Torah Reading for Emor

Parshat Emor
Shabbat, 15 Iyar, 5783
6 May, 2023
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Complete: (Leviticus 21:1 - 24:23; Ezekiel 44:15-31)
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First Portion

Leviticus Chapter 21

1And the Lord said to Moses: Speak to the kohanim, the sons of Aaron, and say to them: Let none [of you] defile himself for a dead person among his people   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה אֱמֹ֥ר אֶל־הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֑ן וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם לְנֶ֥פֶשׁ לֹֽא־יִטַּמָּ֖א בְּעַמָּֽיו:
Speak to the kohanim: Heb. אֱמֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ “Speak [to the Kohanim …] and say [to them],” lit. “Say…and you shall say.” [This double expression comes] to admonish the adult [Kohanim to be responsible] for the minors [that they must not contaminate them (Mizrachi)]. — [Yev. 114a]   אמר אל הכהנים: אמור ואמרת, להזהיר גדולים על הקטנים:
the sons of Aaron: [Had Scripture used just this expression,] I would have thought that even desecrated [kohanim, those born from forbidden unions, as in verse 7, are included in this admonition to separate from uncleanness]. Scripture, therefore, states, “the kohanim ” [to teach us that the admonition applies only to non-desecrated kohanim].   בני אהרן: יכול חללים, תלמוד לומר הכהנים:
the sons of Aaron: Even those who have defects are implied.   בני אהרן: אף בעלי מומין במשמע:
the sons of Aaron: But not the daughters of Aaron, [who may become defiled for the dead]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:1,2]   בני אהרן: ולא בנות אהרן:
Let none [of you] defile himself [for a dead person] among his people: While the dead person is among his people [and therefore has people, non- kohanim, to bury him]. This comes to exclude [from the prohibition a kohen who comes across] a מֵת מִצְוָה, [a dead person for whom no one is in calling distance to attend to his burial and thus it is incumbent for people to attend to him]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:4]   לא יטמא בעמיו: בעוד שהמת בתוך עמיו, יצא מת מצוה:
2except for his relative who is close to him, his mother, his father, his son, his daughter, his brother,   בכִּ֚י אִם־לִשְׁאֵר֔וֹ הַקָּרֹ֖ב אֵלָ֑יו לְאִמּ֣וֹ וּלְאָבִ֔יו וְלִבְנ֥וֹ וּלְבִתּ֖וֹ וּלְאָחִֽיו:
except for his relative: [The expression שְׁאֵרוֹ] “his relative” refers only [here] to his wife. — [Torath Kohanim 21:5; Yev. 22b]   כי אם לשארו: אין שארו אלא אשתו:
3and for his virgin sister who is close to him, who was not [yet] with a man for her, he shall defile himself.   גוְלַֽאֲחֹת֤וֹ הַבְּתוּלָה֙ הַקְּרוֹבָ֣ה אֵלָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־הָֽיְתָ֖ה לְאִ֑ישׁ לָ֖הּ יִטַּמָּֽא:
who is close [to him]: [This expression is] to include the sister who was betrothed [but not yet married] - [Torath Kohanim 21:5; Yev.60a]   הקרובה: לרבות את הארוסה:
who was not [yet] with a man: for relations. — [see Yev. 60a]   אשר לא היתה לאיש: למשכב:
for her, he shall defile himself: [This is] an obligation [for him to do so]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:8; Sotah 3a]   לה יטמא: מצוה:
4[But] a husband shall not defile himself for [a wife who causes] his desecration, [while she is] among his people.   דלֹ֥א יִטַּמָּ֖א בַּ֣עַל בְּעַמָּ֑יו לְהֵ֖חַלּֽוֹ:
[But] a husband shall not defile himself for [a wife who causes] his desecration, [while she is] among his people: He may not defile himself for his [deceased] wife who was unfit for him, and by whom he was desecrated [from his status,] while she was with him. — [Torath Kohanim 21:10; Yev.22b] And this is the simple meaning of the verse: “A husband shall not defile himself” for his relative [i.e., his wife], while she is still “among his people,” i.e., while she has [non- kohen] relatives who can attend to her burial, for she is therefore not under the category of an unattended deceased. And which relative [i.e., wife] are we dealing with here? [With a wife] “through whom he becomes desecrated (לְהֵחַלּוֹ),” i.e., [because she was unfit to marry him,] he subsequently becomes desecrated from his kehunah [and is unfit to perform the Holy Service].   לא יטמא בעל בעמיו להחלו: לא יטמא לאשתו פסולה שהוא מחולל בה בעודה עמו. וכן פשוטו של מקרא לא יטמא בעל בשארו בעוד שהוא בתוך עמיו, שיש לה קוברין, שאינה מת מצוה, ובאיזה שאר אמרתי, באותו שהוא להחלו, להתחלל הוא מכהונתו:
5They shall not make bald patches on their heads, nor shall they shave the edge of their beard, nor shall they make cuts in their flesh.   הלֹֽא־יִקְרְח֤וּ (כתיב לא־יִקְרְחֻ֤ה) קָרְחָה֙ בְּרֹאשָׁ֔ם וּפְאַ֥ת זְקָנָ֖ם לֹ֣א יְגַלֵּ֑חוּ וּבִ֨בְשָׂרָ֔ם לֹ֥א יִשְׂרְט֖וּ שָׂרָֽטֶת:
They shall not make bald patches on their heads: for a deceased. But are not [all] Israelites warned against this (see Deut. 14:1)]? However, when referring to the Israelites, Scripture says, “[You shall not…make any baldness] between your eyes [for the dead]” (Deut. 14:1). Thus, one might think that one is not liable [for making bald patches] anywhere else on the head. Scripture, therefore, says [regarding kohanim] “[They shall not make bald patches] on their heads” [teaching us that the prohibition applies to the entire head]. And we can extrapolate from kohanim to all Israelites through a gezeirah shavah [i.e., a Rabbinical tradition linking the laws of two otherwise unrelated verses or passages through common key words or phrases, as follows]: Here [regarding kohanim] Scripture uses the expression קָרְחָה - bald patches, and there regarding Israelites, Scripture [also] uses the expression קָרְחָה - bald patches. Thus, just as here [regarding kohanim, the prohibition applies to] the entire head, so is it understood further [regarding all Israelites], [that the prohibition applies to] the entire head, wherever one makes a bald patch on the head, [not just “between the eyes”], and just as there [regarding all Israelites, the prohibition applies to making bald patches only as a gesture of mourning] over a dead person [(see Deut. 14:1), “You shall not…make any baldness…for the dead”] - so, here [regarding kohanim, the prohibition applies to making bald patches only as a gesture of mourning] over a dead person. — [Torath Kohanim 21:11; Mak. 20a]   לא יקרחה קרחה: על מת. והלא אף ישראל הוזהרו על כך, אלא לפי שנאמר בישראל (דברים יד א) בין עיניכם, יכול לא יהא חייב על כל הראש, תלמוד לומר בראשם, וילמדו ישראל מהכהנים בגזרה שוה, נאמר כאן קרחה ונאמר להלן בישראל קרחה, מה כאן כל הראש אף להלן כל הראש במשמע, כל מקום שיקרח בראש. ומה להלן על מת, אף כאן על מת:
nor shall they shave the edge of their beard: Since it is stated in reference to all Israelites, “and you shall not destroy [the edge of your beard]” (Lev. 19:27), one might think that if one removed [the hairs] with tweezers or with a plane, one would be liable [to lashes]. Therefore, it says [here], “nor shall they shave,” [meaning] that one is liable only for something called “shaving” (גִּלוּחַ) with “destruction” (הַשְׁחָתָה) involved in it - that being a razor. — [Mak. 21a]   ופאת זקנם לא יגלחו: לפי שנאמר בישראל (ויקרא יט כז) ולא תשחית, יכול לקטו במלקט וברהיטני יהא חייב, לכך נאמר לא יגלחו, שאינו חייב אלא על דבר הקרוי גלוח ויש בו השחתה, וזהו תער:
nor shall they make cuts in their flesh: יִשְׂרְטוּ שָׂרֶטֶת, lit. “nor shall they cut a cut in their flesh.” [Why the double language?] Since regarding [all] Israelites, Scripture states (Lev. 19:28), “You shall not make cuts in your flesh for a person [who died],” one might think, that if someone made [several, e.g.,] five cuts, he would be liable for [having transgressed] only one [negative commandment]. Scripture, therefore, states, “nor shall they cut a cut,” to make one become liable for every individual cut made. For this word שָׂרֶטֶת is superfluous and thus is to be expounded [as above], as Scripture could have [merely] written, “nor shall they cut,” [in which case] I would have known that it means [not to cut] a cut. [Hence, the superfluous שָׂרֶטֶת was written to make one liable for each individual cut.]- [Torath Kohanim 21:12]   ובבשרם לא ישרטו שרטת: לפי שנאמר בישראל (ויקרא שם כח) ושרט לנפש לא תתנו, יכול שרט חמש שריטות לא יהא חייב אלא אחת, תלמוד לומר לא ישרטו שרטת, לחייב על כל שריטה ושריטה. שתיבה זו יתירה היא לדרוש, שהיה לו לכתוב לא ישרטו ואני יודע שהיא שרטת:
6They shall be holy to their God, and they shall not desecrate their God's Name, for they offer up the fire offerings of the Lord, the food offering of their God, so they shall be holy.   וקְדשִׁ֤ים יִֽהְיוּ֙ לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם וְלֹ֣א יְחַלְּל֔וּ שֵׁ֖ם אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם כִּי֩ אֶת־אִשֵּׁ֨י יְהֹוָ֜ה לֶ֧חֶם אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֛ם הֵ֥ם מַקְרִיבִ֖ם וְהָ֥יוּ קֹֽדֶשׁ:
They shall be holy: [Since Scripture does not state “They are holy,” but rather “They shall be holy,” it means that if kohanim wish to defile themselves over the dead and thereby desecrate their holiness]-against their will, the court must [prevent them from doing so, and thereby] sanctify them in this respect. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 21:13]   קדשים יהיו: על כרחם יקדישום בית דין בכך:
7They shall not marry a woman who is a prostitute or who is desecrated, and they shall not marry a woman who is divorced from her husband for he [the kohen] is holy to his God.   זאִשָּׁ֨ה זֹנָ֤ה וַֽחֲלָלָה֙ לֹ֣א יִקָּ֔חוּ וְאִשָּׁ֛ה גְּרוּשָׁ֥ה מֵֽאִישָׁ֖הּ לֹ֣א יִקָּ֑חוּ כִּֽי־קָד֥שׁ ה֖וּא לֵֽאלֹהָֽיו:
who is a prostitute: Heb. זֹנָה, [a woman] with whom an Israelite who is forbidden to her, has cohabited, for example, [relationships] punishable by excision (see Lev., Chapter 18), or a nathin [a descendant of the Gibeonites who were converted at the time of Joshua (see Josh., chapter 9) and who were forbidden to marry into Israel for all generations], or a mamzer [a product of a forbidden union]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:14; Yev. 61b]   זנה: שנבעלה בעילת ישראל האסור לה, כגון חייבי כריתות או נתין או ממזר:
who is desecrated: Heb. חֲלָלָה, [a woman] who was born from one who is unfit for the kehunah, for example, the daughter of a widow from a Kohen Gadol or the daughter of a divorcee from an ordinary kohen [the children of such unions becoming “desecrated” from the kehunah]. Also, [the term חֲלָלָה includes a woman] who becomes desecrated from the kehunah through relations with one of those who are themselves disqualified for the kehunah. — [Kid. 77a]   חללה: שנולדה מן הפסולים שבכהונה, כגון בת אלמנה מכהן גדול או בת גרושה וחלוצה מכהן הדיוט, וכן שנתחללה מן הכהונה על ידי ביאת אחד מן הפסולים לכהונה:
8You shall sanctify him, for he offers up the food offering of your God; he shall be holy to you, for I, the Lord Who sanctifies you, am holy.   חוְקִ֨דַּשְׁתּ֔וֹ כִּֽי־אֶת־לֶ֥חֶם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ ה֣וּא מַקְרִ֑יב קָדשׁ֙ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֔ךְ כִּ֣י קָד֔וֹשׁ אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם:
You shall sanctify him: Against his will- [meaning], that if he refuses to divorce [such a woman, lash him and chastise him until he divorces [her]. — [Yev. 88b; Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 21:19]   וקדשתו: על כרחו, שאם לא רצה לגרש, הלקהו ויסרהו עד שיגרש:
he shall be holy to you: Treat him with holiness, e.g., he should be the first to commence any matter, and to [be the one who] begins the blessings at a meal. — [Gittin 59b]   קדש יהיה לך: נהוג בו קדושה לפתוח ראשון בכל דבר ולברך ראשון בסעודה:
9If a kohen's daughter becomes desecrated through adultery she desecrates her father; she shall be burned in fire.   טוּבַת֙ אִ֣ישׁ כֹּהֵ֔ן כִּ֥י תֵחֵ֖ל לִזְנ֑וֹת אֶת־אָבִ֨יהָ֙ הִ֣יא מְחַלֶּ֔לֶת בָּאֵ֖שׁ תִּשָּׂרֵֽף:
If [a kohen’s daughter] becomes desecrated through adultery: Heb. כִּי תֵחֵל. [The word תֵּחֵל here, stems from the word חִלּוּל, desecration, and not from the word הַתְחָלָה, beginning, and thus, the phrase here means:] If she becomes desecrated (תִּתְחַלֵּל) through a forbidden union, whereby she had a marriage-bond to a man and she committed adultery-whether [this bond had been] a betrothal or a marriage. And our Rabbis differ with regards to the matter [i.e., as to which stage of marriage-bond is referred to here]. All agree, however, that Scripture did not speak of a single woman. — [Sanh. 50b-51a]   כי תחל לזנות: כשתתחלל על ידי זנות, שהיתה בה זיקת בעל וזנתה או מן האירוסין או מן הנשואין. ורבותינו נחלקו בדבר, והכל מודים שלא דבר הכתוב בפנויה:
she desecrates her father: She has desecrated and degraded his honor, for [people] will say of him, “Cursed is he who fathered this one! Cursed is he who raised this one!” - [Sanh. 52a]   את אביה היא מחללת: חללה ובזתה את כבודו, שאומרים עליו ארור שזו ילד, ארור שזו גדל:
10And the kohen who is elevated above his brothers, upon whose head the anointment oil has been poured or who has been inaugurated to wear the garments he shall not leave his hair unshorn or rend his garments.   יוְהַכֹּהֵן֩ הַגָּד֨וֹל מֵֽאֶחָ֜יו אֲשֶׁר־יוּצַ֥ק עַל־רֹאשׁ֣וֹ | שֶׁ֤מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה֙ וּמִלֵּ֣א אֶת־יָד֔וֹ לִלְבּ֖שׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִ֑ים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ֙ לֹ֣א יִפְרָ֔ע וּבְגָדָ֖יו לֹ֥א יִפְרֹֽם:
he shall not leave his hair unshorn: Heb. לֹא יִפְרָע. He shall not leave his hair unshorn as a gesture of mourning. — [Torath Kohanim 21:27] Now what is considered “leaving one’s hair unshorn?” More than thirty days. — [Sanh. 22b]   לא יפרע: לא יגדל פרע על אבל. ואיזהו גידול פרע, יותר משלשים יום:
11And he shall not come upon any dead bodies; he shall not defile himself for his father or his mother.   יאוְעַ֛ל כָּל־נַפְשֹׁ֥ת מֵ֖ת לֹ֣א יָבֹ֑א לְאָבִ֥יו וּלְאִמּ֖וֹ לֹ֥א יִטַּמָּֽא:
And [he shall not come] upon any dead bodies: [i.e., he shall not enter] the tent [or house, etc., wherein] the dead person [lies]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:28]   ועל כל נפשת מת וגו': באהל המת:
dead bodies: [This comes] to include [the law that] revi’ith [a “quarter” of a log] of blood [issued] from a dead person, defiles [anything found] in the tent. — [Sanh. 4a]   נפשת מת: להביא רביעית דם מן המת שמטמא באהל:
he shall not defile himself for his father or his mother: [Since the Kohen Gadol, unlike the ordinary kohen (see verse 2 above), is forbidden to defile himself for any dead body, even for his parents, this seemingly superfluous statement here comes only] to permit him [to defile himself] for a מֵת מִצְוָה, a dead person for whom there is no one to attend to [his burial]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:28; Nazir 48a]   לאביו ולאמו לא יטמא: לא בא אלא להתיר לו מת מצוה:
12He shall not leave the Sanctuary, and he will not desecrate the holy things of his God, for the crown of his God's anointing oil is upon him. I am the Lord.   יבוּמִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ לֹ֣א יֵצֵ֔א וְלֹ֣א יְחַלֵּ֔ל אֵ֖ת מִקְדַּ֣שׁ אֱלֹהָ֑יו כִּ֡י נֵ֠זֶר שֶׁ֣מֶן מִשְׁחַ֧ת אֱלֹהָ֛יו עָלָ֖יו אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
He shall not leave the Sanctuary: He shall not [leave the precincts of the Sanctuary to] follow the funeral procession [even of a relative]. — [Sanh. 18a] Furthermore, from here, our Rabbis learned that a Kohen Gadol may offer up sacrifices [even] if he is an onen [i.e., if his close relative died on that day]. [The following, therefore], is its meaning [i.e., the meaning of the verse]: Even if his father or mother died, [the Kohen Gadol] need not leave the Sanctuary, but he may perform the service. — [Sanh. 84a]   ומן המקדש לא יצא: אינו הולך אחר המטה. ועוד מכאן למדו רבותינו שכהן גדול מקריב אונן, וכן משמעו, אף אם מתו אביו ואמו אינו צריך לצאת מן המקדש אלא עובד עבודה:
he will not desecrate the holy things: [meaning] that he does not thereby desecrate the Holy Service, for Scripture has permitted him [to perform the Holy Service under such circumstances]. However, an ordinary kohen who performs the Holy Service while being an onen, desecrates [it]. — [Sanh. 84a]   ולא יחלל את מקדש: שאינו מחלל בכך את העבודה שהתיר לו הכתוב, הא כהן הדיוט שעבד אונן חלל:
13He shall marry a woman in her virgin state.   יגוְה֕וּא אִשָּׁ֥ה בִבְתוּלֶ֖יהָ יִקָּֽח:
14A widow, a divorcee, a woman who is desecrated or a prostitute he shall not marry [any] of these. Only a virgin of his people may he take as a wife.   ידאַלְמָנָ֤ה וּגְרוּשָׁה֙ וַֽחֲלָלָ֣ה זֹנָ֔ה אֶת־אֵ֖לֶּה לֹ֣א יִקָּ֑ח כִּ֛י אִם־בְּתוּלָ֥ה מֵֽעַמָּ֖יו יִקַּ֥ח אִשָּֽׁה:
a woman who is desecrated: [The terms וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה are not to be connected to mean a חֲלָלָה who is a זֹנָה, but rather, they should be read as two separate items, וַחֲלָלָה and then זֹנָה Thus, חֲלָלָה here refers to a woman] who was born from those unfit for the kehunah. — [see Rashi verse 7 above; Torath Kohanim 21: 34]   וחללה: שנולדה מפסולי כהונה:
15And he shall not desecrate his offspring among his people, for I am the Lord, Who sanctifies him.   טווְלֹֽא־יְחַלֵּ֥ל זַרְע֖וֹ בְּעַמָּ֑יו כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשֽׁוֹ:
And he shall not desecrate his offspring: But, if he does marry one of those [women listed in the verse as] being unfit [to marry a Kohen Gadol], his offspring from that woman are desecrated from the holiness of the kehunah [and are permitted to defile themselves for the dead, and they may marry a widow or a divorcee]. — [Nachalath Yaakov; Torath Kohanim 21:34]   ולא יחלל זרעו: הא אם נשא אחת מן הפסולות, זרעו הימנה חלל מדין קדושת כהונה:

Second Portion

Leviticus Chapter 21

16And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   טזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
17Speak to Aaron, saying: Any man among your offspring throughout their generations who has a defect, shall not come near to offer up his God's food.   יזדַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹ֑ר אִ֣ישׁ מִזַּרְעֲךָ֞ לְדֹֽרֹתָ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בוֹ֙ מ֔וּם לֹ֣א יִקְרַ֔ב לְהַקְרִ֖יב לֶ֥חֶם אֱלֹהָֽיו:
his God’s food: Heb. לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו, his God’s food. Any meal is termed לֶחֶם, as in, “…made a great feast (לְחֵם) ” (Dan. 5:1).   לחם אלהיו: מאכל אלהיו, כל סעודה קרויה לחם, כמו (דניאל ה א) עבד לחם רב:
18For any man who has a defect should not approach: A blind man or a lame one, or one with a sunken nose or with mismatching limbs;   יחכִּ֥י כָל־אִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ מ֖וּם לֹ֣א יִקְרָ֑ב אִ֤ישׁ עִוֵּר֙ א֣וֹ פִסֵּ֔חַ א֥וֹ חָרֻ֖ם א֥וֹ שָׂרֽוּעַ:
For any man who has a defect should not approach: [But this prohibition has already been stated (preceding verse). The meaning here is that] it is not fitting that he should approach, like “[When you offer up a blind [animal]…a lame or a sick one, is there nothing wrong?] Were you to offer it to your governor, [would he accept you or would he favor you? says the Lord of Hosts” (Malachi 1:8). Thus, just as an animal with a defect is not fitting as an offering, neither is a person with a defect fit for presenting it.]   כי כל איש אשר בו מום לא יקרב: אינו דין שיקרב, כמו (מלאכי א ח) הקריבהו נא לפחתך:
with a sunken nose: Heb. חָרֻם. [This term means] that his nose is sunken between his two eyes, such that he applies [eye shadow to] his two eyes with one stroke [i.e., his nose is so sunken that its bridge does not intercede between the two eyes]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:48; Bech. 43b]   חרם: שחוטמו שקוע בין שתי העינים, שכוחל שתי עיניו כאחת:
with mismatching limbs: Heb. שָׂרוּעַ [This term means] that one of his limbs is bigger than its counterpart, [e.g.,] one of his eyes is large, and one of his eyes is smaller [normal], or one thigh longer than its [normal] counterpart. — [see Sifthei Chachamim; Bech. 40b]   שרוע: שאחד מאיבריו גדול מחברו, עינו אחת גדולה ועינו אחת קטנה, או שוקו אחת ארוכה מחברתה:
19or a man who has a broken leg or a broken arm;   יטא֣וֹ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ שֶׁ֣בֶר רָ֑גֶל א֖וֹ שֶׁ֥בֶר יָֽד:
20or one with long eyebrows, or a cataract, or a commingling in his eye; dry lesions or weeping sores, or one with crushed testicles   כאֽוֹ־גִבֵּ֣ן אוֹ־דַ֔ק א֖וֹ תְּבַלֻּ֣ל בְּעֵינ֑וֹ א֤וֹ גָרָב֙ א֣וֹ יַלֶּ֔פֶת א֖וֹ מְר֥וֹחַ אָֽשֶׁךְ:
one who has unusually long eyebrows: Heb. גִּבֵּן, sourcils in French, [meaning] that his eyebrow (גַּבִּין) hairs are [abnormally] long and droop. — [Bech. 43b]   או גבן: שורצילו"ש בלע"ז [בעל גבות ארוכות] שגביני עיניו שערן ארוך ושוכב:
cataract: Heb. דַּק. [This means] that over his eyes he has a [thin] membrane (דּוֹק) which is called teile, tele, toyle, or tele in Old French, as in, “He Who stretches out [the heavens] like a curtain (דֹּק) ” (Isa. 40:22). — [Torath Kohanim 21:52; Bech. 38a]   או דק: שיש לו בעיניו דוק שקורין טיל"א [קרום], כמו (ישעיה מ כב) הנוטה כדוק:
a commingling in his eyes: Heb. תְּבֻלַּל, something that mixes (מְבַלְבֵּל) the [colors of the] eye, e.g., a white line that extends from the white [of the eye], piercing the “ring” [viz., the iris,] i.e., the [colored] annulus that encompasses the black [center of the eye, viz., the pupil,] called prunelle in French. This line pierces the iris and enters the black [pupil]. The Targum renders תְּבֻלַּל as חִילִיז, derived from חִלָּזוֹן, because this line resembles a worm. And so did the Sages of Israel call it [when they enumerate] the defects of a firstborn animal [in the context of whether it may be slaughtered outside the Temple]: עֵינָב, נָחָשׁ, חִלָּזוֹן, a worm-shaped, snake-shaped [growth], or a berry-shaped [growth]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:52, Bech. 38a, Mishnah Bech. 6:2]   או תבלל: דבר המבלבל את העין, כגון חוט לבן הנמשך מן הלבן ופוסק בסירא, שהוא עוגל המקיף את השחור, שקוראים פרוניל"א [אישון], והחוט הזה פוסק את העוגל ונכנס בשחור. ותרגום תבלול חיליז, לשון חלזון, שהוא דומה לתולעת אותו החוט. וכן כינוהו חכמי ישראל במומי הבכור חלזון נחש עינב (בכורות לח א):
or dry lesions or weeping sores: These are various types of boils.   גרב וילפת: מיני שחין הם:
dry lesions: Heb. גָרָב. This is [equivalent to] חֶרֶס, a skin disease [whose lesions are] dry [both] underneath and on the surface.   גרב: זו החרס, שחין היבש מבפנים ומבחוץ:
weeping sores: Heb. יַלֶּפֶת. This is the Egyptian lichen. And why is it called יַלֶּפֶת ? Because it bonds (מְלַפֶּפֶת) itself more and more [to the stricken person] until the day of [his] death. It is wet on its surface and dry underneath. Now, in another passage, a lesion wet on the surface and dry underneath is called גָרָב, as the verse says (Deut. 28:27), “weeping sores (גָרָב) and with dry lesions (חֶרֶס).” (But how is that so, when here, we have explained גָּרָב not only to be a completely dry lesion but also to be synonymous with חֶרֶס)? The answer is that] when גָּרָב is mentioned alongside חֶרֶס [as in Deut. 28:27], then the term גָרָב means [with wet lesions on the surface, and the term חֶרֶס refers to dry lesions both on the surface and underneath (see Rashi there)]. However, when it is mentioned alongside יַלֶּפֶת, then חֶרֶס [the dry lesion], is called גָרָב. Thus is the matter explained in Bech. (41a).   ילפת: היא חזזית המצרית. ולמה נקראת ילפת שמלפפת והולכת עד יום המיתה, והוא לח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים. ובמקום אחר קורא לגרב שחין הלח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים, שנאמר (דברים כח כז) ובגרב ובחרס, כשסמוך גרב אצל חרס קורא לילפת גרב, וכשהוא סמוך אצל ילפת קורא לחרס גרב, כך מפורש בבכורות (מא א):
one who has crushed testicles: Heb. מְרוֹחַ אֶשֶׁךְ [This term is to be understood] according to the Targum [Onkelos] as מְרִיס פַּחֲדִין, meaning: his testicles are crushed, like, “the sinews of his testicles (פַּחִדָיו) are knit together” (Job 40:17).   מרוח אשך: לפי התרגום מריס פחדין, שפחדיו מרוססים, שביצים שלו כתותין. פחדין כמו (איוב מ יז) גידי פחדיו ישורגו:
21Any man among Aaron the kohen's offspring who has a defect shall not draw near to offer up the Lord's fire offerings. There is a defect in him; he shall not draw near to offer up his God's food.   כאכָּל־אִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֣וֹ מ֗וּם מִזֶּ֨רַע֙ אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן לֹ֣א יִגַּ֔שׁ לְהַקְרִ֖יב אֶת־אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה מ֣וּם בּ֔וֹ אֵ֚ת לֶ֣חֶם אֱלֹהָ֔יו לֹ֥א יִגַּ֖שׁ לְהַקְרִֽיב:
Any man…who has a defect [shall not draw near…]: [But has this prohibition not already been stated in verse 17? This verse, however, comes to] include other types of defects [not specified in our passage]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:54]   כל איש אשר בו מום: לרבות שאר מומין:
There is a defect in him: As long as he has the defect, he is unfit [for the Holy Service]. However, if his defect goes away, he is fit [to serve]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:55]   מום בו: בעוד מומו בו פסול, הא אם עבר מומו כשר:
his God’s food: Any food is termed לֶחֶם.   לחם אלהיו: כל מאכל קרוי לחם:
22His God's food from the most holy and from the holy ones, he may eat.   כבלֶ֣חֶם אֱלֹהָ֔יו מִקָּדְשֵׁ֖י הַקֳּדָשִׁ֑ים וּמִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים יֹאכֵֽל:
from the most holy: [This phrase] refers to [those sacrifices] with a higher degree of holiness;   מקדשי הקדשים: אלו קדשי הקדשים:
and from the holy ones, he may eat: These are the sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness. Now, if sacrifices with a higher degree of holiness are mentioned [that a kohen with a defect may eat of them], why is it necessary to state [the same of] sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness? [The answer is that] had they not been stated, I would have concluded [the following]: Indeed [a kohen] with a defect may eat of the sacrifices with a higher degree of holiness, since we find that these were allowed to [be eaten even by] a non- kohen , since Moses [who was not a kohen ,] ate of the flesh of the sacrifices of the investitures. Consequently, perhaps the most holy sacrifices carry with them this leniency]. The breast and thigh of sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness, however, shall not be eaten [by a kohen with a defect], for we do not find an instance where a non- kohen takes a share of these!“ Therefore, Scripture states here ”or from the holy" [thereby permitting a kohen with a defect to eat from the sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness as well]. In this way the matter is explained in [Tractate] Zevachim (101b).   ומן הקדשים יאכל: אלו קדשים קלים. ואם נאמרו קדשי הקדשים למה נאמרו קדשים קלים, אם לא נאמרו הייתי אומר בקדשי הקדשים יאכל בעל מום, שמצינו שהותרו לזר, שאכל משה בשר המלואים, אבל בחזה ושוק של קדשים קלים לא יאכל, שלא מצינו זר חולק בהן, לכך נאמרו קדשים קלים. כך מפורש בזבחים (קא ב):
23But he shall not come to the dividing curtain, nor shall he draw near to the altar, for he has a defect, and he shall not desecrate My holy things, for I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   כגאַ֣ךְ אֶל־הַפָּרֹ֜כֶת לֹ֣א יָבֹ֗א וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ לֹ֥א יִגַּ֖שׁ כִּי־מ֣וּם בּ֑וֹ וְלֹ֤א יְחַלֵּל֙ אֶת־מִקְדָּשַׁ֔י כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם:
But [he shall not come] to the dividing curtain: to sprinkle the seven sprinklings [of blood] towards the dividing curtain. — [see Lev. 4:6]   אך אל הפרכת: להזות שבע הזאות שעל הפרכת:
[Nor shall he draw near] to the altar: [This refers to] the outer altar [(see Exod. 27:18) in the courtyard of the Sanctuary, as opposed to the inner incense altar (see Exod. 30:110) which was situated just outside the dividing curtain, all within the Holy enclosed area of the Sanctuary. Now, had our verse been referring to the inner altar, it would not have been necessary to specify the prohibition of the dividing curtain, for the dividing curtain was even closer in to the holy of holies. However, since it refers to the outer altar,] both [the altar and the curtain] are necessary to be written here; this matter is explained [in full] in Torath Kohanim (21:58).   ואל המזבח: החיצון. ושניהם הוצרכו להכתב, ומפורש בתורת כהנים:
And he shall not desecrate My Holy Services: for if [a kohen with a defect] did perform the Holy Service, [his service is considered] desecrated [and] thereby deemed invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 21:60]   ולא יחלל את מקדשי: שאם עבד, עבודתו מחוללת להפסל:
24Moses told [this to] Aaron and his sons, and to all of the children of Israel.   כדוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁ֔ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֑יו וְאֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Moses told: [Literally, our verse would read: “Moses spoke to Aaron and his sons, and to all of the children of Israel.” But what did he speak? He told them] this [entire] commandment [i.e., all the laws of the kehunah delineated in this passage].   וידבר משה: המצוה הזאת:
[to] Aaron and his sons, and to all the children of Israel: [But why command “all the children of Israel” about laws pertaining only to kohanim ?] So that the courts of law [comprising non- kohen judges] should warn kohanim [who have defects, to separate themselves from the Holy Service]. — [Midrash Hagadol, and see Torath Kohanim, Glosses of Gra]   אל אהרן ואל בניו ואל כל בני ישראל: להזהיר בית דין על הכהנים:

Leviticus Chapter 22

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to Aaron and to his sons, that they shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel, which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name. I am the Lord.   בדַּבֵּ֨ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְיִנָּֽזְרוּ֙ מִקָּדְשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלֹ֥א יְחַלְּל֖וּ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵ֧ם מַקְדִּשִׁ֛ים לִ֖י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
they shall separate themselves: The term נְזִירָה means only separation [from something]. Likewise, Scripture says, “and draws away (וְיִנָּזֵר) from following Me” (Ezek. 14:7), and, “they drew backwards (נָזֹרוּ)” (Isa. 1:4). [Thus, here, the meaning is that] when kohanim are in a state of uncleanness, they shall separate themselves (וְיִנָּזְרוּ) from the holy things. — [Torath Kohanim 22:62] Another explanation: [The commentators are at a loss to explain this expression, because the following comment easily agrees with the preceding one. See below.] “shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name.” [Now, the verse, in the order it is written, reads: “Aaron and his sons…shall separate themselves from the holy (sacrifices) of the children of Israel, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name-which they sanctify to Me.”] Transpose the verse and explain it [as follows]: shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name." [Another explanation] (see Sifthei Chachamim):   וינזרו: אין נזירה אלא פרישה, וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל יד ז) וינזר מאחרי, (ישעיה א ד) נזורו אחור, יפרשו מן הקדשים בימי טומאתן. דבר אחר: וינזרו מקדשי בני ישראל אשר הם מקדישים לי ולא יחללו את שם קדשי, סרס המקרא ודרשהו, אשר הם מקדשים לי ולא יחללו את שם קדשי:
which they sanctify to Me: [This comes] to include offerings that the kohanim themselves sanctified [to the Holy Temple, offerings from which kohanim in the state of uncleanness shall also separate themselves]. [According to this explanation, no transposition is necessary, and the verse is to be explained as follows: When the kohanim are unclean, they must separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, i.e., those consecrated by the children of Israel, and also from those consecrated by the kohanim themselves. Accordingly, the words, “another explanation,” appear at this point, not as they appear in the Mikraoth Gedoloth. According to Mizrachi and others, and according to all manuscripts and incunabula editions, these words do not appear at all. - [Torath Kohanim 22:64]   אשר הם מקדשים לי: לרבות קדשי כהנים עצמן:
3Say to them: Throughout your generations, any man among any of your offspring who, while his defilement is still upon him, comes near to the holy sacrifices that the children of Israel consecrate to the Lord that soul shall be cut off from before me. I am the Lord.   גאֱמֹ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם לְדֹרֹ֨תֵיכֶ֜ם כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ | אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַ֣ב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶ֗ם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְדִּ֤ישׁוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְטֻמְאָת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֧פֶשׁ הַהִ֛וא מִלְּפָנַ֖י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
Any man…who…comes near [to the holy sacrifices]: The phrase “comes near” really means “eating.” And so we find that a warning against eating holy sacrifices while in a state of uncleanness, is expressed as “touching,” [as is written], “she shall not touch anything holy” (Lev. 12:4) [which is] a warning against eating [anything holy, while in a state of uncleanness]. And our Rabbis have learnt [that these terms mean “eating” in this context] by way of a hekesh [a rule of Scriptural exposition, whereby, via Rabbinical transmission, laws from two passages are linked through their appearance in the same verse (Mizrachi).] Now, it is impossible to say that one is liable [to the penalty of excision] if he [merely] touches [holy sacrifices while he is in the state of uncleanness], for we find the penalty of excision for eating [holy sacrifices while one is unclean] stated in the passage “Command Aaron” (Lev. 7:20-21) [and moreover, there, we find] the penalty of excision for eating mentioned twice, one next to the other (see Lev. 7:20-21), and, if one would be liable just for touching, it would be unnecessary for Scripture to mention liability for eating. In a similar vein, [this explanation that our verse here refers to eating and not touching,] is expounded in Torath Kohanim (22:69), [as follows]: “…But is there [a case of] one who touches [holy sacrifices], that he should be liable [to the penalty of excision?!] If so, why does Scripture say, ”comes near“? [Because it teaches us that for eating holy sacrifices, one incurs the penalty of excision] only when they become fit to be ”brought near“ as an offering-for one becomes liable only if one [eats holy sacrifices] while one is unclean, after the parts that makes the sacrifice permissible to be eaten has been offered up [i.e., only when the sacrificial fats have been offered up and the blood has been dashed, or the offering of the fistful of flour in a meal-offering, or the sanctification in a vessel of parts of other offerings (see Hagahoth Uvei-urei HaGra on Torath Kohanim ; Mizrachi), is the holy sacrifice allowed to be eaten by the kohanim, and not before]. Now, one may ask: [Since our verse, as well as the two verses in Lev. 7:20-21, are all referring to eating holy sacrifices when one is unclean,] why is it necessary for Scripture to mention three times the penalty of excision for kohanim [eating holy sacrifices] when they are in an unclean state? These have already been expounded upon in Tractate Shevuoth (7a): ”One of them is [needed] to state the general law; one of them is [needed] to state a particular case [namely, the peace-offering, in order to preclude the eating of certain clean foods that are not sacrificed on the altar which do not have the punishment of excision; and one of them is needed to teach us that…when the verse says, “he incurs guilt” (Lev. 5:2), and may bring a קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, a sliding-scale sacrifice, Scripture is referring to…a person…who, while in an unclean state, enters the Sanctuary or eats of its holy sacrifices].   כל איש אשר יקרב: אין קריבה זו אלא אכילה, וכן מצינו שנאמרה אזהרת אכילת קדשים בטומאה בלשון נגיעה בכל קדש לא תגע (ויקרא יב ד), אזהרה לאוכל. ולמדוה רבותינו מגזירה שוה. ואי אפשר לומר שחייב על הנגיעה, שהרי נאמר כרת על האכילה בצו את אהרן (ויקרא ז כ - כא) שתי כריתות זו אצל זו, ואם על הנגיעה חייב לא הוצרך לחייבו על האכילה, וכן נדרש בתורת כהנים וכי יש נוגע חייב, אם כן מה תלמוד לומר יקרב, משיכשר לקרב, שאין חייבין עליו משום טומאה, אלא אם כן קרבו מתיריו. ואם תאמר שלש כריתות בטומאת כהנים למה, כבר נדרשו במסכת שבועות אחת לכלל ואחת לפרט וכו' (שבועות ז א):
while his defilement is still upon him: [meaning:] While the person is in a state of uncleanness. But I might think that Scripture is referring to the flesh, while the flesh is unclean,“ and the verse is speaking of someone in a clean state who eats unclean flesh [of holy sacrifices]. However, one is forced to learn the meaning of the verse from the literal meaning [of this phrase ”while its/his uncleanness is still upon it/him"]-i.e., the verse is speaking of something from which uncleanness can be removed, and this is a person, because a person can cleanse himself in a mikvah [while meat cannot be purified once it is defiled. — [Torath Kohanim 22:69; Zev. 43b]   וטמאתו עליו: וטומאת האדם עליו, יכול בבשר הכתוב מדבר, וטומאתו של בשר עליו, ובטהור שאכל את הטמא הכתוב מדבר, הרי כבר נאמר (ויק' ז יט) והבשר אשר יגע בכל טמא לא יאכל, אלא על כרחך ממשמעו אתה למד, במי שטומאתו פורחת ממנו הכתוב מדבר, וזהו האדם שיש לו טהרה בטבילה:
shall be cut off: One might suggest that [the offender is to be “cut off”] from one place to another, i.e., he shall be cut off from his place [of abode] and exiled (Be’er Basadeh) to settle in another place. Scripture, therefore, continues, “I am the Lord”- [as if to say:] “I am in every place” [and even if someone is sent into exile, I am also in that other place. Hence, the “cutting off” here refers to excision of the soul, that he will die before his time (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:69]   ונכרתה וגו': יכול מצד זה לצד זה, יכרת ממקומו ויתיישב במקום אחר, תלמוד לומר אני ה', בכל מקום אני:
4Any man whatsoever among Aaron's offspring if he has tzara'ath or has had a discharge, he shall not eat of the holy sacrifices, until he cleanses himself. And one who touches anyone who has become unclean [by contact with a dead] person, or a man from whom semen issued,   דאִ֣ישׁ אִ֞ישׁ מִזֶּ֣רַע אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן וְה֤וּא צָר֨וּעַ֙ א֣וֹ זָ֔ב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים֙ לֹ֣א יֹאכַ֔ל עַ֖ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְהָ֑ר וְהַנֹּגֵ֨עַ֙ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶ֔פֶשׁ א֣וֹ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵ֥א מִמֶּ֖נּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָֽרַע:
among Aaron’s offspring: I know only that Aaron’s offspring [are meant]. How do I know that he himself [and every Kohen Gadol (Ramban on verse 17, Rash MiShantz on Torath Kohanim) is also included]? Therefore, Scripture states [the apparently superfluous word “he” in the clause], “if he has tzara’ath ”; for one might think that since he is allowed to offer up holy sacrifices when he is an onen (Rashi Lev. 21:12 above), he would also be allowed to offer them up if he has tzara’ath or if he had a discharge. Scripture, therefore, says, “if he…” [to include Aaron and all other Kohanim Gedolim]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:70]   מזרע אהרן: אין לי אלא זרעו, גופו מנין, תלמוד לומר והוא צרוע, שיכול הואיל ומקריב אונן יקריב צרוע וזב, תלמוד לומר והוא:
until he cleanses himself: [This means] sunset [after his immersion]. Or, perhaps, it means only immersion [in a mikvah, and that suffices]? It says here, וְטָהֵר, and it says below (verse 7), וְטָהֵר, “When the sun has set, he becomes clean (וְטָהֵר).” Just as there (in verse 7), [it means] sunset, here too, [it means] sunset [that he may not eat holy things until the sun sets after his immersion]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:72]   עד אשר יטהר: ביאת השמש, או אינו אלא טבילה, נאמר כאן וטהר, ונאמר למטה וטהר (פסוק ז) ובא השמש וטהר, מה להלן ביאת שמש, אף כאן ביאת שמש:
anyone who has become unclean [by contact with a dead] person: Heb. טְמֵא נֶפֶשׁ, one who has become unclean by [contact with] a dead person.   בכל טמא נפש: במי שנטמא במת:
5or a man who touches any creeping creature through which he becomes unclean or a person through whom he becomes unclean, whatever his uncleanness   האוֹ־אִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִגַּ֔ע בְּכָל־שֶׁ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְמָא־ל֑וֹ א֤וֹ בְאָדָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְמָא־ל֔וֹ לְכֹ֖ל טֻמְאָתֽוֹ:
[A man who touches] any creeping creature through which he becomes unclean: [The seemingly superfluous phrase “through which he becomes unclean” means,] the [minimum] size [of a part of a creeping creature] through which [contact] one is rendered unclean (Torath Kohanim 22:76) -namely, through the volume of a lentil. — [Chag. 11a]   בכל שרץ אשר יטמא לו: בשיעור הראוי לטמא, בכעדשה:
or a person: a corpse. - [Torath Kohanim 22:76] [That is to say, cleansing after contact with a dead body takes place only after immersion and sunset on the seventh day. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   או באדם: במת:
through whom he becomes unclean: The size through which [contact] one is rendered unclean-namely, the volume of an olive. [Oholoth 2:1]   אשר יטמא לו: כשיעורו לטמא, וזהו כזית:
whatever his uncleanness: [This comes] to include one who comes into contact with a man or woman who has had a discharge, or with a menstruating woman or with a woman who has given birth, [or with one who has tzara’ath]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:76]   לכל טומאתו: לרבות נוגע בזב וזבה, נדה ויולדת ובמצורע:
6the person who touches it shall remain unclean until evening, and he shall not eat from the holy things unless he has immersed his flesh in water.   ונֶ֚פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּגַּע־בּ֔וֹ וְטָֽמְאָ֖ה עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְלֹ֤א יֹאכַל֙ מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֛י אִם־רָחַ֥ץ בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּֽיִם:
The person who touches it: i.e., who touches any one of these unclean beings.   נפש אשר תגע בו: באחד מן הטמאים הללו:
7When the sun sets, he becomes clean, and afterwards, he may eat of the holy things, for it is his food.   זוּבָ֥א הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וְטָהֵ֑ר וְאַחַר֙ יֹאכַ֣ל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י לַחְמ֖וֹ הֽוּא:
and afterwards, he may eat of the holy things: This is expounded on in [Tractate] Yev. (74b) as referring to terumah, that [the purified kohen] may eat it after sunset [of the day of his cleansing].   ואחר יאכל מן הקדשים: נדרש ביבמות בתרומה, שמותר לאכלה בהערב השמש:
he may eat of the holy things: [meaning, some of the holy things,] but not all holy things [thus, our verse refers specifically to terumah, but not sacrificial flesh, which the kohen who was stricken with tzara’ath or had a discharge may not eat until he brings his sacrifices on the morrow]. — [see preceding Rashi]   מן הקדשים: ולא כל הקדשים:
8He shall not eat a carcass or anything that was torn, thereby becoming unclean through it. I am the Lord.   חנְבֵלָ֧ה וּטְרֵפָ֛ה לֹ֥א יֹאכַ֖ל לְטָמְאָה־בָ֑הּ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
He shall not eat a carcass or anything that was torn, thereby becoming unclean through it: [Scripture] warned here regarding the [implications of one’s] uncleanness, as follows: If one ate a carcass of a clean bird, which [as explained (Rashi above 17:15),] does not defile through contact or by lifting it but defiles only when it is swallowed into the esophagus-this person is prohibited to eat holy things. Now, [a bird that had been torn (טְרֵפָה) and mortally wounded by a wild animal, if slaughtered properly, does not convey uncleanness. So why is it mentioned here?] We must say that וּטְרֵפָה is [stated only to teach us that the carcass of a bird conveys uncleanness only] of the species that can be prohibited because of טְרֵפָה, thus excluding the carcass of an unclean bird, whose species can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [because it is prohibited even if it was perfectly healthy]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:125126; see Rashi Lev . 17:15]   נבלה וטרפה לא יאכל לטמאה בה: לענין הטומאה הזהיר כאן, שאם אכל נבלת עוף טהור, שאין לה טומאת מגע ומשא אלא טומאת אכילה בבית הבליעה, אסור לאכול בקדשים. וצריך לומר וטרפה, מי שיש במינו טרפה, יצא נבלת עוף טמא שאין במינו טרפה:
9They shall keep My charge and not bear a sin by [eating] it [while unclean] and thereby die through it since they will have desecrated it. I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   טוְשָֽׁמְר֣וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֗י וְלֹֽא־יִשְׂא֤וּ עָלָיו֙ חֵ֔טְא וּמֵ֥תוּ ב֖וֹ כִּ֣י יְחַלְּלֻ֑הוּ אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם:
They shall keep My charge: [and refrain] from eating teruman while one’s body is unclean. — [Sanh. 83a]   ושמרו את משמרתי: מלאכול תרומה בטומאת הגוף:
and thereby die through it: we learn that it is death by the hands of Heaven [which is meted out “through it,”] meaning that the sin of eating while unclean brings about the death penalty by itself without any other prerequisites, such as witnesses or warning. That could be only death by the hands of Heaven. - [Gur Aryeh ; Sanh. 83a; also see Sifthei Chachamim]   ומתו בו: למדנו שהיא מיתה בידי שמים:
10No non kohen may eat holy things; a kohen's resident and his hireling may not eat holy things.   יוְכָל־זָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֣אכַל קֹ֑דֶשׁ תּוֹשַׁ֥ב כֹּהֵ֛ן וְשָׂכִ֖יר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל קֹֽדֶשׁ:
No [non-kohen may] eat holy things: The text is referring to terumah, for the entire passage speaks of it (see Rashi verse 7).   לא יאכל קדש: בתרומה הכתוב מדבר, שכל הענין דבר בה:
a kohen’s resident and his hireling: [could be erroneously read as “a kohen who is a resident or a hireling.” However, the correct meaning here is:] The resident of a kohen or one who is hired by a kohen. [I. e., the word תּוֹשַׁב means “the resident of.”] Therefore, תּוֹשַׁב is vocalized with a patach [under the “shin,”] because it is in the construct state. [Had it been in the absolute state, simply meaning “resident,” the “shin” would have been vocalized with a kamatz .] Now, who is considered a “resident” [in this context]? This is a Hebrew slave whose ear has been bored [i.e., one who elected to remain a slave after six years, and resides with his master (see Exod. 21:16)], thereby becoming acquired [by his master] until the Jubilee year (see Rashi Exod. 21:6). And who is considered a hireling [in this context]? This is someone acquired for a [set] number of years [to be a Hebrew slave] and who is to be released after six years (see Exod. 21:2). The text comes to teach you here that he does not become his master’s physical property [and is, therefore, not permitted] to eat terumah . — [Torath Kohanim 22:86; Yev. . 70a]   תושב כהן ושכיר: תושבו של כהן ושכירו, לפיכך תושב זה נקוד פתח, לפי שהוא דבוק. ואיזהו תושב, זה נרצע שהוא קנוי לו עד היובל, ואיזהו שכיר, זה קנוי קנין שנים, שיוצא בשש, בא הכתוב ולמדך כאן שאין גופו קנוי לאדוניו לאכול בתרומתו:
11And if a kohen acquires a person, an acquisition through his money, he may eat of it, and those born in his house they may eat of his food.   יאוְכֹהֵ֗ן כִּֽי־יִקְנֶ֥ה נֶ֨פֶשׁ֙ קִנְיַ֣ן כַּסְפּ֔וֹ ה֖וּא יֹ֣אכַל בּ֑וֹ וִילִ֣יד בֵּית֔וֹ הֵ֖ם יֹֽאכְל֥וּ בְלַחְמֽוֹ:
And if a kohen acquires a person: [This refers to] a Canaanite slave, whose body is acquired [by his master and may therefore eat from his master’s terumah].   וכהן כי יקנה נפש: עבד כנעני שקנוי לגופו:
and those born in his house: These are the children of the [non-Jewish] maidservants [who are the property of the master]. We learn also from this verse here that a kohen’s wife may eat terumah, since she too, is considered “an acquisition through his money” [for the Jewish marriage is technically attained through the acquisition of a woman by a man by giving her money or an object worth money, such as a ring] (see Keth. 57b). However, we learn other [cases, namely, about a kohen’s wife who had been acquired through other means, e.g., by contract or cohabitation,] from another verse in Scripture “Anyone who is clean in your household [may eat it]” (Num. 18:11) [the above being expounded] in [Sifrei 18:29; see Levush Haorah also Gur Aryeh.]   ויליד ביתו: אלו בני השפחות. ואשת כהן אוכלת בתרומה מן המקרא הזה, שאף היא קנין כספו. ועוד למד ממקרא אחר (במדבר יח יא) כל טהור בביתך וגו' בספרי:
12And if a kohen's daughter is married to a non kohen, she may [no longer] eat of the separated holy things.   יבוּבַ֨ת־כֹּהֵ֔ן כִּ֥י תִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ זָ֑ר הִ֕וא בִּתְרוּמַ֥ת הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽל:
married to a non-kohen: אִישׁ זָר [lit., “an alien man,” here, in the context of kehunah , this means] to a Levite or an Israelite. — [Torath Kohanim 22:92]   לאיש זר: ללוי ולישראל:
13But if the kohen's daughter becomes widowed or divorced, and she has no offspring she may return to her father's household as in her youth [and] eat of her father's food, but no non kohen may eat of it.   יגוּבַת־כֹּהֵן֩ כִּ֨י תִֽהְיֶ֜ה אַלְמָנָ֣ה וּגְרוּשָׁ֗ה וְזֶ֘רַע֘ אֵ֣ין לָהּ֒ וְשָׁבָ֞ה אֶל־בֵּ֤ית אָבִ֨יהָ֙ כִּנְעוּרֶ֔יהָ מִלֶּ֥חֶם אָבִ֖יהָ תֹּאכֵ֑ל וְכָל־זָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
[But if the kohen’s daughter] becomes widowed or divorced: from her non- kohen husband.   אלמנה וגרושה: מן האיש הזר:
and she has no offspring: from him.   וזרע אין לה: ממנו:
she may return [to her father’s household…(and) eat of her father’s food]: But, if she does have offspring from her non- kohen husband, she is prohibited to eat terumah as long as the offspring is alive. — [Yev. 87a-b]   ושבה: הא אם יש לה זרע ממנו אסורה בתרומה כל זמן שהזרע קיים:
But no non-kohen may eat of it: [This seemingly superfluous phrase] is stated only to exclude an onen [kohen, i.e., one whose relative has died on that day,] who is permitted [to eat] terumah. [see Rashi 21:12 above] [It is as if Scripture is saying here:] “I said that only a non- kohen(זָר) [is prohibited to eat terumah]-but not an onen .” [Yev. 68b]   וכל זר לא יאכל בו: לא בא אלא להוציא את האונן שמותר בתרומה. זרות אמרתי לך, ולא אנינות:
14And if a man unintentionally eats what is holy, he shall add a fifth of it to it and give the kohen the holy thing.   ידוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־יֹאכַ֥ל קֹ֖דֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָ֑ה וְיָסַ֤ף חֲמִֽשִׁיתוֹ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְנָתַ֥ן לַכֹּהֵ֖ן אֶת־הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
And if [a man] eats that which is holy: [This refers to] terumah .   כי יאכל קדש: תרומה:
and give the kohen the holy thing: something that is fit to become holy. He shall not pay him money, but non-consecrated fruits, which in turn become [consecrated as] terumah . — [Pes. 32a]   ונתן לכהן את הקדש: דבר הראוי להיות קדש, שאינו פורע לו מעות אלא פירות של חולין, והן נעשין תרומה:
15And they shall not desecrate the holy things of the children of Israel, those that they have set aside for the Lord,   טווְלֹ֣א יְחַלְּל֔וּ אֶת־קָדְשֵׁ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יָרִ֖ימוּ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And they shall not desecrate [the holy things of the children of Israel]: By allowing non- kohanim to eat of them. [see next Rashi]   ולא יחללו וגו': להאכילם לזרים:
16thereby bringing upon themselves to bear iniquity and guilt, when they eat their holy things, for I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   טזוְהִשִּׂ֤יאוּ אוֹתָם֙ עֲוֹ֣ן אַשְׁמָ֔ה בְּאָכְלָ֖ם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶ֑ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם:
thereby bringing upon themselves to bear-: [lit., “And they will cause them to bear (iniquity and guilt).”] They will cause themselves to bear iniquity when they [the non- kohanim] eat their holy things which were set aside for terumah , and were consecrated and consequently prohibited for them. Onkelos, however, who rendered: when they eat in uncleanness, unnecessarily rendered in this manner [because the verse deals with giving the terumah to non- kohanim, not with eating it in an unclean state].   והשיאו אותם: את עצמם יטענו עון באכלם את קדשיהם, שהובדלו לשם תרומה וקדשו ונאסרו עליהם. ואונקלוס שתרגם במיכלהון בסואבא, שלא לצורך תרגמו כן:
thereby bringing upon themselves to bear: Heb. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם. This is one of the three instances in Scripture of אֶת [normally referring to a third party “him,” “them” etc.], which are expounded by Rabbi Ishmael to mean that the Torah is speaking of the persons themselves [i.e., the verb is reflexive]. Similarly, [the other two examples are]: יָבִיא אֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם מלֹאת יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ [lit., “On the day when his abstinence is completed, he shall bring him”] (Num. 6:13)- [meaning] that he should bring himself. Likewise, וַיִּקְבֹּר אוֹתוֹ בַגַּי [lit., “And he buried him in the valley” (Deut. 34:6), meaning that] Moses buried himself (see Rashi there). Thus is it expounded in Sifrei (Bamidbar 6:124).   והשיאו אותם: זה אחד משלשה אתים שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש בתורה שמדברים באדם עצמו, וכן (במדבר ו יג) ביום מלאת ימי נזרו יביא אותו, הוא יביא את עצמו. וכן (דברים לד ו) ויקבור אותו בגיא, הוא קבר את עצמו, כך נדרש בספרי:

Third Portion

Leviticus Chapter 22

17And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
18Speak to Aaron and to his sons and to all the children of Israel and say to them: Any man whatsoever from the house of Israel or from the strangers among Israel who offers up his sacrifice for any of their vows or for any of their donations that they may offer up to the Lord as a burnt offering   יחדַּבֵּ֨ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְאֶל֙ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אִ֣ישׁ אִישׁ֩ מִבֵּ֨ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֣ר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֤יב קָרְבָּנוֹ֙ לְכָל־נִדְרֵיהֶם֙ וּלְכָל־נִדְבוֹתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִ֥יבוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְעֹלָֽה:
their vows: [when a person declares:] “It is incumbent upon me” [i.e., a personal commitment to bring a burnt offering," and therefore, if the animal he set aside is lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, whereas];   נדריהם: הרי עלי:
their donations: [when a person declares:] “Behold, [I hereby consecrate] this [animal for a burnt offering,” since the declaration falls on the animal rather than on the person, if the consecrated animal is lost or blemished, the person is not responsible]. — [Meg. 8a]   נדבותם: הרי זו:
19to be favorable for you, [it shall be] an unblemished, male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats.   יטלִרְצֹֽנְכֶ֑ם תָּמִ֣ים זָכָ֔ר בַּבָּקָ֕ר בַּכְּשָׂבִ֖ים וּבָֽעִזִּֽים:
to be favorable for you: [God is saying here:] “Bring Me something that is worthy to appease (לִרְצוֹת) for you before Me, that will make you favorable (רָצוֹן) before Me.” [This word לִרְצֹנְכֶם has the meaning of] apaisement in French [like “appeasement” in English]. And what [animal] is worthy of attaining God’s appeasement?   לרצנכם: הביאו דבר הראוי לרצות אתכם לפני, שיהא לכם לרצון אפיימני"ט בלע"ז [פיוס]. ואיזהו הראוי לרצון:
an unblemished, male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats: But with burnt-offerings of birds, no unblemished or male [birds] are required, and it is not rendered invalid if it has a defect unless a limb is missing. — [Torath Kohanim 22:106]   תמים זכר בבקר בכשבים ובעזים: אבל בעולת העוף אין צריך תמות וזכרות, ואינו נפסל במום אלא בחסרון אבר:
20Any [animal] that has a blemish, you shall not offer up, for it will not be favorable for you.   ככֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ מ֖וּם לֹ֣א תַקְרִ֑יבוּ כִּי־לֹ֥א לְרָצ֖וֹן יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם:
21And if a man offers up a peace offering to the Lord for declaring a vow or as a donation from cattle or from the flock to be accepted, it shall be unblemished. It shall not have any defect in it.   כאוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְרִ֤יב זֶֽבַח־שְׁלָמִים֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לְפַלֵּא־נֶ֨דֶר֙ א֣וֹ לִנְדָבָ֔ה בַּבָּקָ֖ר א֣וֹ בַצֹּ֑אן תָּמִ֤ים יִֽהְיֶה֙ לְרָצ֔וֹן כָּל־מ֖וּם לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־בּֽוֹ:
for declaring a vow: For verbally designating [a particular animal. If he designated it merely in his mind, this does not obligate him as a vow]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   לפלא נדר: להפריש בדיבורו:
22[An animal that has] blindness, or [a] broken [bone], or [a] split [eyelid or lip], or [one that has] warts, or dry lesions or weeping sores you shall not offer up [any of] these to the Lord, nor shall you place [any] of these as a fire offering upon the altar to the Lord.   כבעַוֶּ֩רֶת֩ א֨וֹ שָׁב֜וּר אֽוֹ־חָר֣וּץ אֽוֹ־יַבֶּ֗לֶת א֤וֹ גָרָב֙ א֣וֹ יַלֶּ֔פֶת לֹֽא־תַקְרִ֥יבוּ אֵ֖לֶּה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְאִשֶּׁ֗ה לֹֽא־תִתְּנ֥וּ מֵהֶ֛ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
[An animal that has] blindness: עַוֶּרֶת. [This is] a noun, the feminine equivalent of עִוָּרוֹן, that the animal shall not have the defect of blindness.   עורת: שם דבר של מום עורון בלשון נקבה, שלא יהא בו מום של עורת:
or [a] broken [bone]: [lit., “or broken,” i.e., the animal] shall not be [broken].   או שבור: לא יהיה:
or [a] split [eyelid or lip]: חָרוּץ [lit. cut], an eyelid that was split or notched, and similarly, its lip which was split or notched. — [Torath Kohanim 22:113]   חרוץ: ריס של עין שנסדק או שנפגם, וכן שפתו שנסדקה או נפגמה:
or [one that has] warts: Verrue [wart] in French.   יבלת: ורוא"ה בלע"ז [יבלת]:
or dry lesions: Heb. גָרָב, a type of lichen, as יַלֶּפֶת (see Rashi on 21:20). The יַלֶּפֶת is similar to “And Samson grasped (וַיִּלְפֹּת)” (Jud. 16:29) for it bonds (מְלַפֶּפֶת) itself to him until the day of [his] death, for it has no cure. — [Bech. 41a]   גרב: מין חזזית וכן ילפת. ולשון ילפת, כמו (שופטים טז כט) וילפת שמשון, שאחוזה בו עד יום מיתה, שאין לה רפואה:
you shall not offer up [(any of) these]: [This prohibition is stated] three times [here and in verses 20 and 25], as an admonition against (a) consecrating them, (b) slaughtering them and (c) dashing their blood. — [Temurah 6b]   לא תקריבו: שלש פעמים, להזהיר על הקדשן ועל שחיטתן ועל זריקת דמן:
nor shall you place [(any) of these] as a fire-offering: [This is] an admonition against the burning them [on the altar]. — [Temurah 6b; Torath Kohanim 22:116]   ואשה לא תתנו: אזהרת הקטרתן:
23As for an ox or sheep that has mismatching limbs or uncloven hooves you may make it into a donation, but as a vow, it will not be accepted.   כגוְשׁ֥וֹר וָשֶׂ֖ה שָׂר֣וּעַ וְקָל֑וּט נְדָבָה֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ וּלְנֵ֖דֶר לֹ֥א יֵֽרָצֶֽה:
mismatching limbs: i.e., one limb bigger than its [normal] counterpart. — [see Rashi on verse 21:18 above and Sifthei Chachamim there; Bech. 40a]   שרוע: אבר גדול מחבירו:
uncloven hooves: its hooves are uncloven [i.e., resembling those of a horse or donkey]. — [Bech. 40a]   וקלוט: פרסותיו קלוטות:
you may make it into a donation: [i.e., it may be sold and its money donated] to the maintenance of the Holy Temple.   נדבה תעשה אתו: לבדק הבית:
but as a vow: for the altar. — [Torath Kohanim 22:118]   ולנדר: למזבח:
it will not be accepted: What consecration comes to grant acceptance (לִרְצוֹת) ? I must say the consecration for the altar. - [Torath Kohanim 22:118][See Sifthei Chachamim, Mizrachi, and Nachalath Yaakov]   לא ירצה: איזהו הקדש בא לרצות, הוי אומר זה הקדש המזבח:
24[Any animal whose testicles were] squashed, crushed, pulled out, or severed, you shall not offer up to the Lord, and in your land, you shall not do [it].   כדוּמָע֤וּךְ וְכָתוּת֙ וְנָת֣וּק וְכָר֔וּת לֹ֥א תַקְרִ֖יבוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וּבְאַרְצְכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
[Any animal] whose testicles were squashed, crushed, pulled out, or severed: [These terms refer to damage] to the testicles or the membrum. — [Bech. 39b]   ומעוך וכתות ונתוק וכרות: בביצים או בגיד:
squashed: Heb. וּמָעוּךְ, its testicles were squashed by hand.   מעוך: ביציו מעוכין ביד:
crushed: וְכָתוּת, more severely crushed than מָעוּךְ.   כתות: כתושים יותר ממעוך:
pulled out: Heb. נָתוּק, torn off by hand, until the threads upon which they are suspended snapped, but they are still contained within the scrotum, and the scrotum was not torn off.   נתוק: תלושין ביד עד שנפסקו חוטים שתלויים בהן, אבל נתונים הם בתוך הכיס, והכיס לא נתלש:
or severed: Heb., וְכָרוּת, severed with an instrument, but still contained within the scrotum.   וכרות: כרותין בכלי ועודן בכיס:
squashed: Heb. וּמָעוּךְ [Onkelos] renders this as וְדִימְרִיס, which is its equivalent in Aramaic, an expression of crushing.   ומעוך: תרגומו ודימריס, זה לשונו בארמית, לשון כתישה:
crushed: וְכָתוּת, [Onkelos] renders this as וְדִירְסִיס, like, “[and he will smite] the great house into splinters (רְסִיסִים)” (Amos 6:11), little pieces; likewise, קָנֶה הַמְרֻסָּס, meaning “a reed that is broken into pieces” (Shab. 80b).   וכתות: תרגומו ודירסיס, כמו (עמוס ו יא) הבית הגדול רסיסים, בקיעות דקות, וכן (שבת פ ב) קנה המרוסס:
and in your land, you shall not do: this thing, to castrate any livestock or wild animal, even of an unclean species. This is why [our verse] says here “in your land” -to include any species found in your land. — [Torath Kohanim 22:121] for it is impossible to say that castration is prohibited only in Eretz Israel [“your land,”] because [the prohibition of] castration is an obligation [associated with] the body [of a person], and every commandment associated with the body [of a person] applies both in the Land [of Israel] and outside the Land [of Israel]. - [Kid. 36b]   ובארצכם לא תעשו: דבר זה, לסרס שום בהמה וחיה ואפילו טמאה, לכך נאמר בארצכם, לרבות כל אשר בארצכם, שאי אפשר לומר לא נצטוו על הסרוס אלא בארץ, שהרי סרוס חובת הגוף הוא, וכל חובת הגוף נוהגת בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ:
25And from the hand of a gentile you shall not offer up as food for your God any of these [blemished animals], for their injury is upon them, there is a defect on them; they will not be accepted for you.   כהוּמִיַּ֣ד בֶּן־נֵכָ֗ר לֹ֥א תַקְרִ֛יבוּ אֶת־לֶ֥חֶם אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם מִכָּל־אֵ֑לֶּה כִּ֣י מָשְׁחָתָ֤ם בָּהֶם֙ מ֣וּם בָּ֔ם לֹ֥א יֵֽרָצ֖וּ לָכֶֽם:
from the hand of a gentile: [lit., “and from the hand of a foreigner,” i.e.,] if a non-Jew brought a sacrifice and handed it over to the kohen to offer it up to Heaven, you shall not offer up on his behalf any blemished animal. And even though blemished animals are not deemed invalid as sacrifices from the children of Noah [i.e., by all non-Jews] unless they have a limb missing-that [rule] applies [only] to private altars in the fields. However, on the altar in the Mishkan, you shall not offer them up (Temurah 7b). You shall, however, accept an unblemished animal from them. That is why Scripture states earlier in this passage (verse 18 above), אִישׁ אִישׁ, “Any man whatsoever,” [where this double expression comes] to include non-Jews, who make vows and donations like Israelites. — [Temurah 2b]   ומיד בן נכר: נכרי שהביא קרבן ביד כהן להקריבו לשמים לא תקריבו לו בעל מום. ואף על פי שלא נאסרו בעלי מומין לקרבן בני נח אלא אם כן מחוסרי אבר, זאת נוהגת בבמה שבשדות, אבל על המזבח שבמשכן לא תקריבוה, אבל תמימה תקבלו מהם, לכך נאמר למעלה איש איש (לעיל פסוק יח), לרבות את הנכרים שנודרים נדרים ונדבות כישראל:
their injury: Heb. מָשְׁחָתָם, [as Onkelos renders it:] חִבּוּלְהוֹן, “their injury.”   משחתם: חבולהון:
they will not be accepted for you: to atone for you.   לא ירצו לכם: לכפר עליכם:
26And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כווַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
27When an ox or a sheep or a goat is born, it shall remain under its mother for seven days, and from the eighth day onwards, it shall be accepted as a sacrifice for a fire offering to the Lord.   כזשׁ֣וֹר אוֹ־כֶ֤שֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז֙ כִּ֣י יִוָּלֵ֔ד וְהָיָ֛ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים תַּ֣חַת אִמּ֑וֹ וּמִיּ֤וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי֙ וָהָ֔לְאָה יֵֽרָצֶ֕ה לְקָרְבַּ֥ן אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
When [an ox or a sheep or a goat] is born: [The expression “is born” comes] to exclude [from sacrifice an animal] delivered by Caesarean section. - [Chul. 38b]   כי יולד: פרט ליוצא דופן:
28An ox or sheep you shall not slaughter it and its offspring in one day.   כחוְשׁ֖וֹר אוֹ־שֶׂ֑ה אֹת֣וֹ וְאֶת־בְּנ֔וֹ לֹ֥א תִשְׁחֲט֖וּ בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
it and its offspring: [This prohibition] applies to the female [i.e., the mother] animal, namely, that it is prohibited to slaughter a mother animal and its male or female offspring [on the same day]. The prohibition does not apply, however, to males [i.e., to the father animals], and it is permissible to slaughter the father animal along with its male or female offspring [on the same day]. — [Chul. 78b]   אתו ואת בנו: נוהג בנקבה, שאסור לשחוט האם והבן או הבת, ואינו נוהג בזכרים, ומותר לשחוט האב והבן [או האב והבת]:
[you shall not slaughter] it and its offspring: Also included [in this prohibition is slaughtering] its offspring and [then] it. — [Chul. 82a]   אתו ואת בנו: אף בנו ואותו במשמע:
29And when you slaughter a thanksgiving offering to the Lord, you shall slaughter it so that it should be acceptable for you.   כטוְכִֽי־תִזְבְּח֥וּ זֶֽבַח־תּוֹדָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה לִרְצֹֽנְכֶ֖ם תִּזְבָּֽחוּ:
you shall slaughter it so that it should be acceptable for you: From the very beginning of your slaughtering, take care that it should be “acceptable for you.” And what makes it acceptable?"   לרצנכם תזבחו: תחלת זביחתכם הזהרו שתהא לרצון לכם. ומהו הרצון:
It shall be eaten on that day: [Now, although it has already been stated that thanksgiving-offerings must be eaten on the day of sacrificing (Lev. 7:15), the Torah repeats this here] exclusively to warn us that the slaughtering must be performed on this condition. Do not slaughter it with the intention of eating it on the next day, for if you have this invalidating intention in mind, the sacrifice will not be “acceptable for you” (Torath Kohanim 22:135) [Indeed, it will be rejected (פִּגּוּל; see Rashi Lev. 7:18)]. Another explanation of לִרְצֹנְכֶם is: “knowingly.” From here, [we learn that] if someone slaughtered an animal in an incidental manner [i.e., according to Rashi , without intending to slaughter, just to pick up the knife or to throw it. According to Tosafoth, if he did not intend to slaughter, but only to sever the organs, or if he thought that it was an ordinary animal, and did not realize that it was to be slaughtered as a holy sacrifice], then [even though the animal is fit to be eaten as ordinary non-consecrated meat, nevertheless,] regarding being slaughtered as a holy sacrifice, it is deemed unfit. — [Chul. 13a] Now, although Scripture has already stated [that a sacrifice is “not acceptable” if, while slaughtering, one intended to eat it after its permissible time] in the case of sacrifices that may be eaten for two days (see Lev. 7:18), it specifies it again regarding those sacrifices that must be eaten on the same day (see Rashi Lev. 7:15), namely, that they [too] must be slaughtered with the intention of eating them within their permissible time.   ביום ההוא יאכל: לא בא להזהיר אלא שתהא שחיטה על מנת כן, אל תשחטוהו על מנת לאכלו למחר, שאם תחשבו בו מחשבת פסול לא יהא לכם לרצון. דבר אחר לרצונכם, לדעתכם, מכאן למתעסק שפסול בשחיטת קדשים. ואף על פי שפרט בנאכלים לשני ימים, חזר ופרט בנאכלין ליום אחד שתהא זביחתן על מנת לאכלן בזמנן:
30It shall be eaten on that day; do not leave it over until morning. I am the Lord.   לבַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל לֹֽא־תוֹתִ֥ירוּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּ֑קֶר אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
It shall be eaten on that day: [As explained above (see preceding Rashi)], Scripture states this here only to warn us that the slaughtering must be performed with this intention. For if it meant to fix the time limit for eating it, this has already been stated, “And the flesh of his thanksgiving peace-offering [shall be eaten on the day that it is offered…]” (Lev. 7:15). - [Torath Kohanim 7:113]   ביום ההוא יאכל: לא בא להזהיר אלא שתהא שחיטה על מנת כן, שאם לקבוע לו זמן אכילה, כבר כתוב (ויקרא ז טו) ובשר זבח תודת שלמיו וגו':
I am the Lord: Know Who decreed this matter, and do not perceive it as unimportant.   אני ה': דע מי גזר על הדבר ואל יקל בעיניך:
31You shall keep My commandments and perform them. I am the Lord.   לאוּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ מִצְו‍ֹתַ֔י וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
You shall keep [My commandments]: This refers to learning [God’s commandments and “keeping” them organized and memorized in one’s heart]   ושמרתם: זו המשנה:
and perform them: meaning [putting them into] action. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 22:136]   ועשיתם: זה המעשה:
32You shall not desecrate My Holy Name. I shall be sanctified amidst the children of Israel. I am the Lord Who sanctifies you,   לבוְלֹ֤א תְחַלְּלוּ֙ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֔י וְנִ֨קְדַּשְׁתִּ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם:
You shall not desecrate [My Holy Name]: By transgressing My commandments intentionally. Now, is it not already implied by the verse “ You shall not desecrate [My Holy Name,” that if you do not transgress, God’s Name will be sanctified? So] what do we learn by Scripture adding “I shall be sanctified [amidst the children of Israel]?” [It teaches us:] Surrender your life [and do not transgress God’s commandments], and [thus] sanctify My Name. Now, one might think [that this commandment applies even] in private [i.e., if he is not in the presence of ten or more Jews]. Scripture, therefore, says here “[I shall be sanctified] amidst the children of Israel” [i.e., one is obliged to sacrifice one’s life to avoid transgressing God’s commandments only in the presence of ten or more Jews]. And when one sacrifices oneself, one shall do so with the willingness to die, anyone who [submits to] sacrifices himself while assuming [that God will surely perform] a miracle [for him and save his life], for this person, God does not perform a miracle, for so we find in [the case of] Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, that [when the evil Nebuchadnezzar threatened to throw them into a fiery furnace], they did not submit themselves on the condition [that God would perform] a miracle, as Scripture says, “[Behold, there is our God Whom we worship; He can save us from the burning, fiery furnace and from your hands, O king!] But if not, let it be known to you, O king [that we will not worship your god, neither will we prostrate ourselves to the golden image that you have set up]!” (Dan. 3:17-18). [We see here that whatever the outcome,] whether [God would] rescue [them] or not- [they declared, regardless] “Let it be known to you, O king [that we will not prostrate ourselves…]!” - [Torath Kohanim 22:137]   ולא תחללו: לעבור על דברי מזידין. ממשמע שנאמר ולא תחללו, מה תלמוד לומר ונקדשתי, מסור עצמך וקדש שמי. יכול ביחיד, תלמוד לומר בתוך בני ישראל, וכשהוא מוסר עצמו, ימסור עצמו על מנת למות, שכל המוסר עצמו על מנת הנס, אין עושין לו נס, שכן מצינו בחנניה מישאל ועזריה שלא מסרו עצמן על מנת הנס, שנאמר (דניאל ג יח) והן לא, ידיע להוא לך מלכא די לאלהך לא איתנא פלחין וגו', מציל ולא מציל, ידיע להוא לך וגו':
33Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to be a God to you. I am the Lord.   לגהַמּוֹצִ֤יא אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִֽהְי֥וֹת לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
Who took you out [of the land of Egypt]: on this very condition [i.e., to be willing to sacrifice your lives in sanctification of My Holy Name. — [Torath Kohanim 22:138] [And do not think that since it is an obligation, you will not receive reward for sacrificing yourselves, for]   המוציא אתכם: על מנת כן:
I am the Lord: faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah. — [Torath Kohanim 22:138]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:

Fourth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 23

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: The Lord's appointed [holy days] that you shall designate as holy occasions. These are My appointed [holy days]:   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מֽוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם מִקְרָאֵ֣י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מֽוֹעֲדָֽי:
Speak to the children of Israel…The Lord’s appointed [holy days]: Designate the [times] of the festivals so that [all of] Israel will become accustomed to them, [meaning] that they should proclaim leap years for [the Jews in] the Diaspora who had uprooted themselves from their place to ascend to [Jerusalem for] the festivals, but who had not yet arrived in Jerusalem. [The leap year would enable them to arrive in time. Consequently, in ensuing years, they would not lose hope of arriving on time and would be encouraged to make the pilgrimage.]- [Torath Kohanim 23:139; Levush Ha’orah. See also Mizrachi , Nachalath Ya’akov , Sefer Hazikkaron , Yosef Hallel , Chavel]   דבר אל בני ישראל וגו' מועדי ה': עשה מועדות שיהיו ישראל מלומדין בהם, שמעברים את השנה על גליות שנעקרו ממקומם לעלות לרגל ועדיין לא הגיעו לירושלים:
3[For] six days, work may be performed, but on the seventh day, it is a complete rest day, a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work. It is a Sabbath to the Lord in all your dwelling places.   גשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִים֘ תֵּֽעָשֶׂ֣ה מְלָאכָה֒ וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י שַׁבַּ֤ת שַׁבָּתוֹן֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלָאכָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ שַׁבָּ֥ת הִוא֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
[For] six days…: Why does the Sabbath [designated by God,] appear here amidst the festivals [designated by the Sanhedrin]? To teach you that whoever desecrates the festivals is considered [to have transgressed as severely] as if he had desecrated the Sabbath, and that whoever who fulfills the festivals is considered as if he has fulfilled the Sabbath, [and his reward is as great]. — [Be’er Basadeh ; Torath Kohanim 23:144]   ששת ימים: מה ענין שבת אצל מועדות, ללמדך שכל המחלל את המועדות מעלין עליו כאלו חלל את השבתות. וכל המקיים את המועדות, מעלין עליו כאלו קיים את השבתות:
4These are the Lord's appointed [holy days], holy occasions, which you shall designate in their appointed time:   דאֵ֚לֶּה מֽוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה מִקְרָאֵ֖י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם בְּמֽוֹעֲדָֽם:
These are the Lord’s appointed [holy days, holy occasions, that you shall designate]: In the earlier verse (verse 2), Scripture is referring to the proclamation of a leap year, while here, Scripture is referring to sanctifying the new month [i.e., “designating” which day is the first of the month, based on testimony of the sighting of the new moon. Both of these “designations,” therefore, have bearing on the establishment of the festivals.] - [Torath Kohanim 23: 146]   אלה מועדי ה': למעלה מדבר בעבור שנה, וכאן מדבר בקדוש החדש:
5In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, in the afternoon, [you shall sacrifice] the Passover offering to the Lord.   הבַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַרְבָּ֑יִם פֶּ֖סַח לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
in the afternoon: Heb. בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם, lit. between the two evenings. From six [halachic] hours [after dawn,] and onwards [until evening (עֶרֶב), i.e., nightfall.]   בין הערבים: משש שעות ולמעלה:
the Passover offering to the Lord: Heb. פֶּסַח, the offering up of a sacrifice named “Pesach.” [The term “Pesach” here refers to the Pesach offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan, not to the Passover Festival, which begins on the fifteenth. — [Be’er Heitev on Rashi]   פסח לה': הקרבת קרבן ששמו פסח:
6And on the fifteenth day of that month is the Festival of Unleavened Cakes to the Lord; you shall eat unleavened cakes for a seven day period.   ווּבַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֔ה חַ֥ג הַמַּצּ֖וֹת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים מַצּ֥וֹת תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
7On the first day, there shall be a holy occasion for you; you shall not perform any work of labor.   זבַּיּוֹם֙ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן מִקְרָא־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
8And you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord for a seven day period. On the seventh day, there shall be a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work of labor.   חוְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֛ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּיּ֤וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
And you shall bring a fire offering [to the Lord for a seven-day period]: These are the additional offerings [of Passover] delineated in parshath Pinchas (Num. 28:1625). Why are they mentioned here? To inform you that the additional offerings do not impede one another, [if some are omitted, as the Torah states:]   והקרבתם אשה וגו': הם המוספין האמורים בפרשת פנחס ולמה נאמרו כאן, לומר לך שאין המוספין מעכבין זה את זה:
And you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord: in any case. If there are no bulls, bring rams, and if there are neither bulls nor rams, bring lambs [as prescribed in Num. 28:19]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:152]   והקרבתם אשה לה': מכל מקום, אם אין פרים הבא אילים, ואם אין פרים ואילים, הבא כבשים:
for a seven-day period: Heb. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים, lit., a “seven” of days. Wherever the שִׁבְעַת appears, it denotes a noun, and [thus, the expression here שִׁבְעַת יָמִים means “a week of days” ; septaine in Old French [which is the noun, as opposed to sept, meaning the number seven. See Mizrachi on Rashi Exod. 10:22]. Likewise, every [construct expression like], שְׁמוֹנַת, שֵׁשֶׁת, חֲמֵשֶׁת, שְׁלֹשֶׁת [literally means, respectively, “an eight of,” “a six of,” “a five of,” “a three of,” [meaning a unit consisting of one of these numbers]. - [See Gur Aryeh and Levush Haorah on Rashi Exod. 10:22 for the reason this type of expression is used here instead of simply שִׁבְעָה יָמִים, “seven days.”]   שבעת ימים: כל מקום שנאמר שבעת שם דבר הוא, שבוע של ימים, שטיינ"א בלע"ז [קבוצה של שבעה ימים רצופים], וכן כל לשון שמונת, ששת, חמשת, שלשת:
work of labor: Even types of work (מְלָאכוֹת) that are considered by you as labor (עֲבוֹדָה) and necessities, where a monetary loss may be incurred if one would refrain from them, for example, something that will be lost [if the activity is postponed]. I understood this from Torath Kohanim, where it is taught (23:187): “One might think that even during the intermediate days of the Festival, work of labor is prohibited…” [and the text concludes by teaching us that during those days, מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה is permitted, and we know that the type of work that is permitted on the intermediate days is such work whose postponement would cause a loss (דָּבָר הָאָבֵד). Hence, we see that מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה and דָּבָר הָאָבֵד are synonymous, and that is what the Torah meant to prohibit on the festival holy days-namely, the first and seventh days of Passover, when even that type of work is prohibited].   מלאכת עבדה: אפילו מלאכות החשובות לכם עבודה וצורך, שיש חסרון כיס בבטלה שלהן, כגון דבר האבד. כך הבנתי מתורת כהנים, דקתני יכול אף חולו של מועד יהא אסור במלאכת עבודה וכו':
9And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   טוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
10Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When you come to the Land which I am giving you, and you reap its harvest, you shall bring to the kohen an omer of the beginning of your reaping.   ידַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־תָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִי֙ נֹתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֔ם וּקְצַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־קְצִירָ֑הּ וַֽהֲבֵאתֶ֥ם אֶת־עֹ֛מֶר רֵאשִׁ֥ית קְצִֽירְכֶ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
[you shall bring…an omer] of the beginning of your reaping: the first of the harvest [from the fields. Thus, one is permitted to proceed with the general harvest only after this omer has been reaped.]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Men. 71a]   ראשית קצירכם: שתהא ראשונה לקציר:
omer: a tenth of an ephah (see Exod. 16:36). That was its [the measure’s] name, like “And they measured it with an omer” (Exod. 16:18).   עמר: עשירית האיפה, כך היתה שמה, כמו (שמות טז יח) וימודו בעומר:
11And he shall wave the omer before the Lord so that it will be acceptable for you; the kohen shall wave it on the day after the rest day.   יאוְהֵנִ֧יף אֶת־הָעֹ֛מֶר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לִרְצֹֽנְכֶ֑ם מִמָּֽחֳרַת֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת יְנִיפֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And he shall wave: Every [mention of] תְּנוּפָה, “waving,” [in Scripture], denotes moving back and forth, up and down. [It is moved] back and forth to prevent evil winds; [it is moved] up and down to prevent evil dews [i.e., the dew should be a blessing for the crop, not a curse]. — [Men. 61a-62a]   והניף: כל תנופה מוליך ומביא מעלה ומוריד. מוליך ומביא לעצור רוחות רעות, מעלה ומוריד לעצור טללים רעים:
so that it will be acceptable for you: If you offer it up according to these instructions, it will be acceptable for you.   לרצנכם: אם תקריבו כמשפט זה, יהיו לרצון לכם:
on the day after the rest day: מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת. On the day after the first holy day of Passover, [since a holy festival day is also שַׁבָָּת, rest day , in Scripture]. For if you say [that it means] the “Sabbath of Creation” [i.e., the actual Sabbath, the seventh day of the week], you would not know which one. - [Men. 66a]   ממחרת השבת: ממחרת יום טוב הראשון של פסח, שאם אתה אומר שבת בראשית, אי אתה יודע איזהו:
12And on the day of your waving the omer, you shall offer up an unblemished lamb in its [first] year as a burnt offering to the Lord;   יבוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֕ם בְּי֥וֹם הֲנִֽיפְכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָעֹ֑מֶר כֶּ֣בֶשׂ תָּמִ֧ים בֶּן־שְׁנָת֛וֹ לְעֹלָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
you shall offer up [an unblemished lamb in its [first] year]: It comes as obligatory for the omer [not as part the additional offerings of Passover.   ועשיתם כבש: חובה לעומר הוא בא:
13Its meal offering [shall be] two tenths [of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with oil, a fire offering to the Lord as a spirit of satisfaction. And its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine.   יגוּמִנְחָתוֹ֩ שְׁנֵ֨י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֜ים סֹ֣לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֛מֶן אִשֶּׁ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֑חַ וְנִסְכּ֥וֹ (כתיב ונסכה) יַ֖יִן רְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִֽין:
Its meal offering: The meal offering [which accompanies every sacrifice], along with its libations. [See Num. 15:116.] [This is not an independent meal offering.]   ומנחתו: מנחת נסכיו:
two tenths [of an ephah]: It was double [the usual meal offering for a lamb, which is one tenth.] (See Num. 15:4.)   שני עשרנים: כפולה היתה:
and its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine: Although its meal offering is double, its libations are not double, [but the usual libation prescribed for a lamb (Num. 15:5). - [Men. 89b]   ונסכה יין רביעית ההין: אף על פי שמנחתו כפולה, אין נסכיו כפולים:
14You shall not eat bread or [flour made from] parched grain or fresh grain, until this very day, until you bring your God's sacrifice. [This is] an eternal statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.   ידוְלֶ֩חֶם֩ וְקָלִ֨י וְכַרְמֶ֜ל לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֗וּ עַד־עֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה עַ֚ד הֲבִ֣יאֲכֶ֔ם אֶת־קָרְבַּ֖ן אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
or [flour made from] parched grain: [This refers to] flour made from tender, plump grain that is parched in an oven (see Lev. 2:14).   וקלי: קמח עשוי מכרמל רך שמייבשין אותו בתנור:
plump grain: [These are the] plump, parched kernels, grenaillis [in Old French]. — [See Rashi, Sifthei Chachamim on Lev. 2:14]   וכרמל: הן קליות שקורין גרניד"ש [שבולים]:
in all your dwelling places: The Sages of Israel differ concerning this. Some learned from here that [the prohibition of eating] the new crop [before the omer] applies [even] outside the Land [of Israel], while others say that this phrase comes only to teach [us] that they were commanded regarding the new crop only after possession and settlement, after they had conquered and apportioned [the land. — [Kid. 37a]   בכל משבתיכם: נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל, יש שלמדו מכאן שהחדש נוהג בחוצה לארץ, ויש אומרים לא בא אלא ללמד שלא נצטוו על החדש אלא לאחר ירושה וישיבה, משכבשו וחלקו:
15And you shall count for yourselves, from the morrow of the rest day from the day you bring the omer as a wave offering seven weeks; they shall be complete.   טווּסְפַרְתֶּ֤ם לָכֶם֙ מִמָּֽחֳרַ֣ת הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת מִיּוֹם֙ הֲבִ֣יאֲכֶ֔ם אֶת־עֹ֖מֶר הַתְּנוּפָ֑ה שֶׁ֥בַע שַׁבָּת֖וֹת תְּמִימֹ֥ת תִּֽהְיֶֽינָה:
from the morrow of the rest day: On the day after the [first] holy day [of Passover]. — [See Rashi on verse 11; Men. 65b]   ממחרת השבת: ממחרת יום טוב:
[seven weeks;] they shall be complete: [This verse] teaches us that one must begin counting [each of these days] from the evening, because otherwise, they would not be “complete.” - [Men. 66a]   תמימת תהיינה: מלמד שמתחיל ומונה מבערב, שאם לא כן אינן תמימות:
16You shall count until the day after the seventh week, [namely,] the fiftieth day, [on which] you shall bring a new meal offering to the Lord.   טזעַ֣ד מִמָּֽחֳרַ֤ת הַשַּׁבָּת֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔ת תִּסְפְּר֖וּ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים י֑וֹם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֛ם מִנְחָ֥ה חֲדָשָׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
the day after the seventh week: הַשַּׁבָּת הַשְּׁבִיעִת, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: שְׁבוּעֲתָא שְׁבִיעָתָא, “the seventh week.”   השבת השביעת: כתרגומו שבועתא שביעתא:
You shall count until the day after the seventh week: But not inclusive, making forty-nine days.   עד ממחרת השבת השביעת תספרו: ולא עד בכלל, והן ארבעים ותשעה יום:
the fiftieth day, [on which] you will bring a meal offering to the Lord from the new [wheat crop]: [lit., “(You shall count) fifty days and bring a meal offering to the Lord from the new (wheat crop).” But we count only forty-nine days. Therefore, the meaning is:] On the fiftieth day, you shall bring this [meal offering of the new wheat crop]. But I say that this is a Midrashic explanation of the verse [since it requires the forced attachment of the words חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם to the continuation of the verse regarding the meal offering, whereas the cantillation signs attach them to the preceding words regarding the counting]. But its simple meaning is: “until [but not inclusive of]…the day after [the completion of] the seventh week, which is the fiftieth day, shall you count.” Accordingly, this is a transposed verse.   חמשים יום והקרבתם מנחה חדשה לה': ביום החמשים תקריבוה. ואומר אני זהו מדרשו, אבל פשוטו עד ממחרת השבת השביעית, שהוא יום חמשים, תספרו. ומקרא מסורס הוא:
a new meal-offering: This is the first meal offering brought from the new [crop]. Now, if you ask, “But was not the meal offering of the omer already offered up (see verse 10 above)?” [the answer to this is that] that is not like other meal offerings-for it comes from barley [and hence, this meal offering is new since it is the first meal offering from the wheat crop].   מנחה חדשה: היא המנחה הראשונה שהובאה מן החדש. ואם תאמר, הרי קרבה מנחת העומר, אינה כשאר כל המנחות, שהיא באה מן השעורים:
17From your dwelling places, you shall bring bread, set aside, two [loaves] [made from] two tenths [of an ephah]; they shall be of fine flour, [and] they shall be baked leavened, the first offering to the Lord.   יזמִמּֽוֹשְׁבֹ֨תֵיכֶ֜ם תָּבִ֣יאוּ | לֶ֣חֶם תְּנוּפָ֗ה שְׁתַּ֨יִם֙ שְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֔ים סֹ֣לֶת תִּֽהְיֶ֔ינָה חָמֵ֖ץ תֵּֽאָפֶ֑ינָה בִּכּוּרִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
From your dwelling places: but not from outside the Land. — [Men. 83b]   ממושבתיכם: ולא מחוצה לארץ:
bread set aside: Heb. לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה, bread of separation, set aside for the sake of the Most High, and this is the new meal offering, mentioned above [in the preceding verse].   לחם תנופה: לחם תרומה המורם לשם גבוה, וזו היא המנחה החדשה האמורה למעלה:
the first offering: The first of all the meal offerings [brought from the new crop]; even a “jealousy meal offering” [for suspected infidelity, see Num. 5:11-31], which comes from barley [see verse 15 there], may not be offered up from the new crop before the two loaves [have been brought]. — [Men. 84b]   בכורים: ראשונה לכל המנחות, אף למנחת קנאות הבאה מן השעורים, לא תקרב מן החדש קודם לשתי הלחם:
18And associated with the bread, you shall bring seven unblemished lambs in their [first] year, one young bull, and two rams these shall be a burnt offering to the Lord, [along with] their meal offering and libations a fire offering [with] a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord.   יחוְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֣ם עַל־הַלֶּ֗חֶם שִׁבְעַ֨ת כְּבָשִׂ֤ים תְּמִימִם֙ בְּנֵ֣י שָׁנָ֔ה וּפַ֧ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֛ר אֶחָ֖ד וְאֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם יִֽהְי֤וּ עֹלָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּמִנְחָתָם֙ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֔ם אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And associated with the bread: Heb. עַל הַלֶּחֶם,lit. on the bread, i.e., “because of the bread,” i.e., as an obligation for the bread, [but not as a separate obligation for that day. I.e., if they did not bring the bread offering, they do not bring this associated burnt offering. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 23:171]   על הלחם: בגלל הלחם, חובה ללחם:
[along with] their meal offering and libations: i.e., according to the prescription of meal offerings and libations specified for each [type of] animal in the passage that delineates [libations (see Num. 15:1-16), as follows: three tenths [of an ephah of flour] for each bull, two tenths for a ram and one tenth for a lamb-this is the meal offering [for sacrifices]. And the libations are as follows: Half a hin [of wine] for a bull, a third of a hin for a ram, and a quarter of a hin for a lamb.   ומנחתם ונסכיהם: כמשפט מנחה ונסכים המפורשים בכל בהמה בפרשת נסכים (במדבר טו ד - י) שלשה עשרונים לפר ושני עשרונים לאיל ועשרון לכבש, זו היא המנחה. והנסכים חצי ההין לפר ושלישית ההין לאיל ורביעית ההין לכבש:
19And you shall offer up one he goat as a sin offering, and two lambs in their [first] year as a peace offering._   יטוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֛ם שְׂעִֽיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד לְחַטָּ֑את וּשְׁנֵ֧י כְבָשִׂ֛ים בְּנֵ֥י שָׁנָ֖ה לְזֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִֽים:
And you shall offer up one he-goat: One might think that the seven lambs (preceding verse) and the he-goat mentioned here are the same seven lambs and the he-goat enumerated in the Book of Numbers (28:19, 22). However, when you reach [the enumeration there of] the bulls and rams, [the numbers of each animal] they are not the same [as those listed here]. You must now conclude that these are separate and those are separate-these are brought in conjunction with the bread, while those as additional offerings [for the Festival]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:171]   ועשיתם שעיר עזים: יכול שבעת הכבשים והשעיר האמורים כאן הם שבעת הכבשים והשעיר האמורים בחומש הפקודים, כשאתה מגיע אצל פרים ואילים אינן הם, אמור מעתה אלו לעצמן ואלו לעצמן, אלו קרבו בגלל הלחם ואלו למוספין:
20And the kohen shall wave them in conjunction with the first offering bread as a waving before the Lord, along with the two lambs. They shall be holy to the Lord, [and] belong to the kohen.   כוְהֵנִ֣יף הַכֹּהֵ֣ן | אֹתָ֡ם עַל֩ לֶ֨חֶם הַבִּכֻּרִ֤ים תְּנוּפָה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁנֵ֖י כְּבָשִׂ֑ים קֹ֛דֶשׁ יִֽהְי֥וּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לַכֹּהֵֽן:
And the kohen shall wave them…as a waving: This teaches us that they require waving while still alive. Now, one might think that they all [require waving]. Scripture, therefore, says, “along with the two lambs.” - [see Men. 62a]   והניף הכהן אתם תנופה: מלמד שטעונין תנופה מחיים, יכול כולם, תלמוד לומר על שני כבשים:
They shall be holy: Since a peace offering of an individual has itself a minor degree of holiness, Scripture had to say concerning communal peace offering that they are holy of holies.   קדש יהיו: לפי ששלמי יחיד קדשים קלים, הוזקק לומר בשלמי צבור שהם קדשי קדשים:
21And you shall designate on this very day a holy occasion it shall be for you; you shall not perform any work of labor. [This is] an eternal statute in all your dwelling places throughout your generations.   כאוּקְרָאתֶ֞ם בְּעֶ֣צֶם | הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה מִקְרָא־קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם בְּכָל־מֽוֹשְׁבֹ֥תֵיכֶ֖ם לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
22When you reap the harvest of your Land, you shall not completely remove the corner of your field during your harvesting, and you shall not gather up the gleanings of your harvest. [Rather,] you shall leave these for the poor person and for the stranger. I am the Lord, your God.   כבוּבְקֻצְרְכֶ֞ם אֶת־קְצִ֣יר אַרְצְכֶ֗ם לֹֽא־תְכַלֶּ֞ה פְּאַ֤ת שָֽׂדְךָ֙ בְּקֻצְרֶ֔ךָ וְלֶ֥קֶט קְצִֽירְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְלַקֵּ֑ט לֶֽעָנִ֤י וְלַגֵּר֙ תַּֽעֲזֹ֣ב אֹתָ֔ם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
When you reap: [But Scripture has already stated this, “When you…reap its harvest…” (verse 10 above).] Scripture repeats it once again, [so that one who disobeys] transgresses two negative commands. Rabbi Avdimi the son of Rabbi Joseph says: Why does Scripture place this [passage] in the very middle of [the laws regarding] the Festivals-with Passover and Atzereth (Shavuoth) on one side and Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and the Festival [of Succoth] on the other? To teach you that whoever gives לֶקֶט, gleanings, שִׁכְחָה, forgotten sheaves, and פֵּאָה, the corners , to the poor in the appropriate manner, is deemed as if he had built the Holy Temple and offered up his sacrifices within it. — [Torath Kohanim 23:175]   ובקצרכם: חזר ושנה לעבור עליהם בשני לאוין. אמר רבי אבדימס ברבי יוסף מה ראה הכתוב ליתנה באמצע הרגלים, פסח ועצרת מכאן וראש השנה ויום הכפורים והחג מכאן, ללמדך שכל הנותן לקט שכחה ופאה לעני כראוי, מעלין עליו כאילו בנה בית המקדש והקריב קרבנותיו בתוכו:
you shall leave: Leave it before them and let them gather it up. And you shall not help one of them [since this will deprive the others]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:22]   תעזב: הנח לפניהם והם ילקטו, ואין לך לסייע לאחד מהם:
I am the Lord, your God: Who is faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah].   אני ה' אלהיכם: נאמן לשלם שכר:

Fifth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 23

23And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   כגוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
24Speak to the children of Israel, saying: In the seventh month, on the first of the month, it shall be a Sabbath for you, a remembrance of [Israel through] the shofar blast a holy occasion.   כדדַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜י בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֗דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ שַׁבָּת֔וֹן זִכְר֥וֹן תְּרוּעָ֖ה מִקְרָא־קֹֽדֶשׁ:
a remembrance of [Israel through] the shofar blast: [On this Rosh Hashanah day,] a remembrance [before God of the Jewish people is evoked through the sounds of the shofar. And in order to enhance this remembrance, our Rabbis instituted the recitation] of Scriptural verses dealing with remembrance and Scriptural verses dealing with the blowing of the shofar (R.H . 32a), through which the remembrance of the binding of Isaac is recalled for them, [whereby Isaac was willing to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering according to God’s words (see Gen. 22:119), and] in whose stead a ram was offered up [whereby the shofar alludes to that ram’s horns, by which it was caught in a tree, thus making its appearance as Isaac’s replacement (see Gen. 22:13)]. — [Sifthei Chachamim, Gur Aryeh; R.H. 16a]   זכרון תרועה: זכרון פסוקי זכרונות ופסוקי שופרות, לזכור לכם עקידת יצחק שקרב תחתיו איל:
25You shall not perform any work of labor, and you shall offer up a fire offering to the Lord.   כהכָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And you shall offer up a fire offering: The additional offerings stated in the Book of Num. (29:16).   והקרבתם אשה: המוספים האמורים בחומש הפקודים:
26And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כווַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
27But on the tenth of this seventh month, it is a day of atonement, it shall be a holy occasion for you; you shall afflict yourselves, and you shall offer up a fire offering to the Lord.   כזאַ֡ךְ בֶּֽעָשׂ֣וֹר לַחֹ֩דֶשׁ֩ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֨י הַזֶּ֜ה י֧וֹם הַכִּפֻּרִ֣ים ה֗וּא מִקְרָא־קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֑ם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
But: Heb. אַךְ. Wherever the word אַךְ, “but,” or רַק, “only,” appear in the Torah, they denote an exclusion. [Thus,] Yom Kippur atones for those who repent, “but” it does not atone for those who do not repent. — [Shev. 13a]   אך: כל אכין ורקין שבתורה מיעוטין, מכפר הוא לשבים ואינו מכפר על שאינם שבים:
28You shall not perform any work on that very day, for it is a day of atonement, for you to gain atonement before the Lord, your God.   כחוְכָל־מְלָאכָה֙ לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּ בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֣י י֤וֹם כִּפֻּרִים֙ ה֔וּא לְכַפֵּ֣ר עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
29For any person who will not be afflicted on that very day, shall be cut off from its people.   כטכִּ֤י כָל־הַנֶּ֨פֶשׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־תְעֻנֶּ֔ה בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וְנִכְרְתָ֖ה מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ:
30And any person who performs any work on that very day I will destroy that person from amidst its people.   לוְכָל־הַנֶּ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֙ כָּל־מְלָאכָ֔ה בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וְהַֽאֲבַדְתִּ֛י אֶת־הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽהּ:
I will destroy: כָּרֵת (“excision” or “cutting off”) is stated [as a punishment] in many places [in Scripture] and I do not know what that means, when God says [explicitly] “I will destroy,” [coinciding with וְנִכְרְתָה in the preceding verse,] this teaches us כָּרֵת means only “destruction” [i.e., premature death, and not that the body is to be cut up or that the person is to be exiled]. — [See Be’er Basadeh on this verse and on 22:3 above; Torath Kohanim 23:180]   והאבדתי: לפי שהוא אומר כרת בכל מקום ואיני יודע מה הוא, כשהוא אומר והאבדתי, למד על הכרת שאינו אלא אבדן:
31You shall not perform any work. [This is] an eternal statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.   לאכָּל־מְלָאכָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
You shall not perform any work: [But has this not already been stated in verses 28 and 30 above? Yes, nevertheless this prohibition is repeated several times here, so that one who disobeys] transgresses many negative commandments, or to warn against work at night [that it is forbidden just] as [performing] work during the day [of the tenth of Tishri]. - [Yoma 81a; see Mizrachi and Divrei David]   כל מלאכה וגו': לעבור עליו בלאוין הרבה, או להזהיר על מלאכת לילה כמלאכת יום:
32It is a complete day of rest for you, and you shall afflict yourselves. On the ninth of the month in the evening, from evening to evening, you shall observe your rest day.   לבשַׁבַּ֨ת שַׁבָּת֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּתִשְׁעָ֤ה לַחֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב מֵעֶ֣רֶב עַד־עֶ֔רֶב תִּשְׁבְּת֖וּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶֽם:

Sixth Portion

Leviticus Chapter 23

33And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   לגוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
34Speak to the children of Israel, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month, is the Festival of Succoth, a seven day period to the Lord.   לדדַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֜ר י֗וֹם לַחֹ֤דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי֙ הַזֶּ֔ה חַ֧ג הַסֻּכּ֛וֹת שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
35On the first day, it is a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work of labor.   להבַּיּ֥וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן מִקְרָא־קֹ֑דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
a holy occasion: [This expression mentioned in connection with Yom Kippur, means that you are to] sanctify it [the day] through [wearing] clean garments and through prayer, while [this expression mentioned in connection] with the other holy days, [means] sanctify it with food and drink, through [wearing] clean clothes and through [their own special] prayers. — [See Torath Kohanim 23:186] [Note that this Rashi belongs on verse 27. Therefore, it is obvious that it is referring to Yom Kippur, and the words, בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרים are completely unnecessary. Since the copyists believed it to be on verse 35, which deals with Succoth, they found it necessary to insert those words. See Divrei David.]   מקרא קדש: קדשהו בכסות נקיה ובתפלה, ובשאר ימים טובים במאכל ובמשתה ובכסות נקיה ובתפלה:
36[For] a seven day period, you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord. On the eighth day, it shall be a holy occasion for you, and you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord. It is a [day of] detention. You shall not perform any work of labor.   לושִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֡י מִקְרָא־קֹ֩דֶשׁ֩ יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם אִשֶּׁ֤ה לַֽיהֹוָה֙ עֲצֶ֣רֶת הִ֔וא כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
It is a [day of] detention: [i.e., God says to Israel,] “I have detained you [to remain] with Me.” This is analogous to a king who invited his sons to feast with him for a certain number of days, and when the time came for them to leave, he said: “My sons! Please, stay with me just one more day, [for] it is difficult for me to part with you!” [Similarly, after the seven days of Succoth, God “detains” Israel for one extra holy day.]   עצרת הוא: עצרתי אתכם אצלי כמלך שזימן את בניו לסעודה לכך וכך ימים, כיון שהגיע זמנן להפטר אמר בני בבקשה מכם, עכבו עמי עוד יום אחד, קשה עלי פרידתכם:
[you shall not perform] any work of labor: [I.e.,] even such work that is considered labor for you, that, if not done, would cause a monetary loss [is prohibited].   כל מלאכת עבדה: אפילו מלאכה שהיא עבודה לכם, שאם לא תעשוה יש חסרון כיס בדבר:
you shall not perform: One might think that even during the intermediate days of the Festival, work of labor is [also] prohibited. Scripture, therefore says here, “ It [is a day of detention,” [i.e., only on this eighth day is work prohibited, and not on the preceding weekdays of the Festival, when such work, which, if postponed, would cause a monetary loss, is permitted]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:187]   לא תעשו: יכול אף חולו של מועד יהא אסור במלאכת עבודה, תלמוד לומר היא:
37These are God's appointed [holy days] that you shall designate them as holy occasions, [on which] to offer up a fire offering to the Lord burnt offering and meal offering, sacrifice and libations, the requirement of each day on its day;   לזאֵ֚לֶּה מֽוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם מִקְרָאֵ֣י קֹ֑דֶשׁ לְהַקְרִ֨יב אִשֶּׁ֜ה לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה עֹלָ֧ה וּמִנְחָ֛ה זֶ֥בַח וּנְסָכִ֖ים דְּבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ:
burnt offering and meal offering: the libations meal offering that is offered up with the burnt offering (see Num. 15:1-16). - [Men. 44b]   עלה ומנחה: מנחת נסכים הקריבה עם העולה:
the requirement of each day on its day: [I.e.,] according to the prescribed laws set out in the Book of Num. (chapter 29).   דבר יום ביומו: חוק הקצוב בחומש הפקודים:
the requirement of each day on its day: But if its day passes, [and the prescribed sacrifice for that day had not been offered,] this sacrifice is canceled [i.e., it can no longer be brought on a later day]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:189]   דבר יום ביומו: הא אם עבר יומו בטל קרבנו:
38apart from the Lord's Sabbaths, and apart from your gifts, and apart from all your vows, and apart from all your donations that you give to the Lord.   לחמִלְּבַ֖ד שַׁבְּתֹ֣ת יְהֹוָ֑ה וּמִלְּבַ֣ד מַתְּנֽוֹתֵיכֶ֗ם וּמִלְּבַ֤ד כָּל־נִדְרֵיכֶם֙ וּמִלְּבַד֙ כָּל־נִדְבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
39But on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you gather in the produce of the land, you shall celebrate the festival of the Lord for a seven day period; the first day shall be a rest day, and the eighth day shall be a rest day.   לטאַ֡ךְ בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֜וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י בְּאָסְפְּכֶם֙ אֶת־תְּבוּאַ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ תָּחֹ֥גּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהֹוָ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּיּ֤וֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ שַׁבָּת֔וֹן וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֖י שַׁבָּתֽוֹן:
But on the fifteenth day… when you gather in the produce of the land, you shall celebrate the festive: [by bringing] a peace offering as the [special] “Festival offering (חֲגִיגָה).” Now, one might think that this [Festival offering] overrides the Sabbath. Scripture, therefore, says here, “But (אַךְ)” [denoting an exclusion (see Rashi on verse 27 above; Torath Kohanim 23: 191), namely that this sacrifice may not be brought on the Sabbath], since it can be made up on any of the seven [days of the Festival].   אך בחמשה עשר יום תחגו: קרבן שלמים לחגיגה. יכול תדחה את השבת, תלמוד לומר אך, הואיל ויש לה תשלומין כל שבעה:
when you gather in the produce of the land: [This teaches us] that this seventh month must occur at the time of ingathering, [namely, in the fall]. From here, [we learn] that they were commanded to proclaim leap years [i.e., to add an extra, thirteenth month to the lunar year], for if there were no leap years, [the lunar years would eventually no longer coincide with the solar years, and] sometimes [the seventh month] would occur in midsummer or midwinter [not in the time of ingathering]. - [Torath Kohanim 23:192]   באספכם את תבואת הארץ: שיהא חדש שביעי זה בא בזמן אסיפה, מכאן שנצטוו לעבר את השנים, שאם אין העבור, פעמים שהוא בא באמצע הקיץ או החורף:
you shall celebrate: [by bringing] the Festival peace offering (see the first Rashi on this verse),   תחגו: שלמי חגיגה:
for a seven-day period: If one did not bring it on one [day of the Festival], he may still bring it on another. Now, one might think that we are obliged to bring it all seven days. Scripture, therefore, says, “celebrate it” (verse 41 below) [employing the singular form,] thus denoting only one day and no more. But why does Scripture say “seven”? [To give seven days] for making it up [if one did not bring it on the first day]. - [Chag. 9a]   שבעת ימים: אם לא הביא בזה יביא בזה. יכול יהא מביאן כל שבעה, תלמוד לומר וחגותם אותו, יום אחד במשמע, ולא יותר. ולמה נאמר שבעה, לתשלומין:
40And you shall take for yourselves on the first day, the fruit of the hadar tree, date palm fronds, a branch of a braided tree, and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God for a seven day period.   מוּלְקַחְתֶּ֨ם לָכֶ֜ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן פְּרִ֨י עֵ֤ץ הָדָר֙ כַּפֹּ֣ת תְּמָרִ֔ים וַֽעֲנַ֥ף עֵֽץ־עָבֹ֖ת וְעַרְבֵי־נָ֑חַל וּשְׂמַחְתֶּ֗ם לִפְנֵ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
the fruit of the hadar tree: [Scripture could have simply said, “ hadar fruit.” Since it adds the word “tree,” next to “fruit,” it teaches us that it is] a tree whose wood has the same taste as its fruit. — [Sukkah 35a] [Note that, according to Ramban, the fruit known in Aramaic as “ethrog,” is known in Hebrew as “ hadar.”   פרי עץ הדר: עץ שטעם עצו ופריו שוה:
hadar: [Refers to a fruit] “that resides (הַדָּר) ” on its tree from one year to the next, which is the ethrog. — [Sukkah 35a]   הדר: הדר באילנו משנה לשנה, וזהו אתרוג:
date-palm fronds: Heb. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים. [The word כַּפֹּת is written here with] a missing “vav” (ו) [thus implying the singular rather than the plural]. This teaches us that only one [date-palm frond is to be taken]. — [Sukkah 32a]   כפת תמרים: חסר וי"ו, למד שאינה אלא אחת:
a branch of a braided tree: [A tree] whose branches עֲנָפָיו are braided like cords עֲבוֹתוֹת and like ropes. And Scripture is referring here specifically to the הֲדַס (myrtle) tree, which is made in a braided-like form. — [Sukkah 32b]   וענף עץ עבת: שענפיו קלועים כעבותות וכחבלים, וזהו הדס העשוי כמין קליעה:
41And you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord for seven days in the year. [It is] an eternal statute throughout your generations [that] you celebrate it in the seventh month.   מאוְחַגֹּתֶ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ חַ֣ג לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תָּחֹ֥גּוּ אֹתֽוֹ:
42For a seven day period you shall live in booths. Every resident among the Israelites shall live in booths,   מבבַּסֻּכֹּ֥ת תֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים כָּל־הָֽאֶזְרָח֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יֵֽשְׁב֖וּ בַּסֻּכֹּֽת:
resident: Heb. הָאֶזְרָח, [lit., “the resident.” The definite article here] signifies a resident [of the people of Israel, namely, a native Jew. Therefore, the next seemingly superfluous expression, namely,]   האזרח: זה אזרח:
among the Israelites: Comes to include converts [in this commandment]. — [Sukkah 28b]   בישראל: לרבות את הגרים:
43in order that your [ensuing] generations should know that I had the children of Israel live in booths when I took them out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   מגלְמַ֘עַן֘ יֵֽדְע֣וּ דֹרֹֽתֵיכֶם֒ כִּ֣י בַסֻּכּ֗וֹת הוֹשַׁ֨בְתִּי֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּהֽוֹצִיאִ֥י אוֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
I had the children of Israel live in booths: [These were] the clouds of glory [with which God enveloped the Jewish people in the desert, forming a protective shelter for them against wild beasts and enemies.] [See Num. 10:34 and Rashi on that verse.]- [Sukkah 11b]   כי בסכות הושבתי: ענני כבוד:
44And Moses told the children of Israel [these laws] of the Lord's appointed [holy days].   מדוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁ֔ה אֶת־מֹֽעֲדֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:

Seventh Portion

Leviticus Chapter 24

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Command the children of Israel, and they shall take to you pure olive oil, crushed for lighting, to kindle the lamps continually.   בצַ֞ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ שֶׁ֣מֶן זַ֥יִת זָ֛ךְ כָּתִ֖ית לַמָּא֑וֹר לְהַֽעֲלֹ֥ת נֵ֖ר תָּמִֽיד:
Command the children of Israel [and they shall take to you pure olive oil… to kindle the lamps continually]: This is the passage of the commandment of the lamps, and the passage [that begins with] “And you will command…” (Exod. 27:20-21) was stated only in context of describing the construction of the Mishkan, i.e., stating the necessity of the menorah. And the meaning [of that passage] is: “You will eventually command the children of Israel regarding this” [namely, here in our passage].   צו את בני ישראל: זו פרשת מצות הנרות. ופרשת ואתה תצוה לא נאמרה אלא על סדר מלאכת המשכן לפרש צורך המנורה. וכן משמע, ואתה סופך לצוות את בני ישראל על כך:
pure olive oil: Three [grades of] oil are extracted from an olive: The first [drop of oil that the olive issues after crushing] is called זָךְ, “pure,” [and is used for the menorah; the second and third oils that result from grinding are used for the meal offerings]. These [grades of oil] are enumerated in Tractate Men. (86a) and in Torath Kohanim (24: 210).   שמן זית זך: שלשה שמנים יוצאים מן הזית, הראשון קרוי זך, והן מפורשים במנחות (פט א) ובתורת כהנים:
continually: Heb. תָּמִיד. From [one] night to the next [i.e., even though it was to burn only until the morning-see verse 3-it was continual (תָּמִיד) in that it was to be lit each night]. This is similar to the continual burnt offering (עוֹלַת תָּמִיד) which was only from day to day, [as in Num. 28:1-8].   תמיד: מלילה ללילה, כמו עולת תמיד שאינה אלא מיום ליום:
3Outside the dividing curtain of the testimony in the Tent of Meeting, Aaron shall set it up before the Lord from evening to morning continually. [This shall be] an eternal statute for your generations.   גמִחוּץ֩ לְפָרֹ֨כֶת הָֽעֵדֻ֜ת בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד יַֽעֲרֹךְ֩ אֹת֨וֹ אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן מֵעֶ֧רֶב עַד־בֹּ֛קֶר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה תָּמִ֑יד חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
the dividing curtain of the testimony: which was situated in front of the ark, which was called “the Testimony (הָעֵדֻת).” And our Rabbis expounded [that the הָעֵדֻת alludes to] the western lamp, which was a “testimony (עֵדֻת)” to all the creatures on earth that the Shechinah rested upon Israel, for [the Kohen Gadol] would place into it the same amount of oil he placed into the other lamps, and from it he would begin [the kindling] and with it he would finish [the cleaning, since it continued to burn miraculously until the following evening]. — [Rashi Shab. 22b; Nachalath Ya’akov]   לפרכת העדת: שלפני הארון, שהוא קרוי עדות. ורבותינו דרשו על נר מערבי, שהוא עדות לכל באי עולם שהשכינה שורה בישראל, שנותן בה שמן כמדת חברותיה וממנה היה מתחיל ובה היה מסיים:
Aaron shall set it up from evening to morning: He shall set it up in such a way that it has enough [oil] for it to burn for the entire night. And our Sages estimated [this amount to be] half a log for each lamp. This [amount] is sufficient even for the [long, winter] nights of the Teveth season. And this measure became fixed for them [i.e., for the lights even during the shorter, summer nights]. — [Mizrachi; Men. 89a]   יערך אתו אהרן מערב עד בקר: יערוך אותו עריכה הראויה למדת כל הלילה, ושיערו חכמים חצי לוג לכל נר ונר, והן כדאי אף ללילי תקופת טבת, ומדה זו הוקבעה להם:
4Upon the pure menorah, he shall set up the lamps, before the Lord, continually.   דעַ֚ל הַמְּנֹרָ֣ה הַטְּהֹרָ֔ה יַֽעֲרֹ֖ךְ אֶת־הַנֵּר֑וֹת לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה תָּמִֽיד:
pure menorah: [The menorah] which was [made of] pure gold. Another explanation [for “Upon the pure menorah”] is: [He shall set up the lamps] upon the purity (טָהֳרָהּ) of the menorah, because [before kindling] he would first clean it up (מְטַהֵר) and clear it of ashes [from the previous night’s burning]. — [See Torath Kohanim 24:218]   המנרה הטהרה: שהיא זהב טהור. דבר אחר על טהרה של מנורה, שמטהרה ומדשנה תחלה מן האפר:
5And you shall take fine flour and bake it [into] twelve loaves. Each loaf shall be [made from] two tenths [of an ephah of flour].   הוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֣ סֹ֔לֶת וְאָֽפִיתָ֣ אֹתָ֔הּ שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה חַלּ֑וֹת שְׁנֵי֙ עֶשְׂרֹנִ֔ים יִֽהְיֶ֖ה הַֽחַלָּ֥ה הָֽאֶחָֽת:
6And you place them in two stacks, six in each stack, upon the pure table, before the Lord.   ווְשַׂמְתָּ֥ אוֹתָ֛ם שְׁתַּ֥יִם מַֽעֲרָכ֖וֹת שֵׁ֣שׁ הַמַּֽעֲרָ֑כֶת עַ֛ל הַשֻּׁלְחָ֥ן הַטָּהֹ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
six in each stack: שֵׁשׁ הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת, lit. six the stack, six loaves in one stack.   שש המערכת: שש חלות המערכה האחת:
upon the pure table: Heb. הַשֻׁלְחָן הַטָהֹר, [the table] of pure gold. Another explanation: upon the top surface (טָהָר) of the table [as in Arabic]. The loaves of bread were thin and thus fragile. Therefore, in order to prevent them from cracking when stacked upon each other, separating racks supported each loaf-except for the very bottom loaf in each stack, which must rest directly “upon the surface of the table (עַל הַשֻׁלְחָן הַטָהֹר),” without any rack intervening between the loaf and the table surface] so that the racks should not [intervene and] raise the [bottom loaf of] bread [in each stack] from [direct contact with] the surface of the table. — [Torath Kohanim 24:225]   השלחן הטהר: של זהב טהור. דבר אחר על טהרו של שלחן, שלא יהיו הסניפין מגביהין את הלחם מעל גבי השלחן:
7And you shall place pure frankincense alongside each stack, and it shall be a reminder for the bread, a fire offering to the Lord.   זוְנָֽתַתָּ֥ עַל־הַמַּֽעֲרֶ֖כֶת לְבֹנָ֣ה זַכָּ֑ה וְהָֽיְתָ֤ה לַלֶּ֨חֶם֙ לְאַזְכָּרָ֔ה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And you shall place…alongside each stack: Heb. וְנָתַתָּ עַל הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת, [lit., “And you shall place (pure frankincense) upon the stack.” Here, the meaning is: And you shall place pure frankincense] alongside each of the two stacks (Sifthei Chachamim, see also, Men. 62a, and 96a, Chok vol. 5, pg. 177, for the opinion of Abba Shaul and Rabbi Yehudah Hanassi). There were two bowls of frankincense, each bowl containing a fist-full (מְלֹא קֹמֶץ). - [See Rashi on Lev. 2:2; Torath Kohanim 24:228]   ונתת על המערכת: על כל אחת משתי המערכות היו שני בזיכי לבונה, מלא קומץ לכל אחת:
shall be: [I.e.,] this frankincense [shall be].   והיתה: הלבונה הזאת:
a reminder for the bread: Because nothing of the bread [itself] was offered to the most High [on the altar]. Rather, the frankincense was burned when they removed it on every Sabbath. Thus, the frankincense was a “reminder” for the bread, by which it is “remembered” above, like the fist-full [of flour and oil] which is the reminder for the meal offering. - [see Lev. 2:13]   ללחם לאזכרה: שאין מן הלחם לגבוה כלום, אלא הלבונה נקטרת כשמסלקין אותו בכל שבת ושבת. והיא לזכרון ללחם, שעל ידה הוא נזכר למעלה, כקומץ שהוא אזכרה למנחה:
8Each and every Sabbath day, he shall set it up before the Lord [to be there] continuously, from the children of Israel an eternal covenant.   חבְּי֨וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֜ת בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֗ת יַֽעַרְכֶ֛נּוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה תָּמִ֑יד מֵאֵ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם:
9And it shall belong to Aaron and his sons, and they shall eat it in a holy place, for it is holy of holies for him, among the fire offerings of the Lord, an eternal statute.   טוְהָֽיְתָה֙ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֣ן וּלְבָנָ֔יו וַֽאֲכָלֻ֖הוּ בְּמָק֣וֹם קָד֑שׁ כִּ֡י קֹ֩דֶשׁ֩ קָֽדָשִׁ֨ים ה֥וּא ל֛וֹ מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה חָק־עוֹלָֽם:
shall belong: Heb. וְהָיְתָה. This meal offering (מִנְחָה, which is feminine) [shall belong]. For [although, strictly speaking, the bread is not the usual “meal offering (מִנְחָה),” it is included in that category, because] any offering that comes from grain falls under the category of a meal offering.   והיתה: המנחה הזאת, שכל דבר הבא מן התבואה בכלל מנחה הוא:
and they shall eat it: Heb. וַאֲכָלֻהוּ, [in the masculine gender] referring to the bread (לֶחֶם) , which is in the masculine gender.   ואכלהו: מוסב על הלחם, שהוא לשון זכר:
10Now, the son of an Israelite woman and he was the son of an Egyptian man went out among the children of Israel, and they quarreled in the camp this son of the Israelite woman, and an Israelite man.   יוַיֵּצֵא֙ בֶּן־אִשָּׁ֣ה יִשְׂרְאֵלִ֔ית וְהוּא֙ בֶּן־אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּנָּצוּ֙ בַּמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה בֶּ֚ן הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִ֔ית וְאִ֖ישׁ הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִֽי:
the son of an Israelite woman…went out: From where did he go out? Rabbi Levi says: “He went out of his world” [i.e., he forfeited his share in the World to Come. See Be’er Basadeh , Maskil L’David]. Rabbi Berechiah says: “He went out of the above passage.” He mocked and said, “[Scripture says,] ‘Each… Sabbath day, he shall set it up.’ But surely it is the practice of kings to eat warm [fresh] bread every day! Perhaps cold bread, nine days old?” [he said] in astonishment. [In fact, the bread remained miraculously warm and fresh until it was removed the following week (Chag. 26b).] The Baraitha states: He “went out” of Moses’ tribunal [with a] guilty [verdict. How so?] He had come to pitch his tent within the encampment of the tribe of Dan. So [this tribe] said to him, “What right do you have to be here?” Said he, “I am of the descendants of Dan,” [claiming lineage through his mother, who was from the tribe of Dan (see verse 11)]. They said to him, “[But Scripture states (Num. 2:2): ‘The children of Israel shall encamp] each man by his grouping according to the insignias of his father’s household,’” [thereby refuting his maternal claim]. He entered Moses’ tribunal [where his case was tried], and came out guilty. Then, he arose and blasphemed. — [Vayikra Rabbah 32:3]   ויצא בן אשה ישראלית: מהיכן יצא, רבי לוי אומר מעולמו יצא. רבי ברכיה אומר מפרשה שלמעלה יצא. לגלג ואמר ביום השבת יערכנו, דרך המלך לאכול פת חמה בכל יום, או שמא פת צוננת של תשעה ימים, בתמיה. ומתניתא אמרה מבית דינו של משה יצא מחוייב. בא ליטע אהלו בתוך מחנה דן, אמרו לו מה טיבך לכאן, אמר להם מבני דן אני. אמרו לו (במדבר ב) איש על דגלו באותות לבית אבותם כתיב. נכנס לבית דינו של משה ויצא מחוייב, עמד וגדף:
the son of an Egyptian man: the Egyptian whom Moses had slain, [uttering the Divine Name (see Rashi on Exod. 2:14). When the man heard this, he arose and began blaspheming against the Divine Name.]- [Sifthei Chachamim ; Vayikra Rabbah 32:4]   בן איש מצרי: הוא המצרי שהרגו משה:
among the children of Israel: [This] teaches [us] that he converted. [Although he was halachically a Jew, since he was born to a Jewish mother, “he converted” here means that he immersed and was circumcised at Mount Sinai “among the children of Israel,” i.e., together with all the children of Israel.]- [Ramban; Torath Kohanim 24:235]   בתוך בני ישראל: מלמד שנתגייר:
They…quarreled in the camp: regarding the encampment. [See Rashi on the beginning of this verse]. — [Torath Kohanim 24:235).   וינצו במחנה: על עסקי המחנה:
an Israelite man: This was his opponent, the one who prevented him from pitching his tent [in the encampment of Dan]. — [Torath Kohanim 24:235]   ואיש הישראלי: זה שכנגדו, שמיחה בו מטע אהלו:
11And the son of the Israelite woman pronounced the [Divine] Name and cursed. So they brought him to Moses. His mother's name was Shelomith the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan.   יאוַיִּקֹּ֠ב בֶּן־הָֽאִשָּׁ֨ה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִ֤ית אֶת־הַשֵּׁם֙ וַיְקַלֵּ֔ל וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וְשֵׁ֥ם אִמּ֛וֹ שְׁלֹמִ֥ית בַּת־דִּבְרִ֖י לְמַטֵּה־דָֽן:
blasphemously pronounced: Heb. וַיִּקֹּב. As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וּפָרֵישׁ, “and he pronounced”-he pronounced the ineffable Divine Name and cursed. This [Name that must not be pronounced] was the explicit [four-letter] Divine Name that this man had heard from [the revelation at Mount] Sinai. — [Torath Kohanim 24:235]   ויקב: כתרגומו ופריש, שנקב שם המיוחד וגדף, והוא שם המפורש ששמע מסיני:
His mother’s name was Shelomith the daughter of Dibri: [Why is her name mentioned? This teaches us] the praise of Israel, for Scripture publicizes this one, effectively telling us that she alone [among all the women of Israel] was [involved in an] illicit [relation (Vayikra Rabbah 32:5), albeit unwitting on her part. (See Rashi on Exod. 2:11.) Nevertheless, no other Israelite woman had even unwitting illicit relations]. — [Mizrachi]   ושם אמו שלמית בת דברי: שבחן של ישראל שפרסמה הכתוב לזו, לומר, שהיא לבדה היתה זונה:
Shelomith: Heb. שְׁלוֹמִית. [Her name denotes that] she was a chatterbox, [always going about saying] “Peace (שָׁלוֹם) be with you! Peace be with you! Peace be with you [men]!” (Vayikra Rabbah 32:5). [She would] chatter about with words, greeting everyone.   שלמית: דהות פטפטה שלם עלך, שלם עלך, שלם עליכון, מפטפטת בדברים שואלת בשלום הכל:
the daughter of Dibri: [This denotes that] she was very talkative, talking (מְדַבֶּרֶת) with every person. That is why she fell into sin.   בת דברי: דברנית היתה מדברת עם כל אדם, לפיכך קלקלה:
of the tribe of Dan: [This] tells us that a wicked person brings disgrace to himself, disgrace to his father, and disgrace to his [entire] tribe. Likewise, [the converse is true regarding a righteous man,] “Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan” (Exod. 35:34), [for Oholiab brought about] praise to himself, praise to his father, and praise to his [entire] tribe. — [Torath Kohanim 24:237]   למטה דן: מגיד שהרשע גורם גנאי לו גנאי לאביו גנאי לשבטו, כיוצא בו (שמות לא ו) אהליאב בן אחיסמך למטה דן, שבח לו שבח לאביו שבח לשבטו:
12They placed him in the guardhouse, [until his sentence would] be specified to them by the word of the Lord.   יבוַיַּנִּיחֻ֖הוּ בַּמִּשְׁמָ֑ר לִפְר֥שׁ לָהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
They placed him: [Since Scripture does not say, “they placed (וַיִּשִׂימוּ or וַיִּתְּנוּ) him in the guardhouse,” but rather, “they left him (וַיַּנִּיחֻהוּ) in the guardhouse,” which means that they left him] alone, and they did not leave the one who gathered wood [on the Sabbath] with him (see Num. 15:32-36), for these two [episodes, namely, of the wood gatherer and the blasphemer,] occurred at the same time. Now, they knew that the wood gatherer was liable to death, as is stated “those who profane it shall be put to death.” (Exod. 31:14) The mode of death, however, had not yet been specified to them [by God]. Thus it says (Num. 15:34), “for it had not [yet] been specified what should be done to him”-while in the case of the blasphemer [here], Scripture says לִפְרשׁ לָהֶם, [lit., “to specify for them,” namely to specify his sentence], for they did not know whether or not he was liable to the death penalty [at all, and if he would be placed together with the wood gatherer, it might have caused him unnecessary fear, since he could assume thereby that he was on death row. Therefore, at that point he had to be kept separately]. — [Be’er Basadeh, Torath Kohanim 24:237]   ויניחהו: לבדו, ולא הניחו מקושש עמו, ששניהם היו בפרק אחד. ויודעים היו שהמקושש במיתה, שנאמר (שמות לא יד) מחלליה מות יומת אבל לא פורש להם באיזו מיתה, לכך נאמר (במדבר טו לד) כי לא פורש מה יעשה לו. אבל במקלל הוא אומר לפרוש להם, שלא היו יודעים אם חייב מיתה אם לאו:
13Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יגוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
14Take the blasphemer outside the camp, and all who heard [his blasphemy] shall lean their hands on his head. And the entire community shall stone him.   ידהוֹצֵ֣א אֶת־הַֽמְקַלֵּ֗ל אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְסָמְכ֧וּ כָל־הַשֹּֽׁמְעִ֛ים אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וְרָֽגְמ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ כָּל־הָֽעֵדָֽה:
who heard: These were the witnesses. - [Torath Kohanim 24:239]   השמעים: אלו העדים:
all [who heard]: [The word “all” comes] to include the judges. — [Torath Kohanim 24:237]   כל: להביא את הדיינים:
[shall lean] their hands [on his head]: They say to him: “Your blood is on your own head! We are not to be punished for your death, for you brought this upon yourself!” - [Torath Kohanim 24:239]   את ידיהם: אומרים לו דמך בראשך ואין אנו נענשים במיתתך שאתה גרמת לך:
And the entire community [shall stone him]: [I.e., he is to be stoned by the witnesses] in the presence of the entire community (Torath Kohanim 24:240). From here [we learn] that an agent of a person is considered as [the person] himself, [for only the witnesses are to stone him, but since they are acting as agents of the entire community, Scripture considers it as if the entire community is stoning him].   כל העדה: במעמד כל העדה. מכאן ששלוחו של אדם כמותו:
15And to the children of Israel, you shall speak, saying: Any man who blasphemes his God shall bear his sin.   טווְאֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תְּדַבֵּ֣ר לֵאמֹ֑ר אִ֥ישׁ אִ֛ישׁ כִּֽי־יְקַלֵּ֥ל אֱלֹהָ֖יו וְנָשָׂ֥א חֶטְאֽוֹ:
[Any man…who blasphemes his God] shall bear his sin: [He shall be punished] by excision, if there was no warning - [Torath Kohanim 24:243].   ונשא חטאו: בכרת, כשאין התראה:
16And one who blasphemously pronounces the Name of the Lord, shall be put to death; the entire community shall stone him; convert and resident alike if he pronounces the [Divine] Name, he shall be put to death.   טזוְנֹקֵ֤ב שֵֽׁם־יְהֹוָה֙ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔ת רָג֥וֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־ב֖וֹ כָּל־הָֽעֵדָ֑ה כַּגֵּר֙ כָּֽאֶזְרָ֔ח בְּנָקְב֥וֹ שֵׁ֖ם יוּמָֽת:
And one who blasphemously pronounces the Name: [This teaches us that] one is not liable [to the death penalty] unless he pronounces the [four-letter Divine] Name. However, one who curses using an ancillary Name [for God, rather than the explicit, four-letter Name], is not [liable to the death penalty]. — [Torath Kohanim 24:243]   ונקב שם: אינו חייב עד שיפרש את השם, ולא המקלל בכינוי:
And one who blasphemously pronounces: Heb. וְנֹקֵב. [This term] denotes cursing, as in, “What can I curse (אֶקֹּב) …?” (Num. 23:8). - [Sanh. 56a]   ונקב: לשון קללה, כמו (במדבר כג ח) מה אקב:
17And if a man strikes down any human being he shall be put to death.   יזוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַכֶּ֖ה כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת:
And if a man strikes down [any human being]: Since Scripture states, “One who strikes a man so that he dies [shall surely be put to death]” (Exod. 21:12), I know only that [the death penalty applies to] one who kills a “man.” How do I know [that it applies also to one who kills] a woman or a minor? Therefore, Scripture says, “[If a man strikes down] any human being.” - [Torath Kohanim 24:245]   ואיש כי יכה: לפי שנאמר (שמות כא יב) מכה איש ומת, אין לי אלא שהרג את האיש, אשה וקטן מנין, תלמוד לומר כל נפש אדם:
18And one who slays an animal shall pay for it [the value of] a life for the life [he took].   יחוּמַכֵּ֥ה נֶֽפֶשׁ־בְּהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ:
19And a man who inflicts an injury upon his fellow man just as he did, so shall be done to him [namely,]   יטוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־יִתֵּ֥ן מ֖וּם בַּֽעֲמִית֑וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה כֵּ֖ן יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לּֽוֹ:
20fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Just as he inflicted an injury upon a person, so shall it be inflicted upon him.   כשֶׁ֚בֶר תַּ֣חַת שֶׁ֔בֶר עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת שֵׁ֑ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מוּם֙ בָּֽאָדָ֔ם כֵּ֖ן יִנָּ֥תֶן בּֽוֹ:
so shall be done to him: Heb. כֵּן יִנָּתֵן בּוֹ. Our Rabbis explained that this does not mean the actual infliction of a wound, but payment of money. [And how is an injury estimated? The victim] is evaluated as a slave [if he would not have had the injury, and how much with the injury, and the difference is the compensation]. This is why Scripture uses the expression נְתִינָה, “giving,” [thereby alluding to] something that is “handed over (הַנָתוּן)” from hand to hand. — [B.K. 84a]   כן ינתן בו: פירשו רבותינו, שאינו נתינת מום ממש אלא תשלומי ממון, שמין אותו כעבד, לכך כתוב בו לשון נתינה, דבר הנתון מיד ליד:
21And one who injures an animal shall pay for it. And one who strikes a person shall be put to death.   כאוּמַכֵּ֥ה בְהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה וּמַכֵּ֥ה אָדָ֖ם יוּמָֽת:
And one who injures an animal shall pay for it: [Verse 18] above is speaking of one who kills an animal, whereas here it is speaking of one who inflicts an injury upon it.   ומכה בהמה ישלמנה: למעלה דבר בהורג בהמה, וכאן דבר בעושה בה חבורה:
And one who strikes a person shall be put to death: even if he did not kill him, but just inflicted an injury upon him. For the term נֶפֶשׁ is not used here. Scripture is speaking here of someone who strikes his father or his mother. And Scripture places this case in juxtaposition to the case of someone who strikes an animal [in order to teach us that]: just as if someone strikes an animal [he is liable only if] it is alive, so is one who strikes his father [or mother liable only if] they are alive. This comes to exclude the case of one who strikes [his father or mother] after [their] death. [Why is this case excluded here?] Since we find that one who curses his [father or mother] after [their] death is liable [to the death penalty-see Rashi on Lev. 20:9 Scripture finds it necessary here to teach us that one who strikes [his parent after death] is exempt. And [this juxtaposition also teaches us that] just as in the case of [one who strikes] an animal, [he is liable only if he inflicted an] injury, but if there was no injury, there is no compensation-likewise, one who strikes his father is not liable [to the death penalty] unless he inflicts an injury upon him. — [Torath Kohanim 24:250]   ומכה אדם יומת: אפילו לא הרגו אלא עשה בו חבורה, שלא נאמר כאן נפש ובמכה אביו ואמו דבר הכתוב ובא להקישו למכה בהמה מה מכה בהמה מחיים, אף מכה אביו ואמו מחיים, פרט למכה לאחר מיתה, לפי שמצינו שהמקללו לאחר מיתה חייב, הוצרך לומר במכה שפטור. ומה בבהמה בחבלה, שאם אין חבלה אין תשלומין, אף מכה אביו ואמו אינו חייב עד שיעשה בהם חבורה:
22One law shall be exacted for you, convert and resident alike, for I am the Lord, your God.   כבמִשְׁפַּ֤ט אֶחָד֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כַּגֵּ֥ר כָּֽאֶזְרָ֖ח יִֽהְיֶ֑ה כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
I am the Lord your God: the God of all of you. Just as I attach My Name uniquely upon you [native Jewish people], so do I attach it uniquely upon the converts [to Judaism].   אני ה' אלהיכם: אלהי כולכם, כשם שאני מיחד שמי עליכם כך אני מייחד שמי על הגרים:
23And Moses told [all this] to the children of Israel. So they took the blasphemer outside the camp and stoned him, and the children of Israel did just as the Lord had commanded Moses.   כגוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁה֘ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיּוֹצִ֣יאוּ אֶת־הַֽמְקַלֵּ֗ל אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וַיִּרְגְּמ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ אָ֑בֶן וּבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עָשׂ֔וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
and the children of Israel did: the whole procedure of stoning, described elsewhere [in Scripture]-namely, “pushing” [him off a two-story building-see Rashi on Exod. 19:13 and Sanh. 45a] the actual “stoning” and “hanging” [him afterwards on a pole, taking him down before nightfall and burying him then-see Deut. 21:22-23 and Rashi there]. — [Torath Kohanim 24:252]   ובני ישראל עשו: כל המצוה האמורה בסקילה במקום אחר דחייה, רגימה ותלייה:

Maftir Portion

Leviticus Chapter 24

21And one who injures an animal shall pay for it. And one who strikes a person shall be put to death.   כאוּמַכֵּ֥ה בְהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה וּמַכֵּ֥ה אָדָ֖ם יוּמָֽת:
And one who injures an animal shall pay for it: [Verse 18] above is speaking of one who kills an animal, whereas here it is speaking of one who inflicts an injury upon it.   ומכה בהמה ישלמנה: למעלה דבר בהורג בהמה, וכאן דבר בעושה בה חבורה:
And one who strikes a person shall be put to death: even if he did not kill him, but just inflicted an injury upon him. For the term נֶפֶשׁ is not used here. Scripture is speaking here of someone who strikes his father or his mother. And Scripture places this case in juxtaposition to the case of someone who strikes an animal [in order to teach us that]: just as if someone strikes an animal [he is liable only if] it is alive, so is one who strikes his father [or mother liable only if] they are alive. This comes to exclude the case of one who strikes [his father or mother] after [their] death. [Why is this case excluded here?] Since we find that one who curses his [father or mother] after [their] death is liable [to the death penalty-see Rashi on Lev. 20:9 Scripture finds it necessary here to teach us that one who strikes [his parent after death] is exempt. And [this juxtaposition also teaches us that] just as in the case of [one who strikes] an animal, [he is liable only if he inflicted an] injury, but if there was no injury, there is no compensation-likewise, one who strikes his father is not liable [to the death penalty] unless he inflicts an injury upon him. — [Torath Kohanim 24:250]   ומכה אדם יומת: אפילו לא הרגו אלא עשה בו חבורה, שלא נאמר כאן נפש ובמכה אביו ואמו דבר הכתוב ובא להקישו למכה בהמה מה מכה בהמה מחיים, אף מכה אביו ואמו מחיים, פרט למכה לאחר מיתה, לפי שמצינו שהמקללו לאחר מיתה חייב, הוצרך לומר במכה שפטור. ומה בבהמה בחבלה, שאם אין חבלה אין תשלומין, אף מכה אביו ואמו אינו חייב עד שיעשה בהם חבורה:
22One law shall be exacted for you, convert and resident alike, for I am the Lord, your God.   כבמִשְׁפַּ֤ט אֶחָד֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כַּגֵּ֥ר כָּֽאֶזְרָ֖ח יִֽהְיֶ֑ה כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
I am the Lord your God: the God of all of you. Just as I attach My Name uniquely upon you [native Jewish people], so do I attach it uniquely upon the converts [to Judaism].   אני ה' אלהיכם: אלהי כולכם, כשם שאני מיחד שמי עליכם כך אני מייחד שמי על הגרים:
23And Moses told [all this] to the children of Israel. So they took the blasphemer outside the camp and stoned him, and the children of Israel did just as the Lord had commanded Moses.   כגוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁה֘ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיּוֹצִ֣יאוּ אֶת־הַֽמְקַלֵּ֗ל אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וַיִּרְגְּמ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ אָ֑בֶן וּבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עָשׂ֔וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
and the children of Israel did: the whole procedure of stoning, described elsewhere [in Scripture]-namely, “pushing” [him off a two-story building-see Rashi on Exod. 19:13 and Sanh. 45a] the actual “stoning” and “hanging” [him afterwards on a pole, taking him down before nightfall and burying him then-see Deut. 21:22-23 and Rashi there]. — [Torath Kohanim 24:252]   ובני ישראל עשו: כל המצוה האמורה בסקילה במקום אחר דחייה, רגימה ותלייה:


Ezekiel Chapter 44

15But the priests, the Levites, the sons of Zadok, who kept the charge of My sanctuary when the Children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near Me to minister to Me, and they shall stand before Me to offer Me fat and blood, says the Lord God.   טווְהַכֹּֽהֲנִ֨ים הַֽלְוִיִּ֜ם בְּנֵ֣י צָד֗וֹק אֲשֶׁ֨ר שָׁמְר֜וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֚רֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי֙ בִּתְע֚וֹת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י הֵ֛מָּה יִקְרְב֥וּ אֵלַ֖י לְשָֽׁרְתֵ֑נִי וְעָֽמְד֣וּ לְפָנַ֗י לְהַקְרִ֥יב לִי֙ חֵ֣לֶב וָדָ֔ם נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
But the priests, the Levites: [i.e., the priests, who are] of the tribe of Levi.  
the sons of Zadok: Since he was the High Priest who served as the first one in the Sanctuary of Solomon’s days, they are called by his name.  
when… went astray: [Heb. בִּתְעוֹת,] quand ils erraient, in Fr., when they strayed.  
16They shall enter My Sanctuary, and they shall approach My Table to minister to Me, and they shall keep My charge.   טזהֵ֜מָּה יָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁ֗י וְהֵ֛מָּה יִקְרְב֥וּ אֶל־שֻׁלְחָנִ֖י לְשָֽׁרְתֵ֑נִי וְשָֽׁמְר֖וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּֽי:
17And it shall be, when they enter the gates of the Inner Court, they shall be clothed with linen garments and no wool shall be upon them when they minister the gates of the Inner Court and within.   יזוְהָיָ֗ה בְּבוֹאָם֙ אֶל־שַֽׁעֲרֵי֙ הֶֽחָצֵ֣ר הַפְּנִימִ֔ית בִּגְדֵ֥י פִשְׁתִּ֖ים יִלְבָּ֑שׁוּ וְלֹא־יַֽעֲלֶ֚ה עֲלֵיהֶם֙ צֶ֔מֶר בְּשָֽׁרְתָ֗ם בְּשַֽׁעֲרֵ֛י הֶֽחָצֵ֥ר הַפְּנִימִ֖ית וָבָֽיְתָה:
when they enter the gates of the Inner Court: the Inner Sanctum on the Day of Atonement.  
and no wool shall be upon them: They shall not wear the blue wool that was in the robe and girdle on the Day of Atonement during the service in the Inner Court.  
18Linen hats shall be upon their heads, and linen breaches shall be upon their loins; they shall not gird themselves in a place that sweats.   יחפַּֽאֲרֵ֚י פִשְׁתִּים֙ יִֽהְי֣וּ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֔ם וּמִכְנְסֵ֣י פִשְׁתִּ֔ים יִֽהְי֖וּ עַל־מָתְנֵיהֶ֑ם לֹ֥א יַחְגְּר֖וּ בַּיָּֽזַע:
they shall not gird themselves in a place that sweats: We learned in a baraitha (Zeb. 18b, 19a): They do not gird themselves in a place where they sweat, neither above their elbows nor below their loins, which is a place of sweat, en la suor in O.F., on (whatever causes) sweat. Another explanation: The Torah prohibited the priests from wearing woolen raiment because wool causes the body to sweat (not found in some editions).  
hats: [Heb. פַאֲרֵי.] c(h)apelas in O.F., hats, head dress.  
19But when they go out into the Outer Court, into the Outer Court to the people, they shall put off their garments wherein they minister and place them in chambers belonging to the Sanctuary and clothe themselves with other garments, and they shall not sanctify the people with their garments.   יטוּ֠בְצֵאתָם אֶל־הֶֽחָצֵ֨ר הַחִֽיצוֹנָ֜ה אֶל־הֶֽחָצֵ֣ר הַחִֽיצוֹנָה֘ אֶל־הָעָם֒ יִפְשְׁט֣וּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵיהֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁר־הֵ֙מָּה֙ מְשָֽׁרְתִ֣ם בָּ֔ם וְהִנִּ֥יחוּ אוֹתָ֖ם בְּלִֽשְׁכֹ֣ת הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וְלָֽבְשׁוּ֙ בְּגָדִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וְלֹֽא־יְקַדְּשׁ֥וּ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם בְּבִגְדֵיהֶֽם:
into the Outer Court, into the Outer Court: Since he was speaking of the Heichal and the Inner Sanctum, and he called them the “Inner Court,” and in relation to them, he should call the Israelites’ Court an “Outer Court,” he therefore had to double it twice to say that he is speaking of the Men’s Court, the area that all Israel enter.  
and place them in chambers belonging to the Sanctuary: as stated by our master Moses, may he rest in peace (Lev. 16:23): “after that, he shall take off the linen garments which he had put on, etc., and he shall leave them there.”  
and they shall not sanctify the people: [Heb. וְלֹא יְקַדְשׁוּ אֶתהָעָם, lit. they shall not sanctify the people.] Jonathan renders: and they shall not mingle with the people in their garments, [i.e.,] they shall not touch the people with their holy garments, for ordinary garments are not ritually clean as regards [contaminating] holy garments.  
20And [the hair of] their heads they are not to shave but also not to let it grow wild; they must be careful to trim the hair of their heads.   כוְרֹאשָׁם֙ לֹ֣א יְגַלֵּ֔חוּ וּפֶ֖רַע לֹ֣א יְשַׁלֵּ֑חוּ כָּס֥וֹם יִכְסְמ֖וּ אֶת־רָֽאשֵׁיהֶֽם:
And [the hair of] their heads they are not to shave: to remove all the hair.  
but also not to let it grow wild: They may not let their hair grow very long.  
they must be careful to trim: [Heb. כָּסוּם יִכְסְמוּ, (to cut the hair so that it appears)] like spelt (כֻּסֶמֶת) , which is arranged on the ear [with] the end of one beside the root of another. So I heard in the name of Rabbi Menahem of blessed memory. It is possible to explain it as an expression for a measure of a medium thing, neither shearing [all the hair of] the head nor letting the hair grow long, but a medium amount, amo(d)ler in O.F., to cut to medium length.  
21And wine may no priest drink when they come into the Inner Court.   כאוְיַ֥יִן לֹֽא־יִשְׁתּ֖וּ כָּל־כֹּהֵ֑ן בְּבוֹאָ֖ם אֶל־הֶֽחָצֵ֥ר הַפְּנִימִֽית:
when they come into the Inner Court: to the Heichal.  
22And neither a widow nor a divorced woman may they take for wives, but they shall take virgins from the descendants of the House of Israel; also the widow who is only a widow, some of the priests may marry.   כבוְאַלְמָנָה֙ וּגְרוּשָׁ֔ה לֹֽא־יִקְח֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם לְנָשִׁ֑ים כִּ֣י אִם־בְּתוּלֹ֗ת מִזֶּ֙רַע֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהָֽאַלְמָנָה֙ אֲשֶׁר תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה אַלְמָנָ֔ה מִכֹּהֵ֖ן יִקָּֽחוּ:
but… virgins: may the High Priests take. But there are some priests who may take a widow, namely, the ordinary ones, and this is the meaning of “some of the priests may marry” ; there are some priests who are permitted to marry a widow.  
who is only a widow: A real [widow], excluding a divorcee and a woman upon whom the rite of chalitzah was performed; although she is unmarried, she is forbidden even for an ordinary [priest].  
23And My people shall they teach the difference between holy and profane, and cause them to discern between the impure and the pure.   כגוְאֶת־עַמִּ֣י יוֹר֔וּ בֵּ֥ין קֹ֖דֶשׁ לְחֹ֑ל וּבֵֽין־טָמֵ֥א לְטָה֖וֹר יֽוֹדִעֻֽם:
24And in dispute they shall stand in judgment, according to My ordinances shall they decide it; and My teachings and My statutes shall they keep in all My appointed times, and My Sabbaths they shall sanctify.   כדוְעַל־רִ֗יב הֵמָּה יַֽעַמְד֣וּ לְמִשְׁפָּ֔ט (כתיב לְִשְׁפָּ֔ט) בְּמִשְׁפָּטַ֖י יִשְׁפְּטֻ֑הוּ (כתיב וִשְׁפְּטֻ֑הוּ) וְאֶת־תּֽוֹרֹתַ֚י וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ בְּכָל־מֽוֹעֲדַ֣י יִשְׁמֹ֔רוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתַ֖י יְקַדֵּֽשׁוּ:
25To no human corpse shall they come to defile themselves, except to father and to mother and to son and to daughter, to brother and to a sister who has had no husband, shall they defile themselves.   כהוְאֶל־מֵ֣ת אָדָ֔ם לֹ֥א יָב֖וֹא לְטָמְאָ֑ה כִּ֣י אִם־לְאָ֡ב וּ֠לְאֵם וּלְבֵ֨ן וּלְבַ֜ת לְאָ֗ח וּלְאָח֛וֹת אֲשֶׁר־לֹא־הָֽיְתָ֥ה לְאִ֖ישׁ יִטַּמָּֽאוּ:
26And after his purification they shall count seven days for him.   כווְאַֽחֲרֵ֖י טָֽהֳרָת֑וֹ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים יִסְפְּרוּ־לֽוֹ:
And after his purification: and after he has separated from the corpse. So was it taught in Moed Katan (15b).  
27And on the day that he enters the Sanctuary, into the Inner Court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he shall offer his sin offering, says the Lord God.   כזוּבְיוֹם֩ בֹּא֨וֹ אֶל־הַקֹּ֜דֶשׁ אֶל־הֶֽחָצֵ֚ר הַפְּנִימִית֙ לְשָׁרֵ֣ת בַּקֹּ֔דֶשׁ יַקְרִ֖יב חַטָּאת֑וֹ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
And on the day that he enters: into the Sanctuary for the first time to initiate himself into the service, he shall offer up his sin-offering; this is his one tenth of an ephah [of flour]. In Moed Katan (16a) the following is taught: the regular priest requires one tenth of an ephah on the day of his initiation, as it is stated (Lev. 6:13): “This is the offering of Aaron and his sons, etc.” and as is explained in Tractate Menachoth (51b).  
28It shall be to them for an inheritance, I am their inheritance; You shall give them no possession in Israel, I am their possession.   כחוְהָיְתָ֚ה לָהֶם֙ לְֽנַֽחֲלָ֔ה אֲנִ֖י נַֽחֲלָתָ֑ם וַֽאֲחֻזָּ֗ה לֹֽא־תִתְּנ֚וּ לָהֶם֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲנִ֖י אֲחֻזָּתָֽם:
It shall be to them: the priesthood, for an inheritance.  
29The meal-offering and the sin-offering and the guilt- offering are they to eat, and everything that is vowed to be banned in Israel shall belong to them.   כטהַמִּנְחָה֙ וְהַֽחַטָּ֣את וְהָֽאָשָׁ֔ם הֵ֖מָּה יֹֽאכְל֑וּם וְכָל־חֵ֥רֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לָהֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶֽה:
and everything that is holy [Heb.: חֶרֶם,] an expression of sanctity, and so is every expression of חֶרֶם [when used] in the context of hallowed things.  
30And the first of all the first-fruits, and every heave-offering; everything from every sort of your heave- offerings shall belong to the priests; also the first out of your kneading-troughs shall you give to the priest, to bring enduring blessing into your home.   לוְרֵאשִׁית֩ כָּל־בִּכּ֨וּרֵי כֹ֜ל וְכָל־תְּר֣וּמַת כֹּ֗ל מִכֹּל֙ תְּרוּמֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם לַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים יִֽהְיֶ֑ה וְרֵאשִׁ֚ית עֲרִיסֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ תִּתְּנ֣וּ לַכֹּהֵ֔ן לְהָנִ֥יחַ בְּרָכָ֖ה אֶל־בֵּיתֶֽךָ:
to bring enduring blessings into your home: [Heb. לְהָנִיחַ,] aposer on O.F., (to cause) to rest, settle, as in (Exod. 10:14): “and it rested (וֳיָנָח) throughout all the borders of Egypt.”  
31Anything that has died of itself or is fatally wounded, whether it be bird or beast, the priests may not eat.   לאכָּל־נְבֵלָה֙ וּטְרֵפָ֔ה מִן־הָע֖וֹף וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֑ה לֹ֥א יֹֽאכְל֖וּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִֽים:
Anything that has died of itself or is fatally wounded, etc.: Since nipping the neck of the bird sin-offering was permitted, which is [tantamount to] an animal that died of itself or was fatally wounded [since it is not the normal method of slaughter], he had to warn them concerning [eating] other creatures that died of themselves or were fatally wounded. So our Sages explain.  
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