Leviticus Chapter 4

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a person sins unintentionally [by committing one] of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, and he commits [part] of one of them   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לֵאמֹר֒ נֶ֗פֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָ֤א בִשְׁגָגָה֙ מִכֹּל֙ מִצְוֹ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֣א תֵֽעָשֶׂ֑ינָה וְעָשָׂ֕ה מֵֽאַחַ֖ת מֵהֵֽנָּה:
of all the commandments of the Lord: Our Rabbis explained: A sin-offering is brought only for such a transgression whose prohibition is expressed [in the Torah] as a negative commandment, and whose willful violation incurs the penalty of excision (premature death by the hands of Heaven). The unintentional violation of such prohibitions incurs a sin-offering [upon the individual]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:196; Shab. 69a)]   מכל מצות ה': פירשו רבותינו אין חטאת באה אלא על דבר שזדונו לאו וכרת (ושגגתו חטאת):
of one of them: [The text should have read, “one of them.” Since it says, “of one of them,” it means to include the case of someone who has transgressed even] part of one of these prohibitions. For example, [if one writes a single letter on the Sabbath, he is not liable for transgressing a prohibition by law of Torah. If he writes two letters, he is liable. Therefore,] if one writes the letters שׁם from שִׁמְעוּן, [which he had intended to write, or] נח from נָחוֹר, [which he had intended to write, or] is from דן from דּנִָיּאֵל, [which he had intended to write, although he did not complete the names he intended to write, since the two-letter names are words in their own right, he is liable for writing on the Sabbath, even though he transgressed only part of the prohibition]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:197]   מאחת מהנה: ממקצת אחת מהן, כגון הכותב בשבת שם משמעון, נח מנחור, דן מדניאל:
3If the anointed kohen sins, bringing guilt to the people, then he shall bring for his sin which he has committed, an unblemished young bull as a sin offering to the Lord.   גאִ֣ם הַכֹּהֵ֧ן הַמָּשִׁ֛יחַ יֶֽחֱטָ֖א לְאַשְׁמַ֣ת הָעָ֑ם וְהִקְרִ֡יב עַ֣ל חַטָּאתוֹ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָטָ֜א פַּ֣ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֥ר תָּמִ֛ים לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְחַטָּֽאת:
if the annointed kohen should sin to bring guilt to the people: Heb. אם הכהן המשיח יחטא לאשמת העםIts midrashic interpretation: He is not obliged [to bring a sin-offering] unless there is a hidden thing together with an unintentional act, as it is said, "to bring guilt on the people" "and something is hidden from the congregation and they do." And its plain meaning according to the aggadah: When the holy priest sins, it is the fault of the people, for they are dependent on him to atone for them and pray for them--- and [now] he has become impaired   אם הכהן המשיח יחטא לאשמת העם: מדרשו אינו חייב אלא בהעלם דבר עם שגגת מעשה, כמו שנאמר לאשמת העם ונעלם דבר מעיני הקהל ועשו (פסוק יג). ופשוטו לפי אגדה, כשכהן גדול חוטא, אשמת העם הוא זה, שהן תלויין בו לכפר עליהם ולהתפלל בעדם, ונעשה מקולקל:
bull: Heb. פַּר One might think that this means an old one. Scripture, therefore, adds, בֶּן [young animal]. But if it shall be young, one might think that it be a very young one. Scripture, therefore, says: פַּר [a term which independently means a mature animal, thus teaching us that it shall not be a very young bull]. So how [do we reconcile both mature and yet young?] It refers to a bull in its third year. — [Torath Kohanim 4:208]   פר: יכול זקן, תלמוד לומר בן, אי בן יכול קטן, תלמוד לומר פר, הא כיצד, זה פר בן שלש:
4And he shall bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before the Lord, and he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the bull's head and slaughter the bull before the Lord.   דוְהֵבִ֣יא אֶת־הַפָּ֗ר אֶל־פֶּ֛תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְסָמַ֤ךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַפָּ֔ר וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
5And the anointed kohen shall take from the bull's blood and bring it into the Tent of Meeting.   הוְלָקַ֛ח הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַמָּשִׁ֖יחַ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֑ר וְהֵבִ֥יא אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
to the Tent of Meeting: I.e., to the Mishkan, and in the Temple, to the Heichal, [which housed the menorah, the table, and the incense altar, the equivalent of the Holy, in the Mishkan in the desert].   אל אהל מועד: למשכן, ובבית עולמים להיכל:
6And the kohen shall dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.   ווְטָבַ֧ל הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־אֶצְבָּע֖וֹ בַּדָּ֑ם וְהִזָּ֨ה מִן־הַדָּ֜ם שֶׁ֤בַע פְּעָמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י פָּרֹ֥כֶת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary: Heb. פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ [i.e., the blood was to be sprinkled towards the dividing curtain,] opposite the place of its holiness, namely, directed [to the site] between the poles [which were attached to the Holy Ark]. But the blood [although sprinkled in that direction,] was not to touch the dividing curtain. However, if it did touch, it touched [and it did not matter]. — [Yoma 57a]   את פני פרכת הקדש: כנגד מקום קדושתה, מכוון כנגד בין הבדים, ולא היו נוגעים דמים בפרוכת, ואם נגעו נגעו:
7And the kohen shall place some of the blood on the horns of the incense altar which is in the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord, and he shall pour all the blood of the bull onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   זוְנָתַן֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן מִן־הַדָּ֜ם עַל־קַ֠רְנ֠וֹת מִזְבַּ֨ח קְטֹ֤רֶת הַסַּמִּים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־דַּ֣ם הַפָּ֗ר יִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ אֶל־יְסוֹד֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
all the blood: I.e., the remaining blood. — [see Zev. 25a]   ואת כל דם: שירי הדם:
8And all the fat of the sin offering bull he shall separate from it: the fat covering the innards, and all the fat that is on the innards,   חוְאֶת־כָּל־חֵ֛לֶב פַּ֥ר הַֽחַטָּ֖את יָרִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה עַל־הַקֶּ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַחֵ֔לֶב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
And all the fat of the […] bull: It should have said, “its fat.” What does the [seemingly superfluous] word “bull” teach us? It comes to include [another bull, namely,] the bull of Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:3) in the [laws regarding the] kidneys, the fats and the diaphragm.   ואת כל חלב פר: חלבו היה לו לומר, מה תלמוד לומר פר, לרבות פר של יום הכיפורים לכליות ולחלבים וליותרת:
the sin-offering: [Similarly, this seemingly superfluous word] comes to include [another sin-offering, namely,] goats [brought as a sin-offering to atone for unintentional] idolatry (Num. 15:24) in the [laws regarding the] kidneys, the fats and the diaphragm.   החטאת: להביא שעירי עבודה זרה לכליות ולחלבים ויותרת:
he shall separate…from it: i.e., [he shall remove the fat] while it is still attached [to the animal]; he shall not cut [the animal] into [its prescribed] pieces before the removal of its fat. — [Torath Kohanim 4:230]   ירים ממנו: מן המחובר, שלא ינתחנו קודם הסרת חלבו, [ת"כ]:
9and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is on them, which is on the flanks; and the diaphragm with the liver, along with the kidneys, he shall remove it,   טוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָי֖וֹת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
10just as was separated from the bull [sacrificed as] a peace offering, the kohen shall then cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar [used] for burnt offerings.   יכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יוּרָ֔ם מִשּׁ֖וֹר זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וְהִקְטִירָם֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן עַ֖ל מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָֽה:
just as was separated: Like those parts specified in the case of the ox [offered as a] peace-offering. But what is specified in the case of the peace-offerings that is not specified here? [Nothing at all! So why mention the peace-offering altogether?] In order to compare it to the peace-offering, [as follows]: Just as the peace-offering had to be designated for the specific purpose of a peace-offering, so too, this sacrifice had to be designated for its specific purpose, and just as peace-offerings [bring] peace to the world, so too, this sacrifice [brings] peace to the world. — [Torath Kohanim 4:231] And in Shechitath Kodashim (Zev.), it is taught that this [seemingly superfluous phrase, “just as was separated…,”] is necessary here, in order to learn from it the rule, that we do not derive a law from another matter which is itself only derived [and not explicitly stated in Scripture], when it comes to holy sacrifices. [This is found] in chapter [five of Zev.,] Eizehu Mekoman. — [Zev. 49b] 9-11.   כאשר יורם: מאותן אימורין המפורשין בשור זבח השלמים. וכי מה פירש בזבח השלמים שלא פירש כאן, אלא להקישו לשלמים מה שלמים לשמן, אף זה לשמו. ומה שלמים שלום לעולם, אף זה שלום לעולם. ובשחטת קדשים מצריכו ללמוד הימנו, שאין למדין למד מן הלמד בקדשים, בפרק איזהו מקומן [זבחים מט]:
with the liver, along with the diaphragm: [in verse 9, and in verse 11:]   על הכבד על הכליות, על ראשו ועל כרעיו: כולן לשון תוספת הן, כמו מלבד:
along with its head and along with its legs: All these [mentions of the word עַל here, literally “upon,”] are expressions of adding, like (מִלְבַד) “apart from.” [Thus, in addition to the explanations given earlier (see Rashi verse 3:4), when verse 9 says, “And he shall remove the diaphragm with [part of] the liver, along with the kidneys,” the meaning is “he shall remove the diaphragm, besides (removing part of) the liver and the kidneys.”]  
11[He shall then take] the bull's skin and all of its flesh, along with its head and along with its legs, its innards and its waste matter.   יאוְאֶת־ע֤וֹר הַפָּר֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָ֑יו וְקִרְבּ֖וֹ וּפִרְשֽׁוֹ:
12He shall take out the entire bull to a clean place outside the camp, [namely,] to the ash depository, and he shall burn it in fire on wood. Thus, it shall be burnt in the ash depository.   יבוְהוֹצִ֣יא אֶת־כָּל־הַ֠פָּ֠ר אֶל־מִח֨וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֜ה אֶל־מָק֤וֹם טָהוֹר֙ אֶל־שֶׁ֣פֶךְ הַדֶּ֔שֶׁן וְשָׂרַ֥ף אֹת֛וֹ עַל־עֵצִ֖ים בָּאֵ֑שׁ עַל־שֶׁ֥פֶךְ הַדֶּ֖שֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵֽף:
to a clean place: Since there was a place outside the city designated for uncleanness, [namely,] to cast plague-stricken stones [which had thereby become unclean] (Lev. 14:40), and for a cemetery, Scripture needed to qualify this instance of “outside the camp” -which [in the case of Jerusalem] was equivalent to outside the city-that the place had to be [ritually] clean.   אל מקום טהור: לפי שיש מחוץ לעיר מקום מוכן לטומאה להשליך אבנים מנוגעות ולבית הקברות, הוצרך לומר מחוץ למחנה, זה שהוא חוץ לעיר, שיהא המקום טהור:
outside the camp: Outside the three camps [of the encampment of Israel, when they were set up in the desert, namely: The camp of the Shechinah, the Levite camp, and the general Israelite camp.]. Regarding the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, however, it means outside the city, as is explained by our Rabbis in Tractate Yoma (68a), and in San. (42b).   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לשלש מחנות, ובבית עולמים חוץ לעיר, כמו שפירשוהו רבותינו במסכת יומא (סח א) ובסנהדרין (מב ב):
to the ash depository: Heb. אֶל שֶׁפֶ הַדֶּשֶׁן, to the place where they poured out (שׁוֹפְכִין) the ashes which were removed from the altar, as it is said, “and he shall take out the ashes…outside the camp” (Lev. 6:4).   אל שפך הדשן: מקום ששופכין בו הדשן המסולק מן המזבח, כמו שנאמר (ויק' ו ד) והוציא את הדשן אל מחוץ למחנה:
Thus, it shall be burnt in the ash depository: [But the verse has just told us this!] Surely, it does not need to restate it! However, [this repetition comes] to teach [us] that [the bull shall be burnt in the ash depository,] even if there are no ashes there [at the time]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:239]   על שפך הדשן ישרף: שאין תלמוד לומר אלא ללמד, שאפילו אין שם דשן:
13And if the entire community of Israel errs because a matter was hidden from the eyes of the congregation, and they commit one of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   יגוְאִ֨ם כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִשְׁגּ֔וּ וְנֶעְלַ֣ם דָּבָ֔ר מֵֽעֵינֵ֖י הַקָּהָ֑ל וְ֠עָשׂ֠וּ אַחַ֨ת מִכָּל־מִצְוֹ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ינָה וְאָשֵֽׁמוּ:
the…community of Israel: This refers to the [Great] Sanhedrin [the Supreme Court of Israel, seated at the Holy Temple]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:241]   עדת ישראל: אלו סנהדרין:
because a matter was hidden: [This means that the Sanhedrin] issued an erroneous decision regarding any matter in the Torah that incurs the penalty of excision, by declaring that matter permissible. — [Hor. 7b]   ונעלם דבר: טעו להורות באחת מכל כריתות שבתורה שהוא מותר:
the congregation, and they and they commit: meaning that the community acted upon their instruction. — [Hor. 3a]   הקהל ועשו: שעשו צבור על פיהם:
14When the sin which they had committed becomes known, the congregation shall bring a young bull as a sin offering. They shall bring it before the Tent of Meeting.   ידוְנֽוֹדְעָה֙ הַֽחַטָּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָֽטְא֖וּ עָלֶ֑יהָ וְהִקְרִ֨יבוּ הַקָּהָ֜ל פַּ֤ר בֶּן־בָּקָר֙ לְחַטָּ֔את וְהֵבִ֣יאוּ אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
15The elders of the community shall lean their hands [forcefully] upon the bull's head, before the Lord, and one shall slaughter the bull before the Lord.   טווְ֠סָֽמְכ֠וּ זִקְנֵ֨י הָֽעֵדָ֧ה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֛ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
16The anointed kohen shall bring some of the bull's blood into the Tent of Meeting,   טזוְהֵבִ֛יא הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַמָּשִׁ֖יחַ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֑ר אֶל־אֹ֖הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
17and the kohen shall dip his finger from the blood, and sprinkle [it] seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain.   יזוְטָבַ֧ל הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶצְבָּע֖וֹ מִן־הַדָּ֑ם וְהִזָּ֞ה שֶׁ֤בַע פְּעָמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֖ת פְּנֵ֥י הַפָּרֹֽכֶת:
before the dividing curtain: But above, Scripture says (verse 6),“before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.” [Why before was there mention of holiness, whereas now, the verse omits it?] This may be compared to a king against whom a province revolted. If only a minority rebels, his cabinet remains intact. If the entire country rebels, however, his cabinet does not remain intact. Here, too. When the anointed kohen sinned (referred to in the verses leading up to verse 6), the name of holiness was still attached to the Sanctuary. When they all sin, (as verse 13 states, “If the entire community of Israel errs”), God forbid, the holiness retracts. — [Zev. 41b]   את פני הפרכת: ולמעלה הוא אומר את פני פרוכת הקדש, משל למלך שסרחה עליו מדינה, אם מיעוטה סרחה, פמליא שלו מתקיימת, ואם כולה סרחה, אין פמליא שלו מתקיימת. אף כאן כשחטא כהן משיח עדיין שם קדושת המקום על המקדש, משחטאו כולם, חס ושלום, נסתלקה הקדושה:
18And he shall then place some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the Lord in the Tent of Meeting. And then he shall pour all the blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.   יחוּמִן־הַדָּ֞ם יִתֵּ֣ן | עַל־קַרְנֹ֣ת הַמִּזְבֵּ֗חַ אֲשֶׁר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־הַדָּ֗ם יִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ אֶל־יְסוֹד֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
the base of the altar [used] for burnt-offerings, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting: This is the western base, which is [situated] opposite the entrance. — [Torath Kohanim 4:229]   יסוד מזבח העלה אשר פתח אהל מועד: זה יסוד מערבי, שהוא כנגד הפתח:
19And he shall separate all its fat from it and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   יטוְאֵ֥ת כָּל־חֶלְבּ֖וֹ יָרִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה:
And he shall separate all its fat: Although Scripture here does not explicitly mention the diaphragm and the two kidneys, they are derived from (verse 20 below),“He shall do to the bull just as he did [to the bull (sacrificed) as a sin-offering].” Now why are these details not specified here? The School of Rabbi Ishmael taught: This can be compared to a king who was furious with his beloved friend, but shortened [the account of] his offense, because of the affection [he had for him]. — [Zev. 41a]   ואת כל חלבו ירים: אף על פי שלא פירש כאן יותרת ושתי כליות, למדין הם מועשה לפר כאשר עשה וגו'. ומפני מה לא נתפרשו בו, תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל (זבחים מא ב) משל למלך שזעם על אוהבו ומיעט בסרחונו מפני חיבתו:
20He shall do to the bull just as he did to the bull of the sin offering thus he shall do to it. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for them [the community], and they will be forgiven.   כוְעָשָׂ֣ה לַפָּ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לְפַ֣ר הַֽחַטָּ֔את כֵּ֖ן יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֑וֹ וְכִפֶּ֧ר עֲלֵהֶ֛ם הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְנִסְלַ֥ח לָהֶֽם:
He shall do to the bull: i.e., with this bull,   ועשה לפר: זה כאשר עשה לפר החטאת, כמו שמפורש בפר כהן משיח, להביא יותרת ושתי כליות שפירש שם מה שלא פירש כאן. ולכפול במצות העבודות, ללמד שאם חסר אחת מכל המתנות פסול, לפי שמצינו בניתנין על המזבח החיצון שנתנן במתנה אחת כפר, הוצרך לומר כאן שמתנה אחת מהן מעכבת:
just as he did to the bull [sacrificed] as a sin-offering: i.e., just as is delineated in the case of the bull of the anointed kohen. [Thus,] included [in the procedures of sacrificing this bull, is the burning of] the diaphragm and the two kidneys, which are specified there and are not specified here (Zev. 41a). [Now, since Scripture relies on the anointed kohen’s sin-offering to teach us the service of sacrificing this bull, why does it specify the procedure involving the sprinkling of the blood, which amounts to a repetition?] The repetition of [details of] the service procedures [involving the sprinkling of blood] comes to teach us that if [even] one application of blood is missing [in the service, the offering is] invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 4:252] [But surely we would know this, without Scripture having to tell us. Why should we think that one missing application of blood would still result in a valid offering?] Since we find regarding the applications [of blood] upon the outer altar, that if the kohen made [only] one application, he nevertheless effected atonement, thus, Scripture needs to tell us here, that [in the case of this bull, where the blood was sprinkled inside the Sanctuary,] that [the omission of even] one application [of blood] affects [the validity of the offering].  
21And he shall take the bull outside the camp and burn it, just as he burned the first bull. It is a sin offering for the congregation.   כאוְהוֹצִ֣יא אֶת־הַפָּ֗ר אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְשָׂרַ֣ף אֹת֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׂרַ֔ף אֵ֖ת הַפָּ֣ר הָֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן חַטַּ֥את הַקָּהָ֖ל הֽוּא:
22If a leader [of Israel] sins and unintentionally commits one of all the commandments of the Lord, which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   כבאֲשֶׁ֥ר נָשִׂ֖יא יֶֽחֱטָ֑א וְעָשָׂ֡ה אַחַ֣ת מִכָּל־מִצְו‍ֹת֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהָ֜יו אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֛ינָה בִּשְׁגָגָ֖ה וְאָשֵֽׁם:
If the leader [of Israel] sins: Heb. אִשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא, [Why does Scripture not use the word אִם like in the cases of verses 3 and 13 above? The answer is that אִשֶׁר is] an expression reminiscent of [the dictum starting with the word] אַשְׁרֵי, “fortunate is…,” namely: “Fortunate is the generation whose leader [does not hold himself too high, but rather,] gives attention to bringing an atonement offering for his unintentional sins-and how much more will he experience remorse for the sins he has committed willfully!” - [Torath Kohanim 4:257]   אשר נשיא יחטא: לשון אשרי, אשרי הדור שהנשיא שלו נותן לב להביא כפרה על שגגתו, קל וחומר שמתחרט על זדונותיו:
23if his sin that he has committed is made known to him, then he shall bring his offering: an unblemished male goat.   כגאֽוֹ־הוֹדַ֤ע אֵלָיו֙ חַטָּאת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖א בָּ֑הּ וְהֵבִ֧יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ שְׂעִ֥יר עִזִּ֖ים זָכָ֥ר תָּמִֽים:
if…is made known: Heb. אוֹ הוֹדַע [This could be literally understood as, “Or …is made known to him.” However, here, the verse] has the meaning: “If [his sin…] is made known to him.” There are many instances of [the word] אוֹ used as expressions of אִם, “if,” and [there are many instances of] אִם used instead of אוֹ. Similar [to this verse, then,] is (Exod. 21:36): אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא [which means: “If it was known that the ox was used to goring.”   או הודע: כמו אם הודע. הרבה או יש שמשמשין בלשון אם, ואם במקום או, וכן או נודע כי שור נגח הוא (שמות כא לו):
[If his sin…] is made known to him: When he committed the sin, he thought that it was permissible, but afterwards, it became known to him that it was forbidden.   הודע אליו: כשחטא היה סבור שהוא היתר, ולאחר מכאן נודע לו שאיסור היה:
24And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the goat's head and slaughter it in the place where he slaughters burnt offerings, before the Lord. It is a sin offering.   כדוְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְשָׁחַ֣ט אֹת֔וֹ בִּמְק֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַ֥ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
in the place where he slaughters burnt-offerings: namely, in the north [ern area of the Holy Temple courtyard], as is expressly mentioned in the case of the burnt-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 4:270]   במקום אשר ישחט את העולה: בצפון, שהוא מפורש בעולה:
It is a sin-offering: [If he slaughters it] for this purpose [i.e., for a sin-offering], it is valid, but if it is [slaughtered] not for this purpose, it is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 271]"   חטאת הוא: לשמו כשר, שלא לשמו פסול:
25And the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour its blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings.   כהוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־דָּמ֣וֹ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָֽה:
its blood: [I.e., its] remaining blood.   ואת דמו: שירי הדם:
26And he shall cause all its fat to [go up in] smoke on the altar, just like the fat of the peace offering. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for his sin, and he will be forgiven.   כווְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ֙ יַקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה כְּחֵ֖לֶב זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מֵֽחַטָּאת֖וֹ וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just like the fat of the peace-offering: i.e., just like the parts [of the animal burnt on the altar] specified for the goat mentioned under the category of peace-offerings.   כחלב זבח השלמים: כאותן אימורין המפורשים בעז האמור אצל שלמים: