Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 25

14And when you make a sale to your fellow Jew or make a purchase from the hand of your fellow Jew, you shall not wrong one another.   ידוְכִֽי־תִמְכְּר֤וּ מִמְכָּר֙ לַֽעֲמִיתֶ֔ךָ א֥וֹ קָנֹ֖ה מִיַּ֣ד עֲמִיתֶ֑ךָ אַל־תּוֹנ֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ אֶת־אָחִֽיו:
And when you make a sale to your fellow-Jew or make a purchase from your fellow-Jew: Its simple meaning is obvious. The verse can also be expounded [to teach us the following lesson]: How do we know that when you wish to sell, you should sell to your fellow-Jew? For Scripture says, “ וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “And when you make a sale--sell to your fellow-Jew!” And how do we know that if you come to buy, you should buy from your fellow-Jew? For Scripture continues here: “אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “or when you buy--buy from your fellow-Jew!” - [Torath Kohanim 25:29]   וְכִֽי־תִמְכְּרוּ וגו': לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ כְמַשְׁמָעוֹ; וְעוֹד יֵשׁ דְּרָשָׁה: מִנַּיִן כְּשֶׁאַתָּה מוֹכֵר, מְכֹר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרְךָ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר — לַעֲמִיתְךָ מְכֹר, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאִם בָּאתָ לִקְנוֹת קְנֵה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרְךָ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אוֹ קָנֹה — מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ (ספרא):
you shall not wrong: This means wronging through money (see verse 17 below and Lev. 19:33). - [Torath Kohanim 25:31]   אַל־תּוֹנוּ: זוֹ אוֹנָאַת מָמוֹן (בבא מציעא נ"ח):
15According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase from your fellow Jew; according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.   טובְּמִסְפַּ֤ר שָׁנִים֙ אַחַ֣ר הַיּוֹבֵ֔ל תִּקְנֶ֖ה מֵאֵ֣ת עֲמִיתֶ֑ךָ בְּמִסְפַּ֥ר שְׁנֵֽי־תְבוּאֹ֖ת יִמְכָּר־לָֽךְ:
According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase: The following is its simple meaning, to explain the verse according to its context: [The text] comes to warn against wronging [by overcharging, thereby linking verses 14-16 together (Mizrachi)], [namely, that] when you sell or purchase land, you should be aware of how many years remain until the [next] Jubilee, and according to [that number of] years and the crops that it is fit to yield, the seller should sell and the buyer should buy. For indeed, he will eventually return it to him in the Jubilee year. Thus, if there are [only] a few years [left until the next Jubilee year], and this one sells it for a high price, the purchaser has been wronged. And if there are many years [left until the next Jubilee year], and he will eat many crops from it [until Jubilee-if the purchaser had purchased the land for a low price], the seller has been wronged. Therefore, it must be purchased according to the time [left until the next Jubilee]. And this is [the meaning of] what it says, תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּרלָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי, “according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.” “According to the number of years of crop yields that it will remain in the hands of the purchaser, you shall sell it to him.” Now, [the word שְׁנֵי can mean “years of” or can mean “two.” Thus,] our Rabbis have expounded from here (see end of this Rashi for clarification), that one who sells his field is not permitted to redeem it in less than two years, that it must remain in the purchaser’s possession for exactly two years to the day, even if there are three crops during those two years, for example, if he sold it to him with crop standing in it [and then the ensuing years brought two more yields of produce. In that case, the seller cannot redeem after one year, claiming that two years’ crops have been issued,] for the word שְׁנֵי [which could mean two, i.e., two yields] does not leave its simple meaning [that it means years,] referring to [the number of years that elapse and] specifically, years that elapse with a yield of crop, but not years of blight. [Now, if the word שְׁנֵי means “years” and not two, then how do our Rabbis expound it to mean “two years”?] Because [the term שְׁנֵי is plural, and] the minimum quantity implied by שָׁנִים is two. — [Arachin 29b; Mizrachi]   בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל תִּקְנֶה: זֶהוּ פְשׁוּטוֹ לְיַשֵּׁב הַמִּקְרָא עַל אָפְנָיו: עַל הָאוֹנָאָה בָּא לְהַזְהִיר, כְּשֶׁתִּמְכֹּר אוֹ תִקְנֶה קַרְקַע, דְּעוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים יֵשׁ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, וּלְפִי הַשָּׁנִים וּתְבוּאוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת יִמְכֹּר הַמּוֹכֵר וְיִקְנֶה הַקּוֹנֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי סוֹפוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לוֹ בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁנִים מֻעָטוֹת וְזֶה מוֹכְרָהּ בְּדָמִים יְקָרִים, הֲרֵי נִתְאַנָּה לוֹקֵחַ, וְאִם יֵשׁ שָׁנִים מְרֻבּוֹת וְאָכַל מִמֶּנָּה תְּבוּאוֹת הַרְבֵּה, הֲרֵי נִתְאַנָּה מוֹכֵר, לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹתָהּ לְפִי הַזְּמַן, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר לָךְ — לְפִי מִנְיַן שְׁנֵי הַתְּבוּאוֹת שֶׁתְּהֵא עוֹמֶדֶת בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ תִּמְכֹּר לוֹ. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לִגְאֹל פָּחוֹת מִשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים — שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם, וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ שָׁלוֹשׁ תְּבוּאוֹת בְּאוֹתָן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ לוֹ בְּקָמוֹתֶיהָ; וּשְׁנֵי אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִפְּשׁוּטוֹ — כְּלוֹמַר מִסְפַּר שָׁנִים שֶׁל תְּבוּאוֹת וְלֹא שֶׁל שִׁדָּפוֹן, וּמִעוּט שָׁנִים שְׁנַיִם (ספרא; ערכין כ"ט):
16The more [the remaining] years, you shall increase its purchase [price], and the fewer the [remaining] years, you shall decrease its purchase [price], because he is selling you a number of crops.   טזלְפִ֣י | רֹ֣ב הַשָּׁנִ֗ים תַּרְבֶּה֙ מִקְנָת֔וֹ וּלְפִי֙ מְעֹ֣ט הַשָּׁנִ֔ים תַּמְעִ֖יט מִקְנָת֑וֹ כִּ֚י מִסְפַּ֣ר תְּבוּאֹ֔ת ה֥וּא מֹכֵ֖ר לָֽךְ:
you shall increase its purchase: You should sell it at a high price.   תַּרְבֶּה מִקְנָתוֹ: תִּמְכְּרֶנָּה בְיֹקֶר:
you shall decrease its purchase: You should sell it for less money [than in the case in which many years are left until the Jubilee]. — [Mizrachi].   תַּמְעִיט מִקְנָתוֹ: תַּמְעִיט בְּדָמֶיהָ:
17And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow Jew, and you shall fear your God, for I am the Lord, your God.   יזוְלֹ֤א תוֹנוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־עֲמִית֔וֹ וְיָרֵ֖אתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow-Jew: Here, [as opposed to the same expression in verse 14 above (see Rashi there),] Scripture is warning against wronging verbally, namely, that one must not provoke his fellow [Jew], nor may one offer advice to him that is unsound for him but according to the mode of life or the benefit of the advisor. And if you say, “Who can tell whether I had evil intentions [when I talked to my fellow in an insulting manner? Perhaps I did so in order to make him feel remorseful and repent his ways].” (see Be’er Basadeh). Therefore, it says, “and you shall fear your God.”-The One Who knows all thoughts-He knows. Concerning anything held in the heart and known only to the one who bears this thought in his mind, it says “and you shall fear your God!” - [B.M. 58b]   וְלֹא תוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ: כָּאן הִזְהִיר עַל אוֹנָאַת דְּבָרִים, שֶׁלֹּא יַקְנִיט אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא יַשִּׂיאֶנּוּ עֵצָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ הוֹגֶנֶת לוֹ, לְפִי דַּרְכּוֹ וַהֲנָאָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹעֵץ, וְאִם תֹּאמַר מִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם נִתְכַּוַּנְתִּי לְרָעָה? לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ — הַיּוֹדֵעַ מַחֲשָׁבוֹת הוּא יוֹדֵעַ. כָּל דָּבָר הַמָּסוּר לַלֵּב, שֶׁאֵין מַכִּיר אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁהַמַּחֲשָׁבָה בְלִבּוֹ, נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ (ספרא; בבא מציעא נ"ח):
18You shall perform My statutes, keep My ordinances and perform them then you will live on the land securely.   יחוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶם֙ אֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֔י וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֣ם אֹתָ֑ם וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ לָבֶֽטַח:
Then you will live on the land securely: because it is through the transgression of [the laws of] Shemittah that the Israelites are exiled [from their land], as the verse says, “Then, the land will appease its Sabbaths. [All the days of desolation while you are in the land of your enemies -] the land will rest and appease its Sabbaths” (Lev. 26:34). And the seventy years of the Babylonian exile [when the land remained forcibly at rest], corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah not observed by Israel, [and thus came to rectify and “appease” them]. [see Rashi Lev. 26:35 where the calculation is explained; Shab. 33a; and see II Chron. 36:21]   וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לָבֶֽטַח: שֶׁבַּעֲוֹן שְׁמִטָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אָז תִּרְצֶה הָאָרֶץ אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ, וְהִרְצָת אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ" (ויקרא כ"ו), וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁל גָּלוּת בָּבֶל כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעִים שְׁמִטּוֹת שֶׁבִּטְּלוּ הָיוּ: