ביסוריהם:
42and I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also My covenant [with] Isaac, and also My covenant [with] Abraham I will remember. And I will remember the Land,   מבוְזָֽכַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֣י יַֽעֲק֑וֹב וְאַף֩ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֨י יִצְחָ֜ק וְאַ֨ף אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶזְכֹּ֖ר וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֶזְכֹּֽר:
And I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob: Heb. יַעִקוֹב. [The name יַעִקוֹב is] written in full, [i.e., with a “vav,”] in five places [in Scripture], and [the name] אֵלִיָּהוּ is written defectively [without a “vav,” i.e., אֵלִיָּה also] in five places [in Scripture]. Jacob took a letter [“vav”] from the name of Elijah [the Prophet] as security-that he will come and herald the redemption of his [Jacob’s] children [and since this is Elijah’s mission in life, his name will remain “incomplete,” as it were, until he fulfills it, speedily, in our days. The five instances of the “vav” symbolize the five fingers of the hand; i.e., this security arrangement between Jacob and Elijah was sealed by a handshake (Gur Aryeh)].   וזכרתי את בריתי יעקוב: בחמשה מקומות נכתב מלא, ואליהו חסר בחמשה מקומות, יעקב נטל אות משמו של אליהו ערבון שיבוא ויבשר גאולת בניו:
I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also… Isaac, and also… Abraham]: Why are the forefathers enumerated in reverse order? To inform [you that the youngest patriarch,] Jacob is [alone] worthy of this [i.e., that Israel be redeemed through his merit alone], but if this is not enough, then Isaac is together with him, and if this is not enough, then Abraham is with him, and [Abraham] is certainly worthy. And why is the expression “remembering” not used with Isaac? [Because] Isaac’s ashes (see Rashi on Gen. 22:13; Bereishith Rabbah 56:9; Tanchuma Shelach 14) [always] appear before Me, gathered up and placed upon the altar“ [and therefore, God does not have to ”remember" Isaac, for Isaac is never forgotten]. — [Hagahoth Ubiyurei Hagra on Torath Kohanim]   וזכרתי את בריתי יעקוב: למה נמנו אבות אחורנית, לומר כדאי הוא יעקב הקטן לכך, ואם אינו כדאי הרי יצחק עמו, ואם אינו כדאי, הרי אברהם עמו, שהוא כדאי. ולמה לא נאמרה זכירה ביצחק, אלא אפרו של יצחק נראה לפני צבור ומונח על המזבח:
43[For] the Land will be bereft of them, appeasing its sabbaticals when it had been desolate of them, and they will gain appeasement for their iniquity. This was all in retribution for their having despised My ordinances and in retribution for their having rejected My statutes.   מגוְהָאָ֩רֶץ֩ תֵּֽעָזֵ֨ב מֵהֶ֜ם וְתִ֣רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ בָּהְשַׁמָּה֙ מֵהֶ֔ם וְהֵ֖ם יִרְצ֣וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָ֑ם יַ֣עַן וּבְיַ֔עַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַ֣י מָאָ֔סוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֖י גָּֽעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשָֽׁם:
This was all in retribution for: [means:] “In retribution (יַעַן) and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) [i.e., in retribution] for their having despised My ordinances [and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) for their having rejected My statutes].”- [Mizrachi]   יען וביען: גמול ובגמול אשר במשפטי מאסו:
44But despite all this, while they are in the land of their enemies, I will not despise them nor will I reject them to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them, for I am the Lord their God.   מדוְאַף גַּם־זֹאת בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֞ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֗ם לֹֽא־מְאַסְתִּ֤ים וְלֹֽא־גְעַלְתִּים֙ לְכַלֹּתָ֔ם לְהָפֵ֥ר בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתָּ֑ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:
But despite all this: Moreover (אַף), even though (גַּם) I will mete out this (זֹאת) retribution upon them which I have described [for them] when they are in the land of their enemies-nevertheless, I will not despise them… to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them.   ואף גם זאת: ואף אפילו אני עושה עמהם זאת הפורענות אשר אמרתי בהיותם בארץ אויביהם, לא אמאסם לכלותם ולהפר בריתי אשר אתם:
45I will remember for them the covenant [made with] the ancestors, whom I took out from the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations, to be a God to them. I am the Lord.   מהוְזָֽכַרְתִּ֥י לָהֶ֖ם בְּרִ֣ית רִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוֹצֵֽאתִי־אֹתָם֩ מֵאֶ֨רֶץ מִצְרַ֜יִם לְעֵינֵ֣י הַגּוֹיִ֗ם לִֽהְי֥וֹת לָהֶ֛ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
The covenant [made with] the ancestors: i.e., with the Tribes. — [Torath Kohanim 26:53]   ברית ראשנים: של שבטים:
46These are the statutes, the ordinances, and the laws that the Lord gave between Himself and the children of Israel on Mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses.   מואֵ֠לֶּה הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֘ וְהַתּוֹרֹת֒ אֲשֶׁר֙ נָתַ֣ן יְהֹוָ֔ה בֵּינ֕וֹ וּבֵ֖ין בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֥ר סִינַ֖י בְּיַד־משֶֽׁה:
the laws: וְהַתּוֹרוֹת. [Why the plural form, וְהַתּוֹרוֹת ? This denotes two Torahs -] one Written Torah and one Oral Torah. It teaches us that all were given to Moses on [Mount] Sinai. — [Torath Kohanim 26:54]   והתורת: אחת בכתב ואחת בעל פה, מגיד שכולם נתנו למשה בסיני:

Fourth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 27

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When a man expresses a vow, [pledging the] value of lives to the Lord,   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַפְלִ֖א נֶ֑דֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ נְפָשֹׁ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
When a man expresses: Expresses verbally.   כי יפלא: יפריש בפיו:
[pledging the] value of lives: to give the valuation of his life, i.e., saying: “I take it upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value (בְּעֶרְכְּךָ) of a vital (נְפָשֹׁת) organ, [such as the head or the liver]” - [Torath Kohanim 26:57, Arachin 20a]   בערכך נפשת: ליתן ערך נפשו לומר ערך דבר שנפשו תלויה בו עלי:
3the [fixed] value of a male shall be as follows: From twenty years old until sixty years old, the value is fifty silver shekels, according to the holy shekel;   גוְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר מִבֶּן֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְעַ֖ד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֗ חֲמִשִּׁ֛ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כֶּ֖סֶף בְּשֶׁ֥קֶל הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
the [fixed] value… shall be: The value stated here is not an expression of monetary value [the usual market value of a person sold as a slave], but, whether he has a high market value or a low one, the value fixed for him in this passage is according to his age.   והיה ערכך וגו': אין ערך זה לשון דמים, אלא בין שהוא יקר בין שהוא זול, כפי שניו הוא הערך הקצוב עליו בפרשה זו:
the value: Heb. הָעֶרְכְּ [The last letter of this word, ךָ, is not the second person pronominal suffix, “your,” but rather, a double of the preceding letter כ, and therefore, this word is] the same as עֵרֶךְ, “value.” And I do not know what the double כ denotes here.   ערכך: כמו ערך. וכפל הכפי"ן לא ידעתי מאיזה לשון הוא:
4And if she is a female, the value is thirty shekels;   דוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֖ה הִ֑וא וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ שְׁלשִׁ֥ים שָֽׁקֶל:
5And if [the person is] from five years old until twenty years old, the value of a male shall be twenty shekels, while that of a female shall be ten shekels;   הוְאִ֨ם מִבֶּן־חָמֵ֜שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים וְעַד֙ בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְהָיָ֧ה עֶרְכְּךָ֛ הַזָּכָ֖ר עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֑ים וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if… five years old: Not that the one who is vowing is a minor, because a minor’s words have no validity. Rather, [our verse is speaking of] an adult who says: “I take upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value of this five-year-old” [i.e., the subject of our verse is the person who is to be evaluated].   ואם מבן חמש שנים: לא שיהא הנודר קטן, שאין בדברי קטן כלום, אלא גדול שאמר ערך קטן זה, שהוא בן חמש שנים, עלי:
6And if [the person is] from one month old until five years old, the value of a male shall be five silver shekels, while the value of a female shall be three silver shekels;   ווְאִ֣ם מִבֶּן־חֹ֗דֶשׁ וְעַד֙ בֶּן־חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ שְׁל֥שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּֽסֶף:
7And if [the person is] sixty years old or over, if it is a male, the value shall be fifteen shekels, while for a female, it shall be ten shekels.   זוְ֠אִ֠ם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֨ים שָׁנָ֤ה וָמַ֨עְלָה֙ אִם־זָכָ֔ר וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר שָׁ֑קֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשָׂרָ֥ה שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if [the person is] sixty years old [or over]: When people reach a venerable age, a woman’s value becomes closer to that of a man. This is why a man decreases [in value] in his old age [to] beyond a third of his value [as an adult, namely, from 50 shekels to 15], while a woman [in her old age] decreases [to] only one third of her value [namely, from 30 shekels to 10]. As people say: “An old man in the house is a breach in the house (Rashi) [or] a snare in the house (Rabbenu Gershom), while an old woman in the house is a hidden treasure in the house and a good sign for the house.”- [Arachin 19a]   ואם מבן ששים שנה וגו': כשמגיע לימי הזקנה האשה קרובה להחשב כאיש, לפיכך האיש פוחת בהזדקנו יותר משליש בערכו, והאשה אינה פוחתת אלא שליש בערכה, דאמרי אינשי סבא בביתא פחא בביתא, סבתא בביתא סימא בביתא וסימנא טבא בביתא:
8But if he is [too] poor to [pay] the valuation [amount], he shall stand him up before the kohen, and the kohen shall evaluate him according to how much the one who is vowing his value can afford.   חוְאִם־מָ֥ךְ הוּא֙ מֵֽעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהֶֽעֱרִ֥יךְ אֹת֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן עַל־פִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּשִּׂיג֙ יַ֣ד הַנֹּדֵ֔ר יַֽעֲרִיכֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
But if he is [too] poor: that he cannot afford to pay this [fixed] valuation amount,   ואם מך הוא: שאין ידו משגת ליתן הערך הזה:
he shall stand him up: [i.e., the one making the vow should stand up] the one whose value he pledged, before the kohen , [who] will then evaluate him in view of how much the one pledging the valuation, can afford. — [see next Rashi ; Torath Kohanim 27:62]   והעמידו: לנערך לפני הכהן ויעריכנו לפי השגת ידו של מעריך:
according to how much [the one who is vowing his value] can afford: [The kohen] shall estimate the valuation, with reference to how much [the one who is vowing] owns, leaving him his basic life necessities, namely, a bed, a bolster, a pillow, and tools of trade-e.g., if he is a donkey-driver, the kohen must [make the valuation such that he] leaves him his donkey. — [Arachin 23b]   על פי אשר תשיג: לפי מה שיש לו יסדרנו וישאיר לו כדי חייו מטה כר וכסת וכלי אומנות, אם היה חמר, משאיר לו חמורו:
9Now, if an animal of whose type is [fit] to be brought as an offering to the Lord, whatever part of it the person donates to the Lord, shall become holy.   טוְאִ֨ם־בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מִמֶּ֛נּוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
[If… an animal…] whatever part of it the person donates [… shall become holy]: If a person says, “The leg of this animal shall be a burnt-offering,” his words have validity. [And how is his vow expedited?] The [entire] animal [except for its leg] should be sold to one who needs a burnt-offering, and the money [received from this sale] which excludes the value of that limb [as stated above], becomes non-consecrated, [and then the entire animal can be brought by both parties as a burnt-offering]. — [Arachin 5a, Temurah 11b, Raavad on Torath Kohanim]   כל אשר יתן ממנו: אמר רגלה של זו עולה, דבריו קיימין, ותמכר לצרכי עולה ודמיה חולין, חוץ מדמי אותו האבר:
10He shall not exchange it or offer a substitute for it, whether it be a good one for a bad one, or a bad one for a good one. But if he does substitute one animal for another animal, [both] that one and its replacement shall be holy.   ילֹ֣א יַֽחֲלִיפֶ֔נּוּ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥יר אֹת֛וֹ ט֥וֹב בְּרָ֖ע אוֹ־רַ֣ע בְּט֑וֹב וְאִם־הָמֵ֨ר יָמִ֤יר בְּהֵמָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה וְהָֽיָה־ה֥וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
whether it be a good one for a bad one: i.e., an unblemished animal in place of a blemished one,   טוב ברע: תם בבעל מום:
or a bad one in place of a good one: And how much more so [should he receive lashes if he replaced] a good [unblemished animal] for another good one, or if he replaced a bad [blemished animal] with another bad one [in which cases he did not raise the standard of the consecrated animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:71; Temurah 9a]   או רע בטוב: וכל שכן טוב בטוב ורע ברע:
11And if it is any unclean animal, of whose type shall not be brought as an offering to the Lord, then he shall stand up the animal before the kohen.   יאוְאִם֙ כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹֽא־יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהֶֽעֱמִ֥יד אֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And if it is any unclean animal: [But the case of an unclean animal is stated later (verse 27); so what “unclean animal” is meant?] The text is speaking about a blemished animal, which is “unclean” [i.e., unfit] for sacrifice. And Scripture is teaching us that unblemished consecrated animals cannot leave [their holy status and enter] into a mundane status through redemption, unless they become blemished. — [Men. 101a, Temurah 32b, 33a]   ואם כל בהמה טמאה: בבעלת מום הכתוב מדבר, שהיא טמאה להקרבה, ולמדך הכתוב שאין קדשים תמימים יוצאין לחולין בפדיון אלא אם כן הוממו:
12The kohen shall then evaluate it whether it is good or bad; like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be.   יבוְהֶֽעֱרִ֤יךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔הּ בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֣ין רָ֑ע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יִֽהְיֶֽה:
like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be: for anyone else [but the owner], who wishes to purchase it from the possession of the Temple treasury,   כערכך הכהן כן יהיה: לשאר כל אדם הבא לקנותה מיד הקדש:
13But if he redeems it, he shall add its fifth to its value.   יגוְאִם־גָּאֹ֖ל יִגְאָלֶ֑נָּה וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽישִׁת֖וֹ עַל־עֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he redeems it: [i.e., if the owner himself redeems the animal]. Scripture is more stringent with the owner, [obligating him] to add a fifth [to its value (see B.M . 54a, regarding the meaning of fifth)]. Likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his house, and likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his field, and likewise, in the case of the redemption of the Second Tithe- [in all these cases,] the owners must add a fifth [to the value], but no one else [who redeems these items must add a fifth]. [Torath Kohanim 27:83]   ואם גאל יגאלנה: בבעלים החמיר הכתוב להוסיף חומש, וכן במקדיש בית וכן במקדיש את השדה וכן בפדיון מעשר שני הבעלים מוסיפין חומש, ולא שאר כל אדם:
14And if a man consecrates his house [to be] holy to the Lord, the kohen shall evaluate it whether good or bad; as the kohen evaluates it, so shall it remain.   ידוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְדִּ֨שׁ אֶת־בֵּית֥וֹ קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהֶֽעֱרִיכוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֥ין רָ֑ע כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲרִ֥יךְ אֹת֛וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יָקֽוּם:
15But if the one who consecrated it redeems his house, he shall add to it a fifth of its valuation money, and it shall be his.   טווְאִם־הַ֙מַּקְדִּ֔ישׁ יִגְאַ֖ל אֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִישִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְהָ֥יָה לֽוֹ:

Fifth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 27

16And if a man consecrates some of the field of his inherited property to the Lord, the valuation shall be according to its sowing: an area which requires a chomer of barley seeds at fifty silver shekels.   טז וְאִ֣ם | מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֗וֹ יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ לְפִ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ זֶ֚רַע חֹ֣מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֔ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כָּֽסֶף:
the valuation shall be according to its sowing: And not according to its value, whether it is a field of good quality or a field of bad quality, their redemption from consecration is equal, [namely]: The area requiring a kor (a chomer in Scripture) of barley seeds [must be redeemed] for fifty [silver] shekels. This is Scripture’s decree. — [Torath Kohanim 27:90] Now, this applies to one who comes to redeem it at the beginning of the Jubilee cycle [namely, in its first year]. However, if he comes to redeem it in the middle [of the Jubilee cycle, i.e., after the first year has elapsed], he must pay according to the calculation of one sela (i.e., a shekel) and a pundyon (one forty-eighth of a shekel) per year [depending on how many years until the next Jubilee (see Rashi on verse 18 below)]. — [Arachin 25a] [And why so?] Because property is consecrated only according to the years of the Jubilee cycle-if it is redeemed [within the Jubilee cycle], very good, [i.e., it reverts to its original owners and is no longer Temple property]; but if not, the [Temple] treasurer sells it to someone else at the aforementioned rate, and it remains in the purchaser’s possession until the next Jubilee, just like any other fields which are sold. Then, when it leaves the possession of this purchaser [in the Jubilee], it reverts to the kohanim of that watch, namely, [namely, the shift officiating] when [Yom Kippur of that] Jubilee occurs, and is apportioned among them. — [Arachin 28b] [The kohanim are divided into 24 family watches, or shifts, each in rotation for two or three one-week periods every year.] This is the law stated regarding one who consecrates a field. I will now explain it according to the order of the verses.   והיה ערכך לפי זרעו: ולא כפי שוויה. אחת שדה טובה ואחת שדה רעה, פדיון הקדשן שוה, בית כור שעורים בחמשים שקלים, כך גזירת הכתוב. והוא שבא לגאלה בתחלת היובל, ואם בא לגאלה באמצעו, נותן לפי החשבון סלע ופונדיון לשנה, לפי שאינה הקדש אלא למנין שני היובל, שאם נגאלה הרי טוב, ואם לאו הגזבר מוכרה בדמים הללו לאחר ועומדת ביד הלוקח עד היובל כשאר כל השדות המכורות, וכשהיא יוצאה מידו חוזרת לכהנים של אותו משמר שהיובל פוגע בו ומתחלקת ביניהם, זהו המשפט האמור במקדיש שדה. ועכשיו אפרשנו על סדר המקראות:
17Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended], it shall remain at [its full] valuation.   יזאִם־מִשְּׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֑הוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֖ יָקֽוּם:
Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended]: If, as soon as the Jubilee year has ended, he immediately consecrates [his property i.e., within that first year of the next Shemittah and Jubilee cycle], and then he comes to redeem it immediately [i.e., before that first year has ended].   אם משנת היבל יקדיש וגו': אם משעברה שנת היובל מיד הקדישה ובא לגאלה מיד:
it shall remain at [its full] valuation: i.e., like this aforementioned (in verse 16) valuation, it shall be, [namely,] he must give fifty silver shekels [for the size of field stated]. — [see Arachin 24b]   כערכך יקום: כערך הזה האמור יהיה, חמשים כסף יתן:
18But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years until the [next] Jubilee year, and it shall be deducted from the valuation.   יחוְאִם־אַחַ֣ר הַיֹּבֵל֘ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֒הוּ֒ וְחִשַּׁב־ל֨וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֗סֶף עַל־פִּ֤י הַשָּׁנִים֙ הַנּ֣וֹתָרֹ֔ת עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנִגְרַ֖ע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, [the kohen should calculate the money for him….: [And not only in this case, but] likewise, if [the original owner] had consecrated the property immediately after the Jubilee ended, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer, and this one comes to redeem it after [this first year following] the Jubilee -   ואם אחר היבל יקדיש: וכן אם הקדישה משנת היובל ונשתהה ביד גזבר ובא זה לגאלה אחר היובל:
the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years [until the (next) Jubilee year]: according to the rate. How? [Scripture] has stated the fixed value [of redemption for a field whose size is that stated in our verse,] for forty-nine years as fifty [silver] shekels, i.e., one shekel for each of the [49] years and an extra shekel [paid over] all the [49] years. Now, a shekel is equivalent to 48 pundyons . Thus, one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for each year, except that one pundyon is missing for all of them [i.e., if we figure fifty shekels, we have only 49 shekels and 48 pundyons , which is less than a sela and a pundyon per year, but the redeemer is required to pay one extra pundyon per a 49-year period, for] our Rabbis taught (Bech. 50a) that, the [extra] pundyon is a surcharge for [currency exchange of] small coins [i.e., if someone comes to purchase a silver shekel with pundyons , he will be charged 49 of them, the extra pundyon being a surcharge for attaining the more significant single shekel coin rather than many small coins. This surcharge, then, is passed on to the one who wishes to redeem the field. Hence, at an annual rate of one shekel and one pundyon, the redeemer is actually paying one forty-ninth of a pundyon currency exchange surcharge every year]. And therefore, someone who comes to redeem [a field], must pay one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for every year left until the next Jubilee year.   וחשב לו הכהן את הכסף על פי השנים הנותרת: כפי חשבון. כיצד, הרי קצב דמיה של ארבעים ותשע שנים חמשים שקל, הרי שקל לכל שנה, ושקל יתר בין כולן, והשקל ארבעים ושמנה פודיונין, הרי סלע ופונדיון לשנה אלא שחסר פונדיון אחד לכולן, ואמרו רבותינו שאותו פונדיון קלבון לפרוטרוט, והבא לגאול יתן סלע ופונדיון לכל שנה לשנים הנותרות עד שנת היובל:
thereby deducting from the [full] valuation [amount]: the number of years from the [preceding] Jubilee year until the redemption year.   ונגרע מערכך: מנין השנים שמשנת היובל עד שנת הפדיון:
19If the one who consecrated it redeems the field, he shall add to it a fifth of the valuation money, and it shall be his.   יטוְאִם־גָּאֹ֤ל יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה הַמַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִשִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְקָ֥ם לֽוֹ:
If the [one who consecrated it] redeems the field: The person who consecrated it must add a fifth to this set amount. — [see Rashi on preceding verse; Mizrachi]   ואם גאל יגאל: המקדיש אותו, יוסיף חומש על הקצבה הזאת:
20But if he does not redeem the field, and if he has sold the field to someone else it may no longer be redeemed.   כוְאִם־לֹ֤א יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאִם־מָכַ֥ר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֖ל עֽוֹד:
But if he does not redeem the field: [i.e., if] the one who consecrated [the field does not redeem it].   ואם לא יגאל את השדה: המקדיש:
and if… has sold: [i.e., if] the treasurer (Arachin 25b) has sold   ואם מכר: הגזבר:
the field to someone else-it may no longer be redeemed: to revert to the possession of the one who consecrated it [i.e., the original owner, come Jubilee]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד: לשוב ליד המקדיש:
21But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee, it shall be holy to the Lord like a field devoted; his inherited property shall belong to the kohen.   כאוְהָיָ֨ה הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה בְּצֵאת֣וֹ בַיֹּבֵ֗ל קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה כִּשְׂדֵ֣ה הַחֵ֑רֶם לַכֹּהֵ֖ן תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee: the possession of the one who had purchased it from the treasurer, just like all fields that leave the possession of their purchasers, come Jubilee.   והיה השדה בצאתו ביבל: מיד הלוקחו מן הגזבר, כדרך שאר שדות היוצאות מיד לוקחיהם ביובל:
holy to the Lord: This does not mean that it reverts to the treasurer as sacred property designated for maintenance of the Holy Temple. Rather, it is “like a field devoted” which is given to the kohanim, as it is said, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you” (Num. 18:14). This too shall be divided in Jubilee among the kohanim of the watch at that time, namely, when Yom Kippur of that Jubilee occurs. — [Arachin 28b]   קדש לה': לא שישוב להקדש בדק הבית ליד הגזבר אלא כשדה החרם הנתון לכהנים, שנאמר (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, אף זו תתחלק ביובל לכהנים של אותו משמר, שיום הכפורים של יובל פוגע בו:

Sixth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 27

22And if he consecrates to the Lord a field that he had acquired, that is not part of his inherited property,   כבוְאִם֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה מִקְנָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֕ר לֹ֖א מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ יַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And if [he consecrates…] a field that he had acquired…: There is a difference between an acquired field (שְׂדֵה מִקְנֶה) and a field that is part of inherited property (שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה), namely, that the acquired field is not apportioned among the kohanim in the Jubilee because [the acquirer] can consecrate the field only until Jubilee, for in the Jubilee, the field is destined to leave his possession and revert to the original owner [from whom he acquired it]. Therefore, if he [the original owner (Panim Yafoth; Malbim)] comes to redeem [his property,] he must redeem it with that same fixed rate of valuation for a field that was part of an inherited property. [Should the one who consecrated it redeem it, according to the Sages, he redeems it according to its market value.] But if he does not redeem it, and the treasurer sells it to someone else, or if he does redeem it [according to Tos., Arachin 26b, the reading in Rashi is: If no one redeemed it, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer] in the Jubilee year the field reverts to the one from whom the one who consecrated it bought it, [i.e., the original owner of the field]. Now, lest you say that [the expression] לַאֲשֶׁר קָנֵהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ (in verse 24 below) [refers to] the one from whom this acquirer most recently acquired the field, namely, the treasurer [and that our verse is thus stating here that come Jubilee, the field “reverts” to the treasurer]. Therefore, it was necessary to state (verse 24),“namely, the one whose inherited land it was,” i.e., inherited from his ancestors-referring, therefore, to the original owner who had sold [the field] to the one who consecrated it. — [Arachin 26b]   ואם את שדה מקנתו וגו': חלוק יש בין שדה מקנה לשדה אחוזה, ששדה מקנה לא תתחלק לכהנים ביובל, לפי שאינו יכול להקדישה אלא עד היובל, שהרי ביובל היתה עתידה לצאת מידו ולשוב לבעלים, לפיכך אם בא לגאלה, יגאל בדמים הללו הקצובים לשדה אחוזה. ואם לא יגאל וימכרנה גזבר לאחר, או אם לא יגאל הוא, בשנת היובל ישוב השדה לאשר קנהו מאתו, אותו שהקדישה. ופן תאמר לאשר קנהו הלוקח הזה האחרון מאתו, וזהו הגזבר, לכך הוצרך לומר לאשר לו אחוזת הארץ (פסוק כד), מירושת אבות, וזהו בעלים הראשונים שמכרוה למקדיש:
23the kohen shall calculate for him the amount of the valuation until the Jubilee year, and he shall give the valuation on that day, holy to the Lord.   כגוְחִשַּׁב־ל֣וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן אֵ֚ת מִכְסַ֣ת הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֔ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנָתַ֤ן אֶת־הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
24In the Jubilee year, the field shall return to the one from whom he bought it namely, the one whose inherited land it was.   כדבִּשְׁנַ֤ת הַיּוֹבֵל֙ יָשׁ֣וּב הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָנָ֖הוּ מֵֽאִתּ֑וֹ לַֽאֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
25Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel, whereby one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs.   כהוְכָ֨ל־עֶרְכְּךָ֔ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל:
Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel: i.e., every valuation regarding which shekels are written, will be made according to the holy shekel.   וכל ערכך יהיה בשקל הקדש: כל ערכך שכתוב בו שקלים יהיה בשקל הקדש:
one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs: Twenty ma’ahs. This was how it was originally. However, in later times, they “added a sixth” [i.e., instead of a dinar being worth five ma’ahs (or gerahs), it became worth six ma’ahs (or gerahs)]. And indeed, our Rabbis taught: “A dinar is comprised of six ma’ahs of silver, and [since a shekel is worth four dinars,] there are twenty-four ma’ahs to one sela (i.e., shekel)” [as opposed to twenty ma’ahs in the shekel of the Torah]. — [Bech. 50a]   עשרים גרה: עשרים מעות כך היו מתחילה ולאחר מכאן הוסיפו שתות. ואמרו רבותינו שש מעה כסף דינר, עשרים וארבע מעות לסלע:
26However, a firstborn animal that must be [sacrificed as] a firstborn to the Lord no man may consecrate it; whether it be an ox or sheep, it belongs to the Lord.   כואַךְ־בְּכ֞וֹר אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבֻכַּ֤ר לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה לֹֽא־יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא:
no man may consecrate it: for the purpose of any other sacrifice, because it does not belong to him [but from its birth, a firstborn animal is designated as holy, to be given to the kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:107]   לא יקדיש איש אתו: לשם קרבן אחר, לפי שאינו שלו:
27Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal, he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation, and he shall add its fifth to it, and if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for the valuation [price].   כזוְאִ֨ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּמֵאָה֙ וּפָדָ֣ה בְעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽשִׁת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל וְנִמְכַּ֥ר בְּעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal: [lit., “And if it is with an unclean animal….”] This verse does not refer back to firstborn animals [discussed in the preceding verse], for it cannot state of a firstborn unclean animal that “he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation” [for the only unclean animal to which the law of the firstborn applies is a donkey (see Exod. 13: 12-13)]; and this [verse] cannot refer to a donkey, because the firstborn of a donkey can be redeemed only with a lamb (see Exod. 13:13), which becomes a gift to the kohen and is not given to the Sanctuary [as does the valuation money in our verse]. Rather, our verse here is referring back to consecration [of one’s possessions to the Temple], for Scripture above (verses 11-13) was speaking about the redemption of a clean animal that had been [consecrated and subsequently] blemished (see Rashi there), and here, our verse is speaking about one who consecrates an unclean animal for maintenance of the Temple. — [Men. 101a]   ואם בבהמה הטמאה וגו': אין המקרא הזה מוסב על הבכור, שאין לומר בבכור בהמה טמאה ופדה בערכך. וחמור אין זה, שהרי אין פדיון פטר חמור אלא טלה, והוא מתנה לכהן ואינו להקדש, אלא הכתוב מוסב על ההקדש. שהכתוב שלמעלה (פסוק יא) דבר בפדיון בהמה טהורה שהוממה, וכאן דבר במקדיש בהמה טמאה לבדק הבית:
he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation: According to how much the kohen will assess its value.   ופדה בערכך: כפי מה שיעריכנה הכהן:
and if it is not redeemed: By the owner,   ואם לא יגאל: ע"י בעלים:
it shall be sold for the valuation [price]: to others. — [Torath Kohanim 27: 108]   ונמכר בערכך: לאחרים:
28However, anything that a man devotes to the Lord from any of his property whether a person, an animal, or part of his inherited field shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed, [for] all devoted things are holy of holies to the Lord.   כחאַ֣ךְ כָּל־חֵ֡רֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽחֲרִם֩ אִ֨ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֗וֹ מֵֽאָדָ֤ם וּבְהֵמָה֙ וּמִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ לֹ֥א יִמָּכֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִגָּאֵ֑ל כָּל־חֵ֕רֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
However, anything that a man devotes…: Our Rabbis are in dispute regarding this matter [of devoted property]: Some say that unqualified vows of devoted property [i.e., he says, “This is hereby devoted (חֵרֶם),” and does not specify,] go [automatically] to Sanctuary moneys [designated for maintenance of the Temple. Now, according to this ruling,] what then is the meaning of, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you”? (Num. 18:14). This refers to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim, whereby someone says explicitly: “This is (חֵרֶם) devoted for the kohen .” But some [Rabbis] say that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim . — [Arachin 28b]   אך כל חרם וגו': נחלקו רבותינו בדבר יש אומרים סתם חרמים להקדש, ומה אני מקיים (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, בחרמי כהנים שפירש ואמר הרי זה חרם לכהן, ויש שאמרו סתם חרמים לכהנים:
shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed: But, it must be given to the kohen . [For] according to those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim (see preceding Rashi), they explain this verse as referring to unqualified vows of devoted property, while those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to [Sanctuary moneys designated for] maintenance of the Temple, explain this verse as referring to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim. For all agree that devoted property specifically designated to kohanim does not have any redemption, until it falls into the possession of the kohen [and the property then becomes completely non-consecrated and can even be sold by the kohen (Sifthei Chachamim)]. Devoted property to the One on High [i.e., specifically designated to the maintenance of the Holy Temple, on the other hand], may be redeemed [at its market value even before it reaches the Temple treasury, and its redemption moneys go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, and the property itself then becomes non-consecrated]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Arachin 29a]   לא ימכר ולא יגאל: אלא ינתן לכהן. לדברי האומר סתם חרמים לכהנים, מפרש מקרא זה בסתם חרמים. והאומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית, מפרש מקרא זה בחרמי כהנים, שהכל מודים שחרמי כהנים אין להם פדיון עד שיבואו ליד כהן, וחרמי גבוה נפדים:
all devoted things are holy of holies: Those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, bring this verse as proof [to their position]. However, those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go to the kohanim, explain the phrase here, “all devoted things are holy of holies (קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים),” to mean that the act of devoting items to the kohanim can take effect upon [animal sacrifices with the degree of] “holy of holies” [indicated by the use of the double expression here, קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים] and [moreover, even the single expression itself here, קֹדֶשׁ, indicates that this act can take effect upon sacrifices with a degree] of lesser holiness. Thus, [if someone undertakes to bring a sacrifice, allocates which animal he is to sacrifice and then subsequently devotes that animal to the kohanim,] he must give [the relevant money (see below)] to the kohen [and then sacrifices the animal for the offering he had undertaken], just as we have learnt in Tractate Arachin (28b): If [he made] a vow (נֶדֶר) [to bring a sacrifice, i.e., he said, “I take upon myself (to bring an animal as such-and-such a sacrifice)” (see Rashi on Lev. 22: 18)-in this case, if an animal he had then allocated becomes lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, for his vow was to bring a sacrifice and was not limited to that particular animal. Therefore, in the case of a devoted vow (נֶדֶר),] he must give [to the kohen, money worth] the full value [of the animal, for it is still considered fully his when he devoted it to the kohen]. And if [he committed himself in the form of] a donation (נְדָבָה) [saying, “This particular animal is to be brought as such-and-such a sacrifice” (see Rashi on Lev. 22:18)-in this case, if the animal he had allocated becomes lost or blemished, he need not replace it, for his undertaking was limited only to that particular animal, and therefore the animal is no longer considered his. Therefore, in the case of a devoted donation (נְדָבָה) ,] he need give only [the monetary value of] the “benefit” for the [animal which means: Since in case the animal is lost or dies, he would not be required to bring another one in replacement, then once he has set the animal aside for the purpose of that particular sacrifice, he is considered to have already fulfilled his duty, and so, his actual sacrificing it becomes simply a gift to God, as it were. Enjoying this gesture of presenting a gift to God is the “benefit” he has from that animal and which is also the extent of his monetary ownership. This “benefit” is valued as follows: Someone else, who was not obligated to bring this sacrifice, is asked how much he would pay to have this animal sacrificed in his name as a gift to God. The amount that this person states is the amount that the one devoting must give to the kohen , and then he must bring the animal as a sacrifice, as per his undertaking to bring a donation]. — [Mishnah Arachin 8:6-7 and see Rashi on Talmud Arachin 28b]   כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא: האומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית מביא ראיה מכאן, והאומר סתם חרמים לכהנים מפרש כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא לה', ללמד שחרמי כהנים חלים על קדשי קדשים ועל קדשים קלים, ונותן לכהן, כמו ששנינו במסכת ערכין (כח ב) אם נדר נותן דמיהם, ואם נדבה נותן את טובתה:
[Anything that a man devotes… from any of his property -] whether it be a person: For example, if he devotes his non-Jewish male or female servants [for they are considered his property]. — [Arachin 28a]   מאדם: כגון שהחרים עבדיו ושפחותיו הכנענים:

Seventh Portion

Leviticus Chapter 27

29Any devoting of a person who has been devoted, need not be redeemed [for] he is to be put to death.   כטכָּל־חֵ֗רֶם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יָֽחֳרַ֛ם מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לֹ֣א יִפָּדֶ֑ה מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת:
Any devoting… who has been devoted: [This verse refers to] someone who [has been sentenced to death, and, as he] is going out to be executed, another person declares, “I hereby make a personal commitment [to pay] his valuation!” his words have no validity. — [Arachin 6b]   כל חרם אשר יחרם וגו': היוצא ליהרג ואמר אחד ערכו עלי, לא אמר כלום:
[And why not? Because] he is to be put to death: i.e., he is on his way to be executed, and therefore, he “cannot be redeemed”-he has no market value [as a slave] or any valuation.   מות יומת: הרי הולך למות, לפיכך לא יפדה אין לו לא דמים ולא ערך:
30Any tithe of the Land, whether it be from the seed of the land or the fruit of the tree it is the Lord's. It is holy to the Lord.   לוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֨ר הָאָ֜רֶץ מִזֶּ֤רַע הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ מִפְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה ה֑וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
Any tithe of the Land: Scripture is speaking about the Second Tithe. — [Torath Kohanim 27:112]   וכל מעשר הארץ: במעשר שני הכתוב מדבר:
the seed of the land: [Regarding the Second Tithe, Scripture says, “the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil” (Deut. 14:23 and see Rashi there). Thus, here, “the seed of the land” refers to] grain [and]   מזרע הארץ: דגן:
the fruit of the tree: [refers to] wine and oil.   מפרי העץ: תירוש ויצהר:
It is the Lord’s: [The Second Tithe does not belong to God in the sense that one is forbidden to have benefit from it, for indeed it is eaten in Jerusalem by the one who brings it (Sifthei Chachamim) Rather,] God has acquired this [Second Tithe], and it is from His very Table, as it were, that He invites you to come up and eat it in Jerusalem, as it is said, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, [in the place which He will choose to establish His Name therein;] the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil…” (Deut. 14: 23). - [Kid. 53a]   לה' הוא: קנאו השם ומשולחנו צוה לך לעלות ולאכלו בירושלים, כמו שנאמר (דברים יד כג) ואכלת לפני ה' אלהיך מעשר דגנך תירושך וגו':
31And if a man redeems some of his tithe, he shall add its fifth to it.   לאוְאִם־גָּאֹ֥ל יִגְאַ֛ל אִ֖ישׁ מִמַּֽעַשְׂר֑וֹ חֲמִֽשִׁית֖וֹ יֹסֵ֥ף עָלָֽיו:
[redeem] some of his tithe [… he shall add its fifth]: ] [“of his tithe,”] but not, of someone else’s tithe. Thus, one who redeems his friend’s tithe, does not add a fifth [to its value]. — [Kid. 24a] And what is [the purpose of] its redemption? In order to permit its being eaten anywhere [outside Jerusalem]. And [instead] he must bring the money [of its redemption] up to Jerusalem and eat [food there, bought with that money], as it is stated, “[And if… the place is too distant from you…] Then you will turn it into money [… and… go to the place which… God will choose. And you will turn that money into whatever your soul desires… and you will eat there before… God]” (Deut. 14:24-26).   ממעשרו: ולא ממעשר חברו, הפודה מעשר של חברו אין מוסיף חומש. ומה היא גאולתו, כדי להתירו באכילה בכל מקום. והמעות יעלה ויאכל בירושלים, כמו שנאמר (דברים יד כד) ונתת בכסף וגו':
32Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לבוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תחת השבט: כשבא לעשרן מוציאן בפתח זה אחר זה, והעשירי מכה בשבט צבוע בסיקרא להיות ניכר שהוא מעשר, כן עושה [לגדיים] לטלאים ולעגלים של כל שנה ושנה:
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יהיה קדש: ליקרב למזבח דמו ואמוריו, והבשר נאכל לבעלים, שהרי לא נמנה עם שאר מתנות כהונה, ולא מצינו שיהא ניתן לכהנים:
33He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לגלֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לא יבקר וגו': לפי שנאמר (שם יב יא) וכל מבחר נדריכם, יכול יהא בורר ומוציא את היפה, תלמוד לומר לא יבקר בין טוב לרע, בין תם בין בעל מום חלה עליו קדושה, ולא שיקרב בעל מום, אלא יאכל בתורת מעשר ואסור ליגזז וליעבד:
34These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לדאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי:

Maftir Portion

Leviticus Chapter 27

32Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לבוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תחת השבט: כשבא לעשרן מוציאן בפתח זה אחר זה, והעשירי מכה בשבט צבוע בסיקרא להיות ניכר שהוא מעשר, כן עושה [לגדיים] לטלאים ולעגלים של כל שנה ושנה:
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יהיה קדש: ליקרב למזבח דמו ואמוריו, והבשר נאכל לבעלים, שהרי לא נמנה עם שאר מתנות כהונה, ולא מצינו שיהא ניתן לכהנים:
33He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לגלֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לא יבקר וגו': לפי שנאמר (שם יב יא) וכל מבחר נדריכם, יכול יהא בורר ומוציא את היפה, תלמוד לומר לא יבקר בין טוב לרע, בין תם בין בעל מום חלה עליו קדושה, ולא שיקרב בעל מום, אלא יאכל בתורת מעשר ואסור ליגזז וליעבד:
34These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לדאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי:


Jeremiah Chapter 16

19O Lord, Who are my power and my strength and my refuge in the day of trouble, to You nations will come from the ends of the earth and say, "Only lies have our fathers handed down to us, emptiness in which there is nothing of any avail!   יטיְהֹוָ֞ה עֻזִּ֧י וּמָֽעֻזִּ֛י וּמְנוּסִ֖י בְּי֣וֹם צָרָ֑ה אֵלֶ֗יךָ גּוֹיִ֚ם יָבֹ֙אוּ֙ מֵֽאַפְסֵי־אָ֔רֶץ וְיֹאמְר֗וּ אַךְ־שֶׁ֙קֶר֙ נָֽחֲל֣וּ אֲבוֹתֵ֔ינוּ הֶ֖בֶל וְאֵֽין־בָּ֥ם מוֹעִֽיל:
and my refuge: (mon vantement in French), my boast. And Menahem (Machbereth p. 123) classified it as an expression of a wonder. Cf. (Psalms 60:6) “You have given those who fear You a wonder to be wondrous (נֵס לְהִתְנוֹסֵס).”  
to You nations will come: Eventually, the heathens will come to you and worship You of one accord, and they will say, “How did they make gods for themselves, and they are no gods?”  
from the ends of: Like מִקְצֵה, from the end of.  
handed down: an expression of an inheritance.  
avail: an expression of use (תּוֹעֶלֶת).  
20Can a man make gods for himself, and they are no gods?"   כהֲיַֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֥וֹ אָדָ֖ם אֱלֹהִ֑ים וְהֵ֖מָּה לֹ֥א אֱלֹהִֽים:
21Therefore, behold I let them know; at this time I will let them know My power and My might, and they shall know that My Name is the Lord.   כאלָכֵן֙ הִנְנִ֣י מֽוֹדִיעָ֔ם בַּפַּ֣עַם הַזֹּ֔את אֽוֹדִיעֵ֥ם אֶת־יָדִ֖י וְאֶת־גְּבֽוּרָתִ֑י וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־שְׁמִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
that My name is the Lord: As its apparent meaning, a ruler and a sovereign to fulfill My decree.  

Jeremiah Chapter 17

1The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, with a diamond point, engraved on the tablet of their heart and on the horns of your altars.   אחַטַּ֣את יְהוּדָ֗ה כְּתוּבָ֛ה בְּעֵ֥ט בַּרְזֶ֖ל בְּצִפֹּ֣רֶן שָׁמִ֑יר חֲרוּשָׁה֙ עַל־ל֣וּחַ לִבָּ֔ם וּלְקַרְנ֖וֹת מִזְבְּחֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם:
with a pen of iron: This is an allegory. That is to say that it is deeply engraved, and cannot be erased. And the Midrash Aggadah explains: with a pen of iron, with a diamond point, preserved by Jeremiah, called ‘an iron wall,’ and by Ezekiel, to whom it was said (3:9): “As a diamond, harder than flint have I made your forehead.”  
engraved: Engraved like one who plows deeply.  
on the tablet of their heart: that they do not forget their idolatry.  
2As they remember their children, [so do they remember] their altars, and their asherim by the green trees upon the high hillocks.   בכִּזְכֹּ֚ר בְּנֵיהֶם֙ מִזְבְּחוֹתָ֔ם וַֽאֲשֵֽׁרֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־עֵ֣ץ רַֽעֲנָ֑ן עַ֖ל גְּבָע֥וֹת הַגְּבֹהֽוֹת:
As they remember their children, [so do they remember] their altars: Like the remembrance of their children, so was the remembrance of their altars to them, like a man who longs for his son.  
and their asherim: which are by the green trees.  
by… trees: like אֵצֶּל, by. And Jonathan renders in this manner. under every green tree.  
3You, who sit upon the mountain in the field, I will give your substance, all your treasures for a spoil! Your high places are made for sin within all your borders.   גהֲרָרִי֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה חֵֽילְךָ֥ כָל־אֽוֹצְרוֹתֶ֖יךָ לָבַ֣ז אֶתֵּ֑ן בָּֽמֹתֶ֕יךָ בְּחַטָּ֖את בְּכָל־גְּבוּלֶֽיךָ:
You, who sit upon the mountain in the field: Jerusalem that is situated on the mountain of the plain. All around the city is a fielded plain. The structure of הֲרָרִי is like עֲרָבִי, called so because he dwells in the plain (עֲרָבָה) (montanyers in O.F), mountain dwellers (other versions: a mountain dweller).  
your substance: like מָמוֹנְ, your money.  
Your high places are made for sin: Your high places are made in sin for the purpose of idolatry within all your borders.  
4And you shall release, and [I will avenge Myself] of you because of your heritage that I gave you, and I will make you serve your enemies in the land that you did not know, for you have kindled fire in My nostrils that shall burn forever.   דוְשָׁמַטְתָּ֗ה וּבְךָ֙ מִנַּֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָתַ֣תִּי לָ֔ךְ וְהַֽעֲבַדְתִּ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־אֹ֣יְבֶ֔יךָ בָּאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יָדָ֑עְתָּ כִּי־אֵ֛שׁ קְדַחְתֶּ֥ם בְּאַפִּ֖י עַד־עוֹלָ֥ם תּוּקָֽד:
And you shall release: Perforce you will release your land for the time that it did not rest on your Sabbaths, which I said to you (Lev. 25:2), “And the land shall rest a Sabbath for the Lord.”  
of you: I will avenge Myself of you because of your heritage that I gave you, that you did not perform My will to release it. Another explanation: even of you, from your heritage; I will avenge Myself of you from your heritage, that I will exile you from it.  
for you have kindled fire in My nostrils: Heb. קְדַכְתֶּם.  
5So says the Lord: Cursed is the man who trusts in man and makes flesh his arm, and whose heart turns away from the Lord.   הכֹּ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה אָר֚וּר הַגֶּ֙בֶר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְטַ֣ח בָּֽאָדָ֔ם וְשָׂ֥ם בָּשָׂ֖ר זְרֹע֑וֹ וּמִן־יְהֹוָ֖ה יָס֥וּר לִבּֽוֹ:
who trusts in man: In his plowing and his harvest, saying, “I will sow during the seventh year and I will eat.”  
his arm: Like ‘his help,’ and so did Jonathan render: his trust.  
and whose heart turns away from the Lord: Who promised him (Lev. 25:21), “And I will command My blessing to you.” This is what I heard.  
6He shall be like a lone tree in the plain, and will not see when good comes, and will dwell on parched land in the desert, on salt-sodden soil that is not habitable.   ווְהָיָה֙ כְּעַרְעָ֣ר בָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א יִרְאֶ֖ה כִּי־יָב֣וֹא ט֑וֹב וְשָׁכַ֚ן חֲרֵרִים֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר אֶ֥רֶץ מְלֵחָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א תֵשֵֽׁב:
like a lonely tree: like a lonely tree, an expression of (Gen. 15:2) “Childless (עֲרִירִי) ,” and some say (degat in O.F) laid waste, and Menahem (Machbereth Menahem p. 137) explained: The name of a tree of the forest trees, and its name is ar’ar, and this is the explanation of (infra 48. 6) “Like an ‘aroer’ in the desert,” one of the trees of the forest.  
in the plain: an expression of a plain.  
parched land: aridness. Comp. (Job 30:30) “Became dry (חָרָה) from heat.”  
salt-sodden soil: Land that is salty and will not be settled.  
7Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord; the Lord shall be his trust.   זבָּר֣וּךְ הַגֶּ֔בֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְטַ֖ח בַּֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהָיָ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה מִבְטַחֽוֹ:
8For he shall be like a tree planted by the water, and by a rivulet spreads its roots, and will not see when heat comes, and its leaves shall be green, and in the year of drought will not be anxious, neither shall it cease from bearing fruit.   חוְהָיָ֞ה כְּעֵ֣ץ | שָׁת֣וּל עַל־מַ֗יִם וְעַל־יוּבַל֙ יְשַׁלַּ֣ח שָֽׁרָשָׁ֔יו וְלֹ֚א יִרְאֶה֙ (כתיב יִרְאֶ֙) כִּֽי־יָבֹ֣א חֹ֔ם וְהָיָ֥ה עָלֵ֖הוּ רַֽעֲנָ֑ן וּבִשְׁנַ֚ת בַּצֹּ֙רֶת֙ לֹ֣א יִדְאָ֔ג וְלֹ֥א יָמִ֖ישׁ מֵֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת פֶּֽרִי:
and will not see: The tree will not see when heat comes.  
drought: an expression of hunger, (famine in French). Another interpretation: בַּצֹרֶת is an expression of fortification (מִבְצָר) , and in this manner, Menahem (Machbereth Menahem p. 47) classified it.  
will not be anxious: will not be afraid.  
9The heart is deceitful above all things, and when it is sick, who will recognize it?   טעָקֹ֥ב הַלֵּ֛ב מִכֹּ֖ל וְאָנֻ֣שׁ ה֑וּא מִ֖י יֵדָעֶֽנּוּ:
The heart is deceitful: Full of pretext and deceit of all evil.  
and when it is sick: an expression of sickness, and this is its sickness.  
who recognizes it?: He thinks, “Who recognizes it?” I, the Lord, search it.  
10I, the Lord, search the heart, test the kidneys, to give everyone according to his ways, according to the fruit of his deeds.   יאֲנִ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה חֹקֵ֥ר לֵ֖ב בֹּחֵ֣ן כְּלָי֑וֹת וְלָתֵ֚ת לְאִישׁ֙ כִּדְרָכָ֔יו (כתיב כִּדְרָכָ֔ו) כִּפְרִ֖י מַֽעֲלָלָֽיו:
11The cuckoo calls but has not laid, so it is he who gathers riches but not by right; he shall leave them in the midst of his days, and at his end he stands dishonored.   יאקֹרֵ֚א דָגָר֙ וְלֹ֣א יָלָ֔ד עֹ֥שֶׂה עֹ֖שֶׁר וְלֹ֣א בְמִשְׁפָּ֑ט בַּֽחֲצִ֚י יָמָיו֙ (כתיב יָמָו֙) יַעַזְבֶ֔נּוּ וּבְאַֽחֲרִית֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה נָבָֽל:
The cuckoo calls: (Coucou glousse in French).  
but has not laid: This cuckoo draws after it chicks that it did not lay. דָגָר - This is the chirping which the bird chirps with its voice to draw the chicks after it, but those whom the cuckoo called will not follow it when they grow up for they are not of its kind. So is one who gathers riches but not by right.  
he stands dishonored: He is called wicked.  
12As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning, so is the place of our Sanctuary.   יבכִּסֵּ֣א כָב֔וֹד מָר֖וֹם מֵֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן מְק֖וֹם מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ:
As a Throne of Glory: Since he wishes to state: All that forsake You shall be shamed, he commences with the praise of the Omnipresent, and says before Him, “You, Whose Throne of Glory is exalted from the beginning of the Creation of the world and is directed opposite our Sanctuary.”  
13The Lord who is the source of the hopes of Israel, all that forsake You shall be shamed, and they who turn away from me shall be marked out on the earth that they have forsaken the source of living waters, the Lord.   יגמִקְוֵ֚ה יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה כָּל־עֹֽזְבֶ֖יךָ יֵבֹ֑שׁוּ וְסוּרַי֙ (כתיב יְסוּרַי֙) בָּאָ֣רֶץ יִכָּתֵ֔בוּ כִּ֥י עָֽזְב֛וּ מְק֥וֹר מַֽיִם־חַיִּ֖ים אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
The Lord Who is the source of the hopes of Israel: sits upon it. Therefore, all that forsake You shall be shamed.  
and they that turn away from me shall be marked on the earth: Those who turn away from my words, who do not hearken to my message, will be marked out in the nether graves of the earth.  
14Heal me, O Lord, then shall I be healed; help me, then I shall be helped, for You are my praise!   ידרְפָאֵ֚נִי יְהֹוָה֙ וְאֵ֣רָפֵ֔א הוֹשִׁיעֵ֖נִי וְאִוָּשֵׁ֑עָה כִּ֥י תְהִלָּתִ֖י אָֽתָּה:
for You are my praise: I praise myself and boast with You, saying that You are my Savior (vantance in O.F.), boast.  
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Select a portion: