Torah Reading for Vayikra

Parshat Vayikra
Shabbat, 13 Adar II, 5784
23 March, 2024
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Complete: (Leviticus 1:1 - 5:26; Deuteronomy 25:17-19; Samuel I 15:1-34)
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First Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 1

1And He called to Moses, and the Lord spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting, saying,   אוַיִּקְרָ֖א אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו מֵאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר:
And He called to Moses: Every [time God communicated with Moses, whether it was represented by the expression] וַיְדַבֵּר, “And He spoke,” or וַיֹּאמֶר; “and He said,” or וַיְצַו, “and He commanded,” it was always preceded by [God] calling [to Moses by name] (Torath Kohanim 1:2-3). [קְרִיאָה] is an expression of affection, the [same] expression employed by the ministering angels [when addressing each other], as it says, “And one called (וְקָרָא) to the other…” (Isa. 6:3). To the prophets of the nations of the world, however, He revealed Himself through expressions denoting coincidence and impurity, as the verse says, “and God happened to [meet] (וַיִּקָּר) Balaam” (Num. 23:4). - [Bemidbar Rabbah 52:5] [The expression וַיִּקָּר has the meaning of a coincidental happening, and also alludes to impurity. [See Deut. 23:11, regarding the expression מִקְרֵה לַיְלָה.]   וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־משֶׁה: לְכָל דִּבְּרוֹת וּלְכָל אֲמִירוֹת וּלְכָל צִוּוּיִים קָדְמָה קְרִיאָה, לְשׁוֹן חִבָּה, לָשׁוֹן שֶׁמַּלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל זֶה (ישעיהו ו'), אֲבָל לִנְבִיאֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם נִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶן בִּלְשׁוֹן עֲרָאִי וְטֻמְאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּקָּר אֱלֹהִים אֶל בִּלְעָם (במדבר כ"ג):
And He called to Moses: The [Divine] voice emanated and reached Moses’ ears, while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear it. One might think that for each new section [representing a new topic], there was also [such] a call. Scripture, therefore, states, “and [the Lord] spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) [to him],” [denoting that] only for speech, [i.e., when God “spoke” to Moses, or “said” to him, or “commanded” him,] was there a call, but not at the subsections. [For when these expressions are employed, they demarcate the beginning of major sections, i.e., when God first called to Moses and then proceeded with the prophecy at hand, unlike the beginning of each separate subsection, when God simply continued His communication to Moses without “calling” him anew. Now, if each subsection in the Torah does not represent a new beckoning from God to Moses, ushering in a new prophecy, then] what is the purpose of these subsections? To give Moses a pause, to contemplate between one passage and the next, and between one subject and another. [And if this pause for contemplation was given to the great Moses when being taught by God, then] how much more [necessary is it] for an ordinary man learning [Torah] from another ordinary man [to be allowed pauses between sections and subjects, to carefully contemplate and understand the material being learned]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:3]   וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־משֶׁה: הַקּוֹל הוֹלֵךְ וּמַגִּיעַ לְאָזְנָיו וְכָל יִשְֹרָאֵל לֹא שׁוֹמְעִין; יָכוֹל אַף לְהַפְסָקוֹת הָיְתָה קְרִיאָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַיְדַבֵּר — לְדִבּוּר הָיְתָה קְרִיאָה וְלֹא לְהַפְסָקוֹת, וּמֶה הָיוּ הַפְסָקוֹת מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת? לִתֵּן רֶוַח לְמֹשֶׁה לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בֵּין פָּרָשָׁה לְפָרָשָׁה וּבֵין עִנְיָן לְעִנְיָן; קַל וָחֹמֶר לְהֶדְיוֹט הַלּוֹמֵד מִן הַהֶדְיוֹט:
to him: Heb. אֵלָיו [That is, God spoke only to Moses. This phrase comes] to exclude Aaron. Rabbi Judah [Ben Betheira] says: “Thirteen times in the Torah, God spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) to both Moses and Aaron together, and, corresponding to them were thirteen [other] occasions [when God spoke only to Moses] precluding [Aaron], to teach you that they were not said [directly] to Aaron, but to Moses, that he should say them to Aaron. These are the thirteen cases where [Aaron was] precluded: (1) ”To speak with him…,“ (2) ”…speaking to him…,“ (3) ”…and He spoke to him“ (Num. 7:89); (4) ”I will meet with you [there at set times], etc. …“ (Exod. 25:22) All of them can be found [in the above dictum of Rabbi Judah] in Torath Kohanim (1:4). Now, [even though it was Moses who exclusively heard the prophecies,] one might think that they [i.e., the rest of Israel, nevertheless] heard the sound [of God] ”calling“ [to Moses preceding the prophecy]. Scripture therefore, says: [not ”He heard] the voice [speaking] to him (לוֹ),“ [but] ”[he heard] the voice [speaking right up] to him (אֵלָיו)“ (Num. 7:89). [This verse could have used the word לוֹ, ”to him,“ rather than such an exclusive expression as אֵלָיו, ”right up to him." However, it uses this expression in order to teach us that only] Moses heard [the Divine voice calling him], while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear [it]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:4]   אֵלָיו: לְמַעֵט אֶת אַהֲרֹן; רַ' יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר י"ג דִּבְּרוֹת נֶאֶמְרוּ בַּתּוֹרָה לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן וּכְנֶגְדָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ י"ג מִעוּטִין, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁלֹּא לְאַהֲרֹן נֶאֶמְרוּ אֶלָּא לְמֹשֶׁה שֶׁיֹּאמַר לְאַהֲרֹן, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן י"ג מִעוּטִין: לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ, מִדַּבֵּר אֵלָיו, וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו (במדבר ז'), וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ (שמות כ"ה) — כֻּלָּן בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים. יָכוֹל יִשְׁמְעוּ אֶת קוֹל הַדִּבּוּר תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר קוֹל לוֹ, קוֹל אֵלָיו, מֹשֶׁה שׁוֹמֵעַ וְכָל יִשְֹרָאֵל לֹא שָׁמְעוּ:
from the Tent of Meeting: This teaches us that the [Divine] voice stopped and did not project itself beyond the Tent [of Meeting]. One might think that this was because the voice was low. Scripture therefore says, “[And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting, he heard] the voice” (Num. 7:89). What is the meaning of “the voice” [with the definite article]? It is the voice referred to in Psalms (29:4-5): “The voice of the Lord is in strength; the voice of the Lord is in beauty. The voice of the Lord breaks cedars.” If so, why does it say, “[and the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting” ? [To inform us] that the [Divine] voice stopped. A case similar to this [where a powerful sound uttered within the Holy Temple was not heard outside,] is: “And the sound of the cherubim’s wings was heard up to the outer courtyard…” (Ezek. 10:5). One might think that the sound was low. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse]: “…as the voice of the Almighty God when He speaks!” Why then does the verse say, “[the sound…was heard] up to the outer courtyard” [and not further, if this sound was indeed so mighty]? Because when it reached there, it stopped. — [Torath Kohanim 1:5]   מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה הַקּוֹל נִפְסָק וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא חוּץ לָאֹהֶל; יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקּוֹל נָמוּךְ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אֶת הַקּוֹל, מַהוּ הַקּוֹל? הוּא הַקּוֹל הַמְפֹרָשׁ בִּתְהִלִּים קוֹל ה' בַּכֹּחַ קוֹל ה' בֶּהָדָר קוֹל ה' שֹׁבֵר אֲרָזִים (תהילים כ"ט), אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה הַקּוֹל נִפְסָק. כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה (יחזקאל י'), יָכוֹל שֶׁהַקּוֹל נָמוּךְ תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כְּקוֹל אֵל שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר עַד הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה? שֶׁכֵּוָּן שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ שָׁם הָיָה נִפְסָק:
[And the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting, saying: One might think [that God spoke to Moses] from the entire house [that is, that the Divine voice emanated from the entire Tent of Meeting]. Scripture therefore states, “[and he heard the voice speaking to him] from above the ark cover” (Num. 7:89). [If so,] one might think [the voice emanated] from the entire ark cover. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse], “from between the two cherubim.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:5]   מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹֽר: יָכוֹל מִכָּל הַבַּיִת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת, יָכוֹל מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת כֻּלָּהּ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים:
saying: [God told Moses:] Go forth and say to them [the children of Israel] captivating words, [namely:] “For your sake God communicates with me. ” Indeed, we find this is so for all the thirty-eight years that the Israelites were in the desert, placed under a ban, [i.e.,] from the incident involving the spies and onwards, the [Divine] speech was not addressed especially to Moses, for it says, “So it was, when all the men of war had finished dying from among the people, that the Lord spoke to me saying …” (Deut. 2: 16-17). [Only then was] the Divine speech [again] addressed specifically to me. Another explanation [of לֵאמֹר is that God says to Moses]: “Go forth and tell them My commandments, and bring Me back word whether they will accept them,” as the verse says, “and Moses reported the words of the people back to the Lord” (Exod. 19:8). - [Torath Kohanim 1:6]   לֵאמֹֽר: צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶם דִּבְרֵי כִּבּוּשִׁין — בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם הוּא נִדְבָּר עִמִּי; שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ שֶׁכָּל ל"ח שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְֹרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּמְנֻדִּים, מִן הַמְרַגְּלִים וָאֵילַךְ, לֹא נִתְיַחֵד הַדִּבּוּר עִם מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַאֲשֶׁר תַּמּוּ כָּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה לָמוּת … וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֵלַי לֵאמֹר (דברים ב'), אֵלַי הָיָה הַדִּבּוּר. דָּבָר אַחֵר צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶן דְּבָרַי וַהֲשִׁיבֵנִי אִם יְקַבְּלוּם, כְּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָעָם וְגוֹ' (שמות י"ט):
2Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: When a man from [among] you brings a sacrifice to the Lord; from animals, from cattle or from the flock you shall bring your sacrifice.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אָדָ֗ם כִּי־יַקְרִ֥יב מִכֶּ֛ם קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ וּמִן־הַצֹּ֔אן תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ אֶת־קָרְבַּנְכֶֽם:
When a man from [among] you brings a sacrifice: Heb. יַקְרִיב כִּי, when he brings. [That is, Scripture is not dealing here with an obligatory sacrifice, in which case it would have said, “a man shall bring ….” Rather,] Scripture is speaking here of voluntary sacrifices [and thus says, “When a man …brings a sacrifice”]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:12]   אָדָם כִּי־יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם: כְּשֶׁיַּקְרִיב; בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת נְדָבָה דִּבֵּר הָעִנְיָן:
a man: Heb. אָדָם. Why is this term used here [as opposed to “ אָיש ”]? [It alludes to Adam, the first man on earth, and teaches us:] Just as Adam, the first man, never offered sacrifices from stolen property, since everything was his, so too, you must not offer sacrifices from stolen property. — [Vayikra Rabbah 2:7]   אָדָם: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר? מָה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הִקְרִיב מִן הַגָּזֵל — שֶׁהַכֹּל הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ — אַף אַתֶּם לֹא תַּקְרִיבוּ מִן הַגָּזֵל (ויקרא רבה):
animals: Heb. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה. One might think that wild beasts are also included [since sometimes wild beasts are included in this term, and therefore may be offered up as sacrifices]. Scripture therefore states [here], “from cattle or from the flock.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:16]   הַבְּהֵמָה: יָכוֹל אַף חַיָּה בִּכְלָל, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בָּקָר וָצֹאן:
from animals: but not all of them. [The phrase therefore comes] to exclude the case of animals that have cohabited with a human, as an active or a passive party. - [Torath Kohanim 1:17]   מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה: וְלֹא כֻּלָּהּ — לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָרוֹבֵעַ וְאֶת הַנִּרְבָּע:
from cattle: Heb. מִן הַבָּקָר [The phrase “from cattle” comes] to exclude an animal that has been worshipped [as a deity].   מִן־הַבָּקָר: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַנֶּעֱבָד:
or from the flock: Heb. וּמִן הַצֹּאן [This phrase comes] to exclude an animal set aside [i.e., designated for sacrifice to pagan deities]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:18]   מִן־הַצֹּאן: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַמֻּקְצָה:
or from the flock: [The extra “vav” at the beginning of this phrase comes] to exclude the case of a goring animal that has killed [a man]. Now, when [Scripture] states below (verse 3): מִן הַבָּקָר, “of cattle,” [the word מִן] need not have been used, since Scripture has already [taught us the exclusions here. Therefore, this extra word comes] to exclude a טְרֵפָה [an animal with a terminal disease or injury]. - [Torath Kohanim 1:17]   וּמִן־הַצֹּאן: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַנּוֹגֵחַ שֶׁהֵמִית; כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לְמַטָּה מִן הָעִנְיָן מִן הַבָּקָר — שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר — לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַטְּרֵפָה (ספרא):
you shall bring: Heb. תַּקְרִיבוּ [The plural form of the verb] teaches [us] that two people may donate a voluntary burnt offering in partnership. — [Torath Kohanim 1:19]   תַּקְרִיבוּ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנַיִם מִתְנַדְּבִים עוֹלָה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת:
your sacrifice: Heb. קָרְבַּנְכֶם [The plural form] teaches us that [a burnt offering] may also be offered as a voluntary gift from the community (Torath Kohanim 1:20). This sacrifice was called עוֹלַת קַיִץ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, “the burnt-offering which was provision for the altar.” [Every year, each twenty-year old male was taxed to give a silver half-shekel for communal sacrifices. See Exod. 30:11-16. This voluntary sacrifice] was purchased with any money remaining [from the previous year’s collection of half-shekels, and was offered as a communal burnt offering when there were no individual offerings brought, in order to prevent the altar from being bereft of sacrifices. Thus, the name “provision for the altar”]. — [Shev. 12a]   קָרְבַּנְכֶֽם: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה נִדְבַת צִבּוּר, הִיא עוֹלַת קַיִץ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, הַבָּאָה מִן הַמּוֹתָרוֹת (שבועות י"ב):
3If his sacrifice is a burnt offering from cattle, an unblemished male he shall bring it. He shall bring it willingly to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord.   גאִם־עֹלָ֤ה קָרְבָּנוֹ֙ מִן־הַבָּקָ֔ר זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶ֑נּוּ אֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ יַקְרִ֣יב אֹת֔וֹ לִרְצֹנ֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
male: but not a female. When Scripture repeats later (verse 10) [that the burnt-offering must be] “a male [animal],” it appears unnecessary to state that [since Scripture has already taught us that it must be a male animal and not a female. Therefore, this repetition of the word “male,” comes to teach us that a sacrifice must consist of a completely] male [animal], not an animal of indeterminate gender or a hermaphrodite. — [Bech. 41b]   זָכָר: וְלֹא נְקֵבָה; כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זָכָר לְמַטָּה — שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר — זָכָר וְלֹא טֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס:
unblemished: Heb. תָּמִים, perfect, without a blemish.   תָּמִים: בְּלֹא מוּם:
[He shall bring it …] to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: He [himself] must attend to bringing it up to the courtyard [of the Temple] (Torath Kohanim 1: 24). Why does the verse repeat the word “bring” here [when it says, “he shall bring…He shall bring it?” This repetition teaches us that] even in the case of Reuben’s burnt offering [animal] being mixed up with Simeon’s burnt offering [animal, and the animals cannot be identified], nevertheless, each one of them must be offered up in the name of [its rightful owner] whoever that may be. Similarly, if [an animal designated for] a burnt offering has been mixed up with non-consecrated animals, the non-consecrated animals must be sold to those who need burnt offerings, and thus all of these animals are now [designated to become] burnt offerings. [Accordingly] each animal is now brought in the name of [its rightful owner] whoever that may be. Now, one might think that this must be done even if [an animal designated to become] a burnt offering became mixed up with animals unfit for sacrifice or with [animals designated to become] different kinds of sacrifices [e.g., a sin offering, a guilt offering, etc.]. Scripture therefore says here: יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ, [meaning, “he must bring it.” This teaches us that only an animal fit for and specifically designated as a burnt offering must be brought here]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:25]   אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: מְטַפֵּל בַּהֲבָאָתוֹ עַד הָעֲזָרָה; מַהוּ אוֹמֵר יַקְרִיב יַקְרִיב? אֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה עוֹלַת רְאוּבֵן בְּעוֹלַת שִׁמְעוֹן יַקְרִיב כָּל אֶחָד לְשֵׁם מִי שֶׁהוּא, וְכֵן עוֹלָה בְּחֻלִּין, יִמָּכְרוּ הַחֻלִּין לְצָרְכֵי עוֹלוֹת, וַהֲרֵי הֵן כֻּלָּן עוֹלוֹת, וְתִקְרַב כָּל אֶחָד לְשֵׁם מִי שֶׁהוּא; יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה בִּפְסוּלִין אוֹ בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ" (ספרא):
He shall bring it: [This clause] teaches us that the person is coerced [to bring the offering if he is remiss in bringing the sacrifice he had promised]. One might think that this means that they should force him against his will [to bring the offering]! Scripture therefore says: “[He shall bring it] willingly (לִרְצֹנוֹ).” How is this possible [that on one hand he should be forced, yet on the other, he must bring the offering willingly? The explanation is that] they must coerce him until he says “I am willing.” - [R.H. 6a, Torath Kohanim 3:15].   יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ, יָכוֹל בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "לִרְצוֹנוֹ", הָא כֵּיצַד? כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר רוֹצֶה אֲנִי (שם):
Before the Lord…And he shall lean: [The procedure of] leaning [the hands upon sacrifices] does not apply to a high place [a private altar. These high places were permitted to be used before the permanent Temple was built when the Mishkan was in Gilgal, Nob, and Gibeon. Certain sacrifices could be offered up on them. We learn this from the continuity of these two verses that only “before the Lord” -that is, in the sanctuary precincts-one “should lean his hand upon” the head of sacrifices, but not on a high place outside the sanctuary precincts.]- [Torath Kohanim 1:27]   לִפְנֵי ה' וסמך: אֵין סְמִיכָה בְּבָמָה (שם):
4And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted for him to atone for him.   דוְסָמַ֣ךְ יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְנִרְצָ֥ה ל֖וֹ לְכַפֵּ֥ר עָלָֽיו:
upon the head of the burnt offering: [The text could have simply said “upon its head.” However, it adds “burnt offering”] to include [any sacrifice that is called a “burnt offering,” namely,] (1) an obligatory burnt offering, that it too requires סְמִיכָה [leaning the hands on its head. Since this section deals with voluntary burnt offerings, this case requires an extra word to include it. See commentary on verse 2]; also included is (2) a burnt offering from the flock [that it too must have סְמִיכָה, for this is not specified in the verses dealing with the burnt offering from the flock. See verses 10-13]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]   עַל רֹאשׁ הָֽעֹלָה: לְהָבִיא עוֹלַת חוֹבָה לִסְמִיכָה וּלְהָבִיא עוֹלַת הַצֹּאן (שם):
the burnt offering: [The use of the definite article here teaches us that the verse is referring to “the” burnt offering, i.e., the one mentioned earlier, where it says, “from cattle or from the flock” (verse 2). Thus] excluding the burnt offering from birds. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]   הָֽעֹלָה: פְּרָט לְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף (שם):
and it will be accepted for him: For which [sins] will [the sacrifice] be accepted for him [thereby atoning for them]? If you say that [the offering is accepted and thereby the person is atoned for] sins which incur the penalty of excision, the death penalty through the court, the death penalty through the heaven[ly court], or lashes, their punishments are [expressly] stated, [and thus, the person must undergo the respective punishment to receive atonement for those sins]. Thereby, we determine that it is accepted only for [failure to perform] a positive commandment [for which the punishment is not expressly stated in the Torah, or [violation of] a negative commandment that is attached to a positive commandment. [I.e., some negative commandments are attached to a positive commandment that relates to the same matter. An example of this is the law of the Passover lamb. The Torah states: “And you shall not leave over any of it until morning, and whatever is left over of it until morning, you shall burn in fire” (Exod. 12:10). Here, the negative commandment is “attached” to the positive commandment. How so? If someone has transgressed the negative commandment and left over some of the Passover lamb until the following morning, he may exonerate himself from the punishment he has just incurred by fulfilling the positive commandment attached, namely by burning the remainder in fire. That is an example of “a negative commandment that is attached to a positive commandment.” See Mak. 4b.]- [Torath Kohanim 1:31]   וְנִרְצָה לוֹ: עַל מָה הוּא מְרַצֶּה לוֹ? אִם תֹּאמַר עַל כָּרֵתוֹת וּמִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין אוֹ מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם אוֹ מַלְקוּת, הֲרֵי עָנְשָׁן אָמוּר, הָא אֵינוֹ מְרַצֶּה אֶלָּא עַל עֲשֵֹה וְעַל לָאו שֶׁנִּתַּק לַעֲשֵֹה (שם):
5And he shall slaughter the young bull before the Lord. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall bring the blood, and dash the blood upon the altar, around [the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   הוְשָׁחַ֛ט אֶת־בֶּ֥ן הַבָּקָ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְ֠הִקְרִ֠יבוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְזָֽרְק֨וּ אֶת־הַדָּ֤ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ סָבִ֔יב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
And he shall slaughter…And…the kohanim shall bring [the blood] : [Since the word kohanim is mentioned only in reference to receiving the blood, and not before, we learn that all procedures in a sacrifice] from receiving [the blood in a vessel] and onwards are the duty of the kehunah [as opposed to non- kohanim]. This teaches regarding the slaughtering [which precedes receiving the blood], that it is valid [even if performed] by a stranger [i.e., a non- kohen].-[Zev. 32a]   וְשָׁחַט וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים: מִקַּבָּלָה וָאֵילַךְ מִצְוַת כְּהֻנָּה — לִמֵּד עַל הַשְּׁחִיטָה שֶׁכְּשֵׁרָה בְּזָר (שם):
before the Lord: in the courtyard [of the Holy Temple].   לִפְנֵי ה': בַּעֲזָרָה:
and […the kohanim] shall bring [the blood]: [Although וְהִקְרִיבוּ literally means “bringing,” here,] it means “receiving” [the blood in a vessel], which is the first [procedure immediately following the slaughtering]. However, it literally means “bringing” [the blood to the altar]. [Consequently,] we learn that both these procedures are the duties of Aaron’s descendants [i.e., the kohanim]. — [Chag. 11a]   וְהִקְרִיבוּ: זוֹ קַבָּלָה, שֶׁהִיא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּמַשְׁמָעָהּ לְשׁוֹן הוֹלָכָה, לָמַדְנוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן:
Aaron’s descendants: One might think [that these duties may be performed as well by Aaron’s descendants who are] חִלָלִים, kohanim whose lineage invalidates them for kehunah [e.g., if the mother was divorced before marrying the kohen]. Scripture therefore adds: “the kohanim ” [indicating that these duties may be performed only by kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:38]   בְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן: יָכוֹל חֲלָלִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר הַכֹּהֲנִים:
[The kohanim, shall bring] the blood, and dash the blood: Why does Scripture say, “blood, blood” here twice? To include [the cases of blood from a burnt offering,] that was mixed up with the same type [of blood, i.e., the blood of burnt offerings from two different people being mixed up, and [blood from a burnt offering] that was mixed up with a different type [of blood, i.e., from another type of sacrifice]. One might think that this would also include [the case that the blood was mixed up with blood of] an unfit sacrifice, or [blood from] inner sin offerings [the blood of which is to be sprinkled on the inner altar] or [blood from] outer sin offerings [the blood of which is to be sprinkled on the outer altar] even though [the latter, have their blood dashed] above [the chut hasikra , the red line, of the altar], while this [the burnt offering has its blood dashed] below [the chut hasikra of the altar]. Scripture [therefore] states [regarding a burnt offering] in another place: “its blood” (verses 11 and 15). [This expression teaches us that only cases in which the blood of a burnt offering is mixed up with the blood of another sacrifice which is also to be dashed below the chut hasikra on the altar, no problems arise, and these bloods can both be dashed at that level of the altar. This excludes the case of inner sin offerings whose blood is sprinkled inside and outer sin offerings whose blood must be dashed above the chut hasikra]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:39]   אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָֽרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר דָּם דָּם שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים? לְהָבִיא אֶת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִינוֹ אוֹ בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, יָכוֹל אַף בִּפְסוּלִים אוֹ בְּחַטָּאוֹת הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת אוֹ בְּחַטָּאוֹת הַחִיצוֹנִיּוֹת, שֶׁאֵלּוּ לְמַעְלָה וְהִיא לְמַטָּה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר דָּמוֹ (זבחים פ"א):
And […the kohanim,shall…] dash [the blood…around]: [The kohen] must stand below [i.e., on the ground], and dash [the blood] from the vessel [in which it was received] onto the wall of the altar below the chut hasikra , towards the corners [of the altar. Meaning, from the ground he approaches the northeastern corner of the altar and dashes some of the blood from its receptacle onto the corner ridge where the northern wall and the eastern wall of the altar meet, below the red line. In this way, the blood dashes onto both the northern and eastern sides of the altar with one motion by the kohen. That motion is thus referred to as “one application (of blood) which is two,” i.e., one dashing motion, which applies the blood to two faces of the altar. The kohen then proceeds to the southwestern corner of the altar and again performs this procedure, thereby applying the blood to both the southern and western walls of the altar in one motion. Thus, in a total of two dashing motions, the blood has been applied to the four faces of the altar. These dashes are referred to as “two applications (of blood) which are four.”] Therefore, it says “around,” namely that [with these prescribed dashing motions] the blood is to be applied to the four sides of the altar. Now, one might think that [when the verse says that the kohen must dash the blood around the altar, this means that] he must encircle it [the altar with blood] like a thread. Scripture therefore says: “[the kohanim] shall…dash [the blood],” and it is impossible to apply it [as a continuous line] around the altar through a “dashing” motion. Alternatively, one might think that “shall…dash” refers to one dashing motion. Scripture therefore says: “around” [and it is impossible to apply the blood all around the altar with one dashing motion]. How then [should the blood be applied to the altar]? The kohen must make “two applications, which are four.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:40]   וְזָֽרְקוּ: עוֹמֵד לְמַטָּה וְזוֹרֵק מִן הַכְּלִי לְכֹתֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְמַטָּה מִחוּט הַסִּקְרָא כְּנֶגֶד הַזָּוִיּוֹת, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר סָבִיב — שֶׁיְּהֵא הַדָּם נָתוּן בְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ; אוֹ יָכוֹל יַקִּיפֶנּוּ כְּחוּט, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְזָרְקוּ וְאִי אֶפְשַׁר לְהַקִּיף בִּזְרִיקָה, אִי וְזָרְקוּ יָכוֹל בִּזְרִיקָה אַחַת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר סָבִיב, הָא כֵּיצַד? נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע (ספרא):
[the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: But not when [the Tent of Meeting] is disassembled [even though the altar itself may be standing, since at such a time the altar is not “at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting”]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:44]   אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵֽד: וְלֹא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְפֹרָק (שם):
6And he shall skin the burnt offering, and cut it into its [prescribed] sections.   ווְהִפְשִׁ֖יט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְנִתַּ֥ח אֹתָ֖הּ לִנְתָחֶֽיהָ:
And he shall skin [the burnt offering]: Why does the verse say “the burnt offering” ? To include every [kind of] burnt offering [not just this one in the procedure of] skinning and cutting up [in the prescribed manner]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:45]   וְהִפְשִׁיט וגו': מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר הָעוֹלָה? לְרַבּוֹת אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת לְהֶפְשֵׁט וְנִתּוּחַ:
its [prescribed] sections: [The verse does not state that the animal is cut into pieces, but rather “into its pieces,” implying that it must be cut into specific prescribed pieces] and not [to cut] its [prescribed] pieces into [smaller] pieces. — [Torath Kohanim 1:47; Chul. 11a]   אֹתָהּ לִנְתָחֶֽיהָ: וְלֹא נְתָחֶיהָ לִנְתָחִים (ספרא):
7And the descendants of Aaron the kohen shall place fire on the altar, and arrange wood on the fire.   זוְ֠נָֽתְנ֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֵ֖שׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְעָֽרְכ֥וּ עֵצִ֖ים עַל־הָאֵֽשׁ:
shall place fire [on the altar]: Even though the fire descended [miraculously] from heaven [onto the altar, to consume the sacrifices], it was [nevertheless] a mitzvah for a mortal to bring [his fire to the altar. — [Torath Kohanim 1: 49; Zev. 18a]   וְנָֽתְנוּ … אֵשׁ: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאֵשׁ יוֹרֶדֶת מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם מִצְוָה לְהָבִיא מִן הַהֶדְיוֹט (שם):
the descendants of Aaron the Kohen: [But we know that Aaron was a Kohen Gadol ! So what does “the Kohen ” come to teach us? It teaches us that the Kohen Gadol may perform the sacrificial service only] when he is [invested] in his kehunah [i.e., wearing the proper eight garments of the Kohen Gadol]. If, however, he officiated wearing the raiment of an ordinary kohen, his service is rendered invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 1:49]   בְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן: כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּכִהוּנוֹ, הָא אִם עָבַד בְּבִגְדֵי כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה:
8And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall then arrange the pieces, the head and the fat, on top of the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.   חוְעָֽרְכ֗וּ בְּנֵ֤י אַֽהֲרֹן֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אֵ֚ת הַנְּתָחִ֔ים אֶת־הָרֹ֖אשׁ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֑דֶר עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
Aaron’s descendants, the kohanim: [But we know that Aaron’s descendants are kohanim! So what does “the kohanim” come to teach us?] The [ordinary] kohanim must be functioning in their kehunah [i.e., the proper four garments of the ordinary kohanim]. If an ordinary kohen officiated wearing the “eight garments” [of a Kohen Gadol], however, his service is rendered invalid.   בְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים: כְּשֶׁהֵם בְּכִהוּנָם, הָא כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט שֶׁעָבַד בִּשְׁמוֹנָה בְּגָדִים עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה (זבחים י"ח):
the pieces, the head: Since the head is not included in the skinning and cutting up [procedures], since it was detached by the slaughtering, the Torah had to count it individually [to inform us that it was to be placed on the altar as it is, even though it is not skinned.] - [Chul. 27a]   אֵת הַנְּתָחִים אֶת־הָרֹאשׁ: לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הָרֹאשׁ בִּכְלַל הֶפְשֵׁט, שֶׁכְּבָר הֻתַּז בִּשְׁחִיטָה, לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לִמְנוֹתוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ (חולין כ"ז):
and the fat: Why is [the fat] mentioned [separately]? To teach you that the kohen must bring it up [onto the altar together] with the head, and that with it he covers the area where [the animal] was slaughtered. This was done in deference to the honor of God on high [because the cut throat is soiled with the blood of the head] (Rashi, Yoma 26a). - [Chul. 27a]   וְאֶת־הַפָּדֶר: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר? לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁמַּעֲלֵהוּ עִם הָרֹאשׁ וּמְכַסֶּה בּוֹ אֶת בֵּית הַשְּׁחִיטָה, וְזֶהוּ דֶּרֶךְ כָּבוֹד שֶׁל מַעְלָה (שם):
[the wood] which is on the altar: The logs of wood must not project beyond the [area of the arranged] woodpile [constituting one square cubit. This is so that the kohanim would not be disturbed by protruding pieces of wood when they go around the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:54]   אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ: שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַגְּזִירִין יוֹצְאִין חוּץ לַמַּעֲרָכָה (ספרא):
9And its innards and its legs, he shall wash with water. Then, the kohen shall cause to [go up in] smoke all [of the animal] on the altar, as a burnt offering, a fire offering, [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   טוְקִרְבּ֥וֹ וּכְרָעָ֖יו יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֛ה אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיח֖וֹחַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as a burnt offering: [I.e., the kohen] must burn the animal with the [specific] intention that it is a burnt offering. — [Torath Kohanim 1:58]   עֹלָה: לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה יַקְטִירֶנּוּ:
a fire offering: Heb. אִשֵּׁה. When he slaughters [the animal], he must slaughter it with the [specific] intention [to burn it completely in] fire. Every [instance of the word] אִשֶּׁה in Scripture, is an expression related to [the word] אֵשׁ, “fire,” foyere in Old French.   אִשֵּׁה: כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁחֲטֶנּוּ יְהֵי שׁוֹחֲטוֹ לְשֵׁם הָאֵשׁ; וְכָל אִשֶּׁה לְשׁוֹן אֵשׁ, פוש"ייר בְּלַעַז:
pleasing: Heb. נִיחוֹחַ [This word stems from the same root as the expression נַחַת רוּחַ, “contentment.” God says: “This sacrifice] gives Me contentment, for I said [My commandment], and My will was fulfilled!”   נִיחוֹחַ: נַחַת רוּחַ לְפָנַי, שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי וְנַעֲשָֹה רְצוֹנִי (שם):
10And if his offering is [brought] from the flock from sheep or from goats as a burnt offering he shall sacrifice it an unblemished male.   יוְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֨אן קָרְבָּנ֧וֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִ֛ים א֥וֹ מִן־הָֽעִזִּ֖ים לְעֹלָ֑ה זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ:
And if…from the flock: The “vav” [meaning “and” here demonstrates that this section concerning voluntary burnt offerings from the flock] is a continuation from the previous subject [those from cattle, and is thereby connected in that the laws of each are common to both]. But why was it separated [by a paragraph]? In order to give Moses a pause, so that he could contemplate between one passage and the next. — [Torath Kohanim 1:59]   וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן: וי"ו מוֹסִיף עַל עִנְיָן רִאשׁוֹן, וְלָמָּה הֻפְסַק? לִתֵּן רֶוַח לְמֹשֶׁה לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בֵּין פָּרָשָׁה לְפָרָשָׁה (שם):
from the flock…from sheep…from goats: [The word “from” tells us that one cannot take all the animals of these classes, rather only “from” them, thereby disqualifying certain animals from being brought for a sacrifice.] These [three mentions of the word “from”] are three exclusions [from being offered as a sacrifice], excluding an aged [animal], a sick [animal] and a foul smelling [animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:60]   מִן־הַצֹּאן מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים מִן־הָֽעִזִּים: הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ ג' מִעוּטִין — פְּרָט לְזָקֵן וּלְחוֹלֶה וְלִמְזֹהָם (שם):
11And he shall slaughter it on the northern side of the altar, before the Lord. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   יאוְשָׁחַ֨ט אֹת֜וֹ עַ֣ל יֶ֧רֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ צָפֹ֖נָה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְזָֽרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
on the…side of the altar: Heb. הַמִזְבֵּח יֶרֶךְ , “on the…side of the altar.”   עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: עַל צַד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
[And he shall slaughter it] on the northern [side of the altar], before the Lord: [The law of] slaughtering on the northern side does not apply [when sacrificing an animal] on a high place [See above on verse 4]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:27] [We learn this from this verse that a burnt offering must be slaughtered “on the northern side of the altar” only if it is “before the Lord,” i.e., in the sanctuary precincts, but not outside them.]   צָפֹנָה לִפְנֵי ה': וְאֵין צָפוֹן בְּבָמָה (שם):
12And he shall cut it into its [prescribed] sections, with its head and its fat, and the kohen shall arrange them on top of the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.   יבוְנִתַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִנְתָחָ֔יו וְאֶת־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְאֶת־פִּדְר֑וֹ וְעָרַ֤ךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔ם עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
13And the innards and the legs, he shall wash with water. Then, the kohen shall offer up all [of the animal], and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar. It is a burnt offering, a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יגוְהַקֶּ֥רֶב וְהַכְּרָעַ֖יִם יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְהִקְרִ֨יב הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Second Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 1

14And if his sacrifice to the Lord, is a burnt offering from birds, he shall bring [it] from turtle doves or from young doves.   ידוְאִ֧ם מִן־הָע֛וֹף עֹלָ֥ה קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהִקְרִ֣יב מִן־הַתֹּרִ֗ים א֛וֹ מִן־בְּנֵ֥י הַיּוֹנָ֖ה אֶת־קָרְבָּנֽוֹ:
from birds: But not all birds. Since it is stated: “an unblemished male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats” (Lev. 22:19), [denoting that the requirement of] perfection and maleness apply [only] to animals, but [the requirement of] perfection and maleness does not apply to birds. One might think that even a bird that lacks a limb [may be brought for this offering]. Scripture, therefore, says [here]: “from birds” [but not all birds, excluding a bird lacking a limb]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:71]   מִן־הָעוֹף: וְלֹא כָּל הָעוֹף; לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר תָּמִים זָכָר בַּבָּקָר בַּכְּשָׂבִים וּבָעִזִּים — תַּמּוּת וְזַכְרוּת בִּבְהֵמָה וְאֵין תַּמּוּת וְזַכְרוּת בְּעוֹפוֹת — יָכוֹל אַף מְחֻסַּר אֵבֶר, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר מִן הָעוֹף (שם):
turtle-doves: [Because the verse specifies “young” doves, whereas it simply says “turtle-doves” without stating “young, ” it must refer to] adult ones [only that may be offered], and not young ones.   תרים: גְּדוֹלִים וְלֹא קְטַנִּים:
young doves: young ones [only may be offered], and not adult ones. - [Torath Kohanim 1:74]   בְּנֵי יונה: קְטַנִּים וְלֹא גְּדוֹלִים:
from turtle-doves or from young doves: [The word “from” occurring twice in this verse comes] to exclude [birds] whose feathers have just begun to become reddish in both species, that they are unfit [for sacrifice], for they are too old to be qualified as “young doves,” and they are too young to be qualified as [adult] “turtle-doves.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:75]   מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה: פְּרָט לִתְחִלַּת הַצִּהוּב שֶׁבָּזֶה וְשֶׁבָּזֶה שֶׁהוּא פָּסוּל, שֶׁגָּדוֹל הוּא אֵצֶל בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְקָטָן אֵצֶל תּוֹרִים (חולין כ"ב):
15And the kohen shall bring it near to the altar, and nip off its head, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, and its [the bird's] blood shall be pressed out upon the wall of the altar.   טווְהִקְרִיב֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וּמָלַק֙ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה וְנִמְצָ֣ה דָמ֔וֹ עַ֖ל קִ֥יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
shall bring it: One may bring even a single bird. - [Torath Kohanim 1:77]   וְהִקְרִיבוֹ: אֲפִלּוּ פְּרֵדָה אַחַת יָבִיא (ספרא):
the kohen shall nip off: The nipping [of the bird’s head] must not be done with anything but with the body of the kohen. He would cut with his [thumb]nail adjacent to the back of the head, cutting right through its spine, until he reached the simanim [literally, “the signs”; in the context of slaughtering, this refers to the esophagus (gullet) and the trachea (wind-pipe)], and cuts through them [see Rashi on Lev. 5:8].   הַכֹּהֵן וּמָלַק: אֵין מְלִיקָה בִּכְלִי אֶלָּא בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן, קוֹצֵץ בְּצִפָּרְנוֹ מִמּוּל הָעֹרֶף וְחוֹתֵךְ מַפְרַקְתּוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לַסִּימָנִין וְקוֹצְצָן (שם):
and its [the bird’s] blood shall be pressed out: [The word וְנִמְצָה] an expression similar to “the pressing out (מִיץ) of wrath” (Prov. 30:33); and, “for the milking (הַמֵּץ) has come to an end” (Isa. 16:4). He presses the slaughtering area [of the bird’s neck] against the wall of the altar, and thereby, the blood is pressed out and runs down [the wall].   וְנִמְצָה דָמוֹ: לְשׁוֹן מִיץ אַפַּיִם (משלי ל'), כִּי אָפֵס הַמֵּץ (ישעיהו ט"ז), כּוֹבֵשׁ בֵּית הַשְּׁחִיטָה עַל קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַדָּם מִתְמַצֶּה וְיוֹרֵד (זבחים ס"ה):
and cut…and cause it to go up in smoke…shall be pressed out: [According to the sequence of these terms, one would think that Scripture is commanding the kohen to first cut the bird’s neck, send the bird up in smoke, and only then to press out its blood. But] is it possible to suggest this? Since [the kohen] has already caused the bird to go up in smoke, he presses its blood out? Rather, [the meaning is clearly not so, and the procedure of causing the bird to go up in smoke appears in the verse after that of nipping off the head, to teach us that] just as with the procedure of causing it to go up in smoke, the bird’s head [is smoked] separately and its body separately, so is it with the procedure of nipping [the bird’s head, i.e., the head is cut at the neck, to become virtually separate from its body-even though it is still attached to the body by the skin] (Torath Kohanim 1:81). According to the simple meaning of the verse, it is transposed [and is to be understood as]: and nip off its head, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, and its [the bird’s] blood shall already have been pressed out.   וּמָלַק וְהִקְטִיר וְנִמְצָה: אֶפְשַׁר לוֹמַר כֵּן מֵאַחַר שֶׁהוּא מַקְטִיר הוּא מוֹצֶה? אֶלָּא מַה הַקְטָרָה הָרֹאשׁ בְּעַצְמוֹ וְהַגּוּף בְּעַצְמוֹ, אַף מְלִיקָה כֵּן. וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא מְסֹרָס הוּא — וּמָלַק וְהִקְטִיר, וְקֹדֶם הַקְטָרָה וְנִמְצָה דָמוֹ כְּבָר:
16And he shall remove its crop along with its entrails, and cast it next to the altar on the east side, to the place of the ashes.   טזוְהֵסִ֥יר אֶת־מֻרְאָת֖וֹ בְּנֹֽצָתָ֑הּ וְהִשְׁלִ֨יךְ אֹתָ֜הּ אֵ֤צֶל הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ קֵ֔דְמָה אֶל־מְק֖וֹם הַדָּֽשֶׁן:
its crop: Heb. מֻרְאָתוֹ, the place of the רְעִי, the digested food or waste, i.e., the crop, [known in the Talmud as זֶפֶק The word מֻרְאָתוֹ stems from רְאִי, which is equivalent to רְעִי, since an “aleph” is sometimes interchangeable with an “ayin.”]- [Torath Kohanim 1:84]   מֻרְאָתוֹ: מְקוֹם הָרְעִי, זֶה הַזֶּפֶק (ספרא):
with its entrails: Heb. בְּנֹצָתָהּ, with its entrails (Zev. 64b). The word נוֹצָה denotes something disgusting, as [in the verse], “for they are foul (נָצוּ), even slipping” (Lam. 4:15). And this is what Onkelos means [when he translates this word as]: בְּאוּכְלֵיהּ, “with its digested food” [i.e., the excrement found in its entrails]. This is the explanation given by Abba Yose ben Hanan, who states: The kohen removes the gizzard with it. But our Rabbis, of blessed memory, [understanding נוֹצָה to mean “feathers,”] explain [the verse as follows]: With a knife, he cuts an opening around the crop, like a window, and takes it [together] with the feathers (נוֹצָה) that are on the skin (Zev. 65a). In the case of the burnt offering of an animal, which eats exclusively from the feeding trough of its owner, it says, “And the innards and the legs, he shall wash with water. … and cause it to [go up in] smoke [on the altar]” (verse 13). However, regarding birds, which feed themselves on things stolen [from other people’s property], the verse says here, “And he shall [remove its crop]…and cast” the entrails, which ate from stolen property. — [Vayikra Rabbah 3:4]   בְּנֹֽצָתָהּ: עִם בְּנֵי מֵעֶיהָ, וְנוֹצָה לְשׁוֹן דָּבָר הַמָּאוּס, כְּמוֹ כִּי נָצוּ גַּם נָעוּ (איכה ד'), וְזֶהוּ שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס בְּאוּכְלֵיהּ; וְזֶהוּ מִדְרָשׁוֹ שֶׁל אַבָּא יוֹסֵי בֶּן חָנָן שֶׁאָמַר נוֹטֵל אֶת הַקֻּרְקְבָן עִמָּהּ; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִ"לִ אָמְרוּ קוֹדֵר סְבִיב הַזֶּפֶק בְּסַכִּין כְּעֵין אֲרֻבָּה וְנוֹטְלוֹ עִם הַנּוֹצָה שֶׁעַל הָעוֹר (ספרא); בְּעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ אוֹכֶלֶת אֶלָּא בְּאֵבוּס בְּעָלֶיהָ, נֶאֱמַר וְהַקֶּרֶב וְהַכְּרָעַיִם יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְטִיר, וּבָעוֹף שֶׁנָּזוֹן מִן הַגָּזֵל, נֶאֱמַר וְהִשְלִיךְ אֶת הַמֵּעַיִם, שֶׁאָכַל מִן הַגָּזֵל (ויקרא רבה ג'):
next to the altar on the east side: At the eastern side of the כֶּבֶשׁ [the ramp leading up to the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:86]   אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ קֵדְמָה: בְּמִזְרָחוֹ שֶׁל כֶּבֶשׁ (ספרא):
to the place of the ashes: I.e., the place where each morning they deposit the ashes removed [from the outer altar], and the ashes removed from the inner altar and the menorah. All these were [miraculously] absorbed there in their place. — [Yoma 21a]   אֶל־מְקוֹם הַדָּֽשֶׁן: מָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין שָׁם תְּרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן בְּכָל בֹּקֶר וְדִשּׁוּן מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְהַמְּנוֹרָה, וְכֻלָּם נִבְלָעִים שָׁם בִּמְקוֹמָן:
17And he shall split it open with its wing feathers [intact], but he shall not tear it completely apart. The kohen shall then cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, on top of the wood which is on the fire. It is a burnt offering, a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יזוְשִׁסַּ֨ע אֹת֣וֹ בִכְנָפָיו֘ לֹ֣א יַבְדִּיל֒ וְהִקְטִ֨יר אֹת֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַל־הָֽעֵצִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֑שׁ עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And he shall split it open: Heb. וְשִׁסַּע. The term שִׁסּוּעַ refers only to [splitting open] with the hand. Similarly, [Scripture] says regarding Samson: “and he split it open (וַיְשַׁסְּעֵהוּ) as he would have split open (כְּשַׁסַּע) a kid” (Jud. 14:6). - [Zev. 65b]   וְשִׁסַּע: אֵין שִׁסּוּעַ אֶלָּא בַּיָּד, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן וַיְשַׁסְּעֵהוּ כְּשַׁסַּע הַגְּדִי וְגוֹ' (שופטים י"ד):
with its wing feathers: [I.e.,] with its wings; he need not pluck out its wing feathers.   בִכְנָפָיו: עִם כְּנָפָיו — אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְרֹט כַּנְפֵי נוֹצָתוֹ:
with its wing feathers: [Lit., “its wings.” Here, it refers to] the actual feathers [of its wings]. But surely you will not find even the simplest of people [i.e., even a person who is not particular,] who, when smelling the odor of burnt feathers, does not find it repulsive. Why then does Scripture command us to send [the feathers] up in smoke? [The feathers are left intact] so that the altar should appear sated and adorned with the sacrifice of the poor man [who could afford only a bird]. — [Vayikra Rabbah 3:5]   בִכְנָפָיו: נוֹצָה מַמָּשׁ; וַהֲלֹא אֵין לְךָ הֶדְיוֹט שֶׁמֵּרִיחַ רֵיחַ כְּנָפַיִם נִשְֹרָפִים וְאֵין נַפְשׁוֹ קָצָה עָלָיו, וְלָמָּה אָמַר הַכָּתוּב יַקְרִיב? כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שָֹבֵעַ וּמְהֻדָּר בְּקָרְבָּנוֹ שֶׁל עָנִי (ויק"ר ג'):
but he shall not tear it completely apart: [Although the kohen splits open the bird,] he must not tear it apart completely into two [separate] pieces. Rather, he must tear it along its back. Now, regarding a bird [offering], it says here: “a pleasing fragrance [to the Lord],” and regarding animals, it says, “a pleasing fragrance [to the Lord]” (verse 9) [as well. From here we see that both in the case of a large animal or a small bird, the fragrance is pleasing to God]. This teaches us: Whether one offers much or little, [it is equally pleasing to God,] provided that he directs his heart to Heaven. — [Toroth Kohanim 1:91]   לֹא יַבְדִּיל: אֵינוֹ מְפָרְקוֹ לְגַמְרֵי, לִשְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת, אֶלָּא קוֹרְעוֹ מִגַּבּוֹ; נֶאֱמַר בָּעוֹף רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ וְנֶאֱמַר בַּבְּהֵמָה רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ, לוֹמַר לְךָ אֶחָד הַמַּרְבֶּה וְאֶחָד הַמַּמְעִיט וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּכַוֵּן אֶת לִבּוֹ לַשָּׁמַיִם (ספרא):

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 2

1And if a person brings a meal offering to the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour. He shall pour oil over it and place frankincense upon it.   אוְנֶ֗פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תַקְרִ֞יב קָרְבַּ֤ן מִנְחָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה סֹ֖לֶת יִֽהְיֶ֣ה קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְיָצַ֤ק עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ שֶׁ֔מֶן וְנָתַ֥ן עָלֶ֖יהָ לְבֹנָֽה:
And if a person brings: [literally, “And if a soul brings.”] Regarding all the sacrifices which were donated voluntarily, the only instance where Scripture states the word נֶפֶשׁ “soul” is in the case of the meal-offering. Now, who usually donates a meal-offering? A poor man [because flour is less expensive than birds or animals]. [Hence,] the Holy One Blessed is He, says: “I account if for him as if he has sacrificed his very soul!” - [Men. 104b]   וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּֽי־תַקְרִיב: לֹא נֶאֱמַר נֶפֶשׁ בְּכָל קָרְבְּנוֹת נְדָבָה אֶלָּא בַּמִּנְחָה, מִי דַּרְכּוֹ לְהִתְנַדֵּב מִנְחָה? עָנִי. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הִקְרִיב נַפְשׁוֹ (מנחות ק"ד):
his offering shall be from fine flour: If a person says, “I hereby take upon myself to bring a meal-offering,” without specifying which type of meal-offering, then he shall bring מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, a meal-offering of fine flour, which is the first of the meal-offerings [mentioned in this chapter] (Men. 104b), and קֹמֶץ [fistful of the offering] is scooped out while it is [still in the form of] flour, as is explained in this passage. Since five kinds of meal-offerings are enumerated here, all of which had to be brought ready-baked before the קְמִיצָה [scooping took place], with the exception of this one, it is, therefore, called מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, “a meal-offering of fine flour.”   סֹלֶת יִֽהְיֶה קָרְבָּנוֹ: הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחָה סְתָם, מֵבִיא מִנְחַת סֹלֶת, שֶׁהִיא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁבַּמְּנָחוֹת וְנִקְמֶצֶת כְּשֶׁהִיא סֹלֶת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בָּעִנְיָן; לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ כָּאן חֲמִשָּׁה מִינֵי מְנָחוֹת, וְכֻלָּן בָּאוֹת אֲפוּיוֹת קֹדֶם קְמִיצָה חוּץ מִזּוֹ, לְכָךְ קְרוּיָה מִנְחַת סֹלֶת:
fine flour: סֹלֶת. [The term] סֹלֶת always denotes [fine flour of] wheat, as the verse says, “fine flour (סֹלֶת) of wheat” (Exod. 29:2). - [Torath Kohanim 2:96] No meal-offering consists of less than one עִשָּׂרוֹן [“one tenth” of an ephah of flour], as it is said, “one tenth measure for a meal-offering (עִשָּׂרוֹן)” (Lev.14:21), [implying that] one tenth measure [shall be used] for each meal-offering. — [see Men. 89a]   סֹלֶת: אֵין סֹלֶת אֶלָּא מִן הַחִטִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר סֹלֶת חִטִּים (שמות כ"ט), וְאֵין מִנְחָה פְּחוּתָה מֵעִשָּׂרוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְעִשָּׂרוֹן סֹלֶת … לְמִנְחָה (ויקרא י"ד) — עִשָּׂרוֹן לְכָל מִנְחָה:
He shall pour oil over it: Over all of it. [However,]   וְיָצַק עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן: עַל כֻּלָּהּ:
and place frankincense upon it: Upon part of it; the kohen places a fistful of frankincense upon it at one side [of the offering]. Now what makes you say this? Because an inclusion after an inclusion in the Torah means only to exclude. [Now, here, the expression עָלֶיהָ, upon it or over it, is inclusive in nature, for its assumed meaning is “upon all of it,” i.e., the kohen shall pour the oil over all of the offering. In the continuation of the verse, “and place frankincense upon it (עָלֶיה),” however, the second mention of the word עָלֶיה represents a רִבָּוי after a רִבָּוי, and so, the second עָלֶיה becomes preclusive, meaning that the frankincense is to be placed only upon part of the offering.] Another explanation: Oil [is poured] over all of it, because it [the oil] has to be mixed with it and scooped with it, as it is said, “[scoop out a fistful] from its fine flour and its oil.” However, the frankincense because it is neither mixed nor scooped with it, as it is said, “in addition to] all its frankincense” (verse 2), for, after he has completed the קְמִיצָה procedure, he collects all the frankincense from the meal-offering and makes it go up in smoke. — [Torath Kohanim 2:98]   וְנָתַן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָֽה: עַל מִקְצָתָהּ — מַנִּיחַ קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה עָלֶיהָ לְצַד אֶחָד. וּמָה רָאִיתָ לוֹמַר כֵּן? שֶׁאֵין רִבּוּי אַחַר רִבּוּי בַּתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא לְמַעֵט; דָּבָר אַחֵר: שֶׁמֶן עַל כֻּלָּהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נִבְלָל עִמָּהּ וְנִקְמָץ עִמָּהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ, וּלְבוֹנָה עַל מִקְצָתָהּ, שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִבְלֶלֶת עִמָּהּ וְלֹא נִקְמֶצֶת עִמָּהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עַל כָּל לְבֹנָתָהּ, שֶׁלְּאַחַר שֶׁקָּמַץ מְלַקֵּט אֶת הַלְּבוֹנָה כֻּלָּהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וּמַקְטִירָהּ (ספרא):
He shall pour [oil]…and place [frankincense] …and he shall bring [it to…the kohanim]: [Because Scripture mentions the “pouring” of the oil before the individual “brings” it to the kohanim ,] this teaches [us] that pouring and mixing may be performed [even] by a non- kohen. [And how do we know this concerning the mixing? Because in verses 5-6 below, Scripture states of a meal-offering, “mixed with oil,” before the pouring procedure is to take place, thus, if pouring may be performed by a non- kohen, then mixing, which precedes pouring, may surely be performed by a non- kohen]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:100] [However,]   וְיָצַק וְנָתַן והביאה: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁיְּצִיקָה וּבְלִילָה כְּשֵׁרִים בְּזָר (שם):
2And he shall bring it to Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, and from there, he [the kohen] shall scoop out his fistful of its fine flour and its oil, in addition to all its frankincense. Then, the kohen shall cause its memorial to [go up in] smoke on the altar; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   בוֶֽהֱבִיאָ֗הּ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹן֘ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֒ וְקָמַ֨ץ מִשָּׁ֜ם מְלֹ֣א קֻמְצ֗וֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ֙ וּמִשַּׁמְנָ֔הּ עַ֖ל כָּל־לְבֹֽנָתָ֑הּ וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־אַזְכָּֽרָתָהּ֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
[And he shall bring it to…] the kohanim, and he [the kohen] shall scoop out: From the קְמִיצָה scooping procedure and onwards, it is exclusively the priesthood who is commanded [to perform these remaining procedures]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:100]   הַכֹּֽהֲנִים וְקָמַץ: מִקְּמִיצָה וָאֵילָךְ מִצְוַת כְּהֻנָּה (שם):
And from there, he [the kohen] shall scoop out: [From where?] From the place where the feet of the non- kohen were standing. — [Torath Kohanim 2:104] This teaches us that scooping may be performed any place within the courtyard of the Holy Temple, even within the eleven cubits [span of courtyard grounds] in which ordinary Israelites [i.e., non- kohanim were permitted] to walk. — [Yoma 16b]   וְקָמַץ מִשָּׁם: מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁרַגְלֵי הַזָּר עוֹמְדוֹת; לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁהַקְּמִיצָה כְּשֵׁרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם בָּעֲזָרָה, אַף בְּי"א אַמָּה שֶׁל מְקוֹם דְּרִיסַת רַגְלֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל (יומא ט"ז):
his fistful: One might think [that the fistful may be] full to overflowing, bursting through his fist and coming out on every side! Scripture, therefore, states in another passage, “And from it, he shall lift up in his fist” (Lev. 6:8), [i.e., only what is contained within his fist is valid to be burnt]. But since [we now know that the amount shall be only] what is contained within his fist, one might suggest that it means less than a fistful. Scripture, therefore, states here, מְלֹא, “full” [i.e., it shall be a full fist]. How then [does the kohen scoop out exactly a fistful, not more and not less]? He covers the palm of his hand with his three fingers, [and then, with the remaining thumb from above and little finger from below, he levels off any overflowing mixture, so that exactly a full measure of “three fingers” is attained]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:105; Men. 11a] This is the definition of קֹמֶץ, a “fistful” in the Hebrew language [while in other languages, a “fistful” of something might mean four fingers full of something].   מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ: יָכוֹל מְבֹרָץ — מְבַצְבֵּץ וְיוֹצֵא לְכָל צַד, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר וְהֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻמְצוֹ (ויקרא ו') — לֹא יְהֵא כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקֹּמֶץ, אִי בְּקֻמְצוֹ יָכוֹל חָסֵר, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר מְלֹא, הָא כֵּיצַד? חוֹפֶה שְׁלוֹשׁ אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו עַל פַּס יָדוֹ, וְזֶהוּ קֹמֶץ בְּמַשְׁמַע לָשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית (מנחות י"א):
in addition to all its frankincense: In addition to all the frankincense, the fist shall be full.   עַל כָּל־לְבֹֽנָתָהּ: לְבַד כָּל הַלְּבוֹנָה יְהֵא הַקֹּמֶץ מָלֵא:
its frankincense. Then, [the kohen] shall cause…to [go up in] smoke: The frankincense is also to be burnt. — [Torath Kohanim 2:107]   לְבֹֽנָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר: אַף הַלְּבוֹנָה בְּהַקְטָרָה:
his fistful of its fine flour and its oil: but if he scooped, and a grain of salt or a particle of frankincense went up into his hand, it is unfit. - [Torath Kohanim 2:107]   מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ: הָא אִם קָמַץ וְעָלָה בְּיָדוֹ גַּרְגֵּר מֶלַח אוֹ קֹרֶט לְבוֹנָה פְּסוּלָה (שם ו'):
its memorial: The fistful offered up to the Most High [God], is the “reminder” of the meal-offering, because through it, its owner [who brought that sacrifice] is remembered for the good, [causing God] contentment.   אַזְכָּֽרָתָהּ: הַקֹּמֶץ הָעוֹלֶה לְגָבוֹהַּ הוּא זִכְרוֹן הַמִּנְחָה — שֶׁבּוֹ נִזְכָּר בְּעָלֶיהָ לְטוֹבָה וּלְנַחַת רוּחַ:
3And what remains of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and to his descendants; [it is] holy of holies from the fire offerings of the Lord.   גוְהַנּוֹתֶ֨רֶת֙ מִן־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
to Aaron and his descendants: The Kohen Gadol [signified by “Aaron” here,] takes a portion [of what remains of the meal-offering] first, without having to take part in the equal division of the meal offering, while [after this,] the ordinary kohen [signified by “and his descendants” here,] takes his share in the equal division of the meal-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 2:112]   לְאַֽהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו: כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל נוֹטֵל חֵלֶק בָּרֹאשׁ שֶׁלֹּא בְּמַחֲלֹקֶת וְהַהֶדְיוֹט בְּמַחֲלֹקֶת (ספרא):
[it is] holy of holies: for the Kohanim.   קֹדֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁים: הִיא לָהֶם:
from the fire-offerings of the Lord: They may take their share in it only after the offerings to the fire [i.e., only after the fistful has been scooped out and burnt, thereby becoming a fire-offering to God. Before this, however, they may not partake of the meal-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 2: 113]   מֵֽאִשֵּׁי ה': אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק בָּהּ אֶלָּא לְאַחַר מַתְּנוֹת הָאִשִּׁים (שם):
4And if one brings a meal offering baked in an oven, it shall consist of [either] unleavened loaves [made] of fine flour mixed with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil.   דוְכִ֥י תַקְרִ֛ב קָרְבַּ֥ן מִנְחָ֖ה מַֽאֲפֵ֣ה תַנּ֑וּר סֹ֣לֶת חַלּ֤וֹת מַצֹּת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֥ים בַּשָּֽׁמֶן:
And if you bring [a meal-offering which was baked in an oven]: [Namely: If a person] said, “I hereby take upon myself to bring a meal-offering baked in an oven.” Scripture teaches [us] that he may bring either loaves or wafers. — [Torath Kohanim 2:115] The loaves are to be mixed up (בְּלוּלֹת) [with olive oil], while the wafers are to be anointed (מְשֻׁחִים) [with olive oil]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:117; Men. 74b] Now, our Rabbis (Men. 75a) differ regarding the anointing procedure (מְשִׁיחָה) [for the wafers]: Some say that one must anoint them and again anoint them until all the oil in the log [a volume of liquid] has been used up, for all meal-offerings require one log of oil [each]. Others say that [some of] the oil was smeared [on the wafer] in the form of a Greek “chi” [shaped like the Hebrew נ, see Rashi Exod. 29:2], while the remaining oil was eaten separately by the kohanim. [Now, the verse here says, “mixed with oil…anointed with oil.”] What does the repetition of the word “oil” come to teach us? [It teaches us that for meal-offerings, oil used need not be only from the initial extract from the olives, but] may also be from the second and third extract out of the olives. The only case where the initial extract of oil is required, is the menorah, because regarding it, Scripture says (Exod. 27:20), שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ‏, “clear olive oil.” - [Torath Kohanim 2:118] And we learned in Men. (76a): All meal-offerings baked before the קְמִיצָה [scooping out] procedure, and consequently whose קְמִיצָה is performed by breaking the offering into pieces (see verse 6), all shall be offered in [parcels of] ten loaves [regarding those about which Scripture says חַלוֹת, “loaves,” and parcels of] ten wafers, for those offerings about which Scripture says רְקִיקִין, “wafers.”   וְכִי תקריב וגו': שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחַת מַאֲפֵה תַּנּוּר; וְלִמֵּד הַכָּתוּב שֶׁיָּבִיא אוֹ חַלּוֹת אוֹ רְקִיקִין, הַחַלּוֹת בְּלוּלוֹת וְהָרְקִיקִין מְשׁוּחִין; וְנֶחְלְקוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בִּמְשִׁיחָתָן, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מוֹשְׁחָן וְחוֹזֵר וּמוֹשְׁחָן עַד שֶׁכָּלֶה כָּל הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּלֹּג — שֶׁכָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת טְעוּנוֹת לֹג שֶׁמֶן — וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מוֹשְׁחָן כְּמִין "כִי" וּשְׁאָר הַשֶּׁמֶן נֶאֱכָל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ לַכֹּהֲנִים (מנחות ע"ה); מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בַּשֶּׁמֶן בַּשֶּׁמֶן שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים? לְהַכְשִׁיר שֶׁמֶן שֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַזֵּיתִים, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁמֶן רִאשׁוֹן אֶלָּא לַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ זָךְ (שמות כ"ז), וְשָׁנִינוּ בִּמְנָחוֹת כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת הָאֲפוּיוֹת לִפְנֵי קְמִיצָתָן וְנִקְמָצוֹת עַל יְדֵי פְּתִיתָה, כֻּלָּן בָּאוֹת עֶשֶֹר עֶשֶֹר חַלּוֹת, וְהָאָמוּר בָּה רְקִיקִין בָּאָה עֲשָׂרָה רְקִיקִין (מנחות ע"ו):
5And if a meal offering on a pan is your sacrifice, it shall be [made] of fine flour, mixed with oil; it shall be unleavened.   הוְאִם־מִנְחָ֥ה עַל־הַמַּֽחֲבַ֖ת קָרְבָּנֶ֑ךָ סֹ֛לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן מַצָּ֥ה תִֽהְיֶֽה:
And if a meal-offering on a pan [is your sacrifice]: מִנְחָה עַל הַמַּחֲבַת Namely: If one said, “I hereby take upon myself to bring מִנְחַת הַמַּחֲבַת, a pan-fried meal offering.” [מַחִבַת] was a vessel in the Holy Temple, in which [certain] meal-offerings were baked in oil upon the fire. This vessel is not deep, but shallow. And therefore, meal-offerings made in it were hard, for since the pan was shallow, [the oil spread thin and consequently,] the fire consumed the oil [causing the product to become hard]. — [Men. 63a] And all [meal-offerings] require three applications of oil: יְצִיקָה [pouring], בְּלִילָה [mixing] and placing oil in the vessel before their preparation. — [Torath Kohanim 2: 121, Men. 75a]   וְאִם־מִנְחָה עַל־הַמַּֽחֲבַת: שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחַת מַחֲבַת; וּכְלִי הוּא שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁאוֹפִין בּוֹ מִנְחָה זוֹ עַל הָאוּר בְּשֶׁמֶן, וְהַכְּלִי אֵינוֹ עָמֹק אֶלָּא צָף, וּמַעֲשֵׂי הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ קָשִׁין, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִיא צָפָה, הָאוּר שׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן. וְכֻלָּן טְעוּנוֹת שָׁלוֹשׁ מַתְּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן — יְצִיקָה וּבְלִילָה וּמַתַּן שֶׁמֶן בִּכְלִי קֹדֶם לַעֲשִֹיָּתָן (שם ע"ד):
fine flour, mixed with oil: [This] teaches [us] that he must mix them while they are [still] fine flour [and not mixing the oil with the already-fried cakes]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:122]   סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבּוֹלְלָן בְּעוֹדָן סֹלֶת (מנחות ע"ד):
6Break it into pieces, and you shall [then] pour oil over it. It is a meal offering.   ופָּת֤וֹת אֹתָהּ֙ פִּתִּ֔ים וְיָֽצַקְתָּ֥ עָלֶ֖יהָ שָׁ֑מֶן מִנְחָ֖ה הִֽוא:
Break it into pieces, […It is a meal-offering]: [The clause at the end of this verse, “It is a meal-offering,” appears superfluous. However, it] comes to include all meal-offerings baked before the קְמִיצָה procedure, to [have their קְמִיצָה performed by] פְּתִיתָה, breaking them into pieces. — [Men. 75a]   פָּתוֹת אֹתָהּ פִּתִּים: לְרַבּוֹת כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת הַנֶּאֱפוֹת קֹדֶם קְמִיצָה לִפְתִיתָה (שם ע"ה):
and you shall [then] pour oil over it. It is a meal-offering: This includes all meal-offerings for יְצִיקָה, “pouring of the oil.” One might think that this applies also to a meal-offering baked in an oven. Scripture, therefore, says, “[You shall then pour oil] עָלֶיהָ, over it, ” [but not over that baked in an oven.] Perhaps we should exclude חַות, loaves [of oven-baked meal-offerings only], while not excluding the רְקִיקִין wafers [of oven baked meal-offerings]? Scripture, therefore, says, הִיא [i.e., “It,” to have both cases of loaves and wafers of an oven-baked meal-offering excluded from יְצִיקָה]. — [Men. 75a]   וְיָֽצַקְתָּ עָלֶיהָ שָׁמֶן מִנְחָה הִֽוא: לְרַבּוֹת כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת לִיצִיקָה; יָכוֹל אַף מִנְחָה מַאֲפֵה תַּנּוּר כֵּן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר עָלֶיהָ; אוֹצִיא אֶת הַחַלּוֹת וְלֹא אוֹצִיא אֶת הָרְקִיקִין, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר הִוא (שם):

Third Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 2

7And if your sacrifice is a meal offering [made] in a deep pot, it shall be made of fine flour with oil.   זוְאִם־מִנְחַ֥ת מַרְחֶ֖שֶׁת קָרְבָּנֶ֑ךָ סֹ֥לֶת בַּשֶּׁ֖מֶן תֵּֽעָשֶֽׂה:
[made] in a deep pot: מַרְחֶשֶׁת. This was a deep vessel in the Temple. And since it was deep, its oil gathered together, and the fire did not burn it. Consequently, meal-offerings made in it, vibrate (רוֹחִַשִׁין) (Torath Kohanim 2:127), [as] anything which has become softened through a liquid, [like in the case of deep-frying מִנְחַת מַרְחֶשֶׁת appears to vibrate (רוֹחֵשׁ) and wiggle.   מַרְחֶשֶׁת: כְּלִי הוּא שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, עָמֹק, וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִיא עֲמֻקָּה, שַׁמְנָהּ צָבוּר וְאֵין הָאוּר שׂוֹרְפוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ מַעֲשֵׂי מִנְחָה הָעֲשׂוּיִין לְתוֹכָהּ רוֹחֲשִׁין; כָּל דָּבָר רַךְ עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה נִרְאֶה כְּרוֹחֵשׁ וּמְנַעֲנֵעַ (ספרא):
8Thus you shall bring the meal offering which shall be made from these [types], to the Lord. And he shall bring it to the kohen, and he shall bring it close to the altar.   חוְהֵֽבֵאתָ֣ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר יֵֽעָשֶׂ֛ה מֵאֵ֖לֶּה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהִקְרִיבָהּ֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִגִּישָׁ֖הּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
which shall be made from these [types]: [literally, “which shall be made from these,” meaning a meal-offering] which shall be made from one of these types [of meal-offerings mentioned, namely, fine flour baked in an oven, pan-fried or that made in a deep pot].   אֲשֶׁר יֵֽעָשֶׂה מֵאֵלֶּה: מֵאֶחָד מִן הַמִּינִים הַלָּלוּ:
And he shall bring it: i.e., its owner [shall bring it] to the kohen.   וְהִקְרִיבָהּ: בְּעָלֶיהָ אל הכהן:
and he shall bring it close: [I.e.,] the kohen [shall bring it close].   וְהִגִּישָׁהּ: הַכֹּהֵן:
to the altar: He shall bring it close to the south-western corner of the altar. — [Zev. 63b]   וְהִגִּישָׁהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ: מַגִּישָׁהּ לְקֶרֶן דְּרוֹמִית מַעֲרָבִית שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ (זבחים ס"ג):
9And the kohen shall lift out, from the meal offering, its memorial and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   טוְהֵרִ֨ים הַכֹּהֵ֤ן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה֙ אֶת־אַזְכָּ֣רָתָ֔הּ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
its memorial: This is קֹמֶץ, [the fistful scooped out of the meal-offering].   אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ: הִיא הַקֹּמֶץ:
10And what remains of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and his descendants; [it is] holy of holies from the fire offerings of the Lord.   יוְהַנּוֹתֶ֨רֶת֙ מִן־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
11No meal offering that you sacrifice to the Lord shall be made [out of anything] leavened. For you shall not cause to [go up in] smoke any leavening or any honey, [as] a fire offering to the Lord;   יאכָּל־הַמִּנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּקְרִ֨יבוּ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לֹ֥א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה חָמֵ֑ץ כִּ֤י כָל־שְׂאֹר֙ וְכָל־דְּבַ֔שׁ לֹֽא־תַקְטִ֧ירוּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
or any honey: Any sweet fruit extract is called honey.   וְכָל־דְּבַשׁ: כָּל מְתִיקַת פְּרִי קְרוּיָה דְּבַשׁ:
12[However,] you shall bring them as a first [fruit] offering to the Lord; nevertheless, they shall not go up on the altar as a pleasing fragrance.   יבקָרְבַּ֥ן רֵאשִׁ֛ית תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ אֹתָ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֥חַ לֹא־יַֽעֲל֖וּ לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹֽחַ:
[However,] you shall bring them as a first [fruit] offering: What can you bring from leaven and honey? A first [fruit] offering, namely, a) the שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, the two loaves [of bread] brought on Shavuoth, which come from leaven, as it is said: “they shall be baked leavened” (Lev. 23:17), and b) The בִּכּוּרִים, “first fruits” which [contain] דְּבַשׁ, honey, e.g., the first fruits of figs and dates. — [Men. 58a]   קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית תַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתָם: מַה יֵּשׁ לְךָ לְהָבִיא מִן הַשְּׂאוֹר וּמִן הַדְּבַשׁ? קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית — שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁל עֲצֶרֶת הַבָּאִים מִן הַשְּׂאוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר חָמֵץ תֵּאָפֶינָה (ויקרא כ"ג), וּבִכּוּרִים מִן הַדְּבַשׁ, כְּמוֹ בִּכּוּרֵי תְּאֵנִים וּתְמָרִים (מנחות נ"ח):
13And you shall salt every one of your meal offering sacrifices with salt, and you shall not omit the salt of your God's covenant from [being placed] upon your meal offerings. You shall offer salt on all your sacrifices.   יגוְכָל־קָרְבַּ֣ן מִנְחָֽתְךָ֘ בַּמֶּ֣לַח תִּמְלָח֒ וְלֹ֣א תַשְׁבִּ֗ית מֶ֚לַח בְּרִ֣ית אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ מֵעַ֖ל מִנְחָתֶ֑ךָ עַ֥ל כָּל־קָרְבָּֽנְךָ֖ תַּקְרִ֥יב מֶֽלַח:
the salt of [your God’s] covenant: for there was a covenant made with salt since the six days of Creation, in that the lower waters were promised that they would be offered on the altar. [And how were they offered? In the form of] salt [which comes from water,] and in the water libations on the Festival [of Succoth].   מֶלַח בְּרִית: שֶׁהַבְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמֶּלַח מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְּרֵאשִׁית, שֶׁהֻבְטְחוּ הַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים לִקָּרֵב בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ בַּמֶּלַח וְנִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם בֶּחָג:
[You shall offer salt] on all your sacrifices: [including] burnt-offerings from animals and birds, and the אֵימוּרִים, the portions of the sacrifices offered up on the altar, from all holy sacrifices. — [Men. 20a]   עַל כָּל־קָרְבָּֽנְךָ: עַל עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה וָעוֹף וְאֵמוּרֵי כָּל הַקָּדָשִׁים כֻּלָּן (מנחות כ'):
14When you bring a meal offering of the first grains to the Lord, you shall bring your first grain meal offering [from barley], as soon as it ripens, parched over the fire, kernels full in their husks, [ground into] coarse meal.   ידוְאִם־תַּקְרִ֛יב מִנְחַ֥ת בִּכּוּרִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אָבִ֞יב קָל֤וּי בָּאֵשׁ֙ גֶּ֣רֶשׂ כַּרְמֶ֔ל תַּקְרִ֕יב אֵ֖ת מִנְחַ֥ת בִּכּוּרֶֽיךָ:
When you bring: Heb. וְאִם תַּקְרִיב Now, the word אִם [here] has the meaning of כִּי, “when,” because this is not optional, for Scripture is referring to the מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר [the omer meal-offering, a community sacrifice brought on the sixteenth of Nissan,] which is obligatory. [Thus, the verse reads: “When you bring…”]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:148] Likewise, “And when (וְאִם) the Jubilee…will be” (Num. 36:4), [and not “if the Jubilee…will be”].   וְאִם־תַּקְרִיב: הֲרֵי אִם מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן כִּי, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין זֶה רְשׁוּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר שֶׁהִיא חוֹבָה, וְכֵן וְאִם יִהְיֶה הַיֹּבֵל וְגוֹ' (במדבר ל"ו):
a meal offering of the first grains: Scripture is referring here to the מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר, the “omer meal-offering,” which is to be offered אָבִיב, meaning, as soon as the grain has ripened, and it comes from barley. [And how do we know that it comes from barley?] For here in our verse, it says, אָבִיב, and in an earlier verse, it says (Exod. 9:31), כִּי הַשְּׂעֹרָה אָבִיב, “for the barley was ripened (אָבִיב)”. — [Torath Kohanim 2:149; Men. 68b]   מִנְחַת בִּכּוּרִים: בְּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה אָבִיב — בִּשְׁעַת בִּשּׁוּל הַתְּבוּאָה, וּמִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים הִיא בָּאָה, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן אָבִיב וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (שמות ט'), הַשְּׂעֹרָה אָבִיב:
parched over the fire: For they dry the grain over a fire, in a roasting pipe [Rashi explains in Tractate Men., אָבִיב refers to a vessel used by those selling roasted seeds]. — [Torath Kohanim 2:150] [And they had to do this to the grain,] for otherwise, it could not be ground up, because it is moist.   קָלוּי בָּאֵשׁ: שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָהּ עַל הָאוּר בְּאַבּוּב שֶׁל קַלָּאִים, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי כֵן אֵינָהּ נִטְחֶנֶת בָּרֵחַיִם, לְפִי שֶׁהִיא לַחָה:
kernels full in their husks, [ground into] coarse meal: Heb. גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל “Broken up while still moist (כַּרְמֶל).”   גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל: גְּרוּסָה בְּעוֹדָהּ לַחָה:
coarse meal: Heb. גֶּרֶשׂ, an expression denoting breaking up or grinding with grit millstones, and likewise, “Indeed, He has made [my teeth] grind (וַיַּגְְרֵס) on gravel” (Lam. 3:16), and similarly in the verse, “My soul is crushed (גָּרְסָה)” (Ps. 119:20).   גֶּרֶשׂ: גֶּרֶשׂ לְשׁוֹן שְׁבִירָה וּטְחִינָה, גּוֹרְסָהּ בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת, כְּמוֹ וַיַּגְרֵס בֶּחָצָץ (איכה ג'), וְכֵן גָּרְסָה נַפְשִׁי (תהילים קי"ט):
full in their husks: Heb. כַּרְמֶל, [an acronym of כַּר, husk, and מָלֵא, full. Thus, it means: The grain is ground up] while the husk (כַּר) is still full (מָלֵא) (Men. 66b), i.e., when the produce is still fresh and full in its stalks; hence, fresh ears of grain are called כַּרְמֶל, and similarly, “and sheaves of fresh grain (כַּרְמֶל) in their shells” (II Kings 4:42).   כַּרְמֶל: בְּעוֹד הַכַּר מָלֵא, שֶׁהַתְּבוּאָה לַחָה וּמְלֵאָה בְּקַשִּׁין שֶׁלָּהּ, וְעַל כֵּן נִקְרָאִים הַמְּלִילוֹת כַּרְמֶל, וְכֵן כַּרְמֶל בְּצִקְלוֹנוֹ (מלכים ב ד'):
15And you shall put oil on it, and place frankincense upon it. It is a meal offering.   טווְנָֽתַתָּ֤ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ שֶׁ֔מֶן וְשַׂמְתָּ֥ עָלֶ֖יהָ לְבֹנָ֑ה מִנְחָ֖ה הִֽוא:
16Then, the kohen shall cause its memorial to [go up in] smoke, [taken] from its coarse meal and from its oil, with all its frankincense; [it is] a fire offering to the Lord.   טזוְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־אַזְכָּֽרָתָ֗הּ מִגִּרְשָׂהּ֙ וּמִשַּׁמְנָ֔הּ עַ֖ל כָּל־לְבֹֽנָתָ֑הּ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Fourth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 3

1If his sacrifice is a peace offering, if he brings it from cattle, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it before the Lord.   אוְאִם־זֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ אִ֤ם מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ ה֣וּא מַקְרִ֔יב אִם־זָכָר֙ אִם־נְקֵבָ֔ה תָּמִ֥ים יַקְרִיבֶ֖נּוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
peace-offering: Heb. שְׁלָמִים. [So named] because they instill peace (שָׁלוֹם) in the world. Another explanation: [They are called שְׁלָמִים because they bring about harmony (שָׁלוֹם) , [since some portions of the sacrifice go] to the altar, to the Kohanim, and to the owner [of the sacrifice]. — [Torath Kohanim 3:156]   שְׁלָמִים: שֶׁמְּטִילִים שָׁלוֹם בָּעוֹלָם; דָּבָר אַחֵר: שְׁלָמִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שָׁלוֹם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְלַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַבְּעָלִים (ספרא):
2And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall dash the blood upon the altar, around.   בוְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ וּשְׁחָט֕וֹ פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְזָֽרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־הַדָּ֛ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
3And from the peace offering, he shall bring a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of]: the fat covering the innards and all the fat that is on the innards,   גוְהִקְרִיב֙ מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֔ים אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
and all the fat: [This expression] comes to include the fat that is on the maw [the lowest stomach and all the more so, the fat upon the intestines]: These are the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva, however, says: [It comes to include only] the fat upon the intestines. — [Torath Kohanim 3:168, Chul. 49]   וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב וגו': לְהָבִיא חֵלֶב שֶׁעַל הַקֵּבָה דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר לְהָבִיא חֵלֶב שֶׁעַל הַדַּקִּין (שם):
4and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys.   דוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָי֖וֹת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
the flanks: Heb. הַכְּסָלִים, flancs in Old French. For, in the case of a live animal, the fat that is on the kidneys, is situated at the height of the flanks, and they [the flanks] are situated below. This is the fat beneath the loins, which is called lonbels in Old French, the white fat visible above, upon the height of the flanks, while on the lower part of the flanks, [this fat is not visible, because] the flesh covers it. — [Chul. 93a, and Rashi there]   הַכְּסָלִים: פלנק"ש בְּלַעַז; שֶׁהַחֵלֶב שֶׁעַל הַכְּלָיוֹת כְּשֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה חַיָּה הוּא בְּגֹבַהּ הַכְּסָלִים מִלְּמַטָּה, וְזֶה הַחֵלֶב שֶׁתַּחַת הַמָּתְנַיִם — שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלַעַז לונבי"לוש — לֹבֶן הַנִּרְאֶה לְמַעְלָה בְּגֹבַהּ הַכְּסָלִים, וּבְתַחְתִּיתוֹ הַבָּשָֹר חוֹפֵהוּ:
the diaphragm: This is the dividing wall [separating the thoracic cavity (breathing organs) from the abdominal cavity (organs of digestion)], which is called ebres in Old French. In the Aramaic language it is called דְּכַבְדָא חַצְרָא, the yard of the liver.   הַיֹּתֶרֶת: הוּא דֹּפֶן הַמָּסָךְ שֶׁקּוֹרִין איברי"ש, וּבְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי חִצְרָא דְּכַבְדָּא:
with the liver: Along with the diaphragm [which covers the liver], he must take a small amount of the liver. [The fact that some of the liver must be taken is illustrated] in another verse, where [regarding the same matter], Scripture says (Lev. 9:10), וְאֶת הַיֹּתֶרֶת מִן הַכָּבֵד, “and the diaphragm from the liver”. — [Torath Kohanim 3:172]   עַל־הַכָּבֵד: שֶׁיִּטֹּל מִן הַכָּבֵד עִמָּהּ מְעַט, וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֶת הַיֹּתֶרֶת מִן הַכָּבֵד (ויקרא ט'):
the liver along with the kidneys: עַל הַכָּבֵד עַל הַכְּלָיוּת. In addition to the liver and in addition to the kidneys, he shall remove this.   עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת: לְבַד מִן הַכָּבֵד וּלְבַד מִן הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה לְזוֹ:
5And Aaron's descendants shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, apart from the burnt offering, which is on top of the wood that is on the fire; [it is] a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   הוְהִקְטִ֨ירוּ אֹת֤וֹ בְנֵי־אַֽהֲרֹן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַל־הָ֣עֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָֽעֵצִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֑שׁ אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
In addition to the burnt offering: Heb. עַל הָעֹלָה, in addition to the burnt-offering. [From here,] we learn that the daily burnt-offering precedes any other sacrifice upon the woodpile [of the altar].   עַל־הָעֹלָה: מִלְּבַד הָעוֹלָה; לִמְּדָנוּ שֶׁתִּקְדֹּם עוֹלַת תָּמִיד לְכָל קָרְבָּן עַל הַמַּעֲרָכָה (זבחים פ"ט):
6And if his sacrifice for a peace offering to the Lord is from the flock, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it.   ווְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֧אן קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ לְזֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה זָכָר֙ א֣וֹ נְקֵבָ֔ה תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ:
7If he brings a sheep as his sacrifice, then he shall bring it before the Lord.   זאִם־כֶּ֥שֶׂב הֽוּא־מַקְרִ֖יב אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְהִקְרִ֥יב אֹת֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
If [he brings] a sheep: Since among the sacrificial portions of the sheep there is something that is not among the sacrificial portions of the goat, namely that the tail of a sheep is offered up [on the altar], these two [namely sheep and goats] were divided into two sections. — [Torath Kohanim 3:185]   אִם־כֶּשֶׂב: לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּאֵמוּרֵי הַכֶּשֶׂב מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּאֵמוּרֵי הָעֵז, שֶׁהַכֶּשֶׂב אַלְיָתוֹ קְרֵבָה, לְכָךְ נֶחְלְקוּ לִשְׁתֵּי פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת (ספרא):
8And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice, and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron's descendants shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   חוְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְ֠זָֽרְק֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
And [Aaron’s descendants] shall dash [its blood]: Two applications [of blood were required], which were [counted as] four (see Rashi above, Lev. 1:5). The Kohen must dash [the blood] by means of a vessel. He does not apply [the blood] with his finger except [in the case of] a sin-offering. — [Zev. 53b]   וְזָֽרְקוּ: שְׁתֵּי מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע; וְעַל יְדֵי הַכְּלִי הוּא זוֹרֵק, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן בָּאֶצְבַּע אֶלָּא חַטָּאת (זבחים נ"ה):
9And from the peace offering, he shall bring a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of] its choicest part the complete tail, which he shall remove opposite the kidneys, and the fat covering the innards and all the fat which is on the innards,   טוְהִקְרִ֨יב מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֘ אִשֶּׁ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָה֒ חֶלְבּוֹ֙ הָֽאַלְיָ֣ה תְמִימָ֔ה לְעֻמַּ֥ת הֶֽעָצֶ֖ה יְסִירֶ֑נָּה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
the choicest part: Heb. חֶלְבּוֹ.[Usually, its fat. Here it means] its choicest part. And what is this? The complete tail.   חֶלְבּוֹ: הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁבּוֹ, וּמַהוּ? זֶה הָאַלְיָה תְּמִימָה:
opposite the kidneys: Heb. הֶעָצֶה, above the kidneys, which give counsel (הַיּוֹעֲצוּת).   לְעֻמַּת הֶֽעָצֶה: לְמַעְלָה מִן הַכְּלָיוֹת הַיּוֹעֲצוֹת:
10and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them, which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys.   יוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
11And the kohen shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as food for the fire, to the Lord.   יאוְהִקְטִיר֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה לֶ֥חֶם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as food for the fire, to the Lord: Food for the fire, in the Name of the most High [God].   לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לה': לַחְמוֹ שֶׁל אֵשׁ לְשֵׁם גָּבוֹהַּ:
food: Heb. לֶחֶם, an expression meaning food [in general, not only bread]. Similarly, we find in the verse, “Let us destroy his food (בְּלַחְמוֹ) with wood” (Jer. 11:19); and, “made a great feast (לְחֵם)” (Dan. 5:1), and, “On joyous occasions, a feast (לֶחֶם) is made” (Eccl. 10:19).   לֶחֶם: לְשׁוֹן מַאֲכָל, וְכֵן נַשְׁחִיתָה עֵץ בְּלַחְמוֹ (ירמיהו י"א), עֲבַד לְחֶם רַב (דניאל ה'), לִשְֹחוֹק עֹשִֹׁים לֶחֶם (קהלת י'):
12And if his sacrifice is a goat, he shall bring it before the Lord,   יבוְאִם־עֵ֖ז קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ וְהִקְרִיב֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
13and he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon its head and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting, and Aaron's descendants shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   יגוְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְ֠זָֽרְק֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
14And from it, he shall bring his offering a fire offering to the Lord [comprised of] the fat covering the innards, and all the fat which is on the innards,   ידוְהִקְרִ֤יב מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
15and the two kidneys with the fat that is upon them, which is over the flanks. And he shall remove the diaphragm with the liver; along with the kidneys he shall remove it.   טווְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
16And the kohen shall cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, consumed as a fire offering, [with] a pleasing fragrance. All [sacrificial] fat belongs to the Lord.   טזוְהִקְטִירָ֥ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה לֶ֤חֶם אִשֶּׁה֙ לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ כָּל־חֵ֖לֶב לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
17[This is] an eternal statute for all your generations, in all your dwelling places: You shall not eat any fat or any blood.   יזחֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם כָּל־חֵ֥לֶב וְכָל־דָּ֖ם לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ:
[This is] an eternal statute: This entire verse is explained very clearly in Torath Kohanim (3:189).   חֻקַּת עוֹלָם: יָפֶה מְפֹרָשׁ בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים כָּל הַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה:

Fifth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 4

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a person sins unintentionally [by committing one] of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, and he commits [part] of one of them   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לֵאמֹר֒ נֶ֗פֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָ֤א בִשְׁגָגָה֙ מִכֹּל֙ מִצְוֹ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֣א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֑ינָה וְעָשָׂ֕ה מֵֽאַחַ֖ת מֵהֵֽנָּה:
of all the commandments of the Lord: Our Rabbis explained: A sin-offering is brought only for such a transgression whose prohibition is expressed [in the Torah] as a negative commandment, and whose willful violation incurs the penalty of excision (premature death by the hands of Heaven). The unintentional violation of such prohibitions incurs a sin-offering [upon the individual]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:196; Shab. 69a)]   מִכֹּל מִצְוֹת ה': פֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ אֵין חַטָּאת בָּאָה אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁזְּדוֹנוֹ לָאו וְכָרֵת (ספרא):
of one of them: [The text should have read, “one of them.” Since it says, “of one of them,” it means to include the case of someone who has transgressed even] part of one of these prohibitions. For example, [if one writes a single letter on the Sabbath, he is not liable for transgressing a prohibition by law of Torah. If he writes two letters, he is liable. Therefore,] if one writes the letters שׁם from שִׁמְעוּן, [which he had intended to write, or] נח from נָחוֹר, [which he had intended to write, or] is from דן from דּנִָיּאֵל, [which he had intended to write, although he did not complete the names he intended to write, since the two-letter names are words in their own right, he is liable for writing on the Sabbath, even though he transgressed only part of the prohibition]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:197]   מֵֽאַחַת מֵהֵֽנָּה: מִמִּקְּצָת אַחַת מֵהֶן, כְּגוֹן הַכּוֹתֵב בְּשַׁבָּת שם מִשִּׁמְעוֹן, נח מִנָּחוֹר, דן מִדָּנִיֵּאל (שם):
3If the anointed kohen sins, bringing guilt to the people, then he shall bring for his sin which he has committed, an unblemished young bull as a sin offering to the Lord.   גאִ֣ם הַכֹּהֵ֧ן הַמָּשִׁ֛יחַ יֶֽחֱטָ֖א לְאַשְׁמַ֣ת הָעָ֑ם וְהִקְרִ֡יב עַ֣ל חַטָּאתוֹ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָטָ֜א פַּ֣ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֥ר תָּמִ֛ים לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְחַטָּֽאת:
if the annointed kohen should sin to bring guilt to the people: Heb. אם הכהן המשיח יחטא לאשמת העם - Its midrashic interpretation: He is not obliged [to bring a sin-offering] unless there is a hidden thing together with an unintentional act, as it is said, "to bring guilt on the people" "and something is hidden from the congregation and they do." And its plain meaning according to the aggadah: When the holy priest sins, it is the fault of the people, for they are dependent on him to atone for them and pray for them--- and [now] he has become impaired.   אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶֽחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם: מִדְרָשׁוֹ: אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא בְּהֶעְלֵם דָּבָר עִם שִׁגְגַת מַעֲשֶֹה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ (שם); וּפְשׁוּטוֹ לְפִי אַגָּדָה: כְּשֶׁכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל חוֹטֵא, אַשְׁמַת הָעָם הוּא זֶה, שֶׁהֵן תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעֲדָם, וְנַעֲשֶׂה מְקֻלְקָל:
bull: Heb. פַּר One might think that this means an old one. Scripture, therefore, adds, בֶּן [young animal]. But if it shall be young, one might think that it be a very young one. Scripture, therefore, says: פַּר [a term which independently means a mature animal, thus teaching us that it shall not be a very young bull]. So how [do we reconcile both mature and yet young?] It refers to a bull in its third year. — [Torath Kohanim 4:208]   פַּר: יָכוֹל זָקֵן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בֶּן, אִי בֶּן יָכוֹל קָטָן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר פַּר, הָא כֵּיצַד? זֶה פַּר בֶּן שָׁלוֹשׁ (שם):
4And he shall bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before the Lord, and he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the bull's head and slaughter the bull before the Lord.   דוְהֵבִ֣יא אֶת־הַפָּ֗ר אֶל־פֶּ֛תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַפָּ֔ר וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
5And the anointed kohen shall take from the bull's blood and bring it into the Tent of Meeting.   הוְלָקַ֛ח הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַמָּשִׁ֖יחַ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֑ר וְהֵבִ֥יא אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
to the Tent of Meeting: I.e., to the Mishkan, and in the Temple, to the Heichal, [which housed the menorah, the table, and the incense altar, the equivalent of the Holy, in the Mishkan in the desert].   אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵֽד: לַמִּשְׁכָּן, וּבְבֵית עוֹלָמִים לַהֵיכָל:
6And the kohen shall dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.   ווְטָבַ֧ל הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־אֶצְבָּע֖וֹ בַּדָּ֑ם וְהִזָּ֨ה מִן־הַדָּ֜ם שֶׁ֤בַע פְּעָמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י פָּרֹ֥כֶת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary: Heb. פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ [i.e., the blood was to be sprinkled towards the dividing curtain,] opposite the place of its holiness, namely, directed [to the site] between the poles [which were attached to the Holy Ark]. But the blood [although sprinkled in that direction,] was not to touch the dividing curtain. However, if it did touch, it touched [and it did not matter]. — [Yoma 57a]   אֶת־פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ: כְּנֶגֶד מְקוֹם קְדֻשָּׁתָהּ — מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּין הַבַּדִּים, וְלֹא הָיוּ נוֹגְעִים דָּמִים בַּפָּרֹכֶת, וְאִם נָגְעוּ נָגְעוּ:
7And the kohen shall place some of the blood on the horns of the incense altar which is in the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord, and he shall pour all the blood of the bull onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   זוְנָתַן֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן מִן־הַדָּ֜ם עַל־קַ֠רְנ֠וֹת מִזְבַּ֨ח קְטֹ֤רֶת הַסַּמִּים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־דַּ֣ם הַפָּ֗ר יִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ אֶל־יְסוֹד֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
all the blood: I.e., the remaining blood. — [see Zev. 25a]   וְאֵת כָּל־דַּם: שְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם (זבחים כ"ה):
8And all the fat of the sin offering bull he shall separate from it: the fat covering the innards, and all the fat that is on the innards,   חוְאֶת־כָּל־חֵ֛לֶב פַּ֥ר הַֽחַטָּ֖את יָרִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה עַל־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
And all the fat of the […] bull: It should have said, “its fat.” What does the [seemingly superfluous] word “bull” teach us? It comes to include [another bull, namely,] the bull of Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:3) in the [laws regarding the] kidneys, the fats and the diaphragm.   וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵלֶב פַּר: חֶלְבּוֹ הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר פַּר? לְרַבּוֹת פַּר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לִכְלָיוֹת וְלַחֲלָבִים וְיוֹתֶרֶת (ספרא):
the sin-offering: [Similarly, this seemingly superfluous word] comes to include [another sin-offering, namely,] goats [brought as a sin-offering to atone for unintentional] idolatry (Num. 15:24) in the [laws regarding the] kidneys, the fats and the diaphragm.   הַֽחַטָּאת: לְהָבִיא שְֹעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה לִכְלָיוֹת וְלַחֲלָבִים וּלְיוֹתֶרֶת (שם):
he shall separate…from it: i.e., [he shall remove the fat] while it is still attached [to the animal]; he shall not cut [the animal] into [its prescribed] pieces before the removal of its fat. — [Torath Kohanim 4:230]   יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ: מִן הַמְחֻבָּר — שֶׁלֹּא יְנַתְּחֶנּוּ קֹדֶם הֲסָרַת חֶלְבּוֹ, תּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים:
9and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is on them, which is on the flanks; and the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys, he shall remove it,   טוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָי֖וֹת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
10just as was separated from the bull [sacrificed as] a peace offering, the kohen shall then cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar [used] for burnt offerings.   יכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יוּרָ֔ם מִשּׁ֖וֹר זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וְהִקְטִירָם֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן עַ֖ל מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָֽה:
just as was separated: Like those parts specified in the case of the ox [offered as a] peace-offering. But what is specified in the case of the peace-offerings that is not specified here? [Nothing at all! So why mention the peace-offering altogether?] In order to compare it to the peace-offering, [as follows]: Just as the peace-offering had to be designated for the specific purpose of a peace-offering, so too, this sacrifice had to be designated for its specific purpose, and just as peace-offerings [bring] peace to the world, so too, this sacrifice [brings] peace to the world. — [Torath Kohanim 4:231] And in Shechitath Kodashim (Zev.), it is taught that this [seemingly superfluous phrase, “just as was separated…,”] is necessary here, in order to learn from it the rule, that we do not derive a law from another matter which is itself only derived [and not explicitly stated in Scripture], when it comes to holy sacrifices. [This is found] in chapter [five of Zev.,] Eizehu Mekoman. — [Zev. 49b] 9-11.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יוּרָם: מֵאוֹתָן אֵמוּרִין הַמְפֹרָשִׁין בְּשׁוֹר זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים; וְכִי מַה פֵּרֵשׁ בְּזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים שֶׁלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ כָּאן? אֶלָּא לְהַקִּישׁוֹ לִשְׁלָמִים, מַה שְּׁלָמִים לִשְׁמָן אַף זֶה לִשְׁמוֹ, וּמָה שְׁלָמִים שָׁלוֹם לָעוֹלָם, אַף זֶה שָׁלוֹם לָעוֹלָם; וּבִשְׁחִיטַת קֳדָשִׁים מַצְרִיכוֹ לִלְמֹד הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁאֵין לְמֵדִין לָמֵד מִן הַלָּמֵד בָּקֳדָשִׁים, בְּפֶרֶק אֵיזֶהוּ מְקוֹמָן (זבחים מ"ט):
11[He shall then take] the bull's skin and all of its flesh, along with its head and along with its legs, its innards and its waste matter.   יאוְאֶת־ע֤וֹר הַפָּר֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָ֑יו וְקִרְבּ֖וֹ וּפִרְשֽׁוֹ:
with the liver, along with the diaphragm, along with its head and along with its legs: All these [mentions of the word עַל here, literally “upon,”] are expressions of adding, like (מִלְבַד) “apart from.” [Thus, in addition to the explanations given earlier (see Rashi verse 3:4), when verse 9 says, “And he shall remove the diaphragm with [part of] the liver, along with the kidneys,” the meaning is “he shall remove the diaphragm, besides (removing part of) the liver and the kidneys.”]   עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָיו: כֻּלָּן לְשׁוֹן תּוֹסֶפֶת הֵן, כְּמוֹ מִלְּבַד:
12He shall take out the entire bull to a clean place outside the camp, [namely,] to the ash depository, and he shall burn it in fire on wood. Thus, it shall be burnt in the ash depository.   יבוְהוֹצִ֣יא אֶת־כָּל־הַ֠פָּ֠ר אֶל־מִח֨וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֜ה אֶל־מָק֤וֹם טָהוֹר֙ אֶל־שֶׁ֣פֶךְ הַדֶּ֔שֶׁן וְשָׂרַ֥ף אֹת֛וֹ עַל־עֵצִ֖ים בָּאֵ֑שׁ עַל־שֶׁ֥פֶךְ הַדֶּ֖שֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵֽף:
to a clean place: Since there was a place outside the city designated for uncleanness, [namely,] to cast plague-stricken stones [which had thereby become unclean] (Lev. 14:40), and for a cemetery, Scripture needed to qualify this instance of “outside the camp” -which [in the case of Jerusalem] was equivalent to outside the city-that the place had to be [ritually] clean.   אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר: לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִחוּץ לָעִיר מָקוֹם מוּכָן לְטֻמְאָה — לְהַשְׁלִיךְ אֲבָנִים מְנֻגָּעוֹת וּלְבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת — הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה זֶה — שֶׁהוּא חוּץ לָעִיר — שֶׁיְּהֵא הַמָּקוֹם טָהוֹר:
outside the camp: Outside the three camps [of the encampment of Israel, when they were set up in the desert, namely: The camp of the Shechinah, the Levite camp, and the general Israelite camp.]. Regarding the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, however, it means outside the city, as is explained by our Rabbis in Tractate Yoma (68a), and in San. (42b).   מִחוּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶה: חוּץ לְשָׁלוֹשׁ מַחֲנוֹת; וּבֵית עוֹלָמִים חוּץ לָעִיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּהוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בְּמַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָא (דף ס"ח) וּבְסַנְהֶדְרִין (דף מ"ב):
to the ash depository: Heb. אֶל שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן, to the place where they poured out (שׁוֹפְכִין) the ashes which were removed from the altar, as it is said, “and he shall take out the ashes…outside the camp” (Lev. 6:4).   אֶל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן: מָקוֹם שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין בּוֹ הַדֶּשֶׁן הַמְסֻלָּק מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה (ויקרא ו'):
Thus, it shall be burnt in the ash depository: [But the verse has just told us this!] Surely, it does not need to restate it! However, [this repetition comes] to teach [us] that [the bull shall be burnt in the ash depository,] even if there are no ashes there [at the time]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:239]   עַל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵֽף: שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר, אֶלָּא לְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם דֶּשֶׁן (ספרא):
13And if the entire community of Israel errs because a matter was hidden from the eyes of the congregation, and they commit one of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   יגוְאִ֨ם כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִשְׁגּ֔וּ וְנֶעְלַ֣ם דָּבָ֔ר מֵֽעֵינֵ֖י הַקָּהָ֑ל וְ֠עָשׂ֠וּ אַחַ֨ת מִכָּל־מִצְוֹ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ינָה וְאָשֵֽׁמוּ:
the…community of Israel: This refers to the [Great] Sanhedrin [the Supreme Court of Israel, seated at the Holy Temple]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:241]   עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל: אֵלּוּ סַנְהֶדְרִין (שם):
because a matter was hidden: [This means that the Sanhedrin] issued an erroneous decision regarding any matter in the Torah that incurs the penalty of excision, by declaring that matter permissible. — [Hor. 7b]   וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר: טָעוּ לְהוֹרוֹת בְּאַחַת מִכָּל כָּרֵתוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר (הוריות ח'):
the congregation, and they and they commit: meaning that the community acted upon their instruction. — [Hor. 3a]   הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ: שֶׁעָשׂוּ צִבּוּר עַל פִּיהֶם:
14When the sin which they had committed becomes known, the congregation shall bring a young bull as a sin offering. They shall bring it before the Tent of Meeting.   ידוְנֽוֹדְעָה֙ הַֽחַטָּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָֽטְא֖וּ עָלֶ֑יהָ וְהִקְרִ֨יבוּ הַקָּהָ֜ל פַּ֤ר בֶּן־בָּקָר֙ לְחַטָּ֔את וְהֵבִ֣יאוּ אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
15The elders of the community shall lean their hands [forcefully] upon the bull's head, before the Lord, and one shall slaughter the bull before the Lord.   טווְ֠סָֽמְכ֠וּ זִקְנֵ֨י הָֽעֵדָ֧ה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֛ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
16The anointed kohen shall bring some of the bull's blood into the Tent of Meeting,   טזוְהֵבִ֛יא הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַמָּשִׁ֖יחַ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֑ר אֶל־אֹ֖הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
17and the kohen shall dip his finger from the blood, and sprinkle [it] seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain.   יזוְטָבַ֧ל הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶצְבָּע֖וֹ מִן־הַדָּ֑ם וְהִזָּ֞ה שֶׁ֤בַע פְּעָמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֖ת פְּנֵ֥י הַפָּרֹֽכֶת:
before the dividing curtain: But above, Scripture says (verse 6),“before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.” [Why before was there mention of holiness, whereas now, the verse omits it?] This may be compared to a king against whom a province revolted. If only a minority rebels, his cabinet remains intact. If the entire country rebels, however, his cabinet does not remain intact. Here, too. When the anointed kohen sinned (referred to in the verses leading up to verse 6), the name of holiness was still attached to the Sanctuary. When they all sin, (as verse 13 states, “If the entire community of Israel errs”), God forbid, the holiness retracts. — [Zev. 41b]   אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹֽכֶת: וּלְמַעְלָה הוּא אוֹמֵר אֶת פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁסָּרְחָה עָלָיו מְדִינָה, אִם מִעוּטָהּ סָרְחָה, פָּמַלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת וְאִם כֻּלָּהּ סָרְחָה, אֵין פָּמַלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת, אַף כָּאן, כְּשֶׁחָטָא כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ עֲדַיִן שֵׁם קְדֻשַּׁת הַמָּקוֹם עַל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, מִשֶּׁחָטְאוּ כֻּלָּם, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם נִסְתַּלְּקָה הַקְּדֻשָּׁה (זבחים מ"א):
18And he shall then place some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the Lord in the Tent of Meeting. And then he shall pour all the blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.   יחוּמִן־הַדָּ֞ם יִתֵּ֣ן | עַל־קַרְנֹ֣ת הַמִּזְבֵּ֗חַ אֲשֶׁר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־הַדָּ֗ם יִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ אֶל־יְסוֹד֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
the base of the altar [used] for burnt-offerings, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting: This is the western base, which is [situated] opposite the entrance. — [Torath Kohanim 4:229]   יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָֽעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: זֶה יְסוֹד מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח (שם נ"א):
19And he shall separate all its fat from it and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   יטוְאֵ֥ת כָּל־חֶלְבּ֖וֹ יָרִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה:
And he shall separate all its fat: Although Scripture here does not explicitly mention the diaphragm and the two kidneys, they are derived from (verse 20 below),“He shall do to the bull just as he did [to the bull (sacrificed) as a sin-offering].” Now why are these details not specified here? The School of Rabbi Ishmael taught: This can be compared to a king who was furious with his beloved friend, but shortened [the account of] his offense, because of the affection [he had for him]. — [Zev. 41a]   וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ כָּאן יוֹתֶרֶת וּשְׁתֵּי כְּלָיוֹת, לְמֵדִין הֵם מִוְּעָשָׂה לַפָּר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְגוֹ' וּמִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא נִתְפָּרְשׁוּ בּוֹ? תָּנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁזָּעַם עַל אוֹהֲבוֹ וּמִעֵט בְּסִרְחוֹנוֹ מִפְּנֵי חִבָּתוֹ (שם מ"א):
20He shall do to the bull just as he did to the bull of the sin offering thus he shall do to it. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for them [the community], and they will be forgiven.   כוְעָשָׂ֣ה לַפָּ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לְפַ֣ר הַֽחַטָּ֔את כֵּ֖ן יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֑וֹ וְכִפֶּ֧ר עֲלֵהֶ֛ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְנִסְלַ֥ח לָהֶֽם:
He shall do to the bull: i.e., with this bull,   וְעָשָׂה לַפָּר: זֶה:
just as he did to the bull [sacrificed] as a sin-offering: i.e., just as is delineated in the case of the bull of the anointed kohen. [Thus,] included [in the procedures of sacrificing this bull, is the burning of] the diaphragm and the two kidneys, which are specified there and are not specified here (Zev. 41a). [Now, since Scripture relies on the anointed kohen’s sin-offering to teach us the service of sacrificing this bull, why does it specify the procedure involving the sprinkling of the blood, which amounts to a repetition?] The repetition of [details of] the service procedures [involving the sprinkling of blood] comes to teach us that if [even] one application of blood is missing [in the service, the offering is] invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 4:252] [But surely we would know this, without Scripture having to tell us. Why should we think that one missing application of blood would still result in a valid offering?] Since we find regarding the applications [of blood] upon the outer altar, that if the kohen made [only] one application, he nevertheless effected atonement, thus, Scripture needs to tell us here, that [in the case of this bull, where the blood was sprinkled inside the Sanctuary,] that [the omission of even] one application [of blood] affects [the validity of the offering].   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְפַר הַֽחַטָּאת: כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּפַר כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ — לְהָבִיא יוֹתֶרֶת וּשְׁתֵּי כְּלָיוֹת שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ שָׁם, מַה שֶּׁלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ כָּאן, וְלִכְפֹּל בְּמִצְוַת הָעֲבוֹדוֹת, לְלַמֵּד שֶׁאִם חִסֵּר אַחַת מִכָּל הַמַּתָּנוֹת פָּסוּל; לְפִי שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בַּנִּתָּנִין עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁנְּתָנָן בְּמַתָּנָה אַחַת כִּפֵּר, הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר כָּאן שֶׁמַּתָּנָה אַחַת מֵהֶן מְעַכֶּבֶת (שם ל"ט):
21And he shall take the bull outside the camp and burn it, just as he burned the first bull. It is a sin offering for the congregation.   כאוְהוֹצִ֣יא אֶת־הַפָּ֗ר אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְשָׂרַ֣ף אֹת֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׂרַ֔ף אֵ֖ת הַפָּ֣ר הָֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן חַטַּ֥את הַקָּהָ֖ל הֽוּא:
22If a leader [of Israel] sins and unintentionally commits one of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   כבאֲשֶׁ֥ר נָשִׂ֖יא יֶֽחֱטָ֑א וְעָשָׂ֡ה אַחַ֣ת מִכָּל־מִצְו‍ֹת֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהָ֜יו אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֛ינָה בִּשְׁגָגָ֖ה וְאָשֵֽׁם:
If the leader [of Israel] sins: Heb. אִשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא, [Why does Scripture not use the word אִם like in the cases of verses 3 and 13 above? The answer is that אִשֶׁר is] an expression reminiscent of [the dictum starting with the word] אַשְׁרֵי, “fortunate is…,” namely: “Fortunate is the generation whose leader [does not hold himself too high, but rather,] gives attention to bringing an atonement offering for his unintentional sins-and how much more will he experience remorse for the sins he has committed willfully!” - [Torath Kohanim 4:257]   אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶֽחֱטָא: לְשׁוֹן אַשְׁרֵי — אַשְׁרֵי הַדּוֹר שֶׁהַנָּשִׂיא שֶׁלּוֹ נוֹתֵן לֵב לְהָבִיא כַּפָּרָה עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ, קַל וָחֹמֶר שֶׁמִּתְחָרֵט עַל זְדוֹנוֹתָיו (ספרא):
23if his sin that he has committed is made known to him, then he shall bring his offering: an unblemished male goat.   כגאֽוֹ־הוֹדַ֤ע אֵלָיו֙ חַטָּאת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖א בָּ֑הּ וְהֵבִ֧יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ שְׂעִ֥יר עִזִּ֖ים זָכָ֥ר תָּמִֽים:
if…is made known: Heb. אוֹ הוֹדַע [This could be literally understood as, “Or …is made known to him.” However, here, the verse] has the meaning: “If [his sin…] is made known to him.” There are many instances of [the word] אוֹ used as expressions of אִם, “if,” and [there are many instances of] אִם used instead of אוֹ. Similar [to this verse, then,] is (Exod. 21:36): אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא [which means: “If it was known that the ox was used to goring.”   אֽוֹ־הוֹדַע: כְּמוֹ אִם הוֹדַע הַדָּבָר; הַרְבֵּה אוֹ יֵשׁ שֶׁמְּשַׁמְּשִׁין בִּלְשׁוֹן אִם, וְאִם בִּמְקוֹם אוֹ, וְכֵן אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא (שמות כ"א):
[If his sin…] is made known to him: When he committed the sin, he thought that it was permissible, but afterwards, it became known to him that it was forbidden.   הוֹדַע אֵלָיו: כְּשֶׁחָטָא הָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא הֶתֵּר, וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן נוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁאִסּוּר הָיָה:
24And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the goat's head and slaughter it in the place where he slaughters burnt offerings, before the Lord. It is a sin offering.   כדוְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ בִּמְק֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
in the place where he slaughters burnt-offerings: namely, in the north [ern area of the Holy Temple courtyard], as is expressly mentioned in the case of the burnt-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 4:270]   בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָה: בַּצָּפוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְפֹרָשׁ בָּעוֹלָה:
It is a sin-offering: [If he slaughters it] for this purpose [i.e., for a sin-offering], it is valid, but if it is [slaughtered] not for this purpose, it is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 271]   חַטָּאת הֽוּא: לִשְׁמוֹ כָּשֵׁר, שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ פָּסוּל (ספרא):
25And the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour its blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings.   כהוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־דָּמ֣וֹ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָֽה:
its blood: [I.e., its] remaining blood.   וְאֶת־דָּמוֹ: שְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם:
26And he shall cause all its fat to [go up in] smoke on the altar, just like the fat of the peace offering. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for his sin, and he will be forgiven.   כווְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ֙ יַקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה כְּחֵ֖לֶב זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מֵֽחַטָּאת֖וֹ וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just like the fat of the peace-offering: i.e., just like the parts [of the animal burnt on the altar] specified for the goat mentioned under the category of peace-offerings.   כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים: כְּאוֹתָן אֵמוּרִין הַמְפֹרָשִׁים בְּעֵז הָאָמוּר אֵצֶל שְׁלָמִים:

Sixth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 4

27If one person of the people of the land commits a sin unintentionally, by his committing one of the commandments of the Lord which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   כזוְאִם־נֶ֧פֶשׁ אַחַ֛ת תֶּֽחֱטָ֥א בִשְׁגָגָ֖ה מֵעַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ בַּֽ֠עֲשׂתָ֠הּ אַחַ֨ת מִמִּצְוֹ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ינָה וְאָשֵֽׁם:
28if his sin that he committed is made known to him, he shall bring his sacrifice: an unblemished female goat, for his sin that he committed.   כחא֚וֹ הוֹדַ֣ע אֵלָ֔יו חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֑א וְהֵבִ֨יא קָרְבָּנ֜וֹ שְׂעִירַ֤ת עִזִּים֙ תְּמִימָ֣ה נְקֵבָ֔ה עַל־חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָֽא:
29And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] on the head of the sin offering, and he shall slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.   כטוְסָמַךְ֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְשָׁחַט֙ אֶת־הַ֣חַטָּ֔את בִּמְק֖וֹם הָֽעֹלָֽה:
30And the kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour all of its [remaining] blood at the base of the altar.   לוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֤ן מִדָּמָהּ֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָ֣הּ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
31And he shall remove all of its fat, just as the fat was removed from the peace offering. The kohen shall then cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, and he will be forgiven.   לאוְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּ֣הּ יָסִ֗יר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר הוּסַ֣ר חֵ֘לֶב֘ מֵעַ֣ל זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֒ וְהִקְטִ֤יר הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just as the fat was removed from the peace-offering: i.e., like the parts [burnt on the altar] of the goat mentioned under the category of peace-offerings.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים: כְּאֵמוּרֵי עֵז הָאֲמוּרִים בַּשְּׁלָמִים:
32If he brings a sheep for his sin offering, he shall bring an unblemished female.   לבוְאִם־כֶּ֛בֶשׂ יָבִ֥יא קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ לְחַטָּ֑את נְקֵבָ֥ה תְמִימָ֖ה יְבִיאֶֽנָּה:
33He shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of the sin offering and slaughter it as a sin offering in the place where he slaughters the burnt offering.   לגוְסָמַךְ֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְשָׁחַ֤ט אֹתָהּ֙ לְחַטָּ֔את בִּמְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשְׁחַ֖ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָֽה:
and he shall slaughter it as a sin-offering: i.e., its slaughtering shall be performed for the specific purpose of a sin-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 4:290]   וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְחַטָּאת: שֶׁתְּהֵא שְׁחִיטָתָהּ לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת (זבחים ז'):
34And the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour all of its blood onto the base of the altar.   לדוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָ֣הּ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
35And he shall remove all its fat, just as the sheep's fat is removed from the peace offering. The kohen shall then cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar, upon the fires for the Lord. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, for his sin which he committed, and he will be forgiven.   להוְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּ֣הּ יָסִ֗יר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יוּסַ֣ר חֵ֣לֶב הַכֶּ֘שֶׂב֘ מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֒ וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֹתָם֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַ֖ל אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן עַל־חַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just as the sheep’s fat is removed: whose prescribed parts [offered up on the altar] are increased by the [addition of its] tail. And likewise, in the case of a female sheep brought as a sin-offering, it too requires the tail [to be added together] with the prescribed parts [offered up on the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:291]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב הַכֶּשֶׂב: שֶׁנִּתְרַבּוּ אֵמוּרָיו בָּאַלְיָה, אַף חַטָּאת כְּשֶׁהִיא בָּאָה כִּבְשָׂה טְעוּנָה אַלְיָה עִם הָאֵמוּרִין:
upon the fires for the Lord: Upon the fires [prepared by man] for the Lord, foayles in Old French, pyres.   עַל אִשֵּׁי ה': עַל מְדוּרוֹת הָאֵשׁ הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת לַשֵּׁם, פוא"ייליש בְּלַעַז:

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 5

1If a person sins, whereby he accepts an oath, and he is a witness [to some matter] by seeing or knowing [it], yet he does not testify, he shall bear his transgression;   אוְנֶ֣פֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָ֗א וְשָֽׁמְעָה֙ ק֣וֹל אָלָ֔ה וְה֣וּא עֵ֔ד א֥וֹ רָאָ֖ה א֣וֹ יָדָ֑ע אִם־ל֥וֹא יַגִּ֖יד וְנָשָׂ֥א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
he accepts an oath: regarding some matter he had witnessed. I.e., they adjured him by oath, to the effect that if he knew anything regarding the matter, that he would testify for him.   וְשָֽׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה: בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא עֵד בּוֹ — שֶׁהִשְׁבִּיעוּהוּ שְׁבוּעָה, שֶׁאִם יוֹדֵעַ לוֹ בְּעֵדוּת, שֶׁיָּעִיד לוֹ (ספרא):
2Or if a person touches anything unclean, whether it is the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domestic animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping animal, and it was hidden from him, he incurs guilt.   בא֣וֹ נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּגַּע֘ בְּכָל־דָּבָ֣ר טָמֵא֒ אוֹ֩ בְנִבְלַ֨ת חַיָּ֜ה טְמֵאָ֗ה א֚וֹ בְּנִבְלַת֙ בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה א֕וֹ בְּנִבְלַ֖ת שֶׁ֣רֶץ טָמֵ֑א וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְה֥וּא טָמֵ֖א וְאָשֵֽׁם:
Or if a person touches [anything unclean]: And after [consequently acquiring] this uncleanness, he eats holy things [namely sacrifices], or he enters the Sanctuary, [each of which] constitutes a sin which, if committed willfully, incurs the penalty of excision. Thus it is explained in Tractate Shevuoth (7a).   אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע וגו': וּלְאַחַר הַטֻּמְאָה הַזּוֹ יֹאכַל קָדָשִׁים אוֹ יִכָּנֵס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁזְּדוֹנוֹ כָּרֵת; בְּמַסֶּכֶת שְׁבוּעוֹת (דף י"ד) נִדְרַשׁ כֵּן:
is hidden from him: i.e., the uncleanness was hidden from him [meaning that he knew that he was eating holy things or entering the Sanctuary; however, he did not know that he was in a state of uncleanness at the time]. — [Shev.. 14b; Torath Kohanim 5:303]   וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ: הַטֻּמְאָה:
he incurs guilt: By eating the sacred food or by entering the Sanctuary.   וְאָשֵֽׁם: בַּאֲכִילַת קֹדֶשׁ אוֹ בְּבִיאַת מִקְדָּשׁ:
3Or if he touches the uncleanness of a human, with any uncleanness through which he may become defiled, and it is hidden from him and [later] he knows, he has incurred guilt;   גא֣וֹ כִ֤י יִגַּע֙ בְּטֻמְאַ֣ת אָדָ֔ם לְכֹל֙ טֻמְאָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִטְמָ֖א בָּ֑הּ וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְה֥וּא יָדַ֖ע וְאָשֵֽׁם:
the uncleanness of a human: This refers to the uncleanness of a [human] corpse. — [Torath Kohanim 5:304]   בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם: זוֹ טֻמְאַת מֵת:
with any uncleanness: This [phrase] comes to include [in this law,] the case of uncleanness acquired by touching a זָב or a זָבָה [a man or woman who has experienced a discharge (see Lev. chapter 15)]. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 305]   לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ: לְרַבּוֹת טֻמְאַת מַגַּע זָבִין וְזָבוֹת:
[through which] he may become defiled: [This phrase comes] to include someone who touches a man who has cohabited with a נִדָּה [a woman who is unclean because of a menstrual flow.]. - [Torath Kohanim 5:305]   אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא: לְרַבּוֹת הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּבוֹעֵל נִדָּה:
through which: [This phrase comes] to include one who swallows the carrion of a kosher bird. — [Torath Kohanim 5:306]   בָּהּ: לְרַבּוֹת בּוֹלֵעַ נִבְלַת עוֹף טָהוֹר (ספרא):
and it is hidden: i.e., [he knew] that he had forgotten the uncleanness.   וְנֶעְלַם: וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁשָּׁכַח הַטֻּמְאָה,
he has incurred guilt: By eating the sacred food or by entering the Sanctuary.   וְאָשֵֽׁם: בַּאֲכִילַת קֹדֶשׁ אוֹ בְּבִיאַת מִקְדָּשׁ:
4Or if a person swears, expressing with [his] lips to do harm or to do good, whatever a man may express in an oath, and it is hidden from him and [later] he knows, he is guilty in any one of these cases.   דא֣וֹ נֶ֡פֶשׁ כִּ֣י תִשָּׁבַע֩ לְבַטֵּ֨א בִשְׂפָתַ֜יִם לְהָרַ֣ע | א֣וֹ לְהֵיטִ֗יב לְ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבַטֵּ֧א הָֽאָדָ֛ם בִּשְׁבֻעָ֖ה וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהֽוּא־יָדַ֥ע וְאָשֵׁ֖ם לְאַחַ֥ת מֵאֵֽלֶּה:
with [his] lips: But not in his heart [i. e., if he merely thought about it, he is not liable to bring a sacrifice]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:311]   בִשְׂפָתַיִם: וְלֹא בַּלֵּב (שם):
to do harm: to himself, or   לְהָרַע: לְעַצְמוֹ:
or to do good: to himself. [That is to say, he swore:] “I will eat,” or “I will not eat,” or “I will sleep,” or “I will not sleep”. — [see Shev. 27a]   אוֹ לְהֵיטִיב: לְעַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן אֹכַל וְלֹא אֹכַל, אִישַׁן וְלֹא אִישַׁן (שבועות כ"ז):
whatever [a man] may express [in an oath]: This [phrase] comes to include [an oath] regarding the past [i.e., if he swore, “I ate,” “I did not eat,” etc.]. — [Shev. 26a]   לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא: לְרַבּוֹת לְשֶׁעָבַר:
and it is hidden from him: And [consequently,] he transgressed his oath (Shev. 26a). In all these cases [a person must bring an] עוֹלֶה יוֹרֵד offering-sliding-scale offering, as explained here [in this passage. The person brings a lamb or a goat, or two turtle-doves or young doves, or a meal-offering, depending on what he can afford]. However, [for lying in] an oath involving the denial of a monetary claim, he is not [liable to] this type of offering, but rather, a guilt-offering. — [see below, verses 24-25]   וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ: וְעָבַר עַל שְׁבוּעָתוֹ, כָּל אֵלֶּה בְּקָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, כַּמְּפֹרָשׁ כָּאן, אֲבָל שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּפִירַת מָמוֹן אֵינָהּ בְּקָרְבָּן זוֹ אֶלָּא בְּאָשָׁם:
5And it shall be, when someone incurs guilt in any one of these cases, that he shall confess the sin which he had committed,   הוְהָיָ֥ה כִֽי־יֶאְשַׁ֖ם לְאַחַ֣ת מֵאֵ֑לֶּה וְהִ֨תְוַדָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖א עָלֶֽיהָ:
6and he shall bring his guilt offering to the Lord for his sin which he had committed, a female [animal] from the flock either a sheep or a goat, for a sin offering. And the kohen shall make atonement from his sin.   ווְהֵבִ֣יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֣וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֡ה עַ֣ל חַטָּאתוֹ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָטָ֜א נְקֵבָ֨ה מִן־הַצֹּ֧אן כִּשְׂבָּ֛ה אֽוֹ־שְׂעִירַ֥ת עִזִּ֖ים לְחַטָּ֑את וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו הַכֹּהֵ֖ן מֵֽחַטָּאתֽוֹ:
7But if he cannot afford a sheep, he shall bring as his guilt offering for that [sin] that he had committed, two turtle doves or two young doves before the Lord, one for a sin offering, and one for a burnt offering.   זוְאִם־לֹ֨א תַגִּ֣יעַ יָדוֹ֘ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְהֵבִ֨יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֜וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֗א שְׁתֵּ֥י תֹרִ֛ים אֽוֹ־שְׁנֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יוֹנָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶחָ֥ד לְחַטָּ֖את וְאֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָֽה:
8He shall bring them to the kohen, who shall first offer up that [bird] which is [designated] for the sin offering. He shall cut its head [by piercing with his nail] opposite the back of its head, but shall not separate [it].   חוְהֵבִ֤יא אֹתָם֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִקְרִ֛יב אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לַֽחַטָּ֖את רִֽאשׁוֹנָ֑ה וּמָלַ֧ק אֶת־רֹאשׁ֛וֹ מִמּ֥וּל עָרְפּ֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א יַבְדִּֽיל:
who shall first offer…the sin-offering: A sin-offering must precede a burnt-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 5:329] To what may this be compared? To an intercessor, who enters [the palace] to appease [the king]. Once he has appeased [him], the gift enters after him [i.e., first the sin-offering comes to appease, then the burnt-offering comes as a gift]. — [Zev. 7b]   וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַֽחַטָּאת רִֽאשׁוֹנָה: חַטָּאת קוֹדֶמֶת לָעוֹלָה (ספרא); לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה? לִפְרַקְלִיט שֶׁנִּכְנָס לְרַצּוֹת, רִצָּה פְּרַקְלִיט, נִכְנָס דּוֹרוֹן אַחֲרָיו (זבחים ז'):
but shall not separate [it]: He cuts only one organ [either the esophagus or the trachea]. — [Chul. 21a]   וְלֹא יַבְדִּֽיל: אֵינוֹ מוֹלֵק אֶלָּא סִימָן אֶחָד (חולין כ"א):
the back of its head: Heb. עֹרֶף It is the high part of the head which slopes down towards the neck [i.e., the back surface of the head, at the level of the face. — (see Sifthei Chachamim on Lev. 1:15)]. Thus, the expression, עֹרֶף, “[that which is situated] opposite the עֹרֶף, has the meaning: ” that which sees the עֹרֶף “ [Now since the עֹרֶף has been defined as the back surface of the head then ”that which sees the עֹרֶף “ refers to] the entire length of the back of the neck [the area which ”sees the עֹרֶף," i.e., which is directly adjacent to it]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:332]   ערף: הוּא גֹּבַהּ הָרֹאשׁ הַמַּשְׁפִּיעַ לְצַד הַצַּוָּאר:
9He shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood shall be pressed out onto the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.   טוְהִזָּ֞ה מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ עַל־קִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָ֣ר בַּדָּ֔ם יִמָּצֵ֖ה אֶל־יְס֣וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
He shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin-offering: In the case of a burnt-offering, Scripture requires only מִצּוּי, pressing out the blood (see Lev. 1:15), but for a sin-offering, both הַזָאָה, sprinkling of the blood, and מִצּוּי, pressing out the blood, are required. He grasps the עֹרֶף [or, as in some early editions and mansuscripts: He grasps the bird. See Yosef Hallel] and sprinkles [the blood], and so, the blood spurts out onto the altar. — [Zev. 64b]   וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַֽחַטָּאת: בָּעוֹלָה לֹא הִטְעִין אֶלָּא מִצּוּי, וּבַחַטָּאת הַזָּאָה וּמִצּוּי, אוֹחֵז בָּעֹרֶף וּמַתִּיז, וְהַדָּם נִתָּז וְהוֹלֵךְ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
This is a sin-offering: [If the bird was sacrificed] for the specific purpose [of a sin-offering], the offering is valid; however, if it was not [sacrificed] for the specific purpose [of a sin-offering], it is not valid. — [Torath Kohanim 5:335]   חַטָּאת הֽוּא: לִשְׁמָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה, שֶׁלֹא לִשְׁמָהּ פְּסוּלָה (ספרא):
10And he shall offer up the second one as a burnt offering, according to the law. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, from his sin which he had committed, and he shall be forgiven.   יוְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִ֛י יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מֵֽחַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
according to the law: i.e., according to the ritual prescribed at the beginning of this parashah (Lev. 1: 14-17), regarding the burnt-offering of a bird which is brought voluntarily.   כַּמִּשְׁפָּט: כַּדָּת הָאָמוּר בְּעוֹלַת הָעוֹף שֶׁל נְדָבָה בְּרֹאשׁ הַפָּרָשָׁה:

Seventh Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 5

11But if he cannot afford two turtle doves or two young doves, then he shall bring as his sacrifice for his sin one tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering. He shall not put oil over it, nor shall he place frankincense upon it, for it is a sin offering.   יאוְאִם־לֹא֩ תַשִּׂ֨יג יָד֜וֹ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י תֹרִ֗ים אוֹ֘ לִשְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־יוֹנָה֒ וְהֵבִ֨יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֜וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֗א עֲשִׂירִ֧ת הָֽאֵפָ֛ה סֹ֖לֶת לְחַטָּ֑את לֹֽא־יָשִׂ֨ים עָלֶ֜יהָ שֶׁ֗מֶן וְלֹֽא־יִתֵּ֤ן עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ לְבֹנָ֔ה כִּ֥י חַטָּ֖את הִֽוא:
for it is a sin-offering: [and since a sinner is bringing it, albeit an unintentional sinner,] it is not proper that his offering should be embellished [by oil and frankincense]. — [Men. 6a]   כִּי חַטָּאת הִֽוא: וְאֵין בַּדִּין שֶׁיְּהֵא קָרְבָּנוֹ מְהֻדָּר (מנחות ו'):
12He shall bring it to the kohen, and the kohen shall scoop out a fistful as its reminder, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, upon the fires of the Lord. It is a sin offering.   יבוֶֽהֱבִיאָהּ֘ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן֒ וְקָמַ֣ץ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן | מִ֠מֶּ֠נָּה מְל֨וֹא קֻמְצ֜וֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּֽרָתָהּ֙ וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַ֖ל אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה חַטָּ֖את הִֽוא:
It is a sin-offering: [This teaches us that] if the offering underwent קְמִיצָה, the scooping out procedure, and הַקְטָרָה the burning procedure, both for the specific purpose of a sin-offering, it is valid; if [these procedures were performed] not for the specific purpose of a sin-offering, however, the offering is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 5:342]   חַטָּאת הִֽוא: נִקְמְצָה וְנִקְטְרָה לִשְׁמָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה, שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָהּ פְּסוּלָה:
13Thus the kohen shall make atonement for his sin that he committed in any one of these [cases], and he shall be forgiven. And it shall belong to the kohen like the meal offering.   יגוְכִפֶּר֩ עָלָ֨יו הַכֹּהֵ֜ן עַל־חַטָּאת֧וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֛א מֵֽאַחַ֥ת מֵאֵ֖לֶּה וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֑וֹ וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לַכֹּהֵ֖ן כַּמִּנְחָֽה:
for his sin that he committed: Heb. עַל חַטָּאתוֹ. Here, Scripture changes the expression [previously used], for in the case of a rich man or a moderately poor man [who must bring a sin-offering] (see verses 6 and 10 above), it says, מֵחַטָּאתוֹ, “from his sin,” while here, in the case of a very poor man [who can afford only a meal-offering], it says, עַל חַטָּאתוֹ [literally, “upon his sin”]. Our Rabbis (Ker. 27b) derived from here that, if a person sinned while he was rich and set aside money for a sheep or goat [as his sin-offering], and subsequently, became poor [before he purchased his sacrifice], he is to bring from part of it, two turtle-doves [or young doves, for the verse alluded to this by “from his sin-offering,” from the money designated for it. Similarly,] if a person set aside money for two turtle-doves [or two young doves, as his sin-offering and before the purchase,] he became poorer, he is to bring from part of it a tenth of an ephah [of flour as his sin-offering]. [And in the same vein,] if a [very poor] person designated money for a tenth of an ephah [of flour as his sin-offering] and became rich [before purchasing the flour], he must add to it and bring the offering of a rich man. For this reason it says here, עַל חַטָּאתוֹ [as if to say, “in addition to his sin-offering”].   עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא: כָּאן שִׁנָּה הַכָּתוּב, שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּעֲשִׁירוּת וּבְדַלּוּת נֶאֱמַר מֵחַטָּאתוֹ, וְכָאן בְּדַלֵּי דַּלּוּת נֶאֱמַר עַל חַטָּאתוֹ, דִּקְדְּקוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ מִכָּאן, שֶׁאִם חָטָא כְּשֶׁהוּא עָשִׁיר וְהִפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לְכִשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה וְהֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא מִמִּקְצָתָן שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים, הִפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לִשְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים וְהֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא מִמִּקְצָתָן עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵפָה, הִפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵפָה וְהֶעֱשִׁיר, יוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶן וְיָבִיא קָרְבַּן עָשִׁיר, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר כָּאן עַל חַטָּאתוֹ:
in any one of these [cases]: [literally, “from one from these,” thus meaning:] From one of these three [forms of] atonement described in the passage, namely, that of the rich, that of the poor, or that of the very poor. Now what is Scripture teaching us? [Since the Torah gives the three options for offerings, animals, birds, and flour, without specifying who may bring which option,] one might think that severe transgressions [namely contaminating the sanctuary and its holy things, for which the punishment is excision,] must [be atoned for by bringing the “largest” category of sacrifices, namely] sheep or goats, moderate transgressions [namely the oath of the witnesses, not punishable by excision, but which the Torah likens unintentional sins to intentional sins] must be atoned by a “moderate” offering, namely] birds, and the lightest of transgressions [namely the oath of pronouncement, which has neither stringency, must be atoned for by the lightest offerings, namely,] one- tenth of an ephah [of flour]. Thus, Scripture comes to teach us [otherwise, by saying], מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה literally, “from one from these,” to liken light sins to grave sins regarding a sheep or a goat if he can afford it, and [likewise, to liken] grave sins to light sins regarding the one-tenth of an ephah [of flour], if [the sinner is] very poor. — [Torath Kohanim 5:343] [Although the Torah states in verse 7, “But if he cannot afford a sheep …,” and in verse 11, “But if he cannot afford two turtle-doves or two young doves …,” the text וְאִם לֹא תַגִּיעַ יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה could be interpreted: “If his hand did not reach the treachery to necessitate the bringing of a sheep,” and וְאִם לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים “If his hand did not reach the treachery to necessitate the bringing of two turtle-doves or two young doves” (Mizrachi, Sifthei Chachamim).] and it shall belong to the kohen like the meal-offering Heb.   מֵֽאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה: מֵאַחַת מִשָּׁלוֹשׁ כַּפָּרוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בָּעִנְיָן — אוֹ בַּעֲשִׁירוּת אוֹ בְּדַלּוּת אוֹ בְּדַלֵּי דַּלּוּת; וּמָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר? שֶׁיָּכוֹל הַחֲמוּרִים שֶׁבָּהֶם יִהְיוּ בְּכִשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה, וְהַקַּלִּין יִהְיוּ בְּעוֹף, וְהַקַּלִּין שֶׁבַּקַּלִין יִהְיוּ בַּעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵפָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה, לְהַשְׁווֹת קַלִּין לַחֲמוּרִין לְכִשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה אִם הִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ, וְאֶת הַחֲמוּרִין לַקַּלִּין לַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵפָה בְּדַלֵּי דַּלּוּת (ספרא):
And it shall belong to the kohen like the meal offering: [This comes] to teach [us] that the remaining portion of the meal-offering of a sinner is to be eaten [by the kohen]: this is according to its plain meaning. Our Rabbis, (Torath Kohanim 5:344; Men . 73b), however, explained [the passage to mean]: “And if it is for a kohen, it shall be like the meal-offering.” [That is to say: If this sinner is an ordinary Israelite, the remaining portion of the meal-offering is eaten by the kohen , as explained. However,] if this sinner is a kohen, the offering must be for him like any other meal-offering brought voluntarily by a kohen, which is included in “[Every meal-offering of a kohen shall be] completely [burnt]: it shall not be eaten” (Lev. 6:16).   וְהָֽיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָֽה: לְלַמֵּד עַל מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁיָרֶיהָ נֶאֱכָלִין, זֶהוּ לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ: "וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן" — וְאִם חוֹטֵא זֶה כֹּהֵן הוּא, תְּהֵא כִּשְׁאָר מִנְחַת נִדְבַת כֹּהֵן, שֶׁהִיא בְּכָלִיל תִּהְיֶה לֹא תֵאָכֵל (ספרא):
14And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   ידוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
15If a person commits a betrayal and trespasses unintentionally against [one] of the things sacred to the Lord, he shall bring as his guilt offering to the Lord an unblemished ram from the flock with a value of silver shekels, in accordance with the shekel of the Sanctuary for a guilt offering.   טונֶ֚פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תִמְעֹ֣ל מַעַ֔ל וְחָֽטְאָה֙ בִּשְׁגָגָ֔ה מִקָּדְשֵׁ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהֵבִיא֩ אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֨וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה אַ֧יִל תָּמִ֣ים מִן־הַצֹּ֗אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֛ כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִ֥ים בְּשֶֽׁקֶל־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ לְאָשָֽׁם:
If [a person] commits a betrayal: Heb. כִּי תִמְעַל מַעַל. [The term] מְעִילָה everywhere [in Scripture], denotes nothing but a change [of status or position. Hence, here, the person changed the particular article’s status from sacred to mundane, through his misappropriation]. So it says: “And they betrayed (וַיִּמְעַלוּ) the God of their fathers, and they strayed after the gods of the peoples of the land” (I Chron. 5:25). Similarly, Scripture states regarding the סוֹטָה [a woman suspected of adultery] “and she commits a betrayal against him (וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל).” (Num. 5:12). - [Torath Kohanim] [In both instances, betrayal represents a change of allegiance.]   כִּֽי־תִמְעֹל מַעַל: אֵין מְעִילָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֶלָּא שִׁנּוּי, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בֵאלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּזְנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ (דהי"א ה'), וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּסוֹטָה וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל (במדבר ה'):
and trespasses unintentionally against [one] of the things sacred to the Lord: meaning that he used sacred articles for his own benefit. Now, where [in Scripture] was one warned [against misappropriating sacred articles]? The word חטא is stated here in our verse, and later on (Lev. 22:9), regarding terumah [the kohen 's due from produce], [the word] חטא is stated: “that they do not bear a sin (חֵטְא) because of it”; thus, just as there [in the case of terumah], Scripture warns, so too, here, Scripture warns. But [if we are using the word חטא to link these two passages, the following could be suggested]: Just as there [in the case of terumah], He warned only one who eats [it], so too, here, Scripture is warning only one who eats [sacred food, but not for merely having benefit from a sacred article]. Therefore, Scripture says: תִמְעֹל מַעַל, the additional [word coming to include the general case of one deriving benefit from sacred articles]. — [See Torath Kohanim 11:347, Me’ilah 18b, Rashi on San. 84a, Makkoth 13a]   וְחָֽטְאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי ה': שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ; וְהֵיכָן הֻזְהַר? נֶאֱמַר כָּאן חֵטְא, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן חֵטְא בִּתְרוּמָה, וְלֹא יִשְֹאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא (ויקרא כ"ב), מַה לְּהַלָּן הִזְהִיר, אַף כָּאן הִזְהִיר; אִי מַה לְּהַלָּן לֹא הִזְהִיר אֶלָּא עַל הָאוֹכֵל, אַף כָּאן לֹא הִזְהִיר אֶלָּא עַל הָאוֹכֵל, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר תִמְעֹל מַעַל — רִבָּה (ספרא):
of the things sacred to the Lord: Things specifically designated for the Name [of God]. Thus, קֳדָשִׁים קַלִּים [sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness] are excluded. [Also, portions of sacrifices which may be eaten by the kohen, and are therefore not considered exclusively “designated to God,” are excluded]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:349]   מִקָּדְשֵׁי ה': הַמְיֻחָדִים לַשֵּׁם, יָצְאוּ קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים (שם):
ram: Heb. אַיִל, a term denoting strength, like “and the mighty (אֵילֵי) of the land, he took away” (Ezek. 17:13). Here, too, it means “strong,” [namely a ram] in its second year. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 350]   אַיִל: לְשׁוֹן קָשֶׁה, כְּמוֹ וְאֶת אֵילֵי הָאָרֶץ לָקָח (יחזקאל י"ז), אַף כָּאן קָשֶׁה — בֶּן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים (ספרא):
with a value of silver shekels: namely, it must be worth two selaim. — [see Ker. 10b] [Sela in the Mishnah is the shekel of the Torah, and the minimum of שְׁקָלִים is two.]   בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִים: שֶׁיְּהֵא שָׁוֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים:
16And what he has trespassed against the holy thing he shall pay, and he shall add one fifth of its value to it, and he shall give it to the kohen. The kohen shall then make atonement for him through the ram of the guilt offering, and he shall be forgiven.   טזוְאֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר֩ חָטָ֨א מִן־הַקֹּ֜דֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּ֗ם וְאֶת־חֲמִֽישִׁתוֹ֙ יוֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֔יו וְנָתַ֥ן אֹת֖וֹ לַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְהַכֹּהֵ֗ן יְכַפֵּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו בְּאֵ֥יל הָֽאָשָׁ֖ם וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
And what he has trespassed against the holy thing he shall pay: the principal and an [additional] fifth to the Holy Temple [treasury].   וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם: קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ:
17If a person sins and commits one of the commandments of the Lord which may not be committed, but he does not know, he is guilty, and he shall bear his transgression.   יזוְאִם־נֶ֨פֶשׁ֙ כִּ֣י תֶֽחֱטָ֔א וְעָֽשְׂתָ֗ה אַחַת֙ מִכָּל־מִצְוֹ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֣א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֑ינָה וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע וְאָשֵׁ֖ם וְנָשָׂ֥א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
but he does not know, he is guilty and…He shall bring: This section deals with one who has a doubt regarding a prohibition punishable by excision, whereby he does not know whether he has transgressed it [the prohibition] or not. For instance, [a piece of] prohibited animal fat (חֵלֶב) and [a piece of] permissible animal fat (שׁוּמָן) are placed before someone, and, thinking that both were permissible [fats], he ate one. Then, people told him, “One of those pieces was חֵלֶב, prohibited fat!” Now, the person did not know whether he had eaten the one piece that was חֵלֶב In this case, he must bring a sacrifice called an אָשָׁם תָלוּי [literally, a “pending guilt-offering” (Ker. 17b), which protects him [against punishment] so long as he does not know that he had indeed sinned. However, if afterwards, he did find out [that he had indeed sinned], then he must bring a sin-offering. — [Ker. 26b, Torath Kohanim 5:367]   וְלֹֽא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם והביא: הָעִנְיָן הַזֶּה מְדַבֵּר בְּמִי שֶׁבָּא סְפֵק כָּרֵת לְיָדוֹ וְלֹא יָדַע אִם עָבַר עָלָיו אִם לָאו, כְּגוֹן חֵלֶב וְשֻׁמָּן לְפָנָיו, וּכְסָבוּר שְׁתֵּיהֶן הֶתֵּר וְאָכַל אֶת הָאֶחָד, אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַחַת שֶׁל חֵלֶב הָיְתָה, וְלֹא יָדַע אִם זוֹ שֶׁל חֵלֶב אָכַל, הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, וּמֵגֵן עָלָיו כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁוַּדַּאי חָטָא, וְאִם נוֹדַע לוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן, יָבִיא חַטָּאת (כריתות כ"ב):
but he does not know, he is guilty, and he shall bear his transgression: Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: “Here, Scripture punishes someone who did not [even] know [whether he had sinned or not]; how much more so will Scripture punish someone who does indeed know [that he has sinned]!” Rabbi Yose says: “If you wish to know the reward of the righteous, go forth and learn it from Adam, the first man. He was given only [one] negative commandment, and he transgressed it. Look how many deaths were decreed upon him and his descendants! [Before his sin, Adam was to have lived forever. Since he sinned, however, he and all mankind were punished with death.] Now, which measure is greater-the [bestowing of] goodness, or [the meting out of] punishment? One must say that the measure of goodness [is greater. See Rashi on Makk. 5b, Rivan on Makk. 23a]. So [if, through] the measure of punishment, which is less [than that of goodness] look how many deaths were decreed upon himself and his descendants, [through] the measure of goodness, which is greater, if someone [who does the opposite of Adam, i.e.,] refrains from eating [forbidden foods, like, for instance] פִּגּוּל [a sacrifice rendered invalid by improper intentions at the time of the performance of the ritual] or נוֹתָר [a portion of a sacrifice left over after its prescribed time], or if he fasts on Yom Kippur, then how much more so will he earn merit for himself, for his descendants, and for his descendants’ descendants, until the very end of all generations?!” Rabbi Akiva says: “Scripture states (Deut. 17:6 and 19:15), ‘By the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses…’ Now, if the testimony can be established through two witnesses, why does Scripture specify: ‘Or three witnesses’? But to include the third one, to be stringent with him, [as if he had accomplished something with his testomony] and to make his sentence just like these [two witnesses] with regard to punishment for plotting [if the witnesses are discovered to have plotted against the defendant] (Deut. 19:16-21). [This translation follows the Reggio edition of Rashi, which reads עֹנֶשׁ זְמָמָה All other editions read עֹנֶשׁ וַהִזָמָה, punishment and refutation , which contemporary scholars have difficulty in clarifying. See Chavel, Leket Bahir, Yosef Hallel.] Now, if Scripture punishes someone who is an accessory to those who commit a sin, just like those who commit the sin, how much more so does Scripture bestow ample reward upon someone who is an accessory to those who fulfill a commandment, like those who fulfill a commandment!” Rabbi Eleazar Ben Azariah says: “‘When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf in the field…,” Scripture continues, ‘so that [the Lord your God] will bless you…’ (Deut. 24: 19). Here, Scripture has affixed a blessing for someone to whom a meritorious deed came without his knowing it. We must conclude from this, that if one had a sela [a coin] bound in the borders of his garment, and it falls out, and a poor man finds this coin and buys provisions with it, the Holy One, Blessed is He, affixes a blessing to him." - [Torath Kohanim 5:363]   וְלֹֽא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עונו: רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הַכָּתוּב עָנַשׁ אֶת מִי שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיַּעֲנִישׁ אֶת מִי שֶׁיָּדַע, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם נַפְשְׁךָ לֵידַע מַתַּן שְֹכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, צֵא וּלְמַד מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַוָּה אֶלָּא עַל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה וְעָבַר עָלֶיהָ, רְאֵה כַּמָּה מִיתוֹת נִקְנְסוּ עָלָיו וּלְדוֹרוֹתָיו. וְכִי אֵיזוֹ מִדָּה מְרֻבָּה שֶׁל טוֹבָה אוֹ שֶׁל פֻּרְעָנוּת? הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר מִדָּה טוֹבָה, אִם מִדַּת פֻּרְעָנוּת מְעוּטָה, רְאֵה כַּמָּה מִיתוֹת נִקְנְסוּ לוֹ וּלְדוֹרוֹתָיו, מִדָּה טוֹבָה הַמְרֻבָּה הַיּוֹשֵׁב לוֹ מִן הַפִּגּוּלִין וְהַנּוֹתָרוֹת וְהַמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים — עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה לוֹ וּלְדוֹרוֹתָיו וּלְדוֹרוֹת דּוֹרוֹתָיו עַד סוֹף כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת; רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר עַל פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְגוֹ' (דברים י"ז), אִם מִתְקַיֶּמֶת הָעֵדוּת בִּשְׁנַיִם, לָמָּה פֵּרֵט לְךָ הַכָּתוּב ג'? אֶלָּא לְהָבִיא שְׁלִישִׁי לְהַחֲמִיר עָלָיו וְלַעֲשׂוֹת דִּינוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ לְעִנְיַן עֹנֶשׁ בַּהֲזָמָה; אִם כָּךְ עָנַשׁ הַכָּתוּב לַנִּטְפָּל לְעוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה כְּעוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם שָֹכָר טוֹב לַנִּטְפָּל לְעוֹשֵׂי מִצְוָה כְּעוֹשֵׂי מִצְוָה (סנהדרין ט'); רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ וְגוֹ' (דברים כ"ד) — קָבַע הַכָּתוּב בְּרָכָה לְמִי שֶׁבָּאת עַל יָדוֹ מִצְוָה בְּלֹא יָדַע — אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה, הָיְתָה סֶלַע צְרוּרָה בִּכְנָפָיו וְנָפְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ וּמְצָאָהּ הֶעָנִי וְנִתְפַּרְנֵס בָּהּ, הֲרֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קוֹבֵעַ לוֹ בְּרָכָה (ספרא):
18He shall bring an unblemished ram from the flock, with the value for a guilt offering, to the kohen. The kohen shall then make atonement for his unintentional sin which he committed and did not know, and he shall be forgiven.   יחוְ֠הֵבִ֠יא אַ֣יִל תָּמִ֧ים מִן־הַצֹּ֛אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ לְאָשָׁ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְכִפֶּר֩ עָלָ֨יו הַכֹּהֵ֜ן עַ֣ל שִֽׁגְגָת֧וֹ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁגָ֛ג וְה֥וּא לֹֽא־יָדַ֖ע וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
with the value for a guilt-offering: Heb. בְּעֶרְכְּ, i. e., with the value stated above (see Rashi, verse 15) [namely, two selaim of silver]. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 364]   בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם: בָּעֵרֶךְ הָאָמוּר לְמַעְלָה:
for his unintentional sin which he committed and did not know: But if, afterwards, he did come to know [of his sin], he no longer has atonement with this guilt-offering, [and his sin remains unatoned] until he brings a sin-offering. To what can this be compared? To the עֶגְלָה עִרוּפָה [a calf whose neck is broken as an atonement for a city, outside whose precincts a human corpse is found, and the murderer is unknown]; if the neck [of this עֶגְלָה עִרוּפָה has already been broken, and subsequently, the murderer is found, the latter must be put to death [even though, like in the case of our verse, a sacrifice has already been offered]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:367]   אֲשֶׁר־שָׁגָג וְהוּא לֹֽא־יָדַע: הָא אִם יָדַע לְאַחַר זְמַן, לֹא נִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בְּאָשָׁם זֶה עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא חַטָּאת, הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה? לְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְפָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְצָא הַהוֹרֵג, הֲרֵי זֶה יֵהָרֵג (שם):
19It is a guilt offering he has incurred guilt before the Lord.   יטאָשָׁ֖ם ה֑וּא אָשֹׁ֥ם אָשַׁ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
It is a guilt-offering he has incurred guilt: Heb. אָשַׁם אָשָׁם הוּא אָשֹׁם. [In this verse, the root אשׁם, “guilt,” appears three times.] The first is vocalized completely with kematzim [i.e., a kamatz under the first syllable and a kamatz under the second,] because it is a noun [meaning, “a guilt-offering”]. The last אָשַׁם is vocalized half with a kamatz and half with a patach [i.e., a kamatz under the first syllable and a patach under the second] because it is a verb form [meaning, “he has incurred guilt”]. If you ask that this whole verse is superfluous, [I will tell you that] it has already been expounded on in Torath Kohanim (5:368), [as follows]: The double expression אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם comes to include the case of אִשַׁם שִׁפְחָה חִרוּפָה [the guilt-offering to atone for one who violates a betrothed handmaid (see Lev. 19:20)], that it also consist of a ram (in the second year) [worth two selaim of silver] [This is the correct version because a ram is always a sheep in the second year (Sefer Hazikkaron). One might think that I am to include [in this law of two selaim] the guilt-offering of a Nazarite and of a person stricken with tzara’ath. Scripture, therefore, says הוּא [meaning: It is a guilt-offering worth two selaim, but not others which are not rams but lambs]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:369]   אָשָׁם הוּא אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם: הָרִאשׁוֹן כֻּלּוֹ קָמוּץ, שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם דָּבָר, וְהָאַחֲרוֹן חֶצְיוֹ קָמָץ וְחֶצְיוֹ פַּתָּח שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן פָּעַל; וְאִם תֹּאמַר מִקְרָא שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הוּא, כְּבָר דָּרוּשׁ הוּא בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים, אשם אשם — לְהָבִיא אֲשַׁם שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה שֶׁיְּהֵא אַיִל בֶּן שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים, יָכוֹל שֶׁאֲנִי מְרַבֶּה אֲשַׁם נָזִיר וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר הוּא (שם):
20And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   כוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
21If a person sins, betraying the Lord by falsely denying to his fellow concerning a deposit, or money given in hand, or an object taken by robbery, or he withheld funds from his fellow,   כאנֶ֚פֶשׁ כִּ֣י תֶֽחֱטָ֔א וּמָֽעֲלָ֥ה מַ֖עַל בַּֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְכִחֵ֨שׁ בַּֽעֲמִית֜וֹ בְּפִקָּד֗וֹן אֽוֹ־בִתְשׂ֤וּמֶת יָד֙ א֣וֹ בְגָזֵ֔ל א֖וֹ עָשַׁ֥ק אֶת־עֲמִיתֽוֹ:
If a person sins, [betraying the Lord]: [In verse 15 above, the verse is referring to misappropriating sacred articles. Thus, the sin is against God. However, here in our verse, Scripture says “betraying the Lord,” and then continues to discuss an item left by one’s fellow as a deposit. So what is the relevance of the verse saying, “betraying the Lord” ?] Rabbi Akiva said: What is Scripture teaching us, when it says, “betraying the Lord” ? Since every lender and borrower, buyer and seller, perform their transactions with witnesses and by documentation, therefore, if one denies a monetary claim, he would find himself contradicting witnesses and a document. However, when someone deposits an article with his fellow, he does not want anyone to know about it, except the Third Party between them [namely, God]. Therefore, when he denies, he is denying against the Third Party between them. — [Torath Kohanim 5:372]   נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶֽחֱטָא: אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּה'? לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַמַּלְוֶה וְהַלֹּוֶה וְהַנּוֹשֵֹׁא וְהַנּוֹתֵן אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אֶלָּא בְּעֵדִים וּבִשְׁטָר, לְפִיכָךְ בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְכַחֵשׁ, מְכַחֵשׁ בָּעֵדִים וּבַשְּׁטָר, אֲבָל הַמַּפְקִיד אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה שֶׁתֵּדַע בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה אֶלָּא שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְכַחֵשׁ מְכַחֵשׁ בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם (שם):
money given in hand: that he placed money into his hand, to do business with it or [as] a loan. — [Torath Kohanim 5:373]   בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד: שֶׁשָּׂם בְּיָדוֹ מָמוֹן לְהִתְעַסֵּק אוֹ בְּמִלְוֶה:
or an article taken by robbery: that he robbed him of something.   אֽוֹ־בְגָזֵל: שֶׁגָּזַל מִיָּדוֹ כְּלוּם:
he withheld funds: [this refers to withholding the wages of] a hired worker. - [Torath Kohanim 5:373]   אֽוֹ־עָשַׁק: הוּא שְֹכַר שָֹכִיר (שם):
22or he found a lost article and he denied it and swore falsely regarding any one of all these cases whereby a man may sin,   כבאֽוֹ־מָצָ֧א אֲבֵדָ֛ה וְכִ֥חֶשׁ בָּ֖הּ וְנִשְׁבַּ֣ע עַל־שָׁ֑קֶר עַל־אַחַ֗ת מִכֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה הָֽאָדָ֖ם לַֽחֲטֹ֥א בָהֵֽנָּה:
and he denied it: [meaning] that He denies [a claim] regarding any one of all these cases whereby a man may sin and swear falsely in denial of a monetary claim.   וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ: שֶׁכָּפַר על אחת מכל אֵלֶּה אשר יעשה האדם לחטא וּלְהִשָּׁבַע עַל שֶׁקֶר לִכְפִירַת מָמוֹן:
23and it shall be, when he has sinned and is guilty, that he shall return the article which he had robbed, or the funds which he had withheld, or the item which had been deposited with him, or the article which he had found;   כגוְהָיָה֘ כִּי־יֶֽחֱטָ֣א וְאָשֵׁם֒ וְהֵשִׁ֨יב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר גָּזָ֗ל א֤וֹ אֶת־הָע֨שֶׁק֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׁ֔ק א֚וֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּד֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָפְקַ֖ד אִתּ֑וֹ א֥וֹ אֶת־הָֽאֲבֵדָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר מָצָֽא:
when he has sinned and is guilty: When he himself recognizes that he must repent, knowing and acknowledging that he has sinned, and is guilty. [Some editions: and he intends to confess that he has sinned.]   כִּי־יֶֽחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם: כְּשֶׁיַּכִּיר בְּעַצְמוֹ לָשׁוּב בִּתְשׁוּבָה, וּבְדַעְתּוֹ לְהִתְוַדּוֹת כִּי חָטָא וְאָשֵׁם:
24or anything else, regarding which he had sworn falsely, he shall pay it with its principal, adding its fifths to it. He shall give it to its rightful owner on the day [he repents for] his guilt.   כדאוֹ מִכֹּ֞ל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַ֣ע עָלָיו֘ לַשֶּׁ֒קֶר֒ וְשִׁלַּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ בְּרֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַֽחֲמִֽשִׁתָ֖יו יֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֑יו לַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר ה֥וּא ל֛וֹ יִתְּנֶ֖נּוּ בְּי֥וֹם אַשְׁמָתֽוֹ:
the principal: Heb. בְּרֹאשׁוֹ This is the principal, which is the “main” (רֹאשׁ) money [from which profit is generated]. — [B.K. 110a]   בְּרֹאשׁוֹ: הוּא הַקֶּרֶן, רֹאשׁ הַמָּמוֹן:
and its fifths: Heb. וַחִמִשִׁתָיו, [in the plural form.] The Torah includes many fifths of one principal sum. [What case is referred to here?] If a person [had paid back a principal to its rightful owner, but] denies that he owes the extra fifth [claiming, for example, that he had already paid this fifth] and swears later confesses [that he still owes this extra fifth-part], then [in addition to having to pay this fifth of the original principal sum,] he must also pay a fifth of this fifth- [since the fifth of the original principal reverts to becoming a small “principal” in its own right]. And so he continues to add [if he continues to deny, swear falsely and then admit], until the most recent fifth-part is worth less than one perutah. — [Torath Kohanim 5:387]   וַֽחֲמִֽשִׁתָיו: רִבְּתָה הַתּוֹרָה חֲמִישִׁיּוֹת הַרְבֵּה לְקֶרֶן אַחַת, שֶׁאִם כָּפַר בַּחֹמֶשׁ וְנִשְׁבַּע וְהוֹדָה, חוֹזֵר וּמֵבִיא חֹמֶשׁ עַל אוֹתוֹ חֹמֶשׁ, וְכֵן מוֹסִיף וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַעֵט הַקֶּרֶן הַנִּשְׁבָּע לוֹ פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁוֶה פְּרוּטָה (בבא קמא ק"ג):
to its rightful owner: [lit., to whom it belongs, meaning:] The person to whom the money [rightfully] belongs.   לַֽאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ: לְמִי שֶׁהַמָּמוֹן שֶׁלּוֹ (שם):
25He shall then bring his guilt offering to the Lord: an unblemished ram from the flock with the [same] value, for a guilt offering, to the kohen.   כהוְאֶת־אֲשָׁמ֥וֹ יָבִ֖יא לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אַ֣יִל תָּמִ֧ים מִן־הַצֹּ֛אן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ לְאָשָׁ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
26And the kohen shall make atonement for him before the Lord, and he shall be forgiven for any one of all [cases] whereby one may commit [a sin], incurring guilt through it.   כווְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֑וֹ עַל־אַחַ֛ת מִכֹּ֥ל אֲשֶֽׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה לְאַשְׁמָ֥ה בָֽהּ:

Maftir Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 25

17You shall remember what Amalek did to you on the way, when you went out of Egypt,   יזזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
You shall remember what [Amalek] did to you: [The juxtaposition of these passages teaches us that] if you use fraudulent measures and weights, you should be worried about provocation from the enemy, as it is said: “Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord” (Prov. 11:1), after which the [next] verse continues, “When willful wickedness comes, then comes disgrace.” [That is, after you intentionally sin by using deceitful scales, the enemy will come to provoke you into war, and this will be a disgraceful matter to you]. — [Tanchuma 8]   זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ: אִם שִׁקַּרְתָּ בְמִדּוֹת וּבְמִשְׁקָלוֹת הֱוֵי דוֹאֵג מִגֵּרוּי הָאוֹיֵב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי י"א) "מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה תּוֹעֲבַת ה'", וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ "בָּא זָדוֹן וַיָּבֹא קָלוֹן" (תנחומא):
18how he happened upon you on the way and cut off all the stragglers at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God.   יחאֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים:
how he happened upon you on the way: Heb. קָרְךָ, an expression denoting a chance occurrence (מִקְרֶה). - [Sifrei 25:167] Alternatively, an expression denoting seminal emission (קֶרִי) and defilement, because Amalek defiled the Jews by [committing] homosexual acts [with them]. — [Tanchuma 9] Yet another explanation: an expression denoting heat and cold (קוֹר). He cooled you off and made you [appear] tepid, after you were boiling hot, for the nations were afraid to fight with you, [just as people are afraid to touch something boiling hot]. But this one, [i.e., Amalek] came forward and started and showed the way to others. This can be compared to a bathtub of boiling water into which no living creature could descend. Along came an irresponsible man and jumped headlong into it! Although he scalded himself, he [succeeded to] make others think that it was cooler [than it really was]. — [Tanchuma 9]   אֲשֶׁר קָֽרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ: לְשׁוֹן מִקְרֶה; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן קֶרִי וְטֻמְאָה שֶׁהָיָה מְטַמְּאָן בְּמִשְׁכַּב זְכוּר; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן קֹר וְחֹם, צִנֶּנְךָ וְהִפְשִׁירְךָ מֵרְתִיחָתְךָ, שֶׁהָיוּ כָל הָאֻמּוֹת יְרֵאִים לְהִלָּחֵם בָּכֶם וּבָא זֶה וְהִתְחִיל וְהֶרְאָה מָקוֹם לַאֲחֵרִים; מָשָׁל לְאַמְבָּטִי רוֹתַחַת שֶׁאֵין כָּל בְּרִיָּה יְכוֹלָה לֵירֵד בְּתוֹכָהּ, בָּא בֶן בְּלִיַּעַל אֶחָד קָפַץ וְיָרַד לְתוֹכָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְוָה הֵקֵרָהּ אוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי אֲחֵרִים (תנחומא):
and cut off: [The word וַיְזַנֵּב is derived from the word זָנָב, meaning “tail.” Thus, the verse means: Amalek] “cut off the tail.” This refers to the fact that Amalek cut off the members [of the male Jews,] where they had been circumcised, and cast them up [provocatively] towards Heaven [exclaiming to God: “You see! What good has Your commandment of circumcision done for them?”]- [Tanchuma 9]   וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ: מַכַּת זָנָב, חוֹתֵךְ מִילוֹת וְזוֹרֵק כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה (תנחומא):
all the stragglers at your rear: Those who lacked strength on account of their transgression. [And because these Jews had sinned,] the cloud [of glory] had expelled them [thereby leaving them vulnerable to Amalek’s further attack]. - [Tanchuma 10]   כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִים אַֽחֲרֶיךָ: חַסְרֵי כֹחַ מֵחֲמַת חֶטְאָם, שֶׁהָיָה הֶעָנָן פּוֹלְטָן (תנחומא):
you were faint and weary: faint from thirst, as it is written, “The people thirsted there for water” (Exod. 17:3), and [immediately] afterwards it says, “Amalek came [and fought with Israel]” (verse 17:8). - [Tanchuma 10]   וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ: עָיֵף בַּצָּמָא, דִּכְתִיב "וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם" (שמות י"ז) וּכְתִיב אַחֲרָיו "וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק":
and weary: from the journey. - [Tanchuma 10]   וְיָגֵעַ: בַּדֶּרֶךְ:
He did not fear [God]: i.e., Amalek did not fear God [so as to refrain] from doing you harm. — [Sifrei 25:167]   וְלֹא יָרֵא: עֲמָלֵק אלהים מִלְּהָרַע לְךָ:
19[Therefore,] it will be, when the Lord your God grants you respite from all your enemies around [you] in the land which the Lord, your God, gives to you as an inheritance to possess, that you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens. You shall not forget!   יטוְהָיָ֡ה בְּהָנִ֣יחַ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ | לְ֠ךָ֠ מִכָּל־אֹ֨יְבֶ֜יךָ מִסָּבִ֗יב בָּאָ֨רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהֹוָה־אֱלֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֤ נַֽחֲלָה֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ תִּמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר * (זֶ֣כֶר) עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לֹ֖א תִּשְׁכָּֽח:
you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep [camel and donkey] (God’s command to King Saul: see I Sam. 15:3), so that the name of Amalek should never again be mentioned (נִזְכָּר), from the word (זֵכֶר), even regarding an animal, to say: “This animal was from Amalek.” - [Midrash Lekach Tov]   תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק: מֵאִישׁ עַד אִשָּׁה מֵעוֹלֵל וְעַד יוֹנֵק מִשּׁוֹר וְעַד שֶׂה (שמואל א ט"ו), שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שֵׁם עֲמָלֵק נִזְכָּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה, לוֹמַר בְּהֵמָה זוֹ מִשֶּׁל עֲמָלֵק הָיְתָה (פסיק' זוטר'):


Shmuel I (I Samuel) Chapter 15

1And Samuel said to Saul, "The Lord sent me to anoint you to be king over His people, over Israel; and now hearken to the voice of the words of the Lord.   אוַיֹּ֚אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל אֹתִ֨י שָׁלַ֚ח יְהֹוָה֙ לִמְשָׁחֲךָ֣ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ עַל־עַמּ֖וֹ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְעַתָּ֣ה שְׁמַ֔ע לְק֖וֹל דִּבְרֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and now, hearken to the voice of the words of the Lord: Once you acted foolishly. Now, take heed.   ועתה שמע לקול דברי ה': פעם אחת נסכלת, עתה הזהר בעצמך:
2So said the Lord of Hosts, 'I remember that which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid (wait) for him on the way, when he came up out of Egypt.   בכֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת פָּקַ֕דְתִּי אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָֹ֥ה עֲמָלֵ֖ק לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲשֶׁר־שָֹ֥ם לוֹ֙ בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ בַּעֲלֹת֖וֹ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
3Now, go, and you shall smite Amalek, and you shall utterly destroy all that is his, and you shall not have pity on him: and you shall slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.' "   געַתָּה֩ לֵ֨ךְ וְהִכִּֽיתָ֜ה אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֗ק וְהַֽחֲרַמְתֶּם֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ל עָלָ֑יו וְהֵמַתָּ֞ה מֵאִ֣ישׁ עַד־אִשָּׁ֗ה מֵֽעֹלֵל֙ וְעַד־יוֹנֵ֔ק מִשּׁ֣וֹר וְעַד־שֶֹ֔ה מִגָּמָ֖ל וְעַד־חֲמֽוֹר:
ox and sheep: for they were sorcerers, and they would change themselves to resemble animals.   משור ועד שה: שהיו בעלי כשפים, ומשנין עצמן ודומין לבהמה:
4And Saul called the people together, and he counted them in Telaim, two hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand, the men of Judah.   דוַיְשַׁמַּ֚ע שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיִּפְקְדֵם֙ בַּטְּלָאִ֔ים מָאתַ֥יִם אֶ֖לֶף רַגְלִ֑י וַעֲשֶֹ֥רֶת אֲלָפִ֖ים אֶת־אִ֥ישׁ יְהוּדָֽה:
And Saul called… together: An expression of announcing, as though it would say, שאול ויזעק.   וישמע שאול: לשון הכרזה, כמו (לעיל יד כ): ויזעק שאול:
and he counted them in Telaim: (According to ‘peshat,’ this is the name of a place, as in Jos. 15:24. Our Rabbis, however, take it as a common noun, meaning ‘with lambs,’ explaining thus:) He told everyone to take a lamb from the King’s flocks, since it is forbidden to count Jews, for it is stated concerning them: “which will not be counted for multitude” (Gen. 32:12).   ויפקדם בטלאים: אמר לכל אחד ואחד, שיקח טלה מצאנו של מלך, ואחר כך מנה את הטלאים, לפי שאסור למנות את ישראל, שנאמר בם (בראשית לב יב): לא יספר מרוב:
5And Saul came as far as the city of Amalek, and he fought in the valley.   הוַיָּבֹ֥א שָׁא֖וּל עַד־עִ֣יר עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיָּ֖רֶב בַּנָּֽחַל:
and he fought in the valley: (וירב) and he fought in the valley (from ריב, a quarrel). Our Rabbis said: Concerning the valley, he argued and concluded, thus: if for the sake of one soul, the Torah said, “decapitate a calf in the valley” (Deut. 21), how much more for the sake of all these souls. If man has sinned, what have the animals sinned?   וירב בנחל: וילחם בנחל ורבותינו אמרו (יומא כב ב): על עסקי נחל רב ודן את עצמו, ומה בשביל נפש אחת אמרה תורה ערוף עגלה בנחל, בשביל כל הנפשות האלו לא כל שכן, אם אדם חטא, בהמה מה חטאה:
6And Saul said to the Kenite, "Turn away and go down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them, and you did kindness with all the children of Israel, when they went up out of Egypt." And the Kenites turned away from amidst Amalek.   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֣וּל אֶֽל־הַקֵּינִ֡י לְכוּ֩ סֻּ֨רוּ רְד֜וּ מִתּ֣וֹךְ עֲמָלֵקִ֗י פֶּן־אֹֽסִפְךָ֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וְאַתָּ֞ה עָשִֹ֚יתָה חֶ֙סֶד֙ עִם־כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּעֲלוֹתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַיָּ֥סַר קֵינִ֖י מִתּ֥וֹךְ עֲמָלֵֽק:
to the Kenites: the descendants of Jethro, who were residing in the wilderness of Judea, in the south of Arad, who went to Jabez to learn Torah, Arad being Amalek. The Canaanite king of Arad was Amalek, for it is stated: “the dweller of the South” (Num. 21:1), and “Amalek dwells in the Southland” (ibid. 12:29).   אל הקיני: בני יתרו, שהיו יושבין במדבר יהודה בנגב ערד, שהלכו אצל יעבץ ללמוד תורה, וערד הוא עמלק, הכנעני מלך ערד, עמלק היה, שנאמר (במדבר כא א): יושב הנגב, ועמלק יושב בארץ הנגב (שם יג כט):
with all the children of Israel: for Moses, Aaron, and all the elders of Israel partook of his (Jethro’s) repast (Ex. 18:12). (The Scripture, therefore) considers it as though he had done kindness with all the children of Israel.   עם כל בני ישראל: שנהנו מסעודתו משה ואהרן וכל זקני ישראל, והרי מעלה עליו כאלו עשה חסד עם כל בני ישראל:
7And Saul smote Amalek, from Havilah until you come to Shur, which is in front of Egypt.   זוַיַּ֥ךְ שָׁא֖וּל אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק מֵֽחֲוִילָה֙ בּוֹאֲךָ֣ שׁ֔וּר אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מִצְרָֽיִם:
8And he seized Agag, the king of Amalek, alive; and he completely destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword.   חוַיִּתְפֹּ֛שׂ אֶת־אֲגַ֥ג מֶֽלֶךְ־עֲמָלֵ֖ק חָ֑י וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם הֶחֱרִ֥ים לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
9And Saul and the people had pity on Agag, and on the best of the sheep and the cattle, and the fatlings, and on the fattened sheep, and on all that was good; and they did not want to destroy them; but everything which was vile and feeble, that they utterly destroyed.   טוַיַּחְמֹל֩ שָׁא֨וּל וְהָעָ֜ם עַל־אֲגָ֗ג וְעַל־מֵיטַ֣ב הַצֹּאן֩ וְהַבָּקָ֨ר וְהַמִּשְׁנִ֚ים וְעַל־הַכָּרִים֙ וְעַל־כָּל־הַטּ֔וֹב וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וּ הַחֲרִימָ֑ם וְכָל־הַמְּלָאכָ֛ה נְמִבְזָ֥ה וְנָמֵ֖ס אֹתָ֥הּ הֶחֱרִֽימוּ:
and the fatlings: (Heb. ‘vehamishnim.’) It has no likeness (to any other word in the Scriptures). These are the fatlings, and I say that the expression of ‘mishnim’ is like ‘kesef mishneh’ (double money Gen. 43:15) because they are doubled over with flesh and fat. Similarly, (we explain:) “And the ox which was fattened (sheni) seven years.” (Jud. 6:25).   והמשנים: אין לו דמיון, והם הבריאים ואומר אני: לשון 'משנים', כמו (בראשית מג יב): כסף משנה, על שם שהוא כפול בבשר ובשומן, וכן (שופטים ו כה): ופר השני שבע שנים:
vile and feeble: (נמבזה) like נבזה (despised), and the ‘mem’ is superfluous.   נמבזה ונמס: כמו נבזה, והמ"ם טפילה בו:
10And the word of the Lord came to Samuel, saying,   יוַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹֽר:
11"I regret that I have made Saul king, for he has turned back from following Me, and he has not fulfilled My words." And it distressed Samuel, and he cried out to the Lord all night.   יאנִחַ֗מְתִּי כִּֽי־הִמְלַ֚כְתִּי אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־שָׁב֙ מֵאַֽחֲרַ֔י וְאֶת־דְּבָרַ֖י לֹ֣א הֵקִ֑ים וַיִּ֙חַר֙ לִשְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּזְעַ֥ק אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה:
I regret: A thought has arisen in my heart concerning the kingdom of Saul, whom I have appointed king.   נחמתי: מחשבה עלתה בלבי על מלכות שאול שהמלכתי:
12And Samuel arose early in the morning to meet Saul; and it was told to Samuel, saying, "Saul has come to Carmel, and behold, he is setting up a place for himself, and he passed and went down to Gilgal."   יבוַיַּשְׁכֵּ֧ם שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל לִקְרַ֥את שָׁא֖וּל בַּבֹּ֑קֶר וַיֻּגַּ֨ד לִשְׁמוּאֵ֜ל לֵאמֹ֗ר בָּֽא־שָׁא֚וּל הַכַּרְמֶ֙לָה֙ וְהִנֵּ֨ה מַצִּ֥יב לוֹ֙ יָ֔ד וַיִּסֹּב֙ וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֔ר וַיֵּ֖רֶד הַגִּלְגָּֽל:
he is setting up a place for himself: He is building an altar for himself. That is the altar referred to concerning Elijah, “And he repaired the altar of the Lord, which had been torn down.” Jonathan however, renders: and behold, he is setting up there a place for himself, to divide the spoils.   מציב לו יד: בונה לו מזבח הוא המזבח שנאמר באליהו (מלכים-א יח ל): וירפא את מזבח ה' ההרוס. ויונתן תרגם: והא מתקן ליה תמן אתר לפלגא ביה ביזתא:
13And Samuel came to Saul, and Saul said to him, "May you be blessed of the Lord; I have fulfilled the word of the Lord."   יגוַיָּבֹ֥א שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־שָׁא֑וּל וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ שָׁא֗וּל בָּר֚וּךְ אַתָּה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה הֲקִימֹ֖תִי אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
14And Samuel said, "What then is this bleating of the sheep in my ears? And the lowing of the oxen which I hear?"   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וּמֶ֛ה קֽוֹל־הַצֹּ֥אן הַזֶּ֖ה בְּאָזְנָ֑י וְק֣וֹל הַבָּקָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י שֹׁמֵֽעַ:
15And Saul said, "They brought them from the Amalekites, for the people had pity on the best of the sheep, and the oxen, in order to sacrifice to the Lord your God: and the rest we have utterly destroyed."   טווַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל מֵעֲמָלֵקִ֣י הֱבִיא֗וּם אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָמַ֚ל הָעָם֙ עַל־מֵיטַ֚ב הַצֹּאן֙ וְהַבָּקָ֔ר לְמַ֥עַן זְבֹ֖חַ לַיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְאֶת־הַיּוֹתֵ֖ר הֶחֱרַֽמְנוּ:
16And Samuel said to Saul, "Desist, and I shall tell you what the Lord spoke to me last night." And he said to him, "Speak."   טזוַיֹּ֚אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל ֤הֶרֶף וְאַגִּ֣ידָה לְּךָ֔ אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י הַלָּ֑יְלָה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר (כתיב וַיֹּ֥אמֶרו) ל֖וֹ דַּבֵּֽר:
Desist: Like the Targum, ‘orich,’ meaning ‘wait’.   הרף: כתרגומו: אוריך, פירוש המתן:
17And Samuel said, "Even if you are small in your own eyes, are you not the head of the tribes of Israel? And the Lord anointed you as king over Israel.   יזוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל הֲל֗וֹא אִם־קָטֹ֚ן אַתָּה֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ רֹ֛אשׁ שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אָ֑תָּה וַיִּמְשָׁחֲךָ֧ יְהֹוָ֛ה לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
are you not the head of the tribes of Israel: Jonathan renders: The tribe of Benjamin crossed the Reed Sea at the head of the people, as it is said: “Benjamin, the youngest, rules over them” (Ps. 68: 28).   ראש שבטי ישראל אתה: תרגם יונתן: שבטא דבנימין עבר בימא בריש כל עמא, כמה שנאמר (תהלים סח כח): בנימין צעיר רודם:
18And the Lord sent you on a mission, and said, 'Go, and you shall utterly destroy the sinners, the Amalekites, and you shall wage war against them until they destroy them.'   יחוַיִּשְׁלָחֲךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּדָ֑רֶךְ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לֵ֣ךְ וְהַחֲרַמְתָּ֞ה אֶת־הַֽחַטָּאִים֙ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֔ק וְנִלְחַמְתָּ֣ ב֔וֹ עַ֥ד כַּלּוֹתָ֖ם אֹתָֽם:
until they destroy them: The people who are with you will destroy them.   עד כלותם אותם: העם אשר אתך יכלו אותם:
19Now, why did you not hearken to the voice of the Lord, but you flew upon the spoil, and you did what was evil in the eyes of the Lord?"   יטוְלָ֥מָּה לֹא־שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֑ה וַתַּ֙עַט֙ אֶל־הַשָּׁלָ֔ל וַתַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
but you flew: (ותעט,) like ותעף (and you flew), an expression relating to עיט, bird of prey (Gen. 15:11).   ותעט: כמו ותעף, לשון עיט (בראשית טו יא):
20And Saul said to Samuel, "Yes, I did hearken to the voice of the Lord. I did go on the mission on which the Lord sent me, and I brought Agag, the king of Amalek alive, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites.   כוַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֚ר שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֔ה וָאֵלֵ֕ךְ בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחַ֣נִי יְהֹוָ֑ה וָאָבִ֗יא אֶת־אֲגַג֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמָלֵ֔ק וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵ֖ק הֶחֱרַֽמְתִּי:
21And the people took from the spoil, sheep and oxen, the best of the ban, to sacrifice to your God in Gilgal."   כאוַיִּקַּ֨ח הָעָ֧ם מֵהַשָּׁלָ֛ל צֹ֥אן וּבָקָ֖ר רֵאשִׁ֣ית הַחֵ֑רֶם לִזְבֹּ֛חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בַּגִּלְגָּֽל:
the best of the ban: (ראשית, lit., the beginning), and similarly, “the best of your corn” (Deut. 18: 4), as it is said: “When you separate the best part of it therefrom” (Num. 18:30). Jonathan however, renders: before they banned it.   ראשית החרם: מיטב החרם, וכן (דברים יח ד): ראשית דגנך, כמה שנאמר (במדבר יח ל): בהרימכם את חלבו ממנו. ויונתן תרגם: קדם דיחרמון:
22And Samuel said, "Has the Lord (as much) desire in burnt offerings and peace-offerings, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than a peace-offering; to hearken (is better) than the fat of rams.   כבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הַחֵ֚פֶץ לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בְּעֹל֣וֹת וּזְבָחִ֔ים כִּשְׁמֹ֖עַ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֑ה הִנֵּ֚ה שְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ מִזֶּ֣בַח ט֔וֹב לְהַקְשִׁ֖יב מֵחֵ֥לֶב אֵילִֽים:
Behold, to obey: His command is better than a peace-offering.   הנה שמוע: בקולו, טוב מזבח:
to hearken, than the fat of rams.: This refers to: Behold, to obey is better than a peace- offering, and to hearken (is better) than the fat of rams.   להקשיב מחלב אילים: זה מוסב על הנה שמוע מזבח טוב, ולהקשיב, מחלב אילים:
23For rebellion is as the sin of divination, and stubbornness is as idolatry and teraphim. Since you rejected the word of the Lord, He has rejected you from being a king."   כגכִּ֚י חַטַּאת־קֶ֙סֶם֙ מֶ֔רִי וְאָ֥וֶן וּתְרָפִ֖ים הַפְצַ֑ר יַ֗עַן מָאַ֙סְתָּ֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽלֶךְ:
For rebellion is as the sin of divination, and stubbornness is as idolatry and teraphim: And like the penalty for idolatry and teraphim, so is the penalty for stubbornness. Jonathan renders: for, as the sin of a people who divine, so is the sin of any man who disobeys the word of the Lord; and as the sins of a nation who has strayed after idols, so is the sin of any person who adds to the words of a prophet.   כי חטאת קסם מרי ואון ותרפים הפצר: וכעונש של און ותרפים, כן עונש של הפצר ויונתן תרגם: ארי כחוב גבריא וכו' וכחובי עמא דטעו בתר טעותא, כן חובת כל אנש דפצר ומוסיף וכו':
stubbornness: An expression of adding, and similarly, (Gen. 36:11) He prevailed upon him (ויפצר). He spoke many words to convince him.   הפצר: לשון תוספת, וכן (בראשית לג יא): ויפצר בו, הרבה עליו דברים:
24And Saul said to Samuel, "I have sinned, for I transgressed the Lord's command, and your words, for I feared the people, and I hearkened to their voice.   כדוַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֚וּל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל֙ חָטָ֔אתִי כִּֽי־עָבַ֥רְתִּי אֶת־פִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֖ה וְאֶת־דְּבָרֶ֑יךָ כִּ֚י יָרֵ֙אתִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וָאֶשְׁמַ֖ע בְּקוֹלָֽם:
I feared the people: Doeg the Edomite, who was as esteemed as all of them.   יראתי את העם: דואג האדומי, שהיה חשוב כולם:
25And now, forgive now my sin, and return with me, and I shall prostrate myself to the Lord."   כהוְעַתָּ֕ה שָֹ֥א נָ֖א אֶת־חַטָּאתִ֑י וְשׁ֣וּב עִמִּ֔י וְאֶֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
26And Samuel said to Saul, "I shall not return with you, for you have rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord has rejected you from being a king over Israel."   כווַיֹּ֚אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל לֹ֥א אָשׁ֖וּב עִמָּ֑ךְ כִּ֚י מָאַ֙סְתָּה֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִהְי֥וֹת מֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
27And Samuel turned to go, and he seized the skirt of his robe, and it tore.   כזוַיִּסֹּ֥ב שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לָלֶ֑כֶת וַיַּחֲזֵ֥ק בִּכְנַף־מְעִיל֖וֹ וַיִּקָּרַֽע:
and he seized the skirt of his robe: According to the simple interpretation, the implication is that when Samuel turned to go away from following Saul, Saul seized the skirt of Samuel’s robe, since Saul was entreating him to return until he would prostrate himself in Gilgal, where the tent of meeting had been. In Midrash Aggadah, however, Amoraim differ on this point. Some say that Saul tore Samuel’s robe, and some say that Samuel tore Saul’s robe, thereby giving over to him this sign, that whoever would sever the skirt of his robe would reign in his place. And that is what Saul said to David on the day that he severed the robe, “I know that you will reign” (infra 24:21).   ויחזק בכנף מעילו: לפי פשוטו משמעו, שכשפנה שמואל ללכת מאחרי שאול, אחז שאול בכנף של שמואל, לפי שהיה שאול מבקש ממנו שישוב עד שישתחוה בגלגל שהיה שם אהל מועד ומדרש אגדה (שוחר טוב) חולקים אמוראים, יש אומרים: מעילו של שמואל קרע שאול. ויש אומרים: מעילו של שאול קרע שמואל, ומסר לו סימן זה, מי שיכרות כנף מעילו, הוא ימלוך תחתיו, והוא שאמר לו שאול לדוד ביום שכרת את המעיל (לקמן כד כ): ידעתי כי מלוך תמלוך:
28And Samuel said to him, "The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you, today; and has given it to your fellow who is better than you.   כחוַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל קָרַ֨ע יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶֽת־מַמְלְכ֧וּת יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵעָלֶ֖יךָ הַיּ֑וֹם וּנְתָנָ֕הּ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ הַטּ֥וֹב מִמֶּֽךָּ:
29And also, the Strength of Israel will neither lie nor repent, for He is not a man to repent."   כטוְגַם֙ נֵ֣צַח יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א יְשַׁקֵּ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִנָּחֵ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א אָדָ֛ם ה֖וּא לְהִנָּחֵֽם:
And also, the Strength of Israel will neither lie: And if you say, “I shall repent of my sin before Him, it will no longer avail to take the kingdom from the one to whom it was given, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who is the Strength of Israel, will not lie by not giving the good to whom He promised to give it.”   וגם נצח ישראל לא ישקר: ואם תאמר אשוב מעוני לפניו, לא יועיל עוד ליטול את המלוכה ממי שנתנה לו, כי הקב"ה שהוא נצחונו של ישראל, לא ישקר מליתן הטובה לזה שאמר ליתן:
30And he said, "I have sinned. Now, honor me now in the presence of the elders of my people, and in the presence of Israel, and return with me, and I shall prostrate myself to the Lord your God."   לוַיֹּ֣אמֶר חָטָ֔אתִי עַתָּ֗ה כַּבְּדֵ֥נִי נָ֛א נֶ֥גֶד זִקְנֵֽי־עַמִּ֖י וְנֶ֣גֶד יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְשׁ֣וּב עִמִּ֔י וְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֵ֖יתִי לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
31And Samuel returned after Saul, and Saul prostrated himself to the Lord.   לאוַיָּ֥שָׁב שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ שָׁא֖וּל לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
32And Samuel said, "Bring Agag, the king of Amalek, near to me." And Agag went to him delicately. And Agag said, "Surely, the bitterness of death has turned."   לבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הַגִּ֚ישׁוּ אֵלַי֙ אֶת־אֲגַג֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמָלֵ֔ק וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֵלָ֔יו אֲגַ֖ג מַעֲדַנֹּ֑ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲגָ֔ג אָכֵ֖ן סָ֥ר מַר־הַמָּֽוֶת:
And Agag went to him delicately: (Heb. ‘ma’adanoth.’) Jonathan renders: delicately.   אגג מעדנות: יונתן תרגם: אגג מפנקא:
Surely, the bitterness of death has turned.: Indeed, I know that the bitterness of death has turned toward me, and is approaching.   אכן סר מר המות: באמת ידעתי כי סר וקרב עלי מרירת המות:
33And Samuel said, "As your sword bereaved women, so will your mother be bereaved among women." And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal.   לגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר שִׁכְּלָ֚ה נָשִׁים֙ חַרְבֶּ֔ךָ כֵּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֥ל מִנָּשִׁ֖ים אִמֶּ֑ךָ וַיְשַׁסֵּ֨ף שְׁמוּאֵ֧ל אֶת־אֲגָ֛ג לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּגִּלְגָּֽל:
As your sword bereaved women: to render them veritable widows from their husbands, for you would cut off the membrum virile of the youths of Israel.   כאשר שכלה נשים חרבך: להושיבם אלמנות מבעליהם, שהייתם חותכים זנבי בחורי ישראל:
And he hewed: (וישסף) He cut him into four pieces. There is no similarity to this word. The Targum renders: ‘ufashah.’ And in our Gemara (i.e., T.B., Bets. 33b) we find: He broke a branch off (‘m’fashah’), and gave us each several sticks, meaning that he split.   וישסף: חתכו לארבע, ואין לתיבה זו דמיון ותרגום וישסף, ופשח. ובגמרא שלנו יש הוה מפשח ויהיב לן אלותא, כלומר בוקע:
34And Samuel went to Ramah, and Saul went up to his house in Gibeah of Saul.   לדוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הָרָמָ֑תָה וְשָׁא֛וּל עָלָ֥ה אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ גִּבְעַ֥ת שָׁאֽוּל:
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