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Torah Reading for Ki Tisa

Parshat Ki Tisa
Shabbat, 18 Adar, 5783
11 March, 2023
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Complete: (Exodus 30:11 - 34:35; Numbers 19:1-22; Ezekiel 36:16-36)
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First Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 30

11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12"When you take the sum of the children of Israel according to their numbers, let each one give to the Lord an atonement for his soul when they are counted; then there will be no plague among them when they are counted.   יבכִּ֣י תִשָּׂ֞א אֶת־רֹ֥אשׁ בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לִפְקֻֽדֵיהֶם֒ וְנָ֨תְנ֜וּ אִ֣ישׁ כֹּ֧פֶר נַפְשׁ֛וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בִּפְקֹ֣ד אֹתָ֑ם וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בָהֶ֛ם נֶ֖גֶף בִּפְקֹ֥ד אֹתָֽם:
When you take: Heb. כִּי תִשָׂא. [This is] an expression of taking, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. [I.e.,] when you wish to take the sum [total] of their numbers to know how many they are, do not count them by the head, but each one shall give a half-shekel, and you shall count the shekels. [Thereby] you will know their number.   כִּי תִשָּׂא: לְשׁוֹן קַבָּלָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ; כְּשֶׁתַּחְפֹּץ לְקַבֵּל סְכוּם מִנְיָנָם לָדַעַת כַּמָּה הֵם, אַל תִּמְנֵם לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת, אֶלָּא יִתְּנוּ כָּל אֶחָד מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל וְתִמְנֶה אֶת הַשְּׁקָלִים וְתֵדַע מִנְיָנָם:
then there will be no plague among them: for the evil eye has power over numbered things, and pestilence comes upon them, as we find in David’s time (II Sam. 24).   וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶה בָהֶם נֶגֶף: שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן שׁוֹלֵט בּוֹ עַיִן הָרָע, וְהַדֶּבֶר בָּא עֲלֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בִימֵי דָּוִד (שמואל ב כ"ד):
13This they shall give, everyone who goes through the counting: half a shekel according to the holy shekel. Twenty gerahs equal one shekel; half of [such] a shekel shall be an offering to the Lord.   יגזֶ֣ה | יִתְּנ֗וּ כָּל־הָֽעֹבֵר֙ עַל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים מַֽחֲצִ֥ית הַשֶּׁ֖קֶל בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֤ים גֵּרָה֙ הַשֶּׁ֔קֶל מַֽחֲצִ֣ית הַשֶּׁ֔קֶל תְּרוּמָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
This they shall give: He [God] showed him [Moses] a sort of coin of fire weighing half a shekel, and He said to him, “Like this one they shall give.” -[from Tanchuma 9; Tanchuma Buber, Naso p. 35; Pesikta d’Rav Kahana 19a; Midrash Psalms 91:1; Yerushalmi, Shekalim 1:4]   זֶה יִתְּנוּ: הֶרְאָה לוֹ כְּמִין מַטְבֵּעַ שֶׁל אֵשׁ וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ כָּזֶה יִתְּנוּ (תלמוד ירושלמי שק' א'):
who goes through the counting: Heb. הָעֹבֵר עַל-הַפְקֻדִים. It is customary for those who count to pass the ones who have been counted one following another, and so [too the word יַעִבֹר in] “each one that passes under the rod” (Lev. 27:32), and so [the word תַּעִבֹרְנָה in] “flocks will again pass under the hands of one who counts them” (Jer. 33:13).   הָֽעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים: דֶּרֶךְ הַמּוֹנִין מַעֲבִירִין אֶת הַנִּמְנִין זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְכֵן כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹר תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט (ויקרא כ"ז), וְכֵן תַּעֲבֹרְנָה הַצֹּאן עַל יְדֵי מוֹנֶה (ירמיהו ל"ג):
half a shekel according to the holy shekel: By the weight of the shekel that I fixed for you [against which] to weigh the holy shekels, such as the shekels mentioned in the section dealing with personal evaluations (Lev. 27:1-8) and [in the section concerning] inherited fields (Lev. 27:16-21).   מַֽחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ: בְּמִשְׁקַל הַשֶּׁקֶל שֶׁקָּצַבְתִּי לְךָ לִשְׁקֹל בּוֹ שִׁקְלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, כְּגוֹן שְׁקָלִים הָאֲמוּרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת עֲרָכִין וּשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה:
Twenty gerahs equal one shekel: Now He explains to you how much it is.   עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל: עַכְשָׁו פֵּרֵשׁ לְךָ כַּמָּה הוּא:
gerahs: Heb. גֵרָה, a word meaning a ma’ah [a small coin]. Likewise, “will come to prostrate himself before him for a silver piece (אִגוֹרַת כֶּסֶף) and a morsel of bread” (I Sam. 2:36).   גֵּרָה: לְשׁוֹן מָעָה; וְכֵן בִּשְׁמְוּאֵל (א' ב'), יָבוֹא לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹת לוֹ לַאֲגוֹרַת כֶּסֶף וְכִכַּר לָחֶם:
Twenty gerahs equal one shekel: for a whole shekel equals four zuzim, and the zuz was originally five ma’oth, but they came and added a sixth to it and raised it to six ma’oth of silver, and half of this shekel [of] which I have spoken to you [here in this verse], they shall give as an offering to the Lord.   עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל: שֶׁהַשֶּׁקֶל הַשָּׁלֵם אַרְבָּעָה זוּזִים, וְהַזּוּז מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ חָמֵשׁ מָעוֹת, אֶלָּא בָאוּ וְהוֹסִיפוּ עָלָיו שְׁתוּת וְהֶעֱלוּהוּ לְשֵׁשׁ מָעָה כֶסֶף, וּמַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל הַזֶּה שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְךָ יִתְּנוּ תְּרוּמָה לַה' (בכורות ה'):
14Everyone who goes through the counting, from the age of twenty and upward, shall give an offering to the Lord.   ידכֹּ֗ל הָֽעֹבֵר֙ עַל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים מִבֶּ֛ן עֶשְׂרִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וָמָ֑עְלָה יִתֵּ֖ן תְּרוּמַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה:
from the age of twenty and upward: [The Torah] teaches you here that no one under twenty years old goes out [to serve] in the army or is counted among men.   מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמָעְלָה: לִמֶּדְךָ כָּאן שֶׁאֵין פָּחוּת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים יוֹצֵא לַצָּבָא וְנִמְנֶה בִּכְלַל אֲנָשִׁים:
15The rich shall give no more, and the poor shall give no less than half a shekel, with which to give the offering to the Lord, to atone for your souls.   טוהֶֽעָשִׁ֣יר לֹֽא־יַרְבֶּ֗ה וְהַדַּל֙ לֹ֣א יַמְעִ֔יט מִמַּֽחֲצִ֖ית הַשָּׁ֑קֶל לָתֵת֙ אֶת־תְּרוּמַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם:
to atone for your souls: That they should not be struck by a plague because of the counting. Another explanation: [This was written] because [God] hinted to them [the Israelites] here [about] three offerings, because “an offering to the Lord” is written here three times. The first [represents] the offering [of silver] for the sockets [of the Mishkan], for he [Moses] counted them when they commenced with the donations for the Mishkan. Everyone gave a half-shekel, amounting to one hundred talents, as it is said: “And the silver of the community census was one hundred talents” (Exod. 38:25). The sockets were made from this, as it is said: “One hundred talents of the silver was [used to cast the sockets of the Mishkan and the sockets of the dividing curtain]” (Exod. 38:27). The second [offering mentioned here] was also [collected] through counting, for he [Moses] counted them after the Mishkan was erected. This is the counting mentioned in the beginning of the Book of Numbers: “on the first of the second month in the second year” (Num. 1:1). [For this offering] everyone gave a half-shekel, [the total of] which was [earmarked] for the purchase of communal sacrifices for every year. The rich and poor were equal in them [i.e., they gave equally in these two offerings]. Concerning that [second] offering, it is said: “to atone for your souls,” because the sacrifices are brought for the purpose of atonement. The third one [offering] is the offering for the Mishkan, as it is said: “Whoever set aside an offering of silver or copper” (Exod. 35:24). In this [offering] not everyone gave the same amount, but each one [gave] according to what his heart inspired him to give. -[from Shekalim 2b]   לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם: שֶׁלֹא תִנָּגְפוּ עַל יְדֵי מִנְיָן; דָּבָר אַחֵר לְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם, לְפִי שֶׁרָמַז לָהֶם כָּאן ג' תְּרוּמוֹת – שֶׁנִּכְתַּב כָּאן תְּרוּמַת ה' שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, אַחַת תְּרוּמַת אֲדָנִים שֶׁמְּנָאָן כְּשֶׁהִתְחִילוּ בְנִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, שֶׁנָּתְנוּ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל, וְעָלָה לִמְאַת הַכִּכָּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְכֶסֶף פְּקוּדֵי הָעֵדָה מְאַת כִּכָּר (שמות ל"ח), וּמֵהֶם נַעֲשׂוּ הָאֲדָנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי מְאַת כִּכַּר הַכֶּסֶף וְגוֹ' (שם); וְהַשֵּׁנִית אַף הִיא עַל יְדֵי מִנְיָן, שֶׁמְּנָאָן מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, הוּא הַמִּנְיָן הָאָמוּר בִּתְחִלַּת חֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית (במדבר א'), וְנָתְנוּ כָּל אֶחָד מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל, וְהֵן לִקְנוֹת מֵהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר שֶׁל כָּל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה, וְהֻשְׁווּ בָהֶם עֲנִיִּים וַעֲשִׁירִים, וְעַל אוֹתָהּ תְּרוּמָה נֶאֱמַר לְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם, שֶׁהַקָּרְבָּנוֹת לְכַפָּרָה הֵם בָּאִים; וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית הִיא תְרוּמַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּל מֵרִים תְּרוּמַת כֶּסֶף וּנְחֹשֶׁת (שמות ל"ה), וְלֹא הָיְתָה יַד כֻּלָּם שָׁוָה בָהּ אֶלָּא אִישׁ מַה שֶּׁנְּדָבוֹ לִבּוֹ:
16You shall take the silver of the atonements from the children of Israel and use it for the work of the Tent of Meeting; it shall be a remembrance for the children of Israel before the Lord, to atone for your souls."   טזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֞ אֶת־כֶּ֣סֶף הַכִּפֻּרִ֗ים מֵאֵת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְנָֽתַתָּ֣ אֹת֔וֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַ֖ת אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְהָיָה֩ לִבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל לְזִכָּרוֹן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם:
and use it for the work of the Tent of Meeting: [From this] you learn that they were commanded to count them at the beginning of the donation for the Mishkan after the incident of the calf. [They were commanded then] because a plague had befallen them, as it is said: “And the Lord plagued the people” (Exod. 32:35). This can be compared to a flock of sheep, treasured by its owner, which was stricken with pestilence. When it [the pestilence] was over, he [the owner] said to the shepherd, “Please count my sheep to know how many are left,” in order to make it known that he treasured it [the flock] (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 9). It is, however, impossible to say that this counting [mentioned here] was the [same] one mentioned in the Book of Numbers, for in that one [counting] it says: “on the first of the second month” (Num. 1:1), and the Mishkan was erected on the first [day] of the first month, as it is said: On the day of the first month, on the first of the month, you shall erect, etc. (Exod. 40:2). The sockets were made from shekels realized from that counting, as it is said: “One hundred talents of the silver were used to cast, etc.” (Exod. 38:27). Thus you learn that they [the countings] were two-one at the beginning of their donation [to the Mishkan] after Yom Kippur in the first year [after the Exodus], and one in the second year in Iyar after the Mishkan had been erected. Now if you ask, how is it possible that in both of these countings the Israelites equaled six hundred three thousand, five hundred fifty? In the case of the silver of the community census, it says this number, and also in the Book of Numbers it says the same: “And all the counted ones were six hundred three thousand, five hundred fifty” (Num. 1:46). Were they [the countings] not in two [separate] years? It is impossible that in the first census there were none who were nineteen years old and consequently not counted, and by the second counting became twenty years old [and were counted]. The answer to this matter is that in the context of the ages of people, they were counted in the same year, but in the context of the Exodus they [the two dates] were two [separate] years, since [to figure the time] from the Exodus, we count from [the month of] Nissan, as we learned in [tractate] Rosh Hashanah (2b). In this context, the Mishkan was built in the first year [after the Exodus] and erected in the second year, for the new year started on the first of Nissan. People’s ages, however, are counted according to the number of years of the world, beginning with [the month of] Tishri. Thus, the two countings were [taken] in the same year. The first counting was in Tishri after Yom Kippur, when the Omnipresent was placated toward Israel to forgive them, and they were commanded concerning [building] the Mishkan. The second one [counting] was on the first of Iyar. -[from Num. Rabbah 1:10]   וְנָֽתַתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ לִמְנוֹתָם בִּתְחִלַּת נִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אַחַר מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכְנַס בָּהֶם מַגֵּפָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת הָעָם; מָשָׁל לְצֹאן הַחֲבִיבָה עַל בְּעָלֶיהָ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ דֶּבֶר וּמִשֶּׁפָּסַק אָמַר לוֹ לָרוֹעֶה בְּבַקָּשָׁה מִמְּךָ מְנֵה אֶת צֹאנִי וְדַע כַּמָּה נוֹתְרוּ בָהֶם, לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהִיא חֲבִיבָה עָלָיו; וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן הַזֶּה הוּא הָאָמוּר בְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וְהַמִּשְׁכָּן הוּקַם בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּיוֹם הַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ תָּקִים וְגוֹ' (שמות מ'), וּמֵהַמִּנְיָן הַזֶּה נַעֲשׂוּ הָאֲדָנִים – מִשְּׁקָלִים שֶׁלּוֹ – שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי מְאַת כִּכַּר הַכֶּסֶף לָצֶקֶת וְגוֹ' (שם ל"ח), הָא לָמַדְתָּ שְׁתַּיִם הָיוּ, אֶחָד בִּתְחִלַּת נִדְבָתָן אַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְאַחַת בְּשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה בְּאִיָּר מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן. וְאִם תֹּאמַר וְכִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶם הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׁוִים – ו' מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וְג' אֲלָפִים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים – שֶׁהֲרֵי בְכֶסֶף פְּקוּדֵי הָעֵדָה נֶאֱמַר כֵּן, וּבְחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים אַף בּוֹ נֶאֱמַר כֵּן וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַפְּקוּדִים שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים (במדבר א'), וַהֲלֹא בִשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים הָיוּ, וְאִי אֶפְשַָׁר שֶׁלֹא הָיוּ בִשְׁעַת מִנְיָן הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּנֵי י"ט שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא נִמְנוּ וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה נַעֲשׂוּ בְּנֵי כ'! תְּשׁוּבָה לַדָּבָר: אֵצֶל שְׁנוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּשָׁנָה אַחַת נִמְנוּ, אֲבָל לְמִנְיַן יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, לְפִי שֶׁלִּיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם מוֹנִין מִנִּיסָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְמַסֶּ' רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה (דף ב'), וְנִבְנָה הַמִּשְׁכָּן בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהוּקַם בַּשְּׁנִיָּה, שֶׁנִּתְחַדְּשָׁה שָׁנָה בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן, אֲבָל שְׁנוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים מְנוּיִין לְמִנְיַן שְׁנוֹת עוֹלָם, הַמַּתְחִילִין מִתִּשְׁרֵי, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמִּנְיָנִים בְּשָׁנָה אַחַת – הַמִּנְיָן הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיָה בְּתִשְׁרֵי לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים שֶׁנִּתְרַצָּה הַמָּקוֹם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִסְלֹחַ לָהֶם וְנִצְטַוּוּ עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְהַשֵּׁנִי בְּאֶחָד בְּאִיָּר:
for the work of the Tent of Meeting: These are the sockets made from it [i.e., from the silver of the atonements].   עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: הֵן הָאֲדָנִים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בוֹ:
17The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
18"You shall make a washstand of copper and its base of copper for washing, and you shall place it between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and you shall put water therein.   יחוְעָשִׂ֜יתָ כִּיּ֥וֹר נְח֛שֶׁת וְכַנּ֥וֹ נְח֖שֶׁת לְרָחְצָ֑ה וְנָֽתַתָּ֣ אֹת֗וֹ בֵּֽין־אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ וּבֵ֣ין הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְנָֽתַתָּ֥ שָׁ֖מָּה מָֽיִם:
a washstand: Like a sort of large caldron, which has faucets allowing water to pour out through their openings.   כִּיּוֹר: כְּמִין דּוּד גְּדוֹלָה וְלָהּ דַּדִּים הַמְּרִיקִים בְּפִיהֶם מַיִם:
and its base: Heb. וְכַנּוֹ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וּבְסִיסֵיהּ, a seat prepared for the washstand.   וְכַנּוֹ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ בְּסִיסֵהּ, מוֹשָׁב מְתֻקָּן לַכִּיּוֹר:
for washing: This refers back to the washstand.   לְרָחְצָה: מוּסָב עַל הַכִּיּוֹר:
between… the altar: [This refers to] the altar for burnt offerings, about which it is written that it was in front of the entrance of the Mishkan of the Tent of Meeting. The washstand was drawn away slightly [from the entrance] and stood opposite the space between the altar and the Mishkan, but it did not intervene at all [between them], because it is said: “And he placed the altar for burnt offerings at the entrance of the Mishkan of the Tent of Meeting” (Exod. 40:29), implying that the altar was in front of the Tent of Meeting, but the washstand was not in front of the Tent of Meeting. How is that so? It [the washstand] was drawn away slightly to the south. So it is taught in Zev. (59a).   וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: מִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה, שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח מִשְׁכַּן אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, וְהָיָה הַכִּיּוֹר מָשׁוּךְ קִמְעָא, וְעוֹמֵד כְּנֶגֶד אֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק כְּלָל בֵּינְתַיִם, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה שָׂם פֶּתַח מִשְׁכַּן אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (שמות מ'), – כְּלוֹמַר מִזְבֵּחַ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵין כִּיּוֹר לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, הָא כֵיצַד? מָשׁוּךְ קִמְעָא כְּלַפֵּי הַדָּרוֹם; כָּךְ שְׁנוּיָה בִזְבָחִים:
19Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet from it.   יטוְרָֽחֲצ֛וּ אַֽהֲרֹ֥ן וּבָנָ֖יו מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֖ם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶֽם:
their hands and feet: He [the kohen] would wash his hands and feet simultaneously. So we learned in Zev. (19b): How was the washing of the hands and the feet [performed]? [The kohen] would lay his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot and wash [in this manner].   אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶֽם: בְּבַת אַחַת הָיָה מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו; וְכָךְ שָׁנִינוּ בִזְבָחִים (דף י"ט); כֵּיצַד קִדּוּשׁ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם? מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְיָדוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית וּמְקַדֵּשׁ:
20When they enter the Tent of Meeting, they shall wash with water so that they will not die; or when they approach the altar to serve, to make a fire offering rise up in smoke to the Lord,   כבְּבֹאָ֞ם אֶל־אֹ֧הֶל מוֹעֵ֛ד יִרְחֲצוּ־מַ֖יִם וְלֹ֣א יָמֻ֑תוּ א֣וֹ בְגִשְׁתָּ֤ם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ לְשָׁרֵ֔ת לְהַקְטִ֥יר אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
When they enter the Tent of Meeting: to bring the incense up in smoke in the morning and in the afternoon, or to sprinkle some of the blood of the bull of the anointed Kohen [Gadol, who erred in his halachic decision and practiced according to that erroneous decision,] (Lev. 4:3-12) and the blood of the kids for [sin offerings for having engaged in] idolatry (Num. 15:22-26).   בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: לְהַקְטִיר שַׁחֲרִית וּבֵין הָעַרְבַּיִם קְטֹרֶת, אוֹ לְהַזּוֹת מִדַּם פַּר כֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
so that they will not die: This implies that if they do not wash, they will die. For in the Torah [there] are stated implications, and from the negative implication you [can] understand the positive.   וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ: הָא אִם לֹא יִרְחֲצוּ יָמוּתוּ, שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה נֶאֶמְרוּ כְלָלוֹת, וּמִכְלַל לָאו אַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ הֵן:
the altar: [I.e.,] the outer [altar], in which no entry to the Tent of Meeting is involved, only [entry] into the courtyard.   אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: הַחִיצוֹן, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן בִּיאַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶלָּא בֶּחָצֵר:
21they shall wash their hands and feet so that they will not die; this shall be for them a perpetual statute, for him and for his descendants, for their generations."   כאוְרָֽחֲצ֛וּ יְדֵיהֶ֥ם וְרַגְלֵיהֶ֖ם וְלֹ֣א יָמֻ֑תוּ וְהָֽיְתָ֨ה לָהֶ֧ם חָק־עוֹלָ֛ם ל֥וֹ וּלְזַרְע֖וֹ לְדֹֽרֹתָֽם:
so that they will not die: [This verse is written] to impose death upon one who serves on the altar when his hands and feet are not washed, for from the first death penalty (verse 20) we understand only [that death is imposed] upon one who enters the Temple.   וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ: לְחַיֵּב מִיתָה עַל הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֵינוֹ רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם, שֶׁהַמִּיתָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶלָּא עַל הַנִּכְנָס לַהֵיכָל:
22The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כבוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
23"And you, take for yourself spices of the finest sort: of pure myrrh five hundred [shekel weights]; of fragrant cinnamon half of it two hundred and fifty [shekel weights]; of fragrant cane two hundred and fifty [shekel weights],   כגוְאַתָּ֣ה קַח־לְךָ֘ בְּשָׂמִ֣ים רֹאשׁ֒ מָר־דְּרוֹר֙ חֲמֵ֣שׁ מֵא֔וֹת וְקִנְּמָן־בֶּ֥שֶׂם מַֽחֲצִית֖וֹ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים וּמָאתָ֑יִם וּקְנֵה־בֹ֖שֶׂם חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים וּמָאתָֽיִם:
spices of the finest sort: Heb. בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ, of high quality.   בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ: חֲשׁוּבִים:
fragrant cinnamon: Since cinnamon is the bark of a tree, and there is one good type [of cinnamon] that has a fragrant bouquet and a good taste, and there is another that is merely like wood, it was necessary to state “fragrant cinnamon,” [meaning that the incense was to be made] of the good species.   וְקִנְּמָן־בֶּשֶׂם: לְפִי שֶׁהַקִּנָּמוֹן קְלִפַּת עֵץ הוּא, יֵשׁ שֶׁהוּא טוֹב וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ רֵיחַ טוֹב וְטַעַם, וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּעֵץ, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר קִנְּמָן בֶּשֶׂם – מִן הַטּוֹב:
half of it two hundred and fifty [shekel weights]: Half of the amount to be brought shall be two hundred and fifty; thus altogether it is five hundred [shekel weights], like the amount of pure myrrh. If so, why was it stated in halves? This is a Scriptural decree to bring it in halves to add to it two overweights, because we do not weigh [the spices] exactly. So it was taught in Kereithoth (5a).   מַֽחֲצִיתוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם: מַחֲצִית הֲבָאָתוֹ תְּהֵא חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתַיִם, נִמְצָא כֻלּוֹ חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת, כְּמוֹ שִׁעוּר מָר דְּרוֹר, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ חֲצָאִין, גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב הִיא לַהֲבִיאוֹ לַחֲצָאִין, לְהַרְבּוֹת בּוֹ ב' הַכְרָעוֹת, שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹקְלִין עַיִן בְּעַיִן; וְכָךְ שְׁנוּיָה בְכָרֵתוֹת:
fragrant cane: Heb. וּקְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם, cane of spice. Since there are canes that are not of spice, it is necessary to specify: בֹשֶׂם   וּקְנֵה־בֶּשֶׂם: קָנֶה שֶׁל בֹּשֶׂם; לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ קָנִים שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל בֹּשֶׂם הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר קְנֵה בֹשֶׂם:
two hundred and fifty [shekel weights]: [This is] its total sum.   חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם: סַךְ מִשְׁקַל כֻּלּוֹ:
24and of cassia five hundred [shekel weights] according to the holy shekel, and one hin of olive oil.   כדוְקִדָּ֕ה חֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וְשֶׁ֥מֶן זַ֖יִת הִֽין:
and of cassia: Heb. וְקִדָּה, the name of the root of an herb, and in the language of the Sages: קְצִיעָה, cassia. -[from Ker. 6a]   וְקִדָּה: שֵׁם שֹׁרֶשׁ עֵשֶׂב, וּבִלְשׁוֹן חֲכָמִים קְצִיעָה:
hin: [The equivalent of] twelve logs. The Sages of Israel differ concerning it [i.e., how the oil was made]. Rabbi Meir says: They [whoever made the anointing oil] boiled the roots in it [the oil of the anointment]. Rabbi Judah said to him: But is it not so that it [the anointment oil] did not even suffice to anoint the roots [and thus they certainly couldn’t boil the spices in the oil]? Rather, they soaked them [the spices] in water so that they would not absorb the oil, and then poured the oil on them until they were impregnated with the scent, and [then] they wiped the oil off the roots. -[from Ker. 5a]   הִֽין: י"ב לֻגִּין; וְנֶחְלְקוּ בוֹ חַכְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל — רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר בּוֹ שָׁלְקוּ אֶת הָעִקָּרִין, אָמַר לוֹ רַ' יְהוּדָה וַהֲלֹא לָסוּךְ אֶת הָעִקָּרִין אֵינוֹ סִפֵּק אֶלָּא שְׁרָאוּם בַּמַּיִם שֶׁלֹּא יִבְלְעוּ אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵצִיף עֲלֵיהֶם הַשֶּׁמֶן עַד שֶׁקָּלַט הָרֵיחַ, וְקִפְּחוֹ לַשֶּׁמֶן מֵעַל הָעִקָּרִין (הוריות י"א):
25You shall make this into an oil of holy anointment, a perfumed compound according to the art of a perfumer; it shall be an oil of holy anointment.   כהוְעָשִׂ֣יתָ אֹת֗וֹ שֶׁ֚מֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹ֔דֶשׁ רֹ֥קַח מִרְקַ֖חַת מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה רֹקֵ֑חַ שֶׁ֥מֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
a perfumed compound: Heb. רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת. רֹקַח is a noun, and the accent, which is on the first syllable, proves that. It is like רֶקַע רֶגַע, but it is not like “Who wrinkles (רֹגַע) the sea” (Isa. 51:15), or like “Who spread out (רֹקַע) the earth” (Isa. 42:5) [which are both verbs], because [in those instances] the accent is at the end of the word. Any substance mixed with another substance until one becomes impregnated from the other with either scent or taste is called מִרְקַחַת.   רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת: רֹקַח שֵׁם דָּבָר הוּא, וְהַטַּעַם מוֹכִיחַ, שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ רֶקַח, רֶגַע; וְאֵינוֹ כְּמוֹ רֹגַע הַיָּם (ישעיהו נ"א), וּכְמוֹ רֹקַע הָאָרֶץ (שם מלכים ב), שֶׁהַטַּעַם לְמַטָּה; וְכָל דָּבָר הַמְעֹרָב בַּחֲבֵרוֹ עַד שֶׁזֶּה קוֹפֵחַ מִזֶּה אוֹ רֵיחַ אוֹ טַעַם קָרוּי מִרְקַחַת:
a perfumed compound: Heb. רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת, a compound made through the skill of mixing.   רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת: רֹקַח הֶעָשׂוּי עַל יְדֵי אָמָּנוּת וְתַעֲרוֹבוֹת:
according to the art of a perfumer: Heb. רֹקֵחַ, the name of the craftsman in this field.   מַֽעֲשֵׂה רֹקַח: שֵׁם הָאֻמָּן בַּדָּבָר:
26And you shall anoint with it the Tent of Meeting and the Ark of Testimony,   כווּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ֥ ב֖וֹ אֶת־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְאֵ֖ת אֲר֥וֹן הָֽעֵדֻֽת:
And you shall anoint with it: All anointments were in the shape of the Greek [letter] “chaff,” except those of the kings, which were like a sort of crown. -[from Ker. 5b]   וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ: כָּל הַמְּשִׁיחוֹת כְּמִין כִי (נ"א כ"ף), חוּץ מִשֶּׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁהֵן כְּמִין נֵזֶר (כריתות ה'):
27the table and all its implements, the menorah and its implements, the altar of incense,   כזוְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָ֔יו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָ֖ה וְאֶת־כֵּלֶ֑יהָ וְאֵ֖ת מִזְבַּ֥ח הַקְּטֹֽרֶת:
28the altar of the burnt offering and all its implements, the washstand and its base.   כחוְאֶת־מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָ֑יו וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּ֖ר וְאֶת־כַּנּֽוֹ:
29And you shall sanctify them so that they become a holy of holies; whatever touches them shall become holy.   כטוְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֣ אֹתָ֔ם וְהָי֖וּ קֹ֣דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֑ים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּהֶ֖ם יִקְדָּֽשׁ:
And you shall sanctify them: This anointment sanctifies them to be a holy of holies. And what is their sanctity? Whatever touches them shall become holy. [I.e.,] whatever is fit for [placement in] a service vessel, when it enters them [the vessels], it becomes intrinsically holy so that it becomes unfit [to be an offering] if it goes out [of its designated boundaries], if it stays [out] overnight, or if [it comes in contact with] a person who has immersed himself [from uncleanness] on that day, and it may not be redeemed to become ordinary [unsanctified] food. Something unfit for them [i.e., for the service vessels], however, they [the vessels] do not sanctify (Zev. 87a). This was taught as an explicit Mishnah concerning the altar [i.e., a Baraitha, Zev. 83b]: Since it is stated: “Whatever touches the altar will be holy” (Exod. 29:37), I understand it to mean whether it is fit or unfit. Therefore, [to clarify this,] the Torah states [that] lambs [are to be sacrificed upon the altar]. Because just as lambs are fit, so is anything else that is fit [sanctified if it comes in contact with the altar]. Every anointment of the Mishkan, the kohanim, and the kings is translated [by Onkelos] as an expression of greatness because there is no need to anoint them except in order to proclaim their greatness. So did the King [God] decree, that this [the anointment] is their initiation into greatness. Other anointments, however, such as anointed wafers, “and with the first oils they anoint themselves” (Amos 6:6), their Aramaic [translation] is the same as the Hebrew.   וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם: מְשִׁיחָה זוֹ מְקַדַּשְׁתָּם לִהְיוֹת קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים, וּמַה הִיא קְדֻשָּׁתָם? כל הנגע וְגוֹ': כָּל הָרָאוּי לִכְלִי שָׁרֵת, מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס לְתוֹכוֹ, קָדוֹשׁ קְדֻשַּׁת הַגּוּף – לִפָּסֵל בְּיוֹצֵא וְלִינָה וּטְבוּל יוֹם וְאֵינוֹ נִפְדֶּה לָצֵאת לְחֻלִּין, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָהֶם אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין; וּשְׁנוּיָה הִיא מִשְׁנָה שְׁלֵמָה אֵצֶל מִזְבֵּחַ: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּ' כָּל הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ יִקְדָּשׁ (שמות כ"ט), שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי בֵּין רָאוּי בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כְּבָשִׂים, מַה כְּבָשִׂים רְאוּיִים אַף כָּל רָאוּי; כָּל מְשִׁיחַת מִשְׁכָּן וְכֹהֲנִים וּמְלָכִים מְתֻרְגָּם לְשׁוֹן רִבּוּי, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין צֹרֶךְ מְשִׁיחָתָן אֶלָּא לִגְדֻלָּה, כִּי כֵן יִסַּד הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁזֶּה חִנּוּךְ גְּדֻלָּתָן, וּשְׁאָר מְשִׁיחוֹת – כְּמוֹ רְקִיקִין מְשׁוּחִין (שם), וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ (עמוס ו') – לְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּית בָּהֶן כִּלְשׁוֹן עִבְרִית:
30And with it you shall anoint Aaron and his sons and sanctify them to serve Me [as kohanim].   לוְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֥ן וְאֶת־בָּנָ֖יו תִּמְשָׁ֑ח וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֥ אֹתָ֖ם לְכַהֵ֥ן לִֽי:
31And to the children of Israel you shall speak, saying: 'This shall be oil of holy anointment to Me for your generations.   לאוְאֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תְּדַבֵּ֣ר לֵאמֹ֑ר שֶׁ֠מֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹ֨דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה זֶ֛ה לִ֖י לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
for your generations: From here our Rabbis deduced that it [the anointing oil made by Moses] will all remain in existence in the future. -[from Horioth 11b]   לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם: מִכָּאן לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ קַיָּם לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא:
This: Heb. זֶה. In gematria, this equals twelve logs. [ ז, ה, totaling 12.] -[from Horioth 11b]   זֶה: בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא תְּרֵיסַר לֻגִּין הֲווּ (כריתות ה'):
32It shall not be poured upon human flesh, and according to its formula you shall not make anything like it. It is holy; it shall be holy to you.   לבעַל־בְּשַׂ֤ר אָדָם֙ לֹ֣א יִיסָ֔ךְ וּבְמַ֨תְכֻּנְתּ֔וֹ לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשׂ֖וּ כָּמֹ֑הוּ קֹ֣דֶשׁ ה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם:
It shall not be poured: Heb. לֹא יִיסָךְ. [This is spelled] with two “yud” s. It is an expression [in the form] of לֹא יִפְעַל, it shall not do, like, “and in order that it be good (יִיטַב) for you” (Deut. 5:16).   לֹא יִיסָךְ: בִּשְׁנֵי יוֹדִי"ן, לְשׁוֹן לֹא יִפְעַל, כְּמוֹ (דברים ה טו) לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ:
It shall not be poured upon human flesh: from this very oil.   עַל־בְּשַׂר אָדָם לֹא יִיסָךְ: מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה עַצְמוֹ:
and according to its formula you shall not make anything like it: With the amount of its ingredients you shall not make another like it, but if one decreased or increased the ingredients according to the measure of a hin of oil, it is permitted. Also, the [oil] made according to the formula of this [oil]-the one who anoints himself [with it] is not liable, only the one who mixes it. -[from Ker. 5a]   וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ לֹא תַֽעֲשׂוּ כָּמֹהוּ: בִּסְכוּם סַמָּנָיו לֹא תַּעֲשׂוּ אַחֵר כָּמוֹהוּ בְּמִשְׁקַל סַמָּנִין הַלָּלוּ לְפִי מִדַּת הִין שֶׁמֶן, אֲבָל אִם פָּחַת אוֹ רִבָּה סַמְמָנִין לְפִי מִדַּת הִין שֶׁמֶן מֻתָּר, וְאַף הֶעָשׂוּי בְּמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, אֵין הַסָּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב אֶלָּא הָרוֹקְחוֹ:
according to its formula: Heb. וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ, a word meaning a number, like “the number of (מַתְכֹּנֶת) bricks” (Exod. 5:8), and so, בְּמַתְכֻּנְךְתָּה, mentioned in reference to the incense (below, verse 37).   וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ: לְשׁוֹן חֶשְׁבּוֹן, כְּמוֹ (שמות ה ח) מַתְכֹּנֶת הַלְּבֵנִים, וְכֵן בְּמַתְכֻּנְתָּהּ שֶׁל קְטֹרֶת:
33Any person who compounds anything like it or puts any of it on an alien shall be cut off from his people.' "   לגאִ֚ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִרְקַ֣ח כָּמֹ֔הוּ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יִתֵּ֛ן מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַל־זָ֑ר וְנִכְרַ֖ת מֵֽעַמָּֽיו:
or puts any of it: Of that [oil] of [i.e., made by] Moses. [However, anyone who anoints himself with oil that was made copying the original anointing oil is not liable.] -[from Ker. 5a]   וַֽאֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ: מֵאוֹתוֹ שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה:
on an alien: [I.e.,] which is not needed for the kehunah or the kingship.   עַל־זָר: שֶׁאֵינוֹ צֹרֶךְ כְּהֻנָּה וּמַלְכוּת:
34And the Lord said to Moses: "Take for yourself aromatics, [namely] balsam sap, onycha and galbanum, aromatics and pure frankincense; they shall be of equal weight.   לדוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֶל־משֶׁ֜ה קַח־לְךָ֣ סַמִּ֗ים נָטָ֤ף | וּשְׁחֵ֨לֶת֙ וְחֶלְבְּנָ֔ה סַמִּ֖ים וּלְבֹנָ֣ה זַכָּ֑ה בַּ֥ד בְּבַ֖ד יִֽהְיֶֽה:
balsam sap: Heb. נָטָף. This is balm (צֳרִי), but since it is only the sap that drips (נוֹטֵף) from the balsam trees, it is called נָטָף (Ker. 6a), and in French, gomme, gum resin. The balm itself, however, is called triaca [in Old Provencal], theriac.   נָטָף: הוּא צֳרִי, וְעַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא שְׂרָף הַנּוֹטֵף מֵעֲצֵי הַקְּטָף קָרוּי נָטָף, וּבְלַעַז גומ"א, וְהַצֳּרִי קוֹרִין לוֹ טרי"אקה:
onycha: Heb. וּשְׁחֵלֶת, a root of a spice, smooth and shiny as fingernails, and in the language of the Mishnah (Ker. 6a) it is called צִפֹּרֶן. This is what Onkelos renders as וְטוּפְרָא. [Both צִפֹּרֶן and טוּפְרָא mean “fingernail.”]   וּשְׁחֵלֶת: שֹׁרֶשׁ בֹּשֶׁם חָלָק וּמַצְהִיר כְּצִּפֹּרֶן, וּבִלְשׁוֹן הַמִּשְׁנָה קָרוּי צִפֹּרֶן, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס וְטוּפְרָא:
and galbanum: A spice with a vile odor, called galbane [in Old French], galbanum. The Scripture counted it among the ingredients of the incense [in order] to teach us that we should not look askance at including Jewish transgressors with us when we assemble for fasting or prayer. [The Torah instructs us] that they should be counted with us. -[from Ker. 6b]   וְחֶלְבְּנָה: בֹּשֶׂם שֶׁרֵיחוֹ רַע, וְקוֹרִין לוֹ גַלְבְּנָא, וּמְנָאָהּ הַכָּתוּב בֵּין סַמָּנֵי הַקְּטֹרֶת לְלַמְּדֵנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יֵקַל בְּעֵינֵינוּ לְצָרֵף עִמָּנוּ בַּאֲגֻדַּת תַּעֲנִיּוֹתֵינוּ וּתְפִלּוֹתֵנוּ אֶת פּוֹשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִמְנִין עִמָּנוּ:
aromatics: Heb. סַמִּים. Other [aromatics]. -[from Ker. 6b]   סַמִּים: אֲחֵרִים:
and pure frankincense: From here our Rabbis learned that eleven ingredients were told to Moses [when he was] at Sinai: the minimum of aromatics-two [since סַמִּים is written in the plural form]; balsam sap, onycha, and galbanum-three, equaling five; aromatics [written a second time]-to include again the number of these, equaling ten; and frankincense, totaling eleven. They are as follows: (1) balsam sap, (2) onycha, (3) galbanum, (4) frankincense, (5) myrrh, (6) cassia, (7) spikenard נֵרְדְּ) (שִׁבֹּלֶת, and (8) saffron, totaling eight, because שִׁבֹּלֶת and נֵרְדְּ are one, for spikenard נֵרְדְּ is like an ear [of grain] שִׁבֹּלֶת. [To continue:] (9) costus, (10) aromatic bark, and (11) cinnamon, thus totaling eleven. Borith carshina [mentioned further in the Baraitha, is not counted because it] does not go up in smoke, but they rub the onycha with it to whiten it so that it should be beautiful. -[from Ker. 6a]   וּלְבֹנָה זַכָּה: מִכָּאן לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ י"א סַמָּנִין נֶאֶמְרוּ לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה בְּסִינַי – מִעוּט סַמִּים שְׁנַיִם, נָטָף וּשְׁחֵלֶת וְחֶלְבְּנָה ג', הֲרֵי חֲמִשָּׁה, סַמִּים לְרַבּוֹת עוֹד כְּמוֹ אֵלּוּ הֲרֵי עֲשָׂרָה, וּלְבוֹנָה הֲרֵי י"א; וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַצֳּרִי וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן הַחֶלְבְּנָה וְהַלְּבוֹנָה מֹר וּקְצִיעָה שִׁבֹּלֶת נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם הֲרֵי ח' – שֶׁהַשִּׁבֹּלֶת וְנֵרְדְּ אֶחָד, שֶׁהַנֵּרְדְּ דּוֹמֶה לְשִׁבֹּלֶת – הַקֹּשְׁטְ וְהַקִּלּוּפָה וְקִנָּמוֹן הֲרֵי י"א; בֹּרִית כַּרְשִׁינָה אֵינוֹ נִקְטָר אֶלָּא בּוֹ שָׁפִין אֶת הַצִּפֹּרֶן לְלַבְּנָהּ שֶׁתְּהֵא נָאָה (כריתות ו'):
they shall be of equal weight: Heb. יִהְיֶה בַּד בְּבַד. These four [ingredients] mentioned here [explicitly] shall be equal, a weight for a weight. Like the weight of one, so shall be the weight of the other. So we learned (Ker. 6a): The balsam, the onycha, the galbanum, and the frankincense the weight of each was seventy manehs. The word בַּד appears to me to mean a unit; each one [i. e., the weight] shall be this one like that one.   בַּד בְּבַד יִֽהְיֶֽה: אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה הַנִּזְכָּרִים כָּאן יִהְיוּ שָׁוִין מִשְׁקָל בְּמִשְׁקָל – כְּמִשְׁקָלוֹ שֶׁל זֶה כָּךְ מִשְׁקָלוֹ שֶׁל זֶה – וְכֵן שָׁנִינוּ: הַצֳּרִי וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן הַחֶלְבְּנָה וְהַלְּבוֹנָה מִשְׁקַל שִׁבְעִים שִׁבְעִים מָנֶה (שם); וּלְשׁוֹן בַּד נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן יָחִיד, אֶחָד בְּאֶחָד יִהְיוּ – זֶה כְּמוֹת זֶה:
35And you shall make it into incense, a compound according to the art of the perfumer, well blended, pure, holy.   להוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ אֹתָהּ֙ קְטֹ֔רֶת רֹ֖קַח מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה רוֹקֵ֑חַ מְמֻלָּ֖ח טָה֥וֹר קֹֽדֶשׁ:
well blended: Heb. מְמֻלָח, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: מְעָרֵב, mixed. He should mix their [the spices’] powder thoroughly, one with the other. Accordingly, I say that [the following] are similar to this: “And the sailors (הַמַּלָּחִים) were frightened” (Jonah 1:5); “your sailors (מַלָּחַיִךְ) and your mariners” (Ezek. 27:27). [Sailors are given this appellation] because they turn over the water with oars when they propel the ship, like a person who turns over beaten eggs with a spoon to blend them with water. And anything that a person wishes to blend thoroughly, he turns over with his finger or with a spoon.   מְמֻלָּח: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ מְעֹרָב, שֶׁיְּעָרֵב שְׁחִיקָתָן יָפֶה יָפֶה זֶה עִם זֶה; וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לוֹ וַיִּירְאוּ הַמַּלָּחִים (יונה א'), מַלָּחַיִךְ וְחֹבְלָיִךְ (יחזקאל כ"ז) – עַל שֵׁם שֶׁמְּהַפְּכִין אֶת הַמַּיִם בִּמְשׁוֹטוֹת כְּשֶׁמַּנְהִיגִים אֶת הַסְּפִינָה, כְּאָדָם הַמְהַפֵּךְ בְּכַף בֵּיצִים טְרוּפוֹת לְעָרְבָן עִם הַמַּיִם, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאָדָם רוֹצֶה לְעָרֵב יָפֶה יָפֶה מְהַפְּכוֹ בְּאֶצְבַּע אוֹ בְּבָזֵךְ:
well blended, pure, holy: It shall be well blended; it shall be pure, and it shall be holy.   מְמֻלָּח טָהוֹר קֹֽדֶשׁ: מְמֻלָּח יִהְיֶה, וְטָהוֹר יִהְיֶה וְקֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה:
36And you shall crush some of it very finely, and you shall set some of it before the testimony in the Tent of Meeting, where I will arrange meetings with you; it shall be to you a holy of holies.   לווְשָֽׁחַקְתָּ֣ מִמֶּ֘נָּה֘ הָדֵק֒ וְנָֽתַתָּ֨ה מִמֶּ֜נָּה לִפְנֵ֤י הָֽעֵדֻת֙ בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֛ר אִוָּעֵ֥ד לְךָ֖ שָׁ֑מָּה קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם:
and you shall set some of it: This is the daily incense, which is on the inner altar, which is in the Tent of Meeting.   וְנָֽתַתָּה מִמֶּנָּה וגו': הִיא קְטֹרֶת שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם שֶׁעַל מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁהוּא בְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד:
where I will arrange meetings with you: All appointments to speak that I will set up for you, I will set up for that place.   אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה: כָּל מוֹעֲדֵי דִּבּוּר שֶׁאֶקְבַּע לְךָ, אֲנִי קוֹבְעָם לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם:
37And the incense that you make, you shall not make for yourselves according to its formula; it shall be holy to you for the Lord.   לזוְהַקְּטֹ֨רֶת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה בְּמַ֨תְכֻּנְתָּ֔הּ לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשׂ֖וּ לָכֶ֑ם קֹ֛דֶשׁ תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
according to its formula: According to the number of its ingredients.   בְּמַתְכֻּנְתָּהּ: בְּמִנְיַן סַמְמָנֶיהָ:
it shall be holy to you for the Lord: That you shall not make it except for My Name.   קֹדֶשׁ תִּֽהְיֶה לְךָ לה': שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂנָּה אֶלָּא לִשְׁמִי:
38Any person who makes anything like it, to smell it[s fragrance], shall be cut off from his people.   לחאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה כָמ֖וֹהָ לְהָרִ֣יחַ בָּ֑הּ וְנִכְרַ֖ת מֵֽעַמָּֽיו:
to smell it[s fragrance]: But you may make it according to its formula of your own [ingredients] in order to deliver it to the community. -[from Ker. 5a]   לְהָרִיחַ בָּהּ: אֲבָל עוֹשֶׂה אַתָּה בְּמַתְכֻּנְתָּהּ מִשֶּׁלְּךָ, כְּדֵי לְמָכְרָהּ לַצִּבּוּר (כריתות ה'):

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 31

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2"See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah,   ברְאֵ֖ה קָרָ֣אתִי בְשֵׁ֑ם בְּצַלְאֵ֛ל בֶּן־אוּרִ֥י בֶן־ח֖וּר לְמַטֵּ֥ה יְהוּדָֽה:
I have called by name: to perform My work Bezalel.   קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם –: לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתִּי – אֶת בְּצַלְאֵל:
3and I have imbued him with the spirit of God, with wisdom, with insight, with knowledge, and with [talent for] all manner of craftsmanship   גוָֽאֲמַלֵּ֥א אֹת֖וֹ ר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֑ים בְּחָכְמָ֛ה וּבִתְבוּנָ֥ה וּבְדַ֖עַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָֽה:
with wisdom: [I.e.,] what a person hears from others and learns. -[from Sifrei Deut. 1:13]   חכמה: מַה שֶּׁאָדָם שׁוֹמֵעַ מֵאֲחֵרִים וְלָמֵד:
with insight: With his intellect he understands other things based on what he learned. -[from Sifrei Deut. 1:13]   תבונה: מֵבִין דָּבָר מִלִּבּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרִים שֶׁלָּמַד:
with knowledge: The holy spirit.   דעת: רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
4to do master weaving, to work with gold, with silver, and with copper,   דלַחְשֹׁ֖ב מַֽחֲשָׁבֹ֑ת לַֽעֲשׂ֛וֹת בַּזָּהָ֥ב וּבַכֶּ֖סֶף וּבַנְּחֽשֶׁת:
to do master weaving: Heb. לַחְשֹׁב מַחִשָׁבֹת, the weaving work of a master weaver.   לַחְשֹׁב מַֽחֲשָׁבֹת: אֲרִיגַת מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב:
5with the craft of stones for setting and with the craft of wood, to do every [manner of] work.   הוּבַֽחֲר֥שֶׁת אֶ֛בֶן לְמַלֹּ֖את וּבַֽחֲר֣שֶׁת עֵ֑ץ לַֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת בְּכָל־מְלָאכָֽה:
with the craft: Heb. וּבַחִרשֶׁת, a term denoting a craft, like “a skilled craftsman (חָרָשׁ) ” (Isa. 40:20). Onkelos, however, explained [this term] but varied [the wording] in their explanation [i.e., in the explanation of the two mentions of חִרשֶׁ. וּבַחִרשֶׁת אֶבֶן he rendered וּבְאוּמָנוּת אִבַן טָבָא, and בַחִרשֶׁת עֵץ he rendered וּבְנַגָּרוּת אָעָא, because a craftsman of stones is called אוּמָן, craftsman, whereas a craftsman of wood is called נַגַָָּר, carpenter.   וּבַֽחֲרשֶׁת: לְשׁוֹן אָמָּנוּת, כְּמוֹ חָרָשׁ חָכָם (ישעיהו מ'), וְאֻנְקְלוֹס פֵּרֵשׁ, וְשִׁנָּה בְּפֵרוּשָׁן, שֶׁחָרַשׁ אֲבָנִים קָרוּי אָמָּן וְחָרַשׁ עֵץ קָרוּי נַגָּר:
for setting: Heb. לְמַלֹאת, lit., to fill. To set it [each stone] into its setting in its fullness, [i.e.,] to make the setting equal to the measurement of the bottom of the stone and its thickness. [See commentary on Exod. 25:7.]   לְמַלֹּאת: לְהוֹשִׁיבָהּ בְּמִשְׁבֶּצֶת שֶׁלָּהּ בְּמִלּוּאָהּ – לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמִּשְׁבֶּצֶת לְמִדַּת מוֹשַׁב הָאֶבֶן וְעָבְיָהּ:
6And, behold, with him I have placed Oholiab the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, and all the wise hearted into whose hearts I have instilled wisdom, and they shall make everything I have commanded you:   ווַֽאֲנִ֞י הִנֵּ֧ה נָתַ֣תִּי אִתּ֗וֹ אֵ֣ת אָֽהֳלִיאָ֞ב בֶּן־אֲחִֽיסָמָךְ֙ לְמַטֵּה־דָ֔ן וּבְלֵ֥ב כָּל־חֲכַם־לֵ֖ב נָתַ֣תִּי חָכְמָ֑ה וְעָשׂ֕וּ אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִֽךָ:
and all the wise-hearted into whose hearts I have instilled wisdom: And additionally, other wise-hearted people among you [shall assist], as well as everyone into whom I have instilled wisdom, and [all of them] shall make everything I have commanded you.   וּבְלֵב כָּל־חֲכַם־לֵב וגו': וְעוֹד שְׁאָר חַכְמֵי לֵב יֵשׁ בָּכֶם, וְכָל אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי בוֹ חָכְמָה וְעָשׂוּ אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ:
7The Tent of Meeting and the ark for the testimony, as well as the cover that [shall be] upon it, all the implements of the tent,   זאֵ֣ת | אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד וְאֶת־הָֽאָרֹן֙ לָֽעֵדֻ֔ת וְאֶת־הַכַּפֹּ֖רֶת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלָ֑יו וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־כְּלֵ֥י הָאֹֽהֶל:
and the ark for the testimony: For the purpose of the tablets of the testimony.   וְאֶת־הָֽאָרֹן לָֽעֵדֻת: לְצֹרֶךְ לֻחוֹת הָעֵדוּת:
8the table and its implements, the pure menorah and all its implements, the altar of incense,   חוְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן֙ וְאֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָ֥ה הַטְּהֹרָ֖ה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלֶ֑יהָ וְאֵ֖ת מִזְבַּ֥ח הַקְּטֹֽרֶת:
the pure: Heb. הַטְּהֹרָה. [The menorah is described by this adjective] because [it was made] of pure gold. [based on Exod. 25:31]   הַטְּהֹרָה: עַל שֵׁם זָהָב טָהוֹר:
9the altar for the burnt offering and all its implements, the washstand and its base,   טוְאֶת־מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָ֑יו וְאֶת־הַכִּיּ֖וֹר וְאֶת־כַּנּֽוֹ:
10the meshwork garments, the holy garments for Aaron the kohen, the garments of his sons [in which] to serve [as kohanim],   יוְאֵ֖ת בִּגְדֵ֣י הַשְּׂרָ֑ד וְאֶת־בִּגְדֵ֤י הַקֹּ֨דֶשׁ֙ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְאֶת־בִּגְדֵ֥י בָנָ֖יו לְכַהֵֽן:
the meshwork garments: Heb. בִּגְדֵי הַשְְׂרָד In my opinion, according to the simple meaning of the verse, it is impossible to say that the garments of the kehunah are referred to [here], because it says next to them [at the end of the verse], “the holy garments for Aaron the kohen, the garments of his sons [in which] to serve [as kohanim].” But these בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד [referred to here] are the garments of blue, purple, and crimson wool mentioned in the section dealing with the travels (Num. 4:6-13): “and they shall place upon it a garment of blue wool,” “and they shall place upon it a garment of purple wool,” “and they shall place upon them a garment of crimson wool.” My assertion [that בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד refers to the coverings of the vessels] appears correct, since it says: “And from the blue wool, the purple wool, and the crimson they made בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד ” (Exod. 39:1), but linen was not mentioned with them. Now, if it [the text] is speaking of the garments of the kehunah, we do not find in any of them [reference to] purple or crimson wool without [the addition of] linen.   וְאֵת בִּגְדֵי הַשְּׂרָד: אוֹמֵר אֲנִי – לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא – שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁבְּבִגְדֵי כְהֻנָּה מְדַבֵּר, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּ' אֶצְלָם וְאֶת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת בִּגְדֵי בָנָיו לְכַהֵן, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ בִּגְדֵי הַשְּׂרָד הֵם בִּגְדֵי הַתְּכֵלֶת וְהָאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי הָאֲמוּרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת מַסָּעוֹת, וְנָתְנוּ אֶל בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו בֶּגֶד אַרְגָּמָן וּפָרְשׂוּ עֲלֵיהֶם בֶּגֶד תּוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי (במדבר ד'); וְנִרְאִין דְּבָרַי, שֶׁנֶּ' וּמִן הַתְּכֵלֶת וְהָאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת הַשָּׁנִי עָשׂוּ בִגְדֵי שְׂרָד לְשָׁרֵת בַּקֹּדֶשׁ (שמות ל"ט), וְלֹא הֻזְכַּר שֵׁשׁ עִמָּהֶם, וְאִם בְּבִגְדֵי כְהֻנָּה מְדַבֵּר, לֹא מָצִינוּ בְאֶחָד מֵהֶם אַרְגָּמָן אוֹ תוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי בְּלֹא שֵׁשׁ:
the meshwork garments: בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד Some [commentators] explain בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד as an expression of work and service, like its [Aramaic] translation, לְבוּשֵׁי שִׁמוּשָׁא, and it has no similarity in the Scriptures. But I believe that it is Aramaic, like the [Aramaic] translation of קְלָעִים [hangings, translated סְרָדִין] (Exod. 27:9) and the [Aramaic] translation of מִכְבָּר [grating, translated סְרָדָא] (Exod. 27:4), for they were woven with a needle [and] made of many holes, lazediz in Old French, mesh-work, crochet-work, [or] lace.   בִּגְדֵי הַשְּׂרָד: יֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים לְשׁוֹן עֲבוֹדָה וְשֵׁרוּת, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ לְבוּשֵׁי שִׁמּוּשָׁא, וְאֵין לוֹ דִּמְיוֹן בַּמִּקְרָא; וַאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, כְּתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל קְלָעִים וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל מִכְבָּר, שֶׁהָיוּ אֲרוּגִים בְּמַחַט עֲשׂוּיִים נְקָבִים נְקָבִים לצי"דץ בְּלַעַז:
11the anointing oil and the incense for the Holy; in complete accordance with everything I have commanded you they shall do."   יאוְאֵ֨ת שֶׁ֧מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָ֛ה וְאֶת־קְטֹ֥רֶת הַסַּמִּ֖ים לַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתִ֖ךָ יַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
and the incense for the Holy: For the purpose of bringing [incense] up in smoke in the Heichal, which is holy.   וְאֵת קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לַקֹּדֶשׁ: לְצֹרֶךְ הַקְטָרַת הַהֵיכָל שֶׁהוּא קֹדֶשׁ:
12The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יבוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
13"And you, speak to the children of Israel and say: 'Only keep My Sabbaths! For it is a sign between Me and you for your generations, to know that I, the Lord, make you holy.   יגוְאַתָּ֞ה דַּבֵּ֨ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אַ֥ךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֖י תִּשְׁמֹ֑רוּ כִּי֩ א֨וֹת הִ֜וא בֵּינִ֤י וּבֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם לָדַ֕עַת כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם:
And you, speak to the children of Israel: But [as for] you, although I have mandated you to command them [the Israelites] concerning the work of the Mishkan, do not let it seem to you that you may easily set aside the Sabbath because of that work.   וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: וְאַתָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִפְקַדְתִּיךָ לְצַוּוֹתָם עַל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אַל יֵקַל בְּעֵינֶיךָ לִדְחוֹת אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי אוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה:
Only keep My Sabbaths!: Although you will be rushed to perform the work [of the Mishkan] quickly, the Sabbath shall not be set aside because of it. All instances of אַ and רַק [imply limitations, i.e.,] are exclusive, to exclude the Sabbath from the work of the Mishkan.   אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתִּהְיוּ רְדוּפִין וּזְרִיזִין בִּזְרִיזוּת הַמְּלָאכָה, שַׁבָּת אַל תִּדָּחֶה מִפָּנֶיהָ, כָּל אַכִין וְרַקִּין מִעוּטִין – לְמַעֵט שַׁבָּת מִמְּלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
For it is a sign between Me and you: It is a sign of distinction between us that I have chosen you, by granting you as an inheritance My day of rest for [your] rest.   כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵֽינֵיכֶם: אוֹת גְּדֻלָּה הִיא בֵינֵינוּ, שֶׁבָּחַרְתִּי בָכֶם בְּהַנְחִילִי לָכֶם אֶת יוֹם מְנוּחָתִי לִמְנוּחָה:
to know: [So that] the nations [should know] that I, the Lord, sanctify you.   לָדַעַת: הָאֻמּוֹת בָּהּ כי אני ה' מקדשכם:
14Therefore, keep the Sabbath, for it is a sacred thing for you. Those who desecrate it shall be put to death, for whoever performs work on it, that soul will be cut off from the midst of its people.   ידוּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת כִּ֛י קֹ֥דֶשׁ הִ֖וא לָכֶ֑ם מְחַֽלֲלֶ֨יהָ֙ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔ת כִּ֗י כָּל־הָֽעֹשֶׂ֥ה בָהּ֙ מְלָאכָ֔ה וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמֶּֽיהָ:
shall be put to death: If there are witnesses and a warning.   מוֹת יוּמָת: אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה:
will be cut off: without warning. -[from Mechilta]   וְנִכְרְתָה: בְּלֹא הַתְרָאָה (מכילתא):
Those who desecrate it: Heb. מְחַלְלֶיהָ, [those] who treat its sanctity as profane.   מְחַֽלֲלֶיהָ: הַנּוֹהֵג בָּהּ חֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁתָהּ:
15Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, holy to the Lord; whoever performs work on the Sabbath day shall be put to death.'   טושֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִים֘ יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה מְלָאכָה֒ וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י שַׁבַּ֧ת שַׁבָּת֛וֹן קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כָּל־הָֽעֹשֶׂ֧ה מְלָאכָ֛ה בְּי֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֖ת מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
a Sabbath of complete rest: Heb. שַׁבָּתשַׁבָּתוֹן, a reposeful rest, not a casual rest.   שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן: מְנוּחַת מַרְגּוֹעַ וְלֹא מְנוּחַת עֲרָאִי:
(a Sabbath of complete rest: For this reason, Scripture repeated it [the word, שַׁבָּת], to inform [us] that on it all work is prohibited, even what is needed for food. Similarly regarding Yom Kippur, in whose context it says: “It is a Sabbath of complete rest for you” (Lev. 23:32), all work is prohibited. However, concerning festivals it says only: “on the first day is a rest, and on the eighth day is a rest” (Lev. 23:39), [meaning that] on them [i.e., on holidays] only servile work is prohibited, but work needed for food [preparation] is permitted.)   שבת שבתון: לכך כפלו הכתוב לומר שאסור בכל מלאכה, אפילו אוכל נפש, וכן יום הכפורים שנאמר בו (ויקרא כג לב) שבת שבתון הוא לכם, אסור בכל מלאכה, אבל יום טוב לא נאמר בו כי אם ביום הראשון שבתון וביום השמיני שבתון (שם) אסורים בכל מלאכת עבודה, ומותרים במלאכת אוכל נפש:
holy to the Lord: The observance of its sanctity shall be for My name and by My commandment.   קֹדֶשׁ לה': שְׁמִירַת קְדֻשָּׁתָהּ לִשְׁמִי וּבְמִצְוָתִי:
16Thus shall the children of Israel observe the Sabbath, to make the Sabbath throughout their generations as an everlasting covenant.   טזוְשָֽׁמְר֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּ֑ת לַֽעֲשׂ֧וֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּ֛ת לְדֹֽרֹתָ֖ם בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם:
17Between Me and the children of Israel, it is forever a sign that [in] six days The Lord created the heaven and the earth, and on the seventh day He ceased and rested."   יזבֵּינִ֗י וּבֵין֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל א֥וֹת הִ֖וא לְעֹלָ֑ם כִּי־שֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים עָשָׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבַיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י שָׁבַ֖ת וַיִּנָּפַֽשׁ:
and rested: Heb. וַיִּנָפַשׁ. As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְנָח, and rested. Now every expression of נוֹפֶשׁ, rest, is an expression of נֶפֶשׁ, soul, for one regains one’s soul and one’s breath when one rests from the toil of work. He about Whom it is written: “He neither tires nor wearies” (Isa. 40:28), and Whose every act is performed by speech [alone, without physical effort], dictated rest in reference to Himself [only] in order to make it understood to the [human] ear with words that it can understand.   וַיִּנָּפַֽשׁ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְנָח, וְכָל לְשׁוֹן נֹפֶשׁ הוּא לְשׁוֹן נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁמֵּשִׁיב נַפְשׁוֹ וּנְשִׁימָתוֹ בְּהַרְגִּיעוֹ מִטֹּרַח הַמְּלָאכָה; וּמִי שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ לֹא יִיעַף וְלֹא יִיגָע (ישעיה מ'), וְכָל פָּעֳלוֹ בְמַאֲמָר, הִכְתִּיב מְנוּחָה בְּעַצְמוֹ? לְשַׂבֵּר הָאֹזֶן מַה שֶּׁהִיא יְכוֹלָה לִשְׁמֹעַ:

Second Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 31

18When He had finished speaking with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the testimony, stone tablets, written with the finger of God.   יחוַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ֙ לְדַבֵּ֤ר אִתּוֹ֙ בְּהַ֣ר סִינַ֔י שְׁנֵ֖י לֻחֹ֣ת הָֽעֵדֻ֑ת לֻחֹ֣ת אֶ֔בֶן כְּתֻבִ֖ים בְּאֶצְבַּ֥ע אֱלֹהִֽים:
He gave Moses: In the Torah, chronological order is not adhered to. The episode of the calf took place long before the command of the work of the Mishkan. For on the seventeenth of Tammuz the tablets were broken, and on Yom Kippur the Holy One, blessed is He, was reconciled to Israel. On the morrow [i.e., on the eleventh of Tishri], they commenced with the donation for the Mishkan, and it [the Mishkan] was erected on the first of Nissan. -[from Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 31]   וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־משֶׁה וגו': אֵין מֻקְדָּם וּמְאֻחָר בַּתּוֹרָה – מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל קֹדֶם לְצִוּוּי מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָמִים רַבִּים הָיָה – שֶׁהֲרֵי בְי"ז בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים נִתְרַצָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּלְמָחֳרָת הִתְחִילוּ בְנִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְהוּקַם בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן (תנחומא):
When He had finished: Heb. כְּכַלֹתוֹ. [This word should be spelled כְּכַלּוֹתוֹ. Here, however,] it is spelled defectively [without the first “vav”], as if to be read: כְּכַלָּתוֹ, [meaning] like his bride, for the Torah was delivered to him [Moses] as a gift, as a bride [is given] to a bridegroom, because [otherwise] he could not have learnt it all in such a short time (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 18). Another explanation: Just as a bride is adorned with twenty-four ornaments [i.e.,] the ones listed in the book of Isaiah (3:18-22), so too must a Torah scholar be adorned with the twenty-four books [of the Scriptures, i.e., possess the knowledge of the entire Scriptures] (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 16).   כְּכַלֹּתוֹ: ככלתו כְּתִיב – חָסֵר – שֶׁנִּמְסְרָה לוֹ תּוֹרָה בְּמַתָּנָה כְּכַלָּה לֶחָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִלְמֹד כֻּלָּהּ בִּזְמַן מֻעָט כָּזֶה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מַה כַּלָּה מִתְקַשֶּׁטֶת בְּכ"ד קִשּׁוּטִין – הֵן הָאֲמוּרִים בְּסֵפֶר יְשַׁעְיָה – אַף תַּלְמִיד חָכָם צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בָּקִי בְּכ"ד סְפָרִים:
speaking with him: the statutes and the ordinances in the section entitled: “And these are the ordinances” (Exod. 21-23) [i.e., in parshath Mishpatim].   לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ: הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים שֶׁבִּוְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים:
speaking with him: [The word “with”] teaches [us] that Moses would hear [the laws] from God and then they would both repeat the halachah together. -[from Exod. Rabbah 41:5]   לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מֹשֶׁה שׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה וְחוֹזְרִין וְשׁוֹנִין אֶת הַהֲלָכָה שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד:
tablets: Heb. לֻחֹת. It is spelled לֻחֹת [without the “vav” of the plural, as if to be read לֻחַת, the singular form,] because they were both the same [size]. -[from Exod. Rabbah 41:6]   לֻחֹת: לחת כְּתִיב שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת (שם):

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 32

1When the people saw that Moses was late in coming down from the mountain, the people gathered against Aaron, and they said to him: "Come on! Make us gods that will go before us, because this man Moses, who brought us up from the land of Egypt we don't know what has become of him."   אוַיַּ֣רְא הָעָ֔ם כִּֽי בשֵׁ֥שׁ משֶׁ֖ה לָרֶ֣דֶת מִן־הָהָ֑ר וַיִּקָּהֵ֨ל הָעָ֜ם עַל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן וַיֹּֽאמְר֤וּ אֵלָיו֙ ק֣וּם | עֲשֵׂה־לָ֣נוּ אֱלֹהִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר יֵֽלְכוּ֙ לְפָנֵ֔ינוּ כִּי־זֶ֣ה | משֶׁ֣ה הָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הֶֽעֱלָ֨נוּ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְנוּ מֶה־הָ֥יָה לֽוֹ:
that Moses was late: Heb. בשֵׁשׁ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders אוֹחַר, an expression for lateness. Likewise, [in the verse] “is his chariot late (בֹּשֵׁשׁ) ” (Jud. 5:28); “and they waited until it was late (בּוֹשׁ) ” (Jud. 3:25). When Moses went up the mountain, he said to them [the Israelites], “At the end of forty days I will come, within six hours” [from sunrise of the fortieth day]. They thought that the day he went up was included in the number [of the forty days], but [in fact] he had said to them, “forty days,” [meaning] complete [days], including the night. But the day of his ascent did not have its night included with it [because Moses ascended in the morning], for on the seventh of Sivan he ascended. Thus, the fortieth day [of Moses’ absence] was the seventeenth of Tammuz. On the sixteenth [of Tammuz], Satan came and brought confusion into the world and showed a semblance of darkness, [even] pitch darkness, and confusion, [as if] indicating [that] Moses had surely died and therefore, confusion had come upon the world. He [Satan] said to them, “Moses has died, for six [additional] hours have already passed, and he has not come, etc.,” as is found in tractate Shabbath (89a). We cannot say that their [the Israelites’] only error was that on a cloudy day [they were confused] between before noon and after noon, because Moses did not descend until the next day, as it is said: “On the next day, they arose early, offered up burnt offerings…” (verse 6).   כִּֽי בשֵׁשׁ משֶׁה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, לְשׁוֹן אִחוּר, וְכֵן בֹּשֵׁשׁ רִכְבּוֹ (שופטים ה'), וַיָּחִילוּ עַד בּוֹשׁ (שם ג'); כִּי כְּשֶׁעָלָה מֹשֶׁה לָהָר אָמַר לָהֶם לְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם אֲנִי בָא בְּתוֹךְ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת, כִּסְבוּרִים הֵם שֶׁאוֹתוֹ יוֹם שֶׁעָלָה מִן הַמִּנְיָן הוּא, וְהוּא אָמַר לָהֶם שְׁלֵמִים – אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְלֵילוֹ עִמּוֹ – וְיוֹם עֲלִיָּתוֹ אֵין לֵילוֹ עִמּוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְז' בְּסִיוָן עָלָה, נִמְצָא יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז. בְּי"ו בָּא שָׂטָן וְעִרְבֵּב אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהֶרְאָה דְּמוּת חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה וְעִרְבּוּבְיָה, לוֹמַר וַדַּאי מֵת מֹשֶׁה לְכָךְ בָּא עִרְבּוּבְיָא לָעוֹלָם, אָמַר לָהֶם מֵת מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁכְּבָר בָּאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָּא וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת (דף פ"ט); וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹא טָעוּ אֶלָּא בְּיוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן בֵּין קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת בֵּין לְאַחַר חֲצוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא יָרַד מֹשֶׁה עַד יוֹם הַמָּחֳרָת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ מִמָּחֳרָת וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת:
that will go before us: אִשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ [The word יֵלְכוּ is in the plural form.] They desired many deities for themselves. -[from Sanh. 63a]   אֲשֶׁר יֵֽלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ: אֱלוֹהוֹת הַרְבֵּה אִוּוּ לָהֶם (סנהדרין ס"ג):
because this man Moses: Satan showed them something resembling Moses, being carried in the air, high above in the sky. -[from Shab. 89a, Midrash Tanchuma 19]   כִּֽי זֶה משֶׁה הָאִישׁ: כְּמִין דְּמוּת מֹשֶׁה הֶרְאָה לָהֶם הַשָּׂטָן, שֶׁנּוֹשְׂאִים אוֹתוֹ בַּאֲוִיר רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם (שבת פ"ט):
who brought us up from the land of Egypt: And directed us the way we should go up [from Egypt]. Now we need gods who will go before us [instead of Moses].   אֲשֶׁר הֶֽעֱלָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם: וְהָיָה מוֹרֶה לָנוּ דֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר נַעֲלֶה בָּהּ, עַתָּה צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לֶאֱלוֹהוֹת אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ:
2Aaron said to them, "Remove the golden earrings that are on the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters and bring them [those earrings] to me."   בוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן פָּֽרְקוּ֙ נִזְמֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֔ב אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּאָזְנֵ֣י נְשֵׁיכֶ֔ם בְּנֵיכֶ֖ם וּבְנֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם וְהָבִ֖יאוּ אֵלָֽי:
that are on the ears of your wives…: Aaron said to himself, “The women and children are fond of their jewelry. Perhaps the matter will be delayed, and in the meantime, Moses will arrive.” But they did not wait [for their wives and children to give them their earrings], and they took off their own [earrings]. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 21]   בְּאָזְנֵי נְשֵׁיכֶם: אָמַר אַהֲרֹן בְּלִבּוֹ: הַנָּשִׁים וְהַיְלָדִים חָסִים עַל תַּכְשִׁיטֵיהֶן, שֶׁמָּא יִתְעַכֵּב הַדָּבָר וּבְתוֹךְ כָּךְ יָבֹא מֹשֶׁה, וְהֵם לֹא הִמְתִּינוּ וּפָרְקוּ מֵעַל עַצְמָן:
Remove: Heb. פָּרְקוּ, an imperative expression, from the same root as פָּרֵק in the singular. [This is] like בָּרְכוּ, bless, [which is] from the same root as בָּרֵ.   פָּֽרְקוּ: לְשׁוֹן צִוּוּי, מִגִּזְרַת פָּרֵק לְיָחִיד, כְּמוֹ בָּרְכוּ מִגִּזְרַת בָּרֵךְ:
3And all the people stripped themselves of the golden earrings that were on their ears and brought them to Aaron.   גוַיִּתְפָּֽרְקוּ֙ כָּל־הָעָ֔ם אֶת־נִזְמֵ֥י הַזָּהָ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּאָזְנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיָּבִ֖יאוּ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹֽן:
stripped themselves: Heb. וַיִתְפָּרְקוּ, an expression [used for] unloading a burden. When they removed them [the earrings] from their ears, they were found to be unloaded of their earrings, descharyer in Old French [decharger in modern French], to unload.   וַיִּתְפָּֽרְקוּ: לְשׁוֹן פְּרִיקַת מַשָּׂא, כְּשֶׁנְטָלוּם מֵאָזְנֵיהֶם נִמְצְאוּ הֵם מְפֹרָקִים מִנִּזְמֵיהֶם, דישקריי"ר בְּלַעַז:
of the golden earrings: Heb. אֶת-נִזְמֵי, like מִנַּזְמֵי, similar to “When I leave the city (אֶת-הָעִיר) ” (Exod. 9:29), [like] מִן-הָעִיר, [lit., when I go out of the city].   אֶת־נִזְמֵי: כְּמוֹ מִנִּזְמֵי, כְּמוֹ כְּצֵאתִי אֶת הָעִיר (שמות ט') – מִן הָעִיר:
4He took [them] from their hand[s], fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made it into a molten calf, upon which they said: "These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up from the land of Egypt!"   דוַיִּקַּ֣ח מִיָּדָ֗ם וַיָּ֤צַר אֹתוֹ֙ בַּחֶ֔רֶט וַיַּֽעֲשֵׂ֖הוּ עֵ֣גֶל מַסֵּכָ֑ה וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֵ֤לֶּה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶֽעֱל֖וּךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
fashioned it with an engraving tool: Heb. וַיָּצַר אֹתוֹ בַּחֶרֶט. This [clause] can be rendered in two ways: One is [that] וַיָָּצַר is an expression of tying, and בַּחֶרֶט is an expression meaning a kerchief, similar to “and the tablecloths and the purses (וְהַחִרִיטִים) ” (Isa. 3:22); “and he tied two talents of silver in two purses (חִרִטִים) ” (II Kings 5:23). The second [way of rendering it] is [that] וַיָּצַר is an expression meaning a form, and בַּחֶרֶט is the tool of the smiths, with which they cut out and engrave (חוֹרְטִין) forms in gold. [The tool is] like a scribe’s stylus, which engraves letters on tablets and wax-covered tablets, as “and inscribe on it with a common pen (בְּחֶרֶט אֱנוֹשׁ) ” (Isa. 8:1). This [second interpretation] is what Onkelos rendered: וְצַר יָתֵיהּ בְּזִיפָא, an expression of זִיוּף, a tool with which people engrave letters and designs, known in French as nielle, niello work. With it, signets are engraved.   וַיָּצַר אֹתוֹ בַּחֶרֶט: יֵשׁ לְתַרְגְּמוֹ בִשְׁנֵי פָנִים, הָאֶחָד וַיָּצַר – לְשׁוֹן קְשִׁירָה, בַּחֶרֶט – לְשׁוֹן סוּדָר, כְּמוֹ וְהַמִּטְפָּחוֹת וְהָחֲרִיטִים (ישעיהו ג'), וַיָּצַר כִּכְּרַיִם כֶּסֶף בִּשְׁנֵי חֲרִטִים (מלכים ב ה'), וְהַשֵּׁנִי וַיָּצַר – לְשׁוֹן צוּרָה, בַּחֶרֶט – כְּלֵי אֻמָּנוּת הַצּוֹרְפִין שֶׁחוֹרְצִין וְחוֹרְתִין בּוֹ צוּרוֹת בְּזָהָב, כְּעֵט סוֹפֵר הַחוֹרֵת אוֹתִיּוֹת בְּלוּחוֹת וּפִנְקָסִין, כְּמוֹ וּכְתֹב עָלָיו בְּחֶרֶט אֱנוֹשׁ (ישעיהו ח'), וְזֶהוּ שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס וְצַר יָתֵיהּ בְּזִיפָא, לְשׁוֹן זִיּוּף, הוּא כְּלִי אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁחוֹרְצִין בּוֹ בְּזָהָב אוֹתִיּוֹת וּשְׁקֵדִים, שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלַעַז ניי"ל, וּמְזַיְּפִין עַל יָדוֹ חוֹתָמוֹת:
a molten calf -: As soon as they had cast it into the fire of the crucible, the sorcerers of the mixed multitude who had gone up with them from Egypt came and made it with sorcery. [See commentary on Exod. 12:38.] Others say that Micah was there, who had emerged from the layer of the building where he had been crushed in Egypt. (Sanh. 101b). In his hand was a plate upon which Moses had inscribed “Ascend, O ox; ascend, O ox,” to [miraculously] bring up Joseph’s coffin from the Nile. They cast it [the plate] into the crucible, and the calf emerged. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 19]   עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה: כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לָאוּר בְּכוּר, בָּאוּ מְכַשְּׁפֵי עֵרֶב רַב שֶׁעָלוּ עִמָּהֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם וַעֲשָׂאוּהוּ בִכְשָׁפִים; וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מִיכָה הָיָה שָׁם, שֶׁיָּצָא מִתּוֹךְ דִּמּוֹסֵי בִּנְיָן שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵךְ בּוֹ בְּמִצְרַיִם, וְהָיָה בְיָדוֹ שֵׁם וְטַס שֶׁכָּתַב בּוֹ מֹשֶׁה "עֲלֵה שׁוֹר" "עֲלֵה שׁוֹר" לְהַעֲלוֹת אֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף מִתּוֹךְ נִילוּס – וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַכּוּר וְיָצָא הָעֵגֶל (תנחומא):
molten: Heb. מַסֵּכָה, an expression related to מַתֶּכֶת, metal, [both derived from roots meaning to pour]. Another interpretation: One hundred and twenty-five centenaria of gold were in it, like the gematria of מַסֵּכָה. 40= מ, 60= ס, 20= כ, 5= ה, totaling 125] -[from Midrash Tanchuma 19]   מַסֵּכָה: לְשׁוֹן מַתֶּכֶת; דָּבָר אַחֵר קכ"ה קַנְטְרִין זָהָב הָיוּ בוֹ כְּגִימַטְרִיָּא שֶׁל מַסֵּכָה (שם):
These are your gods: But it does not say, “These are our gods.” -[from here [we learn] that the mixed multitude who had come up from Egypt were the ones who gathered against Aaron, and they were the ones who made it [the calf]. Afterwards, they caused the Israelites to stray after it. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 19]   אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ: וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ, מִכָּאן שֶׁעֵרֶב רַב שֶׁעָלוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם הֵם שֶׁנִּקְהֲלוּ עַל אַהֲרֹן וְהֵם שֶׁעֲשָׂאוּהוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִטְעוּ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרָיו (שם):
5When Aaron saw [this], he built an altar in front of it, and Aaron proclaimed and said: "Tomorrow shall be a festival to the Lord."   הוַיַּ֣רְא אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן וַיִּ֥בֶן מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לְפָנָ֑יו וַיִּקְרָ֤א אַֽהֲרֹן֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר חַ֥ג לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מָחָֽר:
When Aaron saw: that it was alive, as it is said: “for the likeness of an ox eating grass” (Ps. 106:20), and he saw that Satan’s work had succeeded, and he had no words to stall them completely [i.e., to keep the Israelites from worshipping the calf, so then]   וַיַּרְא אַֽהֲרֹן: שֶׁהָיָה בוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּתַבְנִית שׁוֹר אֹכֵל עֵשֶׂב (תהלים ק"ו), וְרָאָה שֶׁהִצְלִיחַ מַעֲשֵׂה שָׂטָן וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ פֶּה לִדְחוֹתָם לְגַמְרֵי:
he built an altar: to stall them.   וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ: לִדְחוֹתָם:
and said: “Tomorrow shall be a festival to the Lord.”: But [it will] not [be] today. Perhaps Moses would come before they would worship it. This is its simple meaning. Its midrashic meaning in Leviticus Rabbah (10:3) is [as follows]: Aaron saw many things. He saw his sister’s son Hur, who had reproved them [the Israelites], and they assassinated him. That is [the meaning of] וַיִּבֶן, [an expression of בִּינָה, understanding]. מִזְבֵּח לְפָנָיו [should be understood as if it were written] וַיִבֶן מִזָָּבוּחַ לְפָנָיו, [meaning] he understood from the slaughtered one in front of him. Moreover, he saw [the situation] and said, “Better I should be blamed and not they.” He also “saw” another thing and said, “If they build the altar [themselves], one will bring pebbles and [another] one will bring a stone. Thus, their work will be done all at once. Since I will build it, and I will neglect my work, in the meantime Moses will arrive.”   וַיִּקְרָא חַג לה' מָחָֽר: וְלֹא הַיּוֹם, שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא מֹשֶׁה קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעַבְדוּהוּ, זֶהוּ פְּשׁוּטוֹ; וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ, בְּוַיִּקְרָא רַבָּה, דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה רָאָה אַהֲרֹן – רָאָה חוּר בֶּן אֲחוֹתוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מוֹכִיחָם וַהֲרָגוּהוּ, וְזֶהוּ וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ לְפָנָיו – וַיָּבֶן מִזָּבוּחַ לְפָנָיו – וְעוֹד רָאָה וְאָמַר מוּטָב שֶׁיִּתָּלֶה בִי הַסֵּרָחוֹן וְלֹא בָהֶם, וְעוֹד רָאָה וְאָמַר אִם הֵם בּוֹנִים אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, זֶה מֵבִיא צְרוֹר וְזֶה מֵבִיא אֶבֶן וְנִמְצֵאת מְלַאכְתָּן עָשׂוּי בְּבַת אַחַת, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁאֲנִי בוֹנֶה אוֹתוֹ וַאֲנִי מִתְעַצֵּל בִּמְלַאכְתִּי, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ מֹשֶׁה בָא:
a festival to the Lord: In his heart, he meant Heaven. He was confident that Moses would come, and they would worship the Omnipresent. -[from Lev. Rabbah 10:3]   חַג לה': בְּלִבּוֹ הָיָה לַשָּׁמַיִם, בָּטוּחַ הָיָה שֶׁיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְיַעַבְדוּ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם:
6On the next day they arose early, offered up burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings, and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and they got up to make merry.   ווַיַּשְׁכִּ֨ימוּ֙ מִמָּֽחֳרָ֔ת וַיַּֽעֲל֣וּ עֹלֹ֔ת וַיַּגִּ֖שׁוּ שְׁלָמִ֑ים וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב הָעָם֙ לֶֽאֱכֹ֣ל וְשָׁת֔וֹ וַיָּקֻ֖מוּ לְצַחֵֽק:
they arose early: Satan roused them so that they would sin.   וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ: הַשָּׂטָן זֵרְזָם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֶּחֶטְאוּ:
to make merry: Heb. לְצַחֵק. In this word, there is [also] a connotation of sexual immorality, as it is said: “to mock (לְצַחֶק) me” (Gen. 39:17), and bloodshed, as it is said: “Let the boys get up now and play (וִישַׂחִקוּ) before us” (II Sam. 2:14). Here too, Hur was slain. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 20]   לְצַחֵֽק: יֵשׁ בְּמַשְׁמַע הַזֶּה גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּ' לְצַחֶק בִּי (בראשית ל"ט), וּשְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּ' יָקוּמוּ נָא הַנְּעָרִים וִישַׂחֲקוּ לְפָנֵינוּ (שמואל ב ב'), אַף כָּאן נֶהֱרַג חוּר (שמות רבה):
7And the Lord said to Moses: "Go, descend, for your people that you have brought up from the land of Egypt have acted corruptly.   זוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה לֶךְ־רֵ֕ד כִּ֚י שִׁחֵ֣ת עַמְּךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶֽעֱלֵ֖יתָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
And…said: Heb. וַיְדַבֵּר. [This is] an expression of harshness, like “and he spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) to them harshly” (Gen. 42:7).   וַיְדַבֵּר: לְשׁוֹן קֹשִׁי הוּא, כְּמוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר אִתָּם קָשׁוֹת (בראשית מ"ב):
Go, descend: Descend from your high position. I gave you this high position only for their sake (Ber. 32a). At that time, Moses was banished by a decree of the heavenly tribunal (Midrash Tanchuma 22, Exod. Rabbah 42:3).   לֶךְ־רֵד: מִגְּדֻלָּתְךָ – לֹא נָתַתִּי לְךָ גְּדֻלָּה אֶלָּא בִשְׁבִילָם (ברכות ל"ב), בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִתְנַדָּה מֹשֶׁה מִפִּי בֵית דִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה (תנחומא):
your people…have acted corruptly: Heb. שִׁחֵת עַמְךָ. It does not say, “The people have acted corruptly,” but “your people.” Those are the mixed multitude whom you accepted on your own initiative, and whom you converted without consulting Me. You said, “It is good that converts cleave to the Shechinah.” They have acted corruptly and have corrupted [others]. -[from Exod. Rabbah 42:6]   שִׁחֵת עַמְּךָ: שִׁחֵת הָעָם לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא עַמְּךָ – עֵרֶב רַב שֶׁקִּבַּלְתָּ מֵעַצְמְךָ וְגִיַּרְתָּם וְלֹא נִמְלַכְתָּ בִּי, וְאָמַרְתָּ טוֹב שֶׁיִּדְבְּקוּ גֵרִים בַּשְּׁכִינָה – הֵם שִׁחֲתוּ וְהִשְׁחִיתוּ (שמות רבה):
8They have quickly turned away from the path that I have commanded them; they have made themselves a molten calf! And they have prostrated themselves before it, slaughtered sacrifices to it, and said: 'These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up from the land of Egypt.' "   חסָ֣רוּ מַהֵ֗ר מִן־הַדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֔ם עָשׂ֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם עֵ֖גֶל מַסֵּכָ֑ה וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ־לוֹ֙ וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־ל֔וֹ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֵ֤לֶּה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶֽעֱל֖וּךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
9And the Lord said to Moses: "I have seen this people and behold! they are a stiff necked people.   טוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה רָאִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֖רֶף הֽוּא:
stiff-necked: Heb. קְשֵׁה-עֹרֶף. [This is a description of stubbornness, meaning] they turned the hardness of the backs of their necks toward those who reproved them, and they refused to listen.   קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף: מַחֲזְרִין קְשִׁי עָרְפָּם לְנֶגֶד מוֹכִיחֵיהֶם וּמְמָאֲנִים לִשְׁמֹעַ:
10Now leave Me alone, and My anger will be kindled against them so that I will annihilate them, and I will make you into a great nation."   יוְעַתָּה֙ הַנִּ֣יחָה לִּ֔י וְיִֽחַר־אַפִּ֥י בָהֶ֖ם וַֽאֲכַלֵּ֑ם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂ֥ה אֽוֹתְךָ֖ לְג֥וֹי גָּדֽוֹל:
leave Me alone: [It is unclear why God is saying this-which implies that Moses has made a demand-since] we have not yet heard that Moses prayed for them, and yet He [God] said, “Leave Me alone” ? But here, He opened a door for him and informed him that the matter [indeed] depended upon him [Moses], that if he [Moses] would pray for them, He [God] would not destroy them. [Therefore, God implores Moses to leave Him alone so that He can destroy Israel.] -[from Exod. Rabbah 42:9]   הַנִּיחָה לִּי: עֲדַיִן לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵיהֶם וְהוּא אוֹמֵר הַנִּיחָה לִּי? אֶלָּא כָּאן פָּתַח לוֹ פֶּתַח וְהוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בּוֹ – שֶׁאִם יִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיהֶם לֹא יְכַלֵּם (ברכות ל"ב):
11Moses pleaded before the Lord, his God, and said: "Why, O Lord, should Your anger be kindled against Your people whom You have brought up from the land of Egypt with great power and with a strong hand?   יאוַיְחַ֣ל משֶׁ֔ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לָמָ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ יֶֽחֱרֶ֤ה אַפְּךָ֙ בְּעַמֶּ֔ךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הוֹצֵ֨אתָ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּכֹ֥חַ גָּד֖וֹל וּבְיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה:
Why, O Lord: Is anyone jealous of another, except a wise man of a wise man, or a strong man of a strong man? -[from Exod. Rabbah 43:6]   לָמָה ה' יֶֽחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ: כְּלוּם מִתְקַנֵּא אֶלָּא חָכָם בְּחָכָם, גִּבּוֹר בְּגִבּוֹר:
12Why should the Egyptians say: 'He brought them out with evil [intent] to kill them in the mountains and to annihilate them from upon the face of the earth'? Retreat from the heat of Your anger and reconsider the evil [intended] for Your people.   יבלָ֩מָּה֩ יֹֽאמְר֨וּ מִצְרַ֜יִם לֵאמֹ֗ר בְּרָעָ֤ה הֽוֹצִיאָם֙ לַֽהֲרֹ֤ג אֹתָם֙ בֶּֽהָרִ֔ים וּלְכַ֨לֹּתָ֔ם מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה שׁ֚וּב מֵֽחֲר֣וֹן אַפֶּ֔ךָ וְהִנָּחֵ֥ם עַל־הָֽרָעָ֖ה לְעַמֶּֽךָ:
and reconsider: Heb. וְהִנָּחֵם, [i.e.,] formulate another thought to do good to them.   וְהִנָּחֵם: הִתְעַשֵּׁת מַחֲשָׁבָה אַחֶרֶת – לְהֵיטִיב לָהֶם
the evil: that You thought for them.   עַל־הָֽרָעָה: אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁבְתָּ לָהֶם:
13Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Your servants, to whom You swore by Your very Self, and to whom You said: 'I will multiply your seed like the stars of the heavens, and all this land which I said that I would give to your seed, they shall keep it as their possession forever.' "   יגזְכֹ֡ר לְאַבְרָהָם֩ לְיִצְחָ֨ק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל עֲבָדֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֣עְתָּ לָהֶם֘ בָּךְ֒ וַתְּדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אַרְבֶּה֙ אֶת־זַרְעֲכֶ֔ם כְּכֽוֹכְבֵ֖י הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְכָל־הָאָ֨רֶץ הַזֹּ֜את אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֗רְתִּי אֶתֵּן֙ לְזַרְעֲכֶ֔ם וְנָֽחֲל֖וּ לְעֹלָֽם:
Remember Abraham: If [You argue that] they have transgressed the Ten Commandments, [let me remind You that] their [fore]father Abraham was tested with ten tests and has not yet received his reward. Give this [reward] to him [Abraham] so that the ten will cancel out the ten. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 24, Exod. Rabbah 44:4]   זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם: אִם עָבְרוּ עַל עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיהֶם נִתְנַסָּה בַעֲשָׂרָה נִסְיוֹנוֹת וַעֲדַיִן לֹא קִבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ, תְּנֵהוּ לוֹ וְיֵצְאוּ עֲשָׂרָה בַעֲשָׂרָה (תנחומא):
Abraham, Isaac, and Israel: If they are condemned to be burnt [in a fire], remember Abraham, who gave himself over to be burned for Your sake in Ur of the Chaldees; if they are condemned to be killed by the sword, remember Isaac, who stretched out his neck when he was bound; if they are condemned to exile, remember Jacob, who was exiled to Haran (Midrash Tanchuma 24, Exod. Rabbah 44:5). If they [the children of Israel] will not be saved in their [the Patriarchs’] merit, why do You say to me, “and I will make you into a great nation” ? If a chair with three legs cannot stand up before You when You are angry, how much less will a chair with one leg (Ber. 32a) ?   לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל: אִם לִשְׂרֵפָה הֵם, זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם שֶׁמָּסַר עַצְמוֹ לִשָּׂרֵף עָלֶיךָ בְּאוּר כַּשְׂדִים, אִם לַהֲרִיגָה, זְכֹר לְיִצְחָק שֶׁפָּשַׁט צַוָּארוֹ לַעֲקֵדָה, אִם לְגָלוּת, זְכֹר לְיַעֲקֹב שֶׁגָּלָה לְחָרָן, וְאִם אֵינָן נִצּוֹלִין בִּזְכוּתָן, מָה אַתָּה אוֹמֵר לִי וְאֶעֱשֶה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל? וְאִם כִּסֵּא שֶׁל ג' רַגְלַיִם אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ בִשְׁעַת כַּעַסְךָ, קַל וָחֹמֶר לְכִסֵּא שֶׁל רֶגֶל אַחַת (ברכות ל"ב):
to whom You swore by Your very Self: You did not swear to them by something finite-not by the heavens and not by the earth, not by the mountains and not by the hills, but by Your very Self [You swore], for You exist, and Your oath exists forever, as it was said [to Abraham]: “By Myself I have sworn, says the Lord” (Gen. 22:16). To Isaac was said: “and I will establish the oath that I swore to Abraham, your father” (Gen. 26:3). To Jacob was said: “I am the Almighty God; be fruitful and multiply” (Gen. 35:11). Here He swore to him [Jacob] by the [Name] Almighty God. -[from Ber. 32a, Midrash Tanchuma 24, Exod. Rabbah 44:10]   אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ: לֹא נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לָהֶם בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא כָּלֶה – לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא בָאָרֶץ וְלֹא בֶהָרִים וְלֹא בַּגְּבָעוֹת – אֶלָּא בְךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה קַיָּם וּשְׁבוּעָתְךָ קַיֶּמֶת לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּ' בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם ה' (בראשית כ"ב), וּלְיִצְחָק נֶאֱמַר וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת הַשְּׁבוּעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ (שם), וּלְיַעֲקֹב נֶאֱמַר אֲנִי אֵל שַׁדַּי פְּרֵה וּרְבֵה (שם ל"ה) – נִשְׁבַּע לוֹ בְּאֵל שַׁדַּי:
14The Lord [then] reconsidered the evil He had said He would do to His people.   ידוַיִּנָּ֖חֶם יְהֹוָ֑ה עַל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֖ר לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת לְעַמּֽוֹ:
15Now Moses turned and went down from the mountain [bearing] the two tablets of the testimony in his hand, tablets inscribed from both their sides; on one side and on the other side they were inscribed.   טווַיִּ֜פֶן וַיֵּ֤רֶד משֶׁה֙ מִן־הָהָ֔ר וּשְׁנֵ֛י לֻחֹ֥ת הָֽעֵדֻ֖ת בְּיָד֑וֹ לֻחֹ֗ת כְּתֻבִים֙ מִשְּׁנֵ֣י עֶבְרֵיהֶ֔ם מִזֶּ֥ה וּמִזֶּ֖ה הֵ֥ם כְּתֻבִֽים:
from both their sides: the letters could be read. This was a miraculous phenomenon. -[from Shab. 104a, Meg. 2b]   מִשְּׁנֵי עֶבְרֵיהֶם: הָיוּ הָאוֹתִיּוֹת נִקְרָאוֹת, וּמַעֲשֵׂה נִסִּים הוּא (שבת ק"ד):
16Now the tablets were God's work, and the inscription was God's inscription, engraved on the tablets.   טזוְהַ֨לֻּחֹ֔ת מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים הֵ֑מָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּ֗ב מִכְתַּ֤ב אֱלֹהִים֙ ה֔וּא חָר֖וּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹֽת:
were God’s work: This is to be interpreted according to its apparent meaning, [i.e.,] that He personally made them. Another interpretation: Like a person who says to his friend, “All so-and-so’s activities are in such-and-such [a kind of] work.” So too, all the delight of the Holy One, blessed is He, is with the Torah. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 16]   מַֽעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה: כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ – הוּא בִּכְבוֹדוֹ עֲשָׂאָן; דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּאָדָם הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ כָּל עֲסָקָיו שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי בִּמְלָאכָה פְּלוֹנִית, כָּךְ כָּל שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בַּתּוֹרָה:
engraved: Heb. חָרוּת. The terms חָרֹת and חָרֹט are one [and the same]. Both are an expression of engraving, entalyer in Old French, [entailler in modern French, meaning] to engrave.   חָרוּת: לְשׁוֹן חרת וחרט אֶחָד הוּא, שְׁנֵיהֶם לְשׁוֹן חִקּוּק, אנטלי"יר בְּלַעַז:
17When Joshua heard the voice of the people in their shouting, he said to Moses: "There is a voice of battle in the camp!"   יזוַיִּשְׁמַ֧ע יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶת־ק֥וֹל הָעָ֖ם בְּרֵעֹ֑ה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה ק֥וֹל מִלְחָמָ֖ה בַּמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
in their shouting: Heb. בְּרֵעֹה, in their shouting, for they were shouting, rejoicing, and laughing.[The Israelites were so loud that they could be heard even from a distance.]   בְּרֵעֹה: בַּהֲרִיעוֹ, שֶׁהָיוּ מְרִיעִים וּשְׂמֵחִים וְצוֹחֲקִים:
18But [Moses] said: "[It is] neither a voice shouting victory, nor a voice shouting defeat; a voice of blasphemy I hear."   יחוַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֵ֥ין קוֹל֙ עֲנ֣וֹת גְּבוּרָ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין ק֖וֹל עֲנ֣וֹת חֲלוּשָׁ֑ה ק֣וֹל עַנּ֔וֹת אָֽנֹכִ֖י שֹׁמֵֽעַ:
[It is] neither a voice shouting victory: This voice does not appear to be a voice of the shouting of heroes crying “Victory!” or the voice of weak [soldiers] crying “Woe!” or “Flee!”   אֵין קוֹל עֲנוֹת גְּבוּרָה: אֵין קוֹל הַזֶּה נִרְאֶה קוֹל עֲנִיַּת גִּבּוֹרִים הַצּוֹעֲקִים "נִצָּחוֹן" וְלֹא קוֹל חַלָּשִׁים שֶׁצּוֹעֲקִים "וַי אָנוּסָה":
a voice of blasphemy: Heb. קוֹל עָנּוֹת. A voice of blasphemy and reviling, which distresses (הַמְעַנִין) the soul of the one who hears them when they are said to him.   קוֹל עֲנוֹת: קוֹל חֵרוּפִין וְגִדּוּפִין, הַמְעַנִּין אֶת נֶפֶשׁ שׁוֹמְעָן כְּשֶׁנֶּאֱמָרִין לוֹ:
19Now it came to pass when he drew closer to the camp and saw the calf and the dances, that Moses' anger was kindled, and he flung the tablets from his hands, shattering them at the foot of the mountain.   יטוַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר קָרַב֙ אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וַיַּ֥רְא אֶת־הָעֵ֖גֶל וּמְחֹלֹ֑ת וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֣ף משֶׁ֗ה וַיַּשְׁלֵ֤ךְ מִיָּדָו֙ אֶת־הַלֻּחֹ֔ת וַיְשַׁבֵּ֥ר אֹתָ֖ם תַּ֥חַת הָהָֽר:
and he flung… from his hands: He said [to himself]: If [in regard to] the Passover sacrifice, which is [merely] one of the commandments, the Torah said: “No estranged one may partake of it” (Exod. 12:43), [now that] the entire Torah is here [i.e., the Ten Commandments includes the whole Torah], and all the Israelites are apostates, shall I give it to them? -[from Shab. 87a]   וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ מִיָּדָו וגו': אָמַר: מַה פֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא אֶחָד מִן הַמִּצְווֹת, אָמְרָה תוֹרָה כָּל בֶּן נֵכָר לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ (שמות י"ב), הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ כָּאן וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל מְשֻׁמָּדִים וְאֶתְּנֶנָּה לָהֶם? (שבת פ"ז):
at the foot of the mountain: Heb. תַּחַת הָהָר, lit., under the mountain, [meaning:] at the foot of the mountain.   תַּחַת הָהָֽר: לְרַגְלֵי הָהָר:
20Then he took the calf they had made, burned it in fire, ground it to fine powder, scattered [it] upon the surface of the water, and gave [it to] the children of Israel to drink.   כוַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־הָעֵ֨גֶל אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשׂוּ֙ וַיִּשְׂרֹ֣ף בָּאֵ֔שׁ וַיִּטְחַ֖ן עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁר־דָּ֑ק וַיִּ֨זֶר֙ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַמַּ֔יִם וַיַּ֖שְׁק אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
scattered: Heb. וַיִּזֶר, an expression of scattering. Similarly, “Brimstone shall be scattered (יְזֹרֶה) on his dwelling” (Job 18:15), and similarly, “For the net is scattered (מְזֹרָה) without cause” (Prov. 1:17), for they scatter corn and beans on it [the net].   וַיִּזֶר: לְשׁוֹן נִפּוּץ, וְכֵן יְזֹרֶה עַל נָוֵהוּ גָפְרִית (איוב י"ח), וְכֵן כִּי חִנָּם מְזֹרָה הָרָשֶׁת (משלי א'), שֶׁזּוֹרִין בָּהּ דָּגָן וְקִטְנִיּוֹת:
and gave [it to] the children of Israel to drink: He intended to test them like women suspected of adultery [are tested, as prescribed in Num. 5:11-31] (A.Z. 44a). Three [different] death penalties were meted out there: (1) If there were witnesses [to the worship] and warning [had been issued to the sinners, they were punished] by the sword, according to the law (Deut. 13:13-18) that applies to the people of a city that has been led astray who are many [people involved]. (2) [Those who practiced idolatry with] witnesses but without warning [died] from a plague, as it is said: “Then the Lord struck the people with a plague” (verse 35). (3) [Those who practiced idolatry both] without witnesses and without warning [died] from dropsy, for the water tested them and their stomachs swelled up (Yoma 66b).   וַיַּשְׁק אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: נִתְכַּוֵּן לְבָדְקָן כְּסוֹטוֹת; שָׁלֹשׁ מִיתוֹת נִדּוֹנוּ שָׁם, אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה בְּסַיִף – כְּמִשְׁפַּט אַנְשֵׁי עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת שֶׁהֵן מְרֻבִּין – עֵדִים בְּלֹא הַתְרָאָה בְּמַגֵּפָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת הָעָם, לֹא עֵדִים וְלֹא הַתְרָאָה בְּהִדְרוֹקָן, שֶׁבְּדָקוּם הַמַּיִם וְצָבוּ בִטְנֵיהֶם (יומא ס"ו):
21Moses said to Aaron: "What did this people do to you that you brought [such] a grave sin upon them?"   כאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן מֶֽה־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּֽי־הֵבֵ֥אתָ עָלָ֖יו חֲטָאָ֥ה גְדֹלָֽה:
What did this people do to you: How many tortures did you [Aaron] endure, that they tortured you until you brought this sin upon them?   מֶֽה־עָשָׂה לְךָ הָעָם: כַּמָּה יִסּוּרִים סָבַלְתָּ שֶׁיִּסְּרוּךָ עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם חֵטְא זֶה:
22Aaron replied: "Let not my lord's anger grow hot! You know the people, that they are disposed toward evil.   כבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אַל־יִ֥חַר אַ֖ף אֲדֹנִ֑י אַתָּה֙ יָדַ֣עְתָּ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם כִּ֥י בְרָ֖ע הֽוּא:
that they are disposed toward evil: They are always going in a bad direction and testing the Omnipresent.   כִּי בְרָע הֽוּא: בְּדֶרֶךְ רַע הֵם הוֹלְכִין תָּמִיד, וּבְנִסְיוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם:
23They said to me, 'Make us gods who will go before us, because this man Moses, who brought us up from the land of Egypt we do not know what has become of him.'   כגוַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ לִ֔י עֲשֵׂה־לָ֣נוּ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֵֽלְכ֖וּ לְפָנֵ֑ינוּ כִּי־זֶ֣ה | משֶׁ֣ה הָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הֶֽעֱלָ֨נוּ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְנוּ מֶה־הָ֥יָה לֽוֹ:
24I said to them, 'Who has gold?' So they took it [the gold] off and gave it to me; I threw it into the fire and out came this calf."   כדוָֽאֹמַ֤ר לָהֶם֙ לְמִ֣י זָהָ֔ב הִתְפָּרָ֖קוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ־לִ֑י וָֽאַשְׁלִכֵ֣הוּ בָאֵ֔שׁ וַיֵּצֵ֖א הָעֵ֥גֶל הַזֶּֽה:
I said to them: one word only: “Who has gold?” [and not “give me your gold”], but they hurried and stripped themselves and gave it to me.   וָֽאֹמַר לָהֶם: דָּבָר אֶחָד – "לְמִי זָהָב" לְבַד – וְהֵם מִהֲרוּ וְהִתְפָּרְקוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ לִי:
I threw it into the fire: I did not know that this calf would come out, but out it came.   וָֽאַשְׁלִכֵהוּ בָאֵשׁ: וְלֹא יָדַעְתִּי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הָעֵגֶל הַזֶּה, וְיָצָא:
25And Moses saw the people, that they were exposed, for Aaron had exposed them to be disgraced before their adversaries.   כהוַיַּ֤רְא משֶׁה֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם כִּ֥י פָרֻ֖עַ ה֑וּא כִּֽי־פְרָעֹ֣ה אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן לְשִׁמְצָ֖ה בְּקָֽמֵיהֶֽם:
exposed: Heb. פָרֻעַ, uncovered. Their shame and disgrace was revealed, as in “and he shall uncover (וּפָרַע) the woman’s head” (Num. 5:18).   פָרֻעַ: מְגֻלֶּה; נִתְגַּלָּה שִׁמְצוֹ וּקְלוֹנוֹ, כְּמוֹ וּפָרַע אֶת רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה (במדבר ה'):
to be disgraced before their adversaries: Heb. לְשִׁמְצָה בְּקָמֵיהֶם, that this thing should be a disgrace for them in the mouths of all who rise up against them.   לְשִׁמְצָה בְּקָֽמֵיהֶֽם: לִהְיוֹת לָהֶם הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לִגְנוּת בְּפִי כָּל הַקָּמִים עֲלֵיהֶם:
26So Moses stood in the gate of the camp and said: "Whoever is for the Lord, [let him come] to me!" And all the sons of Levi gathered around him.   כווַיַּֽעֲמֹ֤ד משֶׁה֙ בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מִ֥י לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י וַיֵּאָֽסְפ֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו כָּל־בְּנֵ֥י לֵוִֽי:
“Whoever is for the Lord… to me!”: Let him come to me.   מִי לה' אֵלָי: יָבֹא אֵלַי:
all the sons of Levi: From here [we learn] that the entire tribe was righteous. -[from Yoma 66b]   כָּל־בְּנֵי לֵוִֽי: מִכָּאן שֶׁכָּל הַשֵּׁבֶט כָּשֵׁר (יומא ס"ו):
27He said to them: "So said the Lord, the God of Israel: 'Let every man place his sword upon his thigh and pass back and forth from one gate to the other in the camp, and let every man kill his brother, every man his friend, every man his kinsman.' "   כזוַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֗ם כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שִׂ֥ימוּ אִֽישׁ־חַרְבּ֖וֹ עַל־יְרֵכ֑וֹ עִבְר֨וּ וָשׁ֜וּבוּ מִשַּׁ֤עַר לָשַׁ֨עַר֙ בַּמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְהִרְג֧וּ אִֽישׁ־אֶת־אָחִ֛יו וְאִ֥ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ וְאִ֥ישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבֽוֹ:
So said the Lord, the God of Israel: Now, where did He say [this]? “He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed” (Exod. 22:19). So it was taught in the Mechilta.   כֹּֽה־אָמַר וגו': וְהֵיכָן אָמַר? זֹבֵחַ לָאֱלֹהִים יָחֳרָם (שמות כ"ב) – כָּךְ שְׁנוּיָה בִּמְכִילְתָּא:
his brother: [i.e.,] from his mother, who was an [ordinary] Israelite [and not a Levite]. -[from Yoma 66b]   אָחִיו: מֵאִמּוֹ וְהוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל (יומא ס"ו):
28The sons of Levi did according to Moses' word; on that day some three thousand men fell from among the people.   כחוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ בְנֵֽי־לֵוִ֖י כִּדְבַ֣ר משֶׁ֑ה וַיִּפֹּ֤ל מִן־הָעָם֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּשְׁל֥שֶׁת אַלְפֵ֖י אִֽישׁ:
29And Moses said: "Initiate yourselves today for the Lord for each man with his son and with his brother so that He may bestow a blessing upon you this day. "   כטוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה מִלְא֨וּ יֶדְכֶ֤ם הַיּוֹם֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה כִּ֛י אִ֥ישׁ בִּבְנ֖וֹ וּבְאָחִ֑יו וְלָתֵ֧ת עֲלֵיכֶ֛ם הַיּ֖וֹם בְּרָכָֽה:
Initiate yourselves: You who kill them, with this thing [act] you will initiate yourselves to be servants [i.e., kohanim] of the Omnipresent.   מִלְאוּ יֶדְכֶם: אַתֶּם הַהוֹרְגִים אוֹתָם – בְּדָבָר זֶה תִּתְחַנְּכוּ לִהְיוֹת כֹּהֲנִים לַמָּקוֹם:
for each man: Among you will initiate himself through his son and through his brother.   כִּי אִישׁ: מִכֶּם יְמַלֵּא יָדוֹ בבנו ובאחיו:
30It came to pass on the next day that Moses said to the people: "You have committed a grave sin. And now I will go up to the Lord; perhaps I will obtain atonement for your sin."   לוַֽיְהִי֙ מִמָּֽחֳרָ֔ת וַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם אַתֶּ֥ם חֲטָאתֶ֖ם חֲטָאָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֑ה וְעַתָּה֙ אֶֽעֱלֶ֣ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה אוּלַ֥י אֲכַפְּרָ֖ה בְּעַ֥ד חַטַּאתְכֶֽם:
I will obtain atonement for your sin: Heb. אִכַפְּרָה בְּעַד חַטַּאתְכֶם. [This means] I will place a cleansing, a wiping away, and a barrier opposite your sin to separate you from your sin.   אֲכַפְּרָה בְּעַד חַטַּאתְכֶֽם: אָשִׂים כֹּפֶר וְקִנּוּחַ וּסְתִימָה לְנֶגֶד חַטַּאתְכֶם, לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּינֵיכֶם וּבֵין הַחֵטְא:
31And Moses returned to the Lord and said: "Please! This people has committed a grave sin. They have made themselves a god of gold.   לאוַיָּ֧שָׁב משֶׁ֛ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה וַיֹּאמַ֑ר אָ֣נָּ֗א חָטָ֞א הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ חֲטָאָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י זָהָֽב:
a god of gold: [Moses is saying to God:] It was You Who caused them [to sin], for You lavished upon them gold and whatever they desired. What should they have done so as not to sin? [This may be illustrated by] a parable of a king who gave his son to eat and drink, dressed him up, hung a coin purse on his neck, and stationed him at the entrance of a brothel. What can the son do so as not to sin? -[from Ber. 32a]   אֱלֹהֵי זָהָֽב: אַתָּה הוּא שֶׁגָּרַמְתָּ לָהֶם, שֶׁהִשְׁפַּעְתָּ לָהֶם זָהָב וְכָל חֶפְצָם, מַה יַּעֲשׂוּ שֶׁלֹּא יֶחֶטְאוּ? מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מַאֲכִיל וּמַשְׁקֶה אֶת בְּנוֹ וּמְקַשְּׁטוֹ וְתוֹלֶה לוֹ כִּיס בְּצַוָּארוֹ וּמַעֲמִידוֹ בְּפֶתַח בֵּית זוֹנוֹת, מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה הַבֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יֶחֱטָא:
32And now, if You forgive their sin But if not, erase me now from Your book, which You have written."   לבוְעַתָּ֖ה אִם־תִּשָּׂ֣א חַטָּאתָ֑ם וְאִם־אַ֕יִן מְחֵ֣נִי נָ֔א מִסִּפְרְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּתָֽבְתָּ:
And now, if You forgive their sin…: good, I will not ask You to erase me, but if not, erase me. This is an elliptical verse, and there are many like it.   וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם: הֲרֵי טוֹב – אֵינִי אוֹמֵר לְךָ מְחֵנִי, וְאִם אַיִן מְחֵנִי; וְזֶה מִקְרָא קָצָר, וְכֵן הַרְבֵּה:
from Your book: From the entire Torah, so that they will not say about me that I was unworthy to beg mercy for them [the Israelites].   מִסִּפְרְךָ: מִכָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ עָלַי שֶׁלֹּא הָיִיתִי כְדַאי לְבַקֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם רַחֲמִים:
33And the Lord said to Moses: "Whoever has sinned against Me, him I will erase from My book!"   לגוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה מִ֚י אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָֽטָא־לִ֔י אֶמְחֶ֖נּוּ מִסִּפְרִֽי:
34And now go, lead the people to [the place] of which I have spoken to you. Behold My angel will go before you. But on the day I make an accounting [of sins upon them], I will bring their sin to account against them."   לדוְעַתָּ֞ה לֵ֣ךְ | נְחֵ֣ה אֶת־הָעָ֗ם אֶ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֨רְתִּי֙ לָ֔ךְ הִנֵּ֥ה מַלְאָכִ֖י יֵלֵ֣ךְ לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וּבְי֣וֹם פָּקְדִ֔י וּפָֽקַדְתִּ֥י עֲלֵהֶ֖ם חַטָּאתָֽם:
to [the place] of which I have spoken to you: Heb. דִּבַּרְתִּי לָ Here [we find] לָ [used] along with דִּבּוּר, speech, instead of אֵלֶי. Similarly [in the verse] “to speak to him (לְדַבֶּר לוֹ) for Adoniahu” (I Kings 2:19).   אֶל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ: יֵשׁ כָּאן לָךְ אֵצֶל דִּבּוּר בִּמְקוֹם אֵלֶיךָ, וְכֵן לְדַבֶּר לוֹ עַל אֲדֹנִיָּהוּ (מלכים א ב׳:י״ט):
Behold My angel: But not I.   הִנֵּה מַלְאָכִי: וְלֹא אֲנִי:
But on the day I make an accounting, etc.: Now I have listened to you not to destroy them all at once, but always, always, when I take an accounting of their sins, I will also account a little of this sin with the other sins. [This means that] no punishment befalls Israel in which there is not part of the punishment for the sin of the [golden] calf. -[from Sanh. 102a]   וּבְיוֹם פָּקְדִי וגו': עַתָּה שָׁמַעְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ מִלְּכַלּוֹתָם יַחַד, וְתָמִיד תָּמִיד כְּשֶׁאֶפְקֹד עֲלֵיהֶם עֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶם וּפָקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם מְעַט מִן הֶעָוֹן הַזֶּה עִם שְׁאָר הָעֲוֹנוֹת; וְאֵין פֻּרְעָנוּת בָּאָה עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ קְצָת מִפִּרְעוֹן עֲוֹן הָעֵגֶל (סנהדרין ק"ב):
35Then the Lord struck the people with a plague, because they had made the calf that Aaron had made.   להוַיִּגֹּ֥ף יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־הָעָ֑ם עַ֚ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשׂ֣וּ אֶת־הָעֵ֔גֶל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה אַֽהֲרֹֽן:
Then the Lord struck the people with a plague: [This was] death by the hands of Heaven for [those who sinned in the presence of] witnesses without warning. -[from Yoma 66b. See commentary above on verse 20.]   וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת־הָעָם: מִיתָה בִידֵי שָׁמַיִם לְעֵדִים בְּלֹא הַתְרָאָה:

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 33

1The Lord spoke to Moses: "Go, ascend from here, you and the people you have brought up from the land of Egypt, to the land that I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying: 'I will give it to your descendants.'   אוַיְדַבֵּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֶל־משֶׁה֙ לֵ֣ךְ עֲלֵ֣ה מִזֶּ֔ה אַתָּ֣ה וְהָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶֽעֱלִ֖יתָ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִ֠שְׁבַּ֠עְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֨ם לְיִצְחָ֤ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְזַרְעֲךָ֖ אֶתְּנֶֽנָּה:
Go, ascend from here: The land of Israel is higher than all [other] lands (Zev. 54b). That is why it says: “ascend.” Another explanation: [This is] in contrast to what He said to him [Moses] in time of anger, “Go, descend,” (Exod. 32:7). In time of good will He said to him, Go, ascend (Midrash Tanchuma 26).   לֵךְ עֲלֵה מִזֶּה: אֶֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל גְּבוֹהָה מִכָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר עֲלֵה; דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּלַפֵּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַכַּעַס "לֶךְ רֵד" אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת רָצוֹן "לֵךְ עֲלֵה" (תנחומא):
you and the people: Here He did not say “Your people” [as He had said previously in Exod. 32:7 “for your people… have acted corruptly”].   אַתָּה וְהָעָם: כָּאן לֹא נֶאֱמַר וְעַמְּךָ:
2I will send an angel before you, and I will drive out the Canaanites, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites   בוְשָֽׁלַחְתִּ֥י לְפָנֶ֖יךָ מַלְאָ֑ךְ וְגֵֽרַשְׁתִּ֗י אֶת־הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י וְהַֽחִתִּי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י הַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי:
and I will drive out the Canaanites: They are six nations [listed here, although seven nations were mentioned in Gen. 15], and [this is because] the Girgashites got up and emigrated because of them [the Israelites] of their own accord. -[from Lev. Rabbah 17:6, Yerushalmi Shevi’ith 6:1].   וְגֵֽרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי וגו': ו' אֻמּוֹת הֵם וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי עָמַד וּפָנָה מִפְּנֵיהֶם מֵאֵלָיו (תלמוד ירושלמי שביעית ו'):
3to a land flowing with milk and honey; because I will not go up in your midst since you are a stiff necked people, lest I destroy you on the way."   גאֶל־אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ כִּי֩ לֹ֨א אֶֽעֱלֶ֜ה בְּקִרְבְּךָ֗ כִּ֤י עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֨רֶף֙ אַ֔תָּה פֶּן־אֲכֶלְךָ֖ בַּדָּֽרֶךְ:
to a land flowing with milk and honey: I tell you to take them [the Israelites] up.   אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ: אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לְךָ לְהַעֲלוֹתָם:
because I will not go up in your midst: Therefore, I tell you, “I will send an angel before you.”   כִּי לֹא אֶֽעֱלֶה בְּקִרְבְּךָ: לְכָךְ אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לְךָ וְשָׁלַחְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ מַלְאָךְ:
since you are a stiff-necked people: And when My Shechinah is in your midst and you rebel against Me, I will increase My fury against you.   כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף אַתָּה: וּכְשֶׁשְּׁכִינָתִי בְקִרְבְּכֶם וְאַתֶּם מַמְרִים בִּי, מַרְבֶּה אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם זַעַם:
I destroy you: Heb. אִכֶלְ, an expression of destruction (כִּלָיוֹן).   אֲכֶלְךָ: לְשׁוֹן כִּלָּיוֹן:
4[When] the people heard this bad news, they mourned, and no one put on his finery.   דוַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע הָעָ֗ם אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה וַיִּתְאַבָּ֑לוּ וְלֹא־שָׁ֛תוּ אִ֥ישׁ עֶדְי֖וֹ עָלָֽיו:
this bad news: that the Shechinah would not rest [upon them] or go with them.   הַדָּבָר הָרָע: שֶׁאֵין הַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה וּמְהַלֶּכֶת עִמָּם:
and no one… his finery: [I.e.,] the crowns given to them in Horeb when they said, “…we will do and we will hear” (Exod. 24:7) (Shab. 88a).   אִישׁ עֶדְיוֹ: כְּתָרִים שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ לָהֶם בְּחוֹרֵב כְּשֶׁאָמְרוּ נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע (שבת פ"ח):
5And the Lord said to Moses: "Say to the children of Israel: 'You are a stiff necked people; if I go up into your midst for one moment, I will destroy you; but now, leave off your finery, and I will know what to do to you.' "   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה אֱמֹ֤ר אֶל־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אַתֶּ֣ם עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֔רֶף רֶ֧גַע אֶחָ֛ד אֶֽעֱלֶ֥ה בְקִרְבְּךָ֖ וְכִלִּיתִ֑יךָ וְעַתָּ֗ה הוֹרֵ֤ד עֶדְיְךָ֙ מֵֽעָלֶ֔יךָ וְאֵֽדְעָ֖ה מָ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ:
if I go up into your midst for one moment, I will destroy you: If I go up into your midst and you rebel against Me with stubbornness [again], I will be furious with you for one moment, which is the measure of My wrath (Ber. 7a), as it is said: “Hide for but a moment until the wrath passes” (Isa. 26: 20), and I will destroy you. Therefore, it is better for you that I send an angel [in My place].   רֶגַע אֶחָד אֶֽעֱלֶה בְקִרְבְּךָ וְכִלִּיתִיךָ: אִם אֶעֱלֶה בְקִרְבְּךָ וְאַתֶּם מַמְרִים בִּי בְּקַשְׁיוּת עָרְפְּכֶם אֶזְעֹם עֲלֵיכֶם רֶגַע אֶחָד – שֶׁהוּא שִׁעוּר זַעְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּ' חֲבִי כִמְעַט רֶגַע עַד יַעֲבָר זָעַם (ישעיהו כ"ו) – וַאֲכַלֶּה אֶתְכֶם, לְפִיכָךְ טוֹב לָכֶם שֶׁאֶשְׁלַח מַלְאָךְ:
but now: this punishment you will suffer immediately, that you shall take off your finery.   וְעַתָּה: פֻּרְעָנוּת זוֹ תִּלְקוּ מִיָּד – שֶׁתּוֹרִידוּ עֶדְיְכֶם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם:
and I will know what to do to you: with the visitation of the rest of the sin. I know what is in My heart to do to you.   וְאֵֽדְעָה מָה אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ: בִּפְקֻדַּת שְׁאָר הֶעָוֹן אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה שֶּׁבְּלִבִּי לַעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ:
6So the children of Israel divested themselves of their finery from Mount Horeb.   ווַיִּתְנַצְּל֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־עֶדְיָ֖ם מֵהַ֥ר חוֹרֵֽב:
their finery from Mount Horeb: The finery that was in their possession from Mount Horeb. -[from Shab. 88a]   אֶת־עֶדְיָם מֵהַר חוֹרֵֽב: אֶת הָעֲדִי שֶׁהָיָה בְיָדָם מֵהַר חוֹרֵב:
7And Moses took the tent and pitched it for himself outside the camp, distancing [it] from the camp, and he called it the tent of meeting, and it would be that anyone seeking the Lord would go out to the tent of meeting, which was outside the camp.   זוּמשֶׁה֩ יִקַּ֨ח אֶת־הָאֹ֜הֶל וְנָֽטָה־ל֣וֹ | מִח֣וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֗ה הַרְחֵק֙ מִן־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְקָ֥רָא ל֖וֹ אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְהָיָה֙ כָּל־מְבַקֵּ֣שׁ יְהֹוָ֔ה יֵצֵא֙ אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֖ר מִח֥וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
And Moses: from [the moment of] that sin [and] on.   וּמשֶׁה: מֵאוֹתוֹ עָוֹן וָהָלְאָה,
took the tent: Heb. יִקַּח. This is a present tense, [meaning that] he would take his tent and pitch it outside the camp. He said, “One who is banished from the master is banished from the disciple.” -[from Tanchuma 27]   יִקַּח אֶת־הָאֹהֶל: לְשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה הוּא – לוֹקֵחַ אָהֳלוֹ וְנוֹטֵהוּ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה; אָמַר מְנֻדֶּה לָרַב מְנֻדֶּה לַתַּלְמִיד (תנחומא):
distancing [it]: two thousand cubits, like the matter that is stated: “But there shall be a distance between you and it just two thousand cubits by measure” (Josh. 3:4). -[from Midrash Tanchuma 27]   הַרְחֵק: אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּ' אַךְ רָחוֹק יִהְיֶה בֵּינֵיכֶם וּבֵנָיו כְּאַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה בַּמִּדָּה (יהושע ג'):
and he called it: And he would call it the tent of meeting. That is the meeting house of those seeking the Torah.   וְקָרָא לוֹ: וְהָיָה קוֹרֵא לוֹ אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, הוּא בֵּית וַעַד לִמְבַקְּשֵׁי תוֹרָה:
anyone seeking the Lord: From here [we deduce] that one who seeks the presence of a sage is tantamount to one who seeks the presence of the Shechinah. -[from Tanchuma 27]   כָּל־מְבַקֵּשׁ ה': מִכָּאן לִמְבַקֵּשׁ פְּנֵי זָקֵן כִּמְקַבֵּל פְּנֵי שְׁכִינָה (תנחומא):
would go out to the tent of meeting: Heb. יֵצֵא, lit., will go out, like יוֹצֵא, would go out. Another interpretation: and it would be that anyone seeking the Lord-even the ministering angels-when they would ask for the place of the Shechinah, their companions would say to them, “Behold, it is in Moses’ tent” -[from Tanchuma 27]   יֵצֵא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: כְּמוֹ יוֹצֵא. דָּבָר אַחֵר וְהָיָה כָּל מְבַקֵּשׁ ה' – אֲפִלּוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹאֲלִים מְקוֹם שְׁכִינָה, חַבְרֵיהֶם אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם הֲרֵי הוּא בְאָהֳלוֹ שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה:
8And it would be that when Moses would go out to the tent, all the people would rise and stand, each one at the entrance of his tent, and they would gaze after Moses until he went into the tent.   חוְהָיָ֗ה כְּצֵ֤את משֶׁה֙ אֶל־הָאֹ֔הֶל יָק֨וּמוּ֙ כָּל־הָעָ֔ם וְנִ֨צְּב֔וּ אִ֖ישׁ פֶּ֣תַח אָֽהֳל֑וֹ וְהִבִּ֨יטוּ֙ אַֽחֲרֵ֣י משֶׁ֔ה עַד־בֹּא֖וֹ הָאֹֽהֱלָה:
And it would be: Heb. וְהָיָה, a present tense.   וְהָיָה: לְשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה:
when Moses would go out: of the camp to go to the tent.   כְּצֵאת: מֹשֶׁה מִן הַמַּחֲנֶה לָלֶכֶת אל האהל:
all the people would rise: They would stand before him and not sit down until he was concealed from them.   יָקוּמוּ כָּל־הָעָם: עוֹמְדִים מִפָּנָיו, וְאֵין יוֹשְׁבִין עַד שֶׁנִּתְכַּסָּה מֵהֶם:
and they would gaze after Moses: in admiration. [They would say,] “Fortunate is one born of woman who is so assured [by God] that the Shechinah follows him to the entrance of his tent.” -[from Kid. 33b, Shekalim 5:2. See also Tanchuma 27, Exod. Rabbah 45:4, 51:6]   וְהִבִּיטוּ אַֽחֲרֵי משֶׁה: לְשֶׁבַח – אַשְׁרֵי יְלוּד אִשָּׁה שֶׁכָּךְ מֻבְטָח שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה תִכָּנֵס אַחֲרָיו לְפֶתַח אָהֳלוֹ:
9And it would be that when Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent, and He would speak with Moses.   טוְהָיָ֗ה כְּבֹ֤א משֶׁה֙ הָאֹ֔הֱלָה יֵרֵד֙ עַמּ֣וּד הֶֽעָנָ֔ן וְעָמַ֖ד פֶּ֣תַח הָאֹ֑הֶל וְדִבֶּ֖ר עִם־משֶֽׁה:
and He would speak with Moses: Heb. וְדִבֶּר, like וּמְדַבֵּר, and He would speak [in the present tense]. Its Aramaic translation is וּמִתְמַלֵל עִם משֶׁה, and He would speak to Himself with Moses, which is [denoting] respect for the Shechinah, like [in the verse] “he heard the voice speaking (מִדַּבֵּר) to him” (Num. 7: 89), but one does not read מְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו. When one reads מִדַּבֵּר, it means that the voice would speak to itself and the commoner would hear by himself. But when one reads מְדַבֵּר, it means that the king speaks with the commoner.   וְדִבֶּר עִם־משֶׁה: כְּמוֹ וּמְדַבֵּר עִם מֹשֶׁה; תַּרְגּוּמוֹ וּמִתְמַלֵּל עִם מֹשֶׁה שֶׁהוּא כְּבוֹד שְׁכִינָה, כְּמוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע אֶת הַקּוֹל מִדַּבֵּר אֵלָיו (במדבר ז'), וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא מְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו; כְּשֶׁהוּא קוֹרֵא מִדַּבֵּר, פִּתְרוֹנוֹ הַקּוֹל מִדַּבֵּר בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ, וְהַהֶדְיוֹט שׁוֹמֵעַ מֵאֵלָיו, וּכְשֶׁהוּא קוֹרֵא מְדַבֵּר מַשְׁמַע שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ מְדַבֵּר עִם הַהֶדְיוֹט:
10When all the people would see the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people would rise and prostrate themselves, each one at the entrance of his tent.   יוְרָאָ֤ה כָל־הָעָם֙ אֶת־עַמּ֣וּד הֶֽעָנָ֔ן עֹמֵ֖ד פֶּ֣תַח הָאֹ֑הֶל וְקָ֤ם כָּל־הָעָם֙ וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו֔וּ אִ֖ישׁ פֶּ֥תַח אָֽהֳלֽוֹ:
and prostrate themselves: to the Shechinah.   וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ: לַשְּׁכִינָה:
11Then the Lord would speak to Moses face to face, as a man would speak to his companion, and he would return to the camp, but his attendant, Joshua, the son of Nun, a lad, would not depart from the tent.   יאוְדִבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֶל־משֶׁה֙ פָּנִ֣ים אֶל־פָּנִ֔ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר יְדַבֵּ֥ר אִ֖ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֑הוּ וְשָׁב֙ אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וּמְשָׁ֨רְת֜וֹ יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ בִּן־נוּן֙ נַ֔עַר לֹ֥א יָמִ֖ישׁ מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֹֽהֶל:
Then the Lord would speak to Moses face to face: [The targumim render:] וּמִתְמַלֵּל עִם משֶׁה, [as explained on verse 9].   וְדִבֶּר ה' אֶל־משֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים: וּמִתְמַלֵּל עִם מֹשֶׁה:
and he would return to the camp: After He spoke with him, Moses would return to the camp and teach the elders what he had learned. Moses conducted himself in this way from Yom Kippur until the Mishkan was erected, but no more [than that]. For on the seventeenth of Tammuz the tablets were broken, and on the eighteenth he burned the calf and judged the sinners, and on the nineteenth he went up [Mount Sinai], as it is said: “It came to pass on the next day that Moses said to the people, etc.” (Exod. 32:30). He spent forty days there and begged for mercy, as it is said: “And I cast myself down before the Lord, etc.” (Deut. 9:18). On Rosh Chodesh Elul it was said to him, “And in the morning you shall ascend Mount Sinai” (Exod. 34:2) to receive the second tablets, and he spent forty days there, as it is said concerning them, “And I remained upon the mountain just as the first days” (Deut. 10:10). Just as the first ones [days] were with good will [from the seventh of Sivan to the seventeenth of Tammuz], so were the last ones [days] with good will. [We may] deduce from this that the intermediate ones were with wrath. On the tenth of Tishri the Holy One, blessed is He, was appeased to Israel joyfully and wholeheartedly, and He said to Moses, “I have forgiven, as you have spoken.” He [God] gave over to him the second tablets, and he [Moses] descended, and He [God] began commanding him concerning the work of the Mishkan. They constructed it until the first of Nissan, and once it was erected, He no longer spoke with him except from the Tent of Meeting. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 31, Seder Olam ch. 6]   וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶה: לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּדְבַּר עִמּוֹ הָיָה מֹשֶׁה שָׁב אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְלַמֵּד לַזְּקֵנִים מַה שֶּׁלָּמַד; וְהַדָּבָר הַזֶּה נָהַג מֹשֶׁה מִיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עַד שֶׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְלֹא יוֹתֵר, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבְי"ח שָׂרַף אֶת הָעֵגֶל וְדָן אֶת הַחוֹטְאִים, וּבְי"ט עָלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל הָעָם וְגוֹ' (שמות ל"ב), וְעָשָׂה שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וּבִקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים, שֶׁנֶּ' וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי ה' וְגוֹ' (דברים ט'), וּבְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֱלוּל נֶאֱמַר לוֹ וְעָלִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר אֶל הַר סִינַי (שמות ל"ד), לְקַבֵּל לוּחוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת – וְעָשָׂה שָׁם מ' יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶם וְאָנֹכִי עָמַדְתִּי בָהָר כַּיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְגוֹ' – מָה הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בְּרָצוֹן אַף הָאַחֲרוֹנִים בְּרָצוֹן, אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה אֶמְצָעִיִּים הָיוּ בְכַעַס – בְּעֲשָׂרָה בְּתִשְׁרֵי נִתְרַצָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְלֵב שָׁלֵם, וְאָמַר לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה סָלַחְתִּי, וּמָסַר לוֹ לוּחוֹת אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, וְיָרַד וְהִתְחִיל לְצַוּוֹתָם עַל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וַעֲשָׂאוּהוּ עַד אֶחָד בְּנִיסָן, וּמִשֶּׁהוּקַם לֹא נִדְבַּר עִמּוֹ עוֹד אֶלָּא מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (תנחומא):
and he would return to the camp: Its Aramaic translation is וְתָב לְמַשְׁרִיתָא [meaning] and he would return to the camp, because it is the present tense, and so is [the Aramaic translation of] the entire section: “all the people would see (וְרָאָה)” (verse 10) - וַחֲזַן; and [they would] stand (וְנִצְּבוּ) (verse 8) - קַיְּימִין “and they [would] gaze (וְהִבִּיטוּ)” (verse 8) וּמִסְתַּכְּלִין and [they would] prostrate themselves (וְהִשְׁתַּחִווּ) (verse 10) - וְסַגְדִין. [This is the simple meaning of the verses, which depict Moses’ usual conduct from after Yom Kippur until the Mishkan was erected.] Its midrashic interpretation, however, is: And the Lord spoke to Moses [saying] that he should return to the camp. He [the Lord] said to him, “I am angry, and you are angry. Who then will bring them near [to Me]?” (Midrash Tanchuma 27).   וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶה: תַּרְגּוּמוֹ וְתָב לְמַשְׁרִיתָא, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה, וְכֵן כָּל הָעִנְיָן, וראה כל העם – וַחֲזָן, ונצבו – וְקַיְמִין, והביטו – וּמִסְתַּכְּלִין, והשתחוו – וְסָגְדִין. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ: וְדִבֶּר ה' אֶל־משֶׁה – שֶׁיָּשׁוּב אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי בְכַעַס וְאַתָּה בְכַעַס, אִם כֵּן מִי יְקָרְבֵם? (תנחומא):

Third Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 33

12Moses said to the Lord: "Look, You say to me: 'Bring this people up!' But You have not informed me whom You will send with me. And You said: 'I have known you by name and you have also found favor in My eyes.'   יבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֗ה רְ֠אֵ֠ה אַתָּ֞ה אֹמֵ֤ר אֵלַי֙ הַ֚עַל אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א הֽוֹדַעְתַּ֔נִי אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַ֖ח עִמִּ֑י וְאַתָּ֤ה אָמַ֨רְתָּ֙ יְדַעְתִּ֣יךָ בְשֵׁ֔ם וְגַם־מָצָ֥אתָ חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינָֽי:
Look, You say to me: Heb. רְאֵה, lit., see. רְאֵה means: Direct Your eyes and Your heart on Your words. [I.e., think about what You are saying!] You say to me [“Lead”] but You have not informed me [who will come with us]. You said to me, “Behold, I am sending an angel” (Exod. 23:20), [yet] this is not considered informing because I do not want it [to occur this way]. [Reggio edition: I do not want him.] -[See Exod. Rabbah 45:4]   רְאֵה אַתָּה אֹמֵר אֵלַי: רְאֵה – תֵּן עֵינֶיךָ וְלִבְּךָ עַל דְּבָרֶיךָ אַתָּה אֹמֵר אֵלַי וגו' וְאַתָּה לֹא הֽוֹדַעְתַּנִי וגו': וַאֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ לִי הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָךְ, אֵין זוֹ הוֹדָעָה, שֶׁאֵין אֲנִי חָפֵץ בָּהּ:
And You said: ‘I have known you by name’: [which means that God is saying:] I have recognized you from other people with a name of importance. For [God] said to me [Moses]: “Behold, I am coming to you in the thickness of the cloud… and they will also believe in you forever” (Exod. 19:9).   וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ יְדַעְתִּיךָ בְשֵׁם: הִכַּרְתִּיךָ מִשְּׁאָר בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּשֵׁם חֲשִׁיבוּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמַרְתָּ לִי הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן וְגוֹ' וְגַם בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם (שמות י"ט):
13And now, if I have indeed found favor in Your eyes, pray let me know Your ways, so that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your eyes; and consider that this nation is Your people."   יגוְעַתָּ֡ה אִם־נָא֩ מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֜ן בְּעֵינֶ֗יךָ הֽוֹדִעֵ֤נִי נָא֙ אֶת־דְּרָכֶ֔ךָ וְאֵדָ֣עֲךָ֔ לְמַ֥עַן אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ וּרְאֵ֕ה כִּ֥י עַמְּךָ֖ הַגּ֥וֹי הַזֶּֽה:
And now: If it is true that I have found favor in Your eyes, pray let me know Your ways, [i.e.,] what reward You give to those who find favor in Your eyes.   וְעַתָּה וגו': אִם אֱמֶת שֶׁמָּצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הודעני נא את דרכך. מַה שָּׂכָר אַתָּה נוֹתֵן לְמוֹצְאֵי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ:
so that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your eyes: And with this I will know the standard of Your recompense, [i.e.,] what constitutes finding favor, since I have found favor in Your eyes. The explanation of “so that I may find favor” means: in order that I may recognize how great the reward of finding favor [with You] is.   וְאֵדָעֲךָ לְמַעַן אֶמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ: וְאֵדַע בָּזוֹ מִדַּת תַּגְמוּלֶיךָ – מַה הִיא מְצִיאַת חֵן שֶׁמָּצָאתִי בְּעֵינֶיךָ; וּפִתְרוֹן למען אמצא חן – לְמַעַן אַכִּיר כַּמָּה שְׂכַר מְצִיאַת הַחֵן:
and consider that this nation is Your people: That You should not say, “and I will make you into a great nation” and [then] forsake these [people]. See [i.e., remember] that they are Your people from long ago, and if You reject them, I would not rely on [only] those descendants who come from my loins to survive; make known to me [now] the payment of my reward through this people. Although our Rabbis expounded on this in tractate Berachoth (7a), I have come to reconcile the verses according to their context and their sequence.   וּרְאֵה כִּי עַמְּךָ הַגּוֹי הַזֶּֽה: שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְאֶת אֵלֶּה תַּעֲזֹב, רְאֵה כִּי עַמְּךָ הֵם מִקֶּדֶם, וְאִם בָּהֶם תִּמְאַס, אֵינִי סוֹמֵךְ עַל הַיּוֹצְאִים מֵחֲלָצַי שֶׁיִּתְקַיְּמוּ, וְאֶת תַּשְׁלוּם הַשָּׂכָר שֶׁלִּי בָּעָם הַזֶּה תּוֹדִיעֵנִי; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ בְּמַסֶּכֶת בְּרָכוֹת (דף ז'), וַאֲנִי לְיַשֵּׁב הַמִּקְרָאוֹת עַל אָפְנֵיהֶם וְעַל סִדְרָם בָּאתִי:
14So He said, "My Presence will go, and I will give you rest."   ידוַיֹּאמַ֑ר פָּנַ֥י יֵלֵ֖כוּ וַֽהֲנִחֹ֥תִי לָֽךְ:
So He said, “My Presence will go…”: Heb. פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ, lit., My countenance will go. [This is to be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [שְׁכִנְתִּי תְהַךְ], I will no longer send an angel; I Myself will go, similar to [the verse:] “and you personally go (וּפָנֶיךָ הֹלְכִים) to battle” (II Sam. 17:11).   וַיֹּאמַר פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ – לֹא אֶשְׁלַח עוֹד מַלְאָךְ, אֲנִי בְעַצְמִי אֵלֵךְ, כְּמוֹ וּפָנֶיךָ הוֹלְכִים בַּקְּרָב (שמואל ב י״ז:י״א):
15And he said to Him, "If Your Presence does not go [with us], do not take us up from here.   טווַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלָ֑יו אִם־אֵ֤ין פָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ הֹֽלְכִ֔ים אַל־תַּֽעֲלֵ֖נוּ מִזֶּֽה:
And he said to Him: This is what I want, because [I] do not [want you to] take us up from here [if it is] through an angel.   וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו: בְּזוֹ אֲנִי חָפֵץ, כִּי עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ אַל תַּעֲלֵנוּ מִזֶּה:
16For how then will it be known that I have found favor in Your eyes, I and Your people? Is it not in that You will go with us? Then I and Your people will be distinguished from every [other] nation on the face of the earth."   טזוּבַמֶּ֣ה | יִוָּדַ֣ע אֵפ֗וֹא כִּֽי־מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֨יךָ֙ אֲנִ֣י וְעַמֶּ֔ךָ הֲל֖וֹא בְּלֶכְתְּךָ֣ עִמָּ֑נוּ וְנִפְלִ֨ינוּ֙ אֲנִ֣י וְעַמְּךָ֔ מִכָּ֨ל־הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
For how then will it be known: [I.e., how] will the finding of favor be known? Is it not in that You will go with us? One other thing I ask of You [I ask] that Your Shechinah shall no longer rest upon heathen nations. -[from Ber. 7a]   וּבַמֶּה יִוָּדַע אֵפוֹא: יִוָּדַע מְצִיאַת הַחֵן, הלוא בלכתך עמנו. וְעוֹד דָּבָר אֲנִי שׁוֹאֵל מִמְּךָ, שֶׁלֹּא תַשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתְךָ עוֹד עַל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם.
Then I and Your people will be distinguished: Heb. וְנִפְלִינוּ. In this respect, we will be separated from every [other] nation, like “And the Lord will make a separation (וְהִפְלָה) …between the livestock of Egypt” (Exod. 9:4).   וְנִפְלִינוּ אֲנִי וְעַמֶּךָ: וְנִהְיֶה מֻבְדָּלִים בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה מִכָּל הָעָם (ברכות ז'), כְּמוֹ וְהִפְלָה ה' בֵּין מִקְנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ' (שמות ט'):

Fourth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 33

17And the Lord said to Moses: "Even this thing that you have spoken, I will do, for you have found favor in My eyes, and I have known you by name."   יזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה גַּ֣ם אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֑ה כִּֽי־מָצָ֤אתָ חֵן֙ בְּעֵינַ֔י וָֽאֵדָֽעֲךָ֖ בְּשֵֽׁם:
Even this thing: [namely] that My Shechinah should no longer rest upon heathens, I will do. Balaam’s [i.e., the gentile prophet] words did not come about through the resting of the Shechinah [on him], but [his prophecy would occur when] he would “fall and his eyes would be unveiled” (Num. 24:4); such as “Now a word was conveyed secretly to me” (Job 4:12). They [these heathen prophets] would hear [the prophecy] through a messenger.   גַּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה: שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתִי עוֹד עַל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם אעשה, וְאֵין דְּבָרָיו שֶׁל בִּלְעָם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיַּת הַשְּׁכִינָה, אֶלָּא "נוֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם" כְּגוֹן וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב (איוב ד') – שׁוֹמְעִין עַל יְדֵי שָׁלִיחַ:
18And he said: "Show me, now, Your glory!"   יחוַיֹּאמַ֑ר הַרְאֵ֥נִי נָ֖א אֶת־כְּבֹדֶֽךָ:
And he said: “Show me, now, Your glory!”: Moses perceived that it was a time of [God’s] good will, and his words were accepted, so he continued to ask that He show him the appearance of His glory.   וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶֽךָ: רָאָה מֹשֶׁה שֶׁהָיָה עֵת רָצוֹן וּדְבָרָיו מְקֻבָּלִים, וְהוֹסִיף לִשְׁאֹל לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ מַרְאִית כְּבוֹדוֹ:
19He said: "I will let all My goodness pass before you; I will proclaim the name of the Lord before you, and I will favor when I wish to favor, and I will have compassion when I wish to have compassion."   יטוַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֲנִ֨י אַֽעֲבִ֤יר כָּל־טוּבִי֙ עַל־פָּנֶ֔יךָ וְקָרָ֧אתִי בְשֵׁ֛ם יְהֹוָ֖ה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וְחַנֹּתִי֙ אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָחֹ֔ן וְרִֽחַמְתִּ֖י אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲרַחֵֽם:
He said: “I will let… pass before you”: The time has come that you shall see some of My glory that I will permit you to see, because I want and I need to teach you the order of prayer. Because when you had to beg mercy for Israel, you begged Me to remember the merit of the Patriarchs. You think that if the merit of the Patriarchs is depleted, there is no longer any hope. I will [therefore] let all the attribute of My goodness pass before you while you are hidden in a cave.   וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַֽעֲבִיר וגו': הִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בִּכְבוֹדִי מַה שֶּׁאַרְשֶׁה אוֹתְךָ לִרְאוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה וְצָרִיךְ לְלַמֶּדְךָ סֵדֶר תְּפִלָּה; שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּצְרַכְתָּ לְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִזְכַּרְתָּ לִי זְכוּת אָבוֹת, כְּסָבוּר אַתָּה שֶׁאִם תַּמָּה זְכוּת אָבוֹת אֵין עוֹד תִּקְוָה, אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל מִדַּת טוּבִי לְפָנֶיךָ עַל הַצּוּר וְאַתָּה נָתוּן בַּמְּעָרָה:
I will proclaim the name of the Lord before you: to teach you the procedure for begging for compassion [i.e., praying] even if the merit of the Patriarchs is depleted. According to this procedure, [during] which you [will] see Me enwrapped [see commentary on Exod. 34:6] and proclaiming the Thirteen Attributes, teach the Israelites to do likewise. Through their mentioning before Me [the words] “Compassionate and gracious,” they will be answered, for My compassion never ends. -[from Rosh Hashanah 17b]   וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם ה' לְפָנֶיךָ: לְלַמֶּדְךָ סֵדֶר בַּקָּשַׁת רַחֲמִים אַף אִם תִּכְלֶה זְכוּת אָבוֹת, וְכַסֵּדֶר זֶה שֶׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה אוֹתִי – מְעֻטָּף וְקוֹרֵא י"ג מִדּוֹת – הֱוֵי מְלַמֵּד אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁיַּזְכִּירוּ לְפָנַי "רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן" יִהְיוּ נַעֲנִין – כִּי רַחֲמַי לֹא כָלִים:
and I will favor when I wish to favor: [At] those times that I will want to [show] favor.   וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אחון: אוֹתָן פְּעָמִים שֶׁאֶרְצֶה לָחֹן:
and I will have compassion: At the time I will want to have compassion. Until this point, He promised him [Moses] only that “at times I will answer, and at times I will not answer.” At the time of the deed [when God revealed to Moses the Thirteen Attributes], however, He said to him, “Behold! I will form a covenant” (Exod. 34:10). He promised him that they [the Israelites] would never return empty [i.e., without an answer to their prayers]. -[from Rosh Hashanah 17b]   וְרִֽחַמְתִּי: עֵת שֶׁאֶחְפֹּץ לְרַחֵם; עַד כָּאן לֹא הִבְטִיחוֹ אֶלָּא עִתִּים אֶעֱנֶה וְעִתִּים לֹא אֶעֱנֶה, אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת מַעֲשֶׂה אָמַר לוֹ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי כֹּרֵת בְּרִית (שמות ל"ד) – הִבְטִיחוֹ שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹזְרוֹת רֵיקָם:
20And He said, "You will not be able to see My face, for man shall not see Me and live."   כוַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לִרְאֹ֣ת אֶת־פָּנָ֑י כִּ֛י לֹֽא־יִרְאַ֥נִי הָֽאָדָ֖ם וָחָֽי:
And He said, “You will not be able…”: Even when I let all My goodness pass before you, I [still] do not grant you permission to see My face.   וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תוּכַל וגו': אַף כְּשֶׁאַעֲבִיר כָּל טוּבִי עַל פָּנֶיךָ אֵינִי נוֹתֵן לְךָ רְשׁוּת לִרְאוֹת אֶת פָּנַי:
21And the Lord said: "Behold, there is a place with Me, and you shall stand on the rock.   כאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֔ה הִנֵּ֥ה מָק֖וֹם אִתִּ֑י וְנִצַּבְתָּ֖ עַל־הַצּֽוּר:
Behold, there is a place with Me: on the mountain, where I always speak to you. I have a place prepared for your benefit, where I will hide you so that you will not be hurt, and from there you shall see what you shall see. This is its simple meaning, but its midrashic meaning is that [God] is speaking of the place where the Shechinah is, and He says: “The place is with Me,” but He does not say: “I am in the place,” for the Holy One, blessed is He, is the place of the world [i.e., the world is within Him], but the world is not His place [i.e., the world does not encompass him] (Gen. Rabbah 68:9).   הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי: בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר עִמְּךָ תָמִיד, יֵשׁ מָקוֹם מוּכָן לִי לְצָרְכְּךָ שֶׁאַטְמִינְךָ שָׁם שֶׁלֹּא תִזֹּק, וּמִשָּׁם תִּרְאֶה מַה שֶּׁתִּרְאֶה, זֶהוּ פְּשׁוּטוֹ; וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ, עַל מָקוֹם שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה שָׁם מְדַבֵּר, וְאוֹמֵר הַמָּקוֹם אִתִּי, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֲנִי בַמָּקוֹם, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם וְאֵין עוֹלָמוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ (תנחומא):
22And it shall be that when My glory passes by, I will place you into the cleft of the rock, and I will cover you with My hand until I have passed by.   כבוְהָיָה֙ בַּֽעֲבֹ֣ר כְּבֹדִ֔י וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךָ בְּנִקְרַ֣ת הַצּ֑וּר וְשַׂכֹּתִ֥י כַפִּ֛י עָלֶ֖יךָ עַד־עָבְרִֽי:
when My glory passes by: When I pass by before you.   בַּֽעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי: כְּשֶׁאֶעֱבֹר לְפָנֶיךָ:
into the cleft of the rock: Heb. בְּנִקְרַתהַצוּר, like [the following verses:] Even if you pick out תִּנַקֵּר those people’s eyes” (Num. 16:14); “May the ravens of the valley pick it out (יִקְּרוּה) ” (Prov. 30:17); [and] “I dug (קַרְתִּי) and drank water” (Isa. 37:25). [All] these [examples] have one root (קר). נִקְרַת הַצוּר means the digging out of the rock [i.e., the cleft].   בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר: כְּמוֹ הַעֵינֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָהֵם תְּנַקֵּר (במדבר ט"ז), יִקְּרוּהָ עֹרְבֵי נַחַל (משלי ל'), אֲנִי קַרְתִּי וְשָׁתִיתִי מָיִם (מלכים ב' יט, כד; ישעיה לז, כה), גִּזְרָה אַחַת לָהֶם, נִקְרַת הַצּוּר: כְּרִיַּת הַצּוּר:
and I will cover you with My hand: From here [we understand] that power was given to destructive forces to destroy [Moses] (Num. Rabbah 14:19). Its Aramaic translation is וְאָגֵין בְּמֵימְרִי, and I will protect with My word. This is a euphemism out of honor of the Most High, for He does not need to cover over him [Moses] with an actual hand.   וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי: מִכָּאן שֶׁנִּתְּנָה רְשׁוּת לַמְחַבְּלִים לְחַבֵּל, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ "וְאָגֵין בְּמֵימְרִי" כִּנּוּי הוּא לְדֶרֶךְ כָּבוֹד שֶׁל מַעְלָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְסוֹכֵךְ עָלָיו בְּכַף מַמָּשׁ:
23Then I will remove My hand, and you will see My back but My face shall not be seen."   כגוַֽהֲסִֽרֹתִי֙ אֶת־כַּפִּ֔י וְרָאִ֖יתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָ֑י וּפָנַ֖י לֹ֥א יֵֽרָאֽוּ:
Then I will remove My hand: [Onkelos renders:] Then I will remove the guidance [i.e., My guidance] of My glory, when the guidance of My glory passes by from opposite your face, to go further from there [this means that even Moses would not be permitted to grasp the essence of God, only His attributes and His deeds (Nethinah LaGer)].   וַֽהֲסִֽרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי: וְאַעֲדֵי יָת דִּבְרַת יְקָרִי – כְּשֶׁאֲסַלֵּק הַנְהָגַת כְּבוֹדִי מִנֶּגֶד פָּנֶיךָ, לָלֶכֶת מִשָּׁם וּלְהַלָּן:
and you will see My back: [Then] He showed him the knot of the tefillin. -[from Ber. 7a]   וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי: הֶרְאָהוּ קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל תְּפִלִּין (ברכות ז'):

Fifth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 34

1And the Lord said to Moses: "Hew for yourself two stone tablets like the first ones. And I will inscribe upon the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה פְּסָל־לְךָ֛ שְׁנֵֽי־לֻחֹ֥ת אֲבָנִ֖ים כָּרִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים וְכָֽתַבְתִּי֙ עַל־הַלֻּחֹ֔ת אֶת־הַ֨דְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֛וּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹ֥ת הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר שִׁבַּֽרְתָּ:
Hew for yourself: Heb. פְּסָל לְ. He [God] showed him [Moses] a sapphire mine from within his tent, and He said to him, “The [sapphire] chips shall be yours,” and from there Moses became very wealthy. -[from Tanchuma 29, Lev. Rabbah 32:2]   פְּסָל־לְךָ: הֶרְאָהוּ מַחְצַב סַנְפִּירִינוֹן מִתּוֹךְ אָהֳלוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ הַפְּסֹלֶת יִהְיֶה שֶׁלְּךָ; מִשָּׁם נִתְעַשֵּׁר מֹשֶׁה הַרְבֵּה (תנחומא):
Hew for yourself: You broke the first ones. You hew others for yourself. This can be compared to a king who went abroad and left his betrothed with the maidservants. Because of the immoral behavior of the maidservants, she acquired a bad reputation. Her bridesman [the person appointed to defend the bride should any problems arise] arose and tore up her marriage contract. He said, “If the king decides to kill her, I will say to him, ‘She is not yet your wife.’” The king investigated and discovered that only the maidservants were guilty of immoral behavior. He [therefore] became appeased to her. So her bridesman said to him, “Write her another marriage contract because the first one was torn up.” The king replied to him, “You tore it up. You buy yourself another [sheet of] paper, and I will write to her with my [personal] hand [writing].” Likewise, the king represents the Holy One, blessed is He. The maidservants represent the mixed multitude. The bridesman is Moses, and the betrothed of the Holy One, blessed is He, is Israel. That is why it says: “Hew for yourself.” -[from Tanchuma 30]   פְּסָל־לְךָ: אַתָּה שִׁבַּרְתָּ הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, אַתָּה פְּסָל לְךָ אֲחֵרוֹת, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָלַךְ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם וְהִנִּיחַ אֲרוּסָתוֹ עִם הַשְּׁפָחוֹת, מִתּוֹךְ קִלְקוּל הַשְּׁפָחוֹת יָצָא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רָע, עָמַד שׁוֹשְׁבִינָהּ וְקָרַע כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, אָמַר אִם יֹאמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהָרְגָהּ, אֹמַר לוֹ עֲדַיִן אֵינָהּ אִשְׁתְּךָ; בָּדַק הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמָצָא שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַקִּלְקוּל אֶלָּא מִן הַשְּׁפָחוֹת, נִתְרַצָּה לָהּ, אָמַר לוֹ שׁוֹשְׁבִינָהּ כְּתֹב לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה אַחֶרֶת, שֶׁנִּקְרְעָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, אָמַר לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַתָּה קָרַעְתָּ אוֹתָהּ אַתָּה קְנֵה לָהּ נְיָר אַחֵר וַאֲנִי אֶכְתֹּב לָהּ בִּכְתָב יָדִי; כֵּן הַמֶּלֶךְ זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הַשְּׁפָחוֹת אֵלּוּ עֵרֶב רַב, וְהַשּׁוֹשְׁבִין זֶה מֹשֶׁה, אֲרוּסָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר פְּסָל לְךָ (שם):
2Be prepared for the morning, and in the morning you shall ascend Mount Sinai and stand before Me there on the top of the mountain.   בוֶֽהְיֵ֥ה נָכ֖וֹן לַבֹּ֑קֶר וְעָלִ֤יתָ בַבֹּ֨קֶר֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר סִינַ֔י וְנִצַּבְתָּ֥ לִ֛י שָׁ֖ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָהָֽר:
prepared: Heb. נָכוֹן, ready.   נָכוֹן: מְזֻמָּן:
3No one shall ascend with you, neither shall anyone be seen anywhere on the mountain, neither shall the sheep and the cattle graze facing that mountain."   גוְאִישׁ֙ לֹא־יַֽעֲלֶ֣ה עִמָּ֔ךְ וְגַם־אִ֥ישׁ אַל־יֵרָ֖א בְּכָל־הָהָ֑ר גַּם־הַצֹּ֤אן וְהַבָּקָר֙ אַל־יִרְע֔וּ אֶל־מ֖וּל הָהָ֥ר הַהֽוּא:
No one shall ascend with you: Since the first ones [i.e., tablets] were accompanied by loud noises, sounds, and with a multitude, the evil eye affected them. [Our conclusion is that] there is nothing better than modesty. -[from Tanchuma 30]   וְאִישׁ לֹא־יַֽעֲלֶה עִמָּךְ: הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיוּ בִתְשׁוּאוֹת וְקוֹלוֹת וּקְהִלּוֹת, שָׁלְטָה בָהֶן עַיִן רָעָה – אֵין לְךָ יָפֶה מִן הַצְּנִיעוּת (שם):
4So he [Moses] hewed two stone tablets like the first ones, and Moses arose early in the morning and ascended Mount Sinai as the Lord had commanded him, and he took two stone tablets in his hand.   דוַיִּפְסֹ֡ל שְׁנֵֽי־לֻחֹ֨ת אֲבָנִ֜ים כָּרִֽאשֹׁנִ֗ים וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם משֶׁ֤ה בַבֹּ֨קֶר֙ וַיַּ֨עַל֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר סִינַ֔י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֹת֑וֹ וַיִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָד֔וֹ שְׁנֵ֖י לֻחֹ֥ת אֲבָנִֽים:
5And the Lord descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and He called out in the name of the Lord.   הוַיֵּ֤רֶד יְהֹוָה֙ בֶּֽעָנָ֔ן וַיִּתְיַצֵּ֥ב עִמּ֖וֹ שָׁ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֥א בְשֵׁ֖ם יְהֹוָֽה:
and He called out in the name of the Lord: We render: וּקְרָא בִשְׁמָא דַיְיָ, and he called out in the name of the Lord. [from Onkelos]   וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם ה': מְתַּרְגְּמִינַן וּקְרָא בִשְׁמָא דַה':
6And the Lord passed before him and proclaimed: Lord, Lord, benevolent God, Who is compassionate and gracious, slow to anger and abundant in loving kindness and truth,   ווַיַּֽעֲבֹ֨ר יְהֹוָ֥ה | עַל־פָּנָיו֘ וַיִּקְרָא֒ יְהֹוָ֣ה | יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֥ל רַח֖וּם וְחַנּ֑וּן אֶ֥רֶךְ אַפַּ֖יִם וְרַב־חֶ֥סֶד וֶֽאֱמֶֽת:
Lord, Lord: This is God's Attribute of Compassion. [It is repeated,] once for before the person sins, and once for after he sins and repents.   ה' ה': מִדַּת רַחֲמִים הִיא, אַחַת קֹדֶם שֶׁיֶּחֱטָא, וְאַחַת אַחַר שֶׁיֶּחֱטָא וְיָשׁוּב (ראש השנה י"ז):
God: Heb. אֵל. This too is an attribute of compassion [for God], and so he [the Psalmist] says: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?” (Ps. 22:2). One cannot say to the Divine attribute of justice, “Why have You forsaken me?” I found this in the Mechilta (Exod. 15:2).   אֵל: אַף זוֹ מִדַּת רַחֲמִים, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר אֵלִי אֵלִי לָמָה עֲזַבְתָּנִי (תהילים כ"ב) – וְאֵין לוֹמַר לְמִדַּת הַדִּין לָמָה עֲזַבְתָּנִי, כָּךְ מָצָאתִי בִּמְכִילְתָּא:
slow to anger: He puts off His anger and does not hasten to exact retribution, [hoping that] perhaps he [the sinner] will repent.   אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם: מַאֲרִיךְ אַפּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְמַהֵר לִפָּרַע, שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשֶׂה תְשׁוּבָה:
and abundant in loving-kindness: for those who need loving-kindness because they lack sufficient merits. -[from R.H. 17a]   וְרַב־חֶסֶד: לַצְּרִיכִים חֶסֶד – שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם זְכֻיּוֹת כָּל כָּךְ:
and truth: to pay a good reward to those who do His will.   וֶֽאֱמֶֽת: לְשַׁלֵּם שָׂכָר טוֹב לְעוֹשֵׂי רְצוֹנוֹ:
7preserving loving kindness for thousands, forgiving iniquity and rebellion and sin; yet He does not completely clear [of sin] He visits the iniquity of parents on children and children's children, to the third and fourth generations."   זנֹצֵ֥ר חֶ֨סֶד֙ לָֽאֲלָפִ֔ים נֹשֵׂ֥א עָוֹ֛ן וָפֶ֖שַׁע וְחַטָּאָ֑ה וְנַקֵּה֙ לֹ֣א יְנַקֶּ֔ה פֹּקֵ֣ד | עֲוֹ֣ן אָב֗וֹת עַל־בָּנִים֙ וְעַל־בְּנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֖ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִֽים:
preserving loving-kindness: that a person does before Him.   נֹצֵר חֶסֶד: שֶׁהָאָדָם עוֹשֶׂה לְפָנָיו:
for thousands: For two thousand generations.   לָֽאֲלָפִים: לִשְׁנֵי אֲלָפִים דּוֹרוֹת:
[iniquity and rebellion]: Iniquities (עִוֹנוֹת) are intentional sins. פְּשָׁעִים are sins committed out of rebellion, which a person commits [in order] to anger [God]. -[from Yoma 36b]   עָוֹן וָפֶשַׁע: עֲוֹנוֹת — אֵלּוּ הַזְּדוֹנוֹת, פְּשָׁעִים — אֵלּוּ הַמְּרָדִים שֶׁאָדָם עוֹשֶׂה לְהַכְעִיס:
yet He does not completely clear [of sin]: Heb. וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה. According to its simple interpretation, it means that He does not completely overlook the iniquity but exacts retribution for it little by little. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted [this expression to mean]: He clears those who repent, but does not clear those who do not repent (from Yoma 86a, targumim).   וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה: לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ מַשְׁמָע שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְוַתֵּר עַל הֶעָוֹן לְגַמְרֵי, אֶלָּא נִפְרָע מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט מְעַט, וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ מְנַקֶּה הוּא לַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא יְנַקֶּה לְשֶׁאֵינָן שָׁבִים (יומא פ"ו):
He visits the iniquity of parents on the children: when they hold onto the deeds of their parents in their hands [i.e., emulate their ways], for He already explained this in another verse, [that it means only] “of those who hate Me” (Exod. 20:5). -[from Ber. 7a]   פֹּקֵד עָוֹן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים: כְּשֶׁאוֹחֲזִים מַעֲשֵׂה אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם בִּידֵיהֶם, שֶׁכְּבָר פֵּרֵשׁ בְּמִקְרָא אַחֵר לְשֹׂנְאָי (שמות כ'):
and fourth generations: Heb. וְעַל רִבֵּעִים, the fourth generation. Thus, the [i.e., God’s] attribute of goodness exceeds the attribute of retribution by a ratio of one to five hundred. Concerning the attribute of goodness, He says: “preserving loving-kindness for thousands.” -[from Tosefta, Sotah 4:1]   וְעַל־רִבֵּעִֽים: דּוֹר רְבִיעִי; נִמְצֵאת מִדָּה טוֹבָה מְרֻבָּה עַל מִדַּת פֻּרְעָנוּת אַחַת לַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת, שֶׁבְּמִדָּה טוֹבָה הוּא אוֹמֵר נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים (תוספתא סוטה ד'):
8And Moses hastened, bowed his head to the ground and prostrated himself,   חוַיְמַהֵ֖ר משֶׁ֑ה וַיִּקֹּ֥ד אַ֖רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּֽחוּ:
And Moses hastened: When Moses saw the Shechinah passing [in front of him] and he heard the voice calling, he immediately prostrated himself.   וַיְמַהֵר משֶׁה: כְּשֶׁרָאָה מֹשֶׁה שְׁכִינָה עוֹבֶרֶת, וְשָׁמַע קוֹל הַקְּרִיאָה, מִיָּד וישתחו:
9and said: "If I have now found favor in Your eyes, O Lord, let the Lord go now in our midst [even] if they are a stiff necked people, and You shall forgive our iniquity and our sin and thus secure us as Your possession."   טוַיֹּ֡אמֶר אִם־נָא֩ מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֨יךָ֙ אֲדֹנָ֔י יֵֽלֶךְ־נָ֥א אֲדֹנָ֖י בְּקִרְבֵּ֑נוּ כִּ֤י עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֨רֶף֙ ה֔וּא וְסָֽלַחְתָּ֛ לַֽעֲו‍ֹנֵ֥נוּ וּלְחַטָּאתֵ֖נוּ וּנְחַלְתָּֽנוּ:
let the Lord go now in our midst: As You promised us, since You forgive iniquity. [Which means:] and if they are a stiff-necked people, and they rebelled against You, and You have said concerning this, “Lest I destroy you on the way” (Exod. 33:3), You [still] will forgive our iniquity, etc. There are [other instances where] כִּי [is used] instead of אִם if.   יֵֽלֶךְ־נָא אֲדֹנָי בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ: כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִבְטַחְתָּ, מֵאַחַר שֶׁאַתָּה נוֹשֵׂא עָוֹן; וְאִם עַם קְשֵׁה עֹרֶף הוּא וְיַמְרוּ בְךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ עַל זֹאת פֶּן אֲכֶלְךָ בַּדָּרֶךְ, אַתָּה תִסְלַח לַעֲוֹנֵינוּ וְגוֹמֵר; יֵשׁ כִּי בִּמְקוֹם אִם:
and thus secure us as Your possession: And You shall give us to Yourself as a special possession. (Other editions read: and You shall give us a special possession.) That is the [same] request of: “Then I and Your people will be distinguished” (Exod. 33:16), [meaning] that the Shechinah should not rest upon the pagan nations.   וּנְחַלְתָּֽנוּ: וְתִתְּנֵנוּ לְךָ לְנַחֲלָה מְיֻחֶדֶת, זוֹ הִיא בַקָּשַׁת וְנִפְלִינוּ אֲנִי וְעַמְּךָ – שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתְךָ עַל הָאֻמּוֹת:

Sixth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 34

10And He said: "Behold! I will form a covenant; in the presence of all your people, I will make distinctions such as have not been created upon all the earth and among all the nations, and all the people in whose midst you are shall see the work of the Lord how awe inspiring it is that which I will perform with you.   יוַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֣ה אָנֹכִי֘ כֹּרֵ֣ת בְּרִית֒ נֶ֤גֶד כָּל־עַמְּךָ֙ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֣ה נִפְלָאֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־נִבְרְא֥וּ בְכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ וּבְכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְרָאָ֣ה כָל־הָ֠עָ֠ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֨ה בְקִרְבּ֜וֹ אֶת־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־נוֹרָ֣א ה֔וּא אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י עֹשֶׂ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ:
[I will] form a covenant: Concerning this.   כֹּרֵת בְּרִית: עַל זֹאת:
in the presence of all your people, I will make distinctions: Heb. נִפְלָאֹת אֶעֱשִֶׂה, an expression related to וְנִפְלִינוּ, “and [we] shall be distinguished” (Exod. 33:16), [meaning] that you shall be separated from all the pagan nations, that My Shechinah shall not rest upon them [these other nations].   אֶֽעֱשֶׂה נִפְלָאֹת: לְשׁוֹן וְנִפְלִינוּ, שֶׁתִּהְיוּ מֻבְדָּלִים בְּזוֹ מִכָּל הָאֻמּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתִי עֲלֵיהֶם:
11Keep carefully what I am commanding you today: Lo! I will drive out from before you the Amorites and the Canaanites, the Hittites and the Perizzites, the Hivvites and the Jebusites.   יאשְׁמָ֨ר־לְךָ֔ אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוְּךָ֣ הַיּ֑וֹם הִֽנְנִ֧י גֹרֵ֣שׁ מִפָּנֶ֗יךָ אֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֔י וְהַֽחִתִּי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי:
the Amorites…: Six nations are [enumerated] here [not the proverbial seven], because the Girgashites [i.e., the seventh nation] got up and emigrated because of them [the Israelites]. -[from Lev. Rabbah 17:6, Yerushalmi Shevi ith 6:1.]   אֵת הָֽאֱמֹרִי וגו': ו' אֻמּוֹת יֵשׁ כָּאן, כִּי הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי עָמַד וּפָנָה מִפְּנֵיהֶם:
12Beware lest you form a covenant with the inhabitant[s] of the land into which you are coming, lest it become a snare in your midst.   יבהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹ֤ת בְּרִית֙ לְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה בָּ֣א עָלֶ֑יהָ פֶּן־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְמוֹקֵ֖שׁ בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
13But you shall demolish their altars, shatter their monuments, and cut down their sacred trees.   יגכִּ֤י אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם֙ תִּתֹּצ֔וּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּֽבֹתָ֖ם תְּשַׁבֵּר֑וּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָ֖יו תִּכְרֹתֽוּן:
their sacred trees: This is a tree they worship.   אֲשֵׁרָיו: הוּא אִילָן שֶׁעוֹבְדִים אוֹתוֹ:
14For you shall not prostrate yourself before another god, because the Lord, Whose Name is "Jealous One," is a jealous God.   ידכִּ֛י לֹ֥א תִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֖ה לְאֵ֣ל אַחֵ֑ר כִּ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ קַנָּ֣א שְׁמ֔וֹ אֵ֥ל קַנָּ֖א הֽוּא:
Whose Name is “Jealous One”: He is zealous to mete out retribution, and He is not indulgent. That is [the meaning of] every expression of jealousy (קִנְאָה) [when used in connection with God]. [It] means that He is steadfast in His superiority [over other deities] and exacts retribution upon those who forsake Him.   קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ: מְקַנֵּא לִפָּרַע וְאֵינוֹ מְוַתֵּר, וְזֶהוּ כָּל לְשׁוֹן קִנְאָה – אוֹחֵז בְּנִצְחוֹנוֹ וּפוֹרֵעַ מֵאוֹיְבָיו:
15Lest you form a covenant with the inhabitant[s] of the land, and they [the gentiles] go astray after their gods, and they offer sacrifices to their gods, and they invite you, and you eat of their slaughtering,   טופֶּן־תִּכְרֹ֥ת בְּרִ֖ית לְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֑רֶץ וְזָנ֣וּ | אַֽחֲרֵ֣י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֗ם וְזָבְחוּ֙ לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם וְקָרָ֣א לְךָ֔ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֖ מִזִּבְחֽוֹ:
and you eat of their slaughtering: You [may] think that there is no punishment for eating it, but [when you eat it] I consider it for you as if you endorsed its worship, for through this [eating of the sacrifice] you will come to take from their daughters for your sons.   וְאָֽכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחֽוֹ: כַּסָּבוּר אַתָּה שֶׁאֵין עֹנֶשׁ בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ, וַאֲנִי מַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ כְּמוֹדֶה בַעֲבוֹדָתָם, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ אַתָּה בָא וְלוֹקֵחַ מִבְּנוֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ (עבודה זרה ח'):
16and you take of their daughters for your sons; then their daughters will go astray after their gods and lead your sons astray after their gods.   טזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֥ מִבְּנֹתָ֖יו לְבָנֶ֑יךָ וְזָנ֣וּ בְנֹתָ֗יו אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ן וְהִזְנוּ֙ אֶת־בָּנֶ֔יךָ אַֽחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽן:
17You shall not make molten gods for yourself.   יזאֱלֹהֵ֥י מַסֵּכָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ:
18The Festival of Unleavened Cakes you shall keep; seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes which I have commanded you, at the appointed meeting time of the month of spring, for in the month of spring you went out of Egypt.   יחאֶת־חַ֣ג הַמַּצּוֹת֘ תִּשְׁמֹר֒ שִׁבְעַ֨ת יָמִ֜ים תֹּאכַ֤ל מַצּוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֔ךָ לְמוֹעֵ֖ד חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֑יב כִּ֚י בְּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב יָצָ֖אתָ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
the month of spring: The month of early ripening, when the grain first ripens.   חֹדֶשׁ הָֽאָבִיב: חֹדֶשׁ הַבִּכּוּר, שֶׁהַתְּבוּאָה מִתְבַּכֶּרֶת בְּבִשּׁוּלָהּ:
19All that opens the womb is Mine, and all your livestock [that] bears a male, [by] the emergence of ox or lamb.   יטכָּל־פֶּ֥טֶר רֶ֖חֶם לִ֑י וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ֙ תִּזָּכָ֔ר פֶּ֖טֶר שׁ֥וֹר וָשֶֽׂה:
All that opens the womb is Mine: Among humans.   כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לִי: בָּאָדָם:
and all your livestock [that] bears a male…: Heb. תִּזָּכָר. And all your livestock that bears a [firstborn] male by the emergence of an ox or lamb [from the womb], meaning that a male will open its womb [i.e., its firstborn is a male].   וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ וגו': וְכָל מִקְנְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּזָּכָר בְּפֶטֶר שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה – אֲשֶׁר יִפְטֹר זָכָר אֶת רַחְמָהּ:
emergence: Heb. פֶּטֶר, a word that means opening. Similarly, “The beginning of strife is like letting out (פּוֹטֵר) water” (Prov. 17:14). The “tav” of תִּזָּכָר is an expression of the feminine, referring to the [animal] that gives birth.   פֶּטֶר: לְשׁוֹן פְּתִיחָה, וְכֵן פּוֹטֵר מַיִם רֵאשִׁית מָדוֹן (משלי י"ז); תי"ו שֶׁל תִּזָּכָר לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה הִיא, מוּסָב עַל הַיּוֹלֶדֶת:
20And a firstborn donkey you shall redeem with a lamb; if you do not redeem it, you shall decapitate it; every firstborn of your sons you shall redeem, and they shall not appear before Me empty handed.   כוּפֶ֤טֶר חֲמוֹר֙ תִּפְדֶּ֣ה בְשֶׂ֔ה וְאִם־לֹ֥א תִפְדֶּ֖ה וַֽעֲרַפְתּ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל בְּכ֤וֹר בָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ תִּפְדֶּ֔ה וְלֹא־יֵֽרָא֥וּ פָנַ֖י רֵיקָֽם:
And a firstborn donkey: But not [the firstborn of] other unclean animals. -[from Bech. 5b]   וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר: וְלֹא שְׁאָר בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה:
you shall redeem with a lamb: [The owner] gives a lamb to the kohen, and it [becomes] the ordinary [unconsecrated] property of the kohen, and the firstborn donkey may be put to work by its owner. -[from Bech. 9b]   תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה: נוֹתֵן שֶׂה לַכֹּהֵן וְהוּא חֻלִּין בְּיַד כֹּהֵן, וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר מֻתָּר בַּעֲבוֹדָה לַבְּעָלִים:
you shall decapitate it: He decapitates it with a cleaver. [The rationale is:] He caused the kohen to lose his money [by neglecting to give him the redemption lamb]. Therefore, he must lose his own money [by decapitating his donkey]. -[from Bech. 10b, Mechilta on Exod. 13:13]   וַֽעֲרַפְתּוֹ: עוֹרְפוֹ בְּקוֹפִיץ; הוּא הִפְסִיד מָמוֹן כֹּהֵן, לְפִיכָךְ יֻפְסַד מָמוֹנוֹ:
every firstborn of your sons you shall redeem: His redemption is established as five selas, as it is said: “And his redemption you shall perform from the age of one month [by the evaluation of five shekels, etc.]” (Num. 18:16).   כֹּל בְּכוֹר בָּנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה: חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים פִּדְיוֹנוֹ קָצוּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶה (במדבר י"ח):
and they shall not appear before Me empty-handed: According to the simple meaning of the verse, this is a separate matter [from the rest of this verse] and is unrelated to the firstborn, because there is no obligation to appear [in the Temple] in the commandment dealing with the firstborn. Instead this is another warning, [meaning] and when you ascend [to the Temple] on the festivals, you shall not appear before Me empty-handed, [but] it is incumbent upon you to bring burnt offerings (Chag. 7a) whenever appearing before God. According to the way it is interpreted by a Baraitha, this is a superfluous verse [for this was already stated in Exod. 23:15], and it is free [i.e., has no additional reason for being here other than] to be used for a גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, [i.e.,] an instance of similar wording, to teach [us] about the provisions given a Hebrew slave [when he is freed]-that it is five selas from each kind [i.e., of sheep, grain, and wine], as much as the redemption of a firstborn. [This is elaborated upon] in tractate Kiddushin (17a).   וְלֹא־יֵֽרָאוּ פָנַי רקם: לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא דָּבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הוּא, וְאֵינוֹ מוּסָב עַל הַבְּכוֹר – שֶׁאֵין בְּמִצְוַת בְּכוֹר רְאִיַּת פָּנִים – אֶלָּא אַזְהָרָה אַחֶרֶת הִיא, וּכְשֶׁתַּעֲלוּ לָרֶגֶל לֵרָאוֹת לֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם – מִצְוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהָבִיא עוֹלַת רְאִיַּת פָּנִים. וּלְפִי מִדְרַשׁ בָּרַיְתָא מִקְרָא יָתֵר הוּא, וּמֻפְנֶה לִגְזֵרָה שָׁוָה, לְלַמֵּד עַל הַעֲנָקָתוֹ שֶׁל עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֶׁהוּא חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים מִכָּל מִין וָמִין, כְּפִדְיוֹן בְּכוֹר; בְּמַסֶּכֶת קִדּוּשִׁין (דף י"ז):
21Six days you may work, and on the seventh day you shall rest; in plowing and in harvest you shall rest.   כאשֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת בֶּֽחָרִ֥ישׁ וּבַקָּצִ֖יר תִּשְׁבֹּֽת:
in plowing and in harvest you shall rest: [If this refers to the Sabbath,] why are plowing and harvest mentioned [in particular, and not other kinds of work]? Some of our Rabbis say that this [verse prohibits] plowing before the seventh year [i.e., the sixth year] which enters the seventh year [i.e., plowing that benefits crops that grow in the seventh year], and the harvest of the seventh year that grows after the seventh year [i.e., crops that have at least one third of their growth during the seventh year must be treated with the sanctity of the seventh year]. This is to teach you that we must add from the unholy [the year preceding the seventh year] to the holy [the seventh year]. Accordingly, this is its meaning: “Six days you may work, and on the seventh day you shall rest” -and [concerning] the work of the six days, which I have permitted you, there is a year in which plowing and harvest are prohibited. The plowing and harvest of the seventh year need not be stated, because it already says: “Your field you shall not sow…” (Lev. 25:4). [Consequently, we deduce that this verse means the plowing before the seventh year and the harvest after the seventh year.] Others [of the Rabbis] say that [the verse] speaks only about the [weekly] Sabbath, and the plowing and harvest mentioned in its context are to inform you that just as [the prohibited] plowing is optional [plowing], so is harvest [referred to here] optional [harvesting]. The harvest of the omer [however] is excluded [from this prohibition] because it is mandatory, and [consequently] it supersedes the Sabbath. -[from R.H. 9a]   בֶּֽחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר: לָמָּה נִזְכָּר חָרִישׁ וְקָצִיר? יֵשׁ מֵרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אוֹמְרִים עַל חָרִישׁ שֶׁל עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית הַנִּכְנָס לַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְקָצִיר שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית הַיּוֹצֵא לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְכָךְ מַשְׁמָעוֹ: שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת, וַעֲבוֹדַת ו' הַיָּמִים שֶׁהִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ, יֵשׁ שָׁנָה שֶׁהֶחָרִישׁ וְהַקָּצִיר אָסוּר, וְאֵין צֹרֶךְ לוֹמַר חָרִישׁ וְקָצִיר שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְבָר נֶאֱמַר שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְגוֹ' (ויקרא כ"ה), וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בַּשַּׁבָּת, וְחָרִישׁ וְקָצִיר שֶׁהֻזְכַּר בּוֹ לוֹמַר לְךָ, מֶה חָרִישׁ רְשׁוּת אַף קָצִיר רְשׁוּת, יָצָא קְצִיר הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא מִצְוָה וְדוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת (ראש השנה ט'):
22And you shall make for yourself a Festival of Weeks, the first of the wheat harvest, and the festival of the ingathering, at the turn of the year.   כבוְחַ֤ג שָֽׁבֻעֹת֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לְךָ֔ בִּכּוּרֵ֖י קְצִ֣יר חִטִּ֑ים וְחַג֙ הָ֣אָסִ֔יף תְּקוּפַ֖ת הַשָּׁנָֽה:
the first of the wheat harvest: [This is the festival] on which you bring the two breads made from the wheat [as in Lev. 23:17].   בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים: שֶׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא בוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מִן הַחִטִּים:
the first: For it is the first meal offering brought to Temple from the new wheat crop, because the meal offering of the omer on Passover is brought from the barley. -[from Men. 84a]   בִּכּוּרֵי: שֶׁהִיא מִנְחָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הַבָּאָה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁל חִטִּים לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, כִּי מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר הַבָּאָה בַפֶּסַח, מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים הִיא (מנחות פ"ד):
and the festival of the ingathering: Heb. וְחַג הָאָָסִיף, [which occurs] at the time you gather your grain from the field into the house. This gathering (אִסִיפָה) is a term denoting bringing into the house, like “you shall take it (וַאִסַפְתּוֹ) into your house” (Deut. 22:2).   וְחַג הָאָסִיף: בִּזְמַן שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹסֵף תְּבוּאָתְךָ מִן הַשָּׂדֶה לַבַּיִת; אֲסִיפָה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה לַבַּיִת, כְּמוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ (דברים כ"ב):
at the turn of the year: which is at the return of the year, at the beginning of the coming year. [I.e., it is in the month of Tishri, which is the first month of the year, counting from Creation.]   תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָֽה: שֶׁהִיא בַחֲזָרַת הַשָּׁנָה – בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׁנָה הַבָּאָה:
at the turn of: Heb. תְּקוּפַת, a term denoting going around and encompassing (הַקָּפָה) [i.e., going in a circle].   תְּקוּפַת: לְשׁוֹן מְסִבָּה וְהַקָּפָה:
23Three times during the year shall all your male[s] appear directly before the Master, the Lord, the God of Israel.   כגשָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה יֵֽרָאֶה֙ כָּל־זְכ֣וּרְךָ֔ אֶת־פְּנֵ֛י הָֽאָדֹ֥ן | יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
all your male[s]: Heb. כָּל זְכוּרְךָ, all the males among you. [This is repeated elsewhere as are] many commandments in the Torah, [which] are stated and repeated, many of them three or four times, in order to cause liability and mete out punishment according to the number of the negative commandments they contain and the number of positive commandments they contain.   כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ: כָּל הַזְּכָרִים שֶׁבְּךָ; הַרְבֵּה מִצְוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה נֶאֶמְרוּ וְנִכְפְּלוּ – וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וְאַרְבַּע – לְחַיֵּב וְלַעֲנֹשׁ עַל מִנְיַן לָאוִין שֶׁבָּהֶם וְעַל מִנְיַן עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהֶם:
24When I drive out nations from before you and I widen your border, no one will covet your land when you go up, to appear before the Lord, your God, three times each year.   כדכִּֽי־אוֹרִ֤ישׁ גּוֹיִם֙ מִפָּנֶ֔יךָ וְהִרְחַבְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּבֻלֶ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־יַחְמֹ֥ד אִישׁ֙ אֶת־אַרְצְךָ֔ בַּֽעֲלֹֽתְךָ֗ לֵֽרָאוֹת֙ אֶת־פְּנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ שָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָֽה:
I drive out: Heb. אוֹרִישׁ as the Targum renders: אִתָרֵךְ, I will drive out, and so is “begin to drive out (רָשׁ)” (Deut. 2:31), and so is “and he drove out (וַיוֹרֶשׁ) the Amorites” (Num. 21:32), an expression of driving out.   אוֹרִישׁ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ אֲתָרִיךְ, וְכֵן הָחֵל רָשׁ (דברים ב'), וְכֵן וַיּוֹרֶשׁ אֶת הָאֱמֹרִי (במדבר כ"א) – לְשׁוֹן גֵּרוּשִׁין:
and I widen your border: And [this way] you will be far from the Temple, and [so] you cannot constantly appear before Me. Therefore, I am setting these three pilgrimage festivals for you.   וְהִרְחַבְתִּי אֶת־גְּבֻלֶךָ: וְאַתָּה רָחוֹק מִבֵּית הַבְּחִירָה, וְאֵינְךָ יָכוֹל לֵרָאוֹת לְפָנַי תָּמִיד, לְכָךְ אֲנִי קוֹבֵעַ לְךָ שָׁלֹֹשׁ רְגָלִים הַלָּלוּ:
25You shall not slaughter [or sprinkle] the blood of My sacrifice with leaven, and the offering of the Passover feast shall not remain overnight until the morning.   כהלֹֽא־תִשְׁחַ֥ט עַל־חָמֵ֖ץ דַּם־זִבְחִ֑י וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֣ין לַבֹּ֔קֶר זֶ֖בַח חַ֥ג הַפָּֽסַח:
You shall not slaughter…: You shall not slaughter the Passover sacrifice as long as leaven still exists. This is a [specific] warning to the slaughterer, to the one who sprinkles the blood, or to one of the members of the group [bringing this sacrifice]. -[from Pes. 63b]   לֹֽא־תִשְׁחַט וגו': לֹא תִשְׁחַט אֶת הַפֶּסַח וַעֲדַיִן חָמֵץ קַיָּם; אַזְהָרָה לַשּׁוֹחֵט אוֹ לַזּוֹרֵק אוֹ לְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה (פסח' ס"ג):
shall not remain overnight until the morning: As the Targum [Onkelos] paraphrases: [it shall not remain overnight until the morning away from the altar]. Remaining overnight on top of the altar has no effect [i.e., does not disqualify the sacrifice] (Mechilta, Exodus 23:18), and [the prohibition of] staying overnight is only completed at the break of dawn (Zev. 87a).   וְלֹֽא־יָלִין: כְּתַרְגוּמוֹ; אֵין לִינָה מוֹעֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֵין לִינָה אֶלָּא בְּעַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר (זבחים פ"ז):
and the offering of the Passover feast: [This refers to] its sacrificial parts. From here you learn [to apply this rule to all instances of] burning the fats or the limbs [of sacrifices, namely that it may not be performed after the break of dawn if the sacrificial parts stayed off the altar all night until the break of dawn].   זֶבַח חַג הַפָּֽסַח: אֵמוּרָיו, וּמִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד לְכָל הֶקְטֵר חֲלָבִים וְאֵבָרִים:
26The choicest of the first of your soil you shall bring to the house of the Lord, your God. You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk."   כורֵאשִׁ֗ית בִּכּוּרֵי֙ אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ תָּבִ֕יא בֵּ֖ית יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּֽחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ:
The choicest of the first of your soil: [This refers to the fruits] of the seven species delineated as the praise of your land, “A land of wheat and barley, vines, [figs, and pomegranates, a land of oil-producing olives,] and honey” (Deut. 8:8). That is the honey of dates. -[from Bikkurim 3:1]   רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ: מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין הָאֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁבַח אַרְצְךָ, אֶרֶץ חִטָּה וּשְׂעֹרָה וְגֶפֶן וְגוֹ' (דברים ח') – וּדְבָשׁ הוּא דְּבַשׁ תְּמָרִים:
You shall not cook a kid: This is the warning against [cooking] meat and milk [together]. This commandment is written in the Torah three times (Exod. 23:19, Deut. 14:21), one for eating, one for deriving benefit, and one for the prohibition of cooking. -[from Chul. 115b]   לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי: אַזְהָרָה לְבָשָׂר בְחָלָב, וְשָׁלֹֹשׁ פְעָמִים כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, אֶחָד לַאֲכִילָה וְאֶחָד לַהֲנָאָה וְאֶחָד לְאִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּל (חולין קט"ו):
a kid: Heb. גְּדִי. Any young offspring is meant, even a calf or a lamb. Since [the Torah] had to specify in many places גְּדִי עִזִּים [when a young goat is meant], you learn that [mention of] גְּדִי unqualified means all sucklings. -[from Chul. 113b]   גְּדִי: כָּל וָלָד רַךְ בְּמַשְׁמָע, וְאַף עֵגֶל וָכֶבֶשׂ; מִמַּה שֶּׁהֻצְרַךְ לְפָרֵשׁ בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת "גְּדִי עִזִּים" לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁגְּדִי סְתָם כָּל יוֹנְקִים בְּמַשְׁמָע (שם קי"ג):
in its mother’s milk: This excludes fowl, which has no milk, which is not prohibited by the Torah but by the decree of the Scribes [the Sages]. -[from Chul. 113a]   בַּֽחֲלֵב אִמּֽוֹ: פְּרָט לָעוֹף שֶׁאֵין לוֹ חָלָב, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים (שם):

Seventh Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 34

27The Lord said to Moses: "Inscribe these words for yourself, for according to these words I have formed a covenant with you and with Israel."   כזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה כְּתָב־לְךָ֖ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה כִּ֞י עַל־פִּ֣י | הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה כָּרַ֧תִּי אִתְּךָ֛ בְּרִ֖ית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
these words: But you are not permitted to write down the Oral Torah. -[from Gittin 60b]   אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה: וְלֹא אַתָּה רַשַּׁאי לִכְתֹּב תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה (גיטין ס'):
28He was there with the Lord for forty days and forty nights; he ate no bread and drank no water, and He inscribed upon the tablets the words of the Covenant, the Ten Commandments.   כחוַיְהִי־שָׁ֣ם עִם־יְהֹוָ֗ה אַרְבָּעִ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְאַרְבָּעִ֣ים לַ֔יְלָה לֶ֚חֶם לֹ֣א אָכַ֔ל וּמַ֖יִם לֹ֣א שָׁתָ֑ה וַיִּכְתֹּ֣ב עַל־הַלֻּחֹ֗ת אֵ֚ת דִּבְרֵ֣י הַבְּרִ֔ית עֲשֶׂ֖רֶת הַדְּבָרִֽים:
29And it came to pass when Moses descended from Mount Sinai, and the two tablets of the testimony were in Moses' hand when he descended from the mountain and Moses did not know that the skin of his face had become radiant while He had spoken with him   כטוַיְהִ֗י בְּרֶ֤דֶת משֶׁה֙ מֵהַ֣ר סִינַ֔י וּשְׁנֵ֨י לֻחֹ֤ת הָֽעֵדֻת֙ בְּיַד־משֶׁ֔ה בְּרִדְתּ֖וֹ מִן־הָהָ֑ר וּמשֶׁ֣ה לֹֽא־יָדַ֗ע כִּ֥י קָרַ֛ן ע֥וֹר פָּנָ֖יו בְּדַבְּר֥וֹ אִתּֽוֹ:
And it came to pass when Moses descended: when he brought the latter [second] tablets on Yom Kippur.   וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת משֶׁה: כְּשֶׁהֵבִיא לוּחוֹת אַחֲרוֹנוֹת בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:
that… had become radiant: Heb. קָרַן, an expression meaning horns (קַרְנַיִם) because light radiates and protrudes like a type of horn. From where did Moses [now] merit these rays of splendor [which he did not have when he descended with the first tablets (Gur Aryeh)]? Our Rabbis said: [Moses received it] from the cave, when the Holy One, blessed is He, placed His hand on his face, as it is said: “and I will cover you with My hand” (Exod. 33:22). -[from Midrash Tanchuma 37]   כִּי קָרַן: לְשׁוֹן קַרְנַיִם, שֶׁהָאוֹר מַבְהִיק וּבוֹלֵט כְּמִין קֶרֶן; וּמֵהֵיכָן זָכָה מֹשֶׁה לְקַרְנֵי הַהוֹד? רַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ מִן הַמְּעָרָה, שֶׁנָּתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יָדוֹ עַל פָּנָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי (תנחומא):
30that Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses and behold! the skin of his face had become radiant, and they were afraid to come near him.   לוַיַּ֨רְא אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן וְכָל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־משֶׁ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה קָרַ֖ן ע֣וֹר פָּנָ֑יו וַיִּֽירְא֖וּ מִגֶּ֥שֶׁת אֵלָֽיו:
and they were afraid to come near him: Come and see how great the power of sin is! Because when they had not yet stretched out their hands to sin [with the golden calf], what does He say? “And the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a consuming fire atop the mountain, before the eyes of the children of Israel” (Exod. 24:17), and they were neither frightened nor quaking. But since they had made the calf, even from Moses’ rays of splendor they recoiled and quaked. [from Sifrei Nasso 11, Pesikta d’Rav Kahana, p. 45]   וַיִּֽירְאוּ מִגֶּשֶׁת אֵלָֽיו: בֹּא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה גָדוֹל כֹּחָהּ שֶׁל עֲבֵרָה שֶׁעַד שֶׁלֹּא פָשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בַּעֲבֵרָה מַהוּ אוֹמֵר? וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד ה' כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (שמות כ"ד) – וְלֹא יְרֵאִים וְלֹא מִזְדַּעְזְעִים, וּמִשֶּׁעָשׂוּ אֶת הָעֵגֶל אַף מִקַּרְנֵי הוֹדוֹ שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה הָיוּ מַרְתִּיעִים וּמִזְדַּעְזְעִים (ספרי):
31But Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the princes of the community returned to him, and Moses would speak to them.   לאוַיִּקְרָ֤א אֲלֵהֶם֙ משֶׁ֔ה וַיָּשֻׁ֧בוּ אֵלָ֛יו אַֽהֲרֹ֥ן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִ֖ים בָּֽעֵדָ֑ה וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר משֶׁ֖ה אֲלֵהֶֽם:
the princes of the community: Heb. הַנְשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה lit., the princes in the community, like נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה, the princes of the community.   הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּֽעֵדָה: כְּמוֹ נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה:
and Moses would speak to them: [sharing] the Omnipresent’s message, and this entire passage is in the present tense.   וַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם: שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם, וּלְשׁוֹן הֹוֶה הוּא כָל הָעִנְיָן הַזֶּה:
32Afterwards all the children of Israel would draw near, and he would command them everything that the Lord had spoken with him on Mount Sinai.   לבוְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֥ן נִגְּשׁ֖וּ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְצַוֵּ֕ם אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אִתּ֖וֹ בְּהַ֥ר סִינָֽי:
Afterwards… would draw near: After he taught the elders, he would repeat and teach the chapter or the halachah to the Israelites. The Rabbis taught: What was the order of teaching? Moses would learn from the mouth of Almighty. Aaron would enter, and Moses would teach him his chapter. Aaron would move away and sit at Moses’ left. His [Aaron’s] sons would enter, and Moses would teach them their chapter. They would move away, and Eleazar would sit at Moses’ right and Ithamar would sit at Aaron’s left. [Then] the elders would enter, and Moses would teach them their chapter. The elders would move away and sit down on the sides. [Then] the entire nation would enter, and Moses would teach them their chapter. Thus, the entire nation possessed one [lesson from Moses], the elders possessed two, Aaron’s sons possessed three, Aaron possessed four, etc., as is stated in Eruvin (54b).   וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ: אַחַר שֶׁלִּמֵּד לַזְּקֵנִים, חוֹזֵר וּמְלַמֵּד הַפָּרָשָׁה אוֹ הַהֲלָכָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל; תָּנוּ רַבָּנָן כֵּיצַד סֵדֶר הַמִּשְׁנָה? מֹשֶׁה הָיָה לָמֵד מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה, נִכְנַס אַהֲרֹן שָׁנָה לוֹ מֹשֶׁה פִּרְקוֹ, נִסְתַּלֵּק אַהֲרֹן וְיָשַׁב לוֹ לִשְׂמֹאל מֹשֶׁה, נִכְנְסוּ בָנָיו, שָׁנָה לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה פִּרְקָם נִסְתַּלְּקוּ הֵן, יָשַׁב אֶלְעָזָר לִימִין מֹשֶׁה וְאִיתָמָר לִשְׂמֹאל אַהֲרֹן, נִכְנְסוּ זְקֵנִים, שָׁנָה לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה פִּרְקָם, נִסְתַּלְּקוּ זְקֵנִים יָשְׁבוּ לַצְּדָדִין, נִכְנְסוּ כָּל הָעָם, שָׁנָה לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה פִּרְקָם; נִמְצָא בְּיַד כָּל הָעָם אֶחָד, בְּיַד הַזְּקֵנִים שְׁנַיִם, בְּיַד בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן שְׁלֹשָׁה, בְּיַד אַהֲרֹן אַרְבָּעָה וְכוּ'. כִּדְאִיתָא בְעֵרוּבִין (דף נ"ד):
33When Moses had finished speaking with them, he placed a covering over his face.   לגוַיְכַ֣ל משֶׁ֔ה מִדַּבֵּ֖ר אִתָּ֑ם וַיִּתֵּ֥ן עַל־פָּנָ֖יו מַסְוֶֽה:
he placed a covering over his face: Heb. מַסְוֶה, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: בֵּיתאַפֵּי. [מַסְוֶה] is an Aramaic expression. In the Talmud (Keth. 62b) [we read]: לִבָּהּ סָוֵי, her heart saw, and also in [tractate] Kethuboth (60a): יְהַוָה קָא מַסְוֶה לְאַפָּה an expression meaning “looking.” He [the nursing infant] was looking at her [his mother]. Here too, מַסְוֶה is a garment placed in front of the face and a covering over the eyes. In honor of the rays of splendor, so that no one would derive pleasure from them, he [Moses] would place the covering in front of them [his eyes] and remove it when he spoke with the Israelites, and when the Omnipresent spoke to him until he left. When he would leave, he would leave without the covering.   וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶֽה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ בֵּית אַפֵּי, לְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי הוּא, בַּתַּלְמוּד (כתובות ס"ב) סְוִי לִבָּהּ, וְעוֹד בִּכְתֻבּוֹת (דף ס'), הֲוָה קָא מַסְוֵה לְאַפָּהּ, לְשׁוֹן הַבָּטָה – הָיָה מִסְתַּכֵּל בָּהּ, אַף כָּאן מַסְוֶה בֶּגֶד הַנִּתָּן כְּנֶגֶד הַפַּרְצוּף וּבֵית הָעֵינַיִם; וְלִכְבוֹד קַרְנֵי הַהוֹד – שֶׁלֹּא יִזּוֹנוּ הַכֹּל מֵהֶם – הָיָה נוֹתֵן הַמַּסְוֶה כְּנֶגְדָּן, וְנוֹטְלוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה מְדַבֵּר עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם נִדְבָּר עִמּוֹ עַד צֵאתוֹ, וּבְצֵאתוֹ יָצָא בְּלֹא מַסְוֶה:
34When Moses would come before the Lord to speak with Him, he would remove the covering until he left; then he would leave and speak to the children of Israel what he would be commanded.   לדוּבְבֹ֨א משֶׁ֜ה לִפְנֵ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ יָסִ֥יר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶ֖ה עַד־צֵאת֑וֹ וְיָצָ֗א וְדִבֶּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְצֻוֶּֽה:
and speak to the children of Israel: And they would see the rays of splendor on his face, and when he would leave them.   וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: וְרָאוּ קַרְנֵי הַהוֹד בְּפָנָיו; וּכְשֶׁהוּא מִסְתַּלֵּק מֵהֶם …
35Then the children of Israel would see Moses' face, that the skin of Moses' face had become radiant, and [then] Moses would replace the covering over his face until he would come [again] to speak with Him.   להוְרָא֤וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י משֶׁ֔ה כִּ֣י קָרַ֔ן ע֖וֹר פְּנֵ֣י משֶׁ֑ה וְהֵשִׁ֨יב משֶׁ֤ה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה֙ עַל־פָּנָ֔יו עַד־בֹּא֖וֹ לְדַבֵּ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ:
Moses would replace the covering over his face until he would come [again] to speak with Him.: And when he came to speak with Him, he would remove it from his face.   וְהֵשִׁיב משֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּֽוֹ: וּכְשֶׁבָּא לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ נוֹטְלוֹ מֵעַל פָּנָיו:

Maftir Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 19

1The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2This is the statute of the Torah which the Lord commanded, saying, Speak to the children of Israel and have them take for you a perfectly red unblemished cow, upon which no yoke was laid.   בזֹ֚את חֻקַּ֣ת הַתּוֹרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר דַּבֵּ֣ר | אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֣וּ אֵלֶ֩יךָ֩ פָרָ֨ה אֲדֻמָּ֜ה תְּמִימָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֵֽין־בָּהּ֙ מ֔וּם אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־עָלָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ עֹֽל:
This is the statute of the Torah: Because Satan and the nations of the world taunt Israel, saying, “What is this commandment, and what purpose does it have?” Therefore, the Torah uses the term “statute.” I have decreed it; You have no right to challenge it. — [Yoma 67b]   זֹאת חֻקַּת הַתּוֹרָה: לְפִי שֶׁהַשָּׂטָן וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מוֹנִין אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, לוֹמַר מַה הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת וּמַה טַּעַם יֵשׁ בָּהּ? לְפִיכָךְ כָּתַב בָּהּ חֻקָּה — גְּזֵרָה הִיא מִלְּפָנַי, אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לְהַרְהֵר אַחֲרֶיהָ (יומא ס"ז):
and have them take for you: It will always be called on your name; 'the cow which Moses prepared in the desert.’- [Mid. Tanchuma Chukath 8, see Etz Yosef]   וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ: לְעוֹלָם הִיא נִקְרֵאת עַל שִׁמְךָ — פָּרָה שֶׁעָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה בַּמִּדְבָּר:
perfectly red: Heb. אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה, lit., red, perfect. It shall be perfect in redness, so that two black hairs disqualify it. — [Sifrei Chukath 5]   אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה: שֶׁתְּהֵא תְמִימָה בְּאַדְמִימוּת, שֶׁאִם הָיוּ בָהּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת שְׁחֹרוֹת פְּסוּלָה (פרה פ"ב):
3And you shall give it to Eleazar the kohen, and he shall take it outside the camp and slaughter it in his presence.   גוּנְתַתֶּ֣ם אֹתָ֔הּ אֶל־אֶלְעָזָ֖ר הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְהוֹצִ֤יא אֹתָהּ֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֹתָ֖הּ לְפָנָֽיו:
Eleazar: The mitzvah was performed by the deputy [to the kohen gadol]. — [Sifrei Chukath 8]   אֶלְעָזָר: מִצְוָתָהּ בַּסְּגָן (ספרי):
outside the camp: Outside all three camps. — [Yoma 68a]   אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶה: חוּץ לְשָׁלוֹשׁ מַחֲנוֹת:
and slaughter it in his presence: A non- kohen slaughters it while Eleazar watches. — [Yoma 42a]   וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְפָנָֽיו: זָר שׁוֹחֵט וְאֶלְעָזָר רוֹאֶה (שם; יומא מ"ב):
4Eleazar the kohen shall take from its blood with his finger and sprinkle it toward the front of the Tent of Meeting seven times.   דוְלָקַ֞ח אֶלְעָזָ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מִדָּמָ֖הּ בְּאֶצְבָּע֑וֹ וְהִזָּ֞ה אֶל־נֹ֨כַח פְּנֵ֧י אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֛ד מִדָּמָ֖הּ שֶׁ֥בַע פְּעָמִֽים:
toward the front of the Tent of Meeting: [In later generations, when this rite will be performed outside the Temple in Jerusalem,] he is to stand to the east of Jerusalem and to direct his gaze toward the entrance to the Temple while sprinkling the blood. — [Sifrei Chukath 14]   אֶל־נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵד: עוֹמֵד בְּמִזְרָחוֹ שֶׁל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם וּמִתְכַּוֵּן וְרוֹאֶה פִתְחוֹ שֶׁל הֵיכָל בִּשְׁעַת הַזָּאַת הַדָּם (ספרי; זבחים ק"ה):
5The cow shall then be burned in his presence; its hide, its flesh, its blood, with its dung he shall burn it.   הוְשָׂרַ֥ף אֶת־הַפָּרָ֖ה לְעֵינָ֑יו אֶת־עֹרָ֤הּ וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָהּ֙ וְאֶת־דָּמָ֔הּ עַל־פִּרְשָׁ֖הּ יִשְׂרֹֽף:
6The kohen shall take a piece of cedar wood, hyssop, and crimson wool, and cast them into the burning of the cow.   ווְלָקַ֣ח הַכֹּהֵ֗ן עֵ֥ץ אֶ֛רֶז וְאֵז֖וֹב וּשְׁנִ֣י תוֹלָ֑עַת וְהִשְׁלִ֕יךְ אֶל־תּ֖וֹךְ שְׂרֵפַ֥ת הַפָּרָֽה:
7The kohen shall wash his garments and bathe his flesh in water, and then he may enter the camp, and the kohen shall be unclean until evening.   זוְכִבֶּ֨ס בְּגָדָ֜יו הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְרָחַ֤ץ בְּשָׂרוֹ֙ בַּמַּ֔יִם וְאַחַ֖ר יָבֹ֣א אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה וְטָמֵ֥א הַכֹּהֵ֖ן עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
enter the camp: The camp of the Divine Presence, because no ritually unclean person is banished from two camps, except one who experienced a flow, one who experienced a seminal emission, or one afflicted with tzara’ath. [Hence, he is admitted to the one camp from which he was banished.] - [Pes. 67a]   אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶה: לְמַחֲנֵה שְׁכִינָה, שֶׁאֵין טָמֵא מְשֻׁלָּח חוּץ לִשְׁתֵּי מַחֲנוֹת אֶלָּא זָב וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמְצֹרָע (עי' פסחים ס"ז):
and the kohen shall be unclean until evening: Transpose it [the verse] and explain it [thus]: He shall be unclean until evening, and then he may enter the camp.   וְטָמֵא הַכֹּהֵן עַד־הָעָֽרֶב: סָרְסֵהוּ וְדָרְשֵׁהוּ — וְטָמֵא עַד הָעֶרֶב וְאַחַר יָבֹא אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה:
8The one who burns it shall wash his clothes in water and cleanse his body in water, and he shall be unclean until evening.   חוְהַשֹּׂרֵ֣ף אֹתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֤ס בְּגָדָיו֙ בַּמַּ֔יִם וְרָחַ֥ץ בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְטָמֵ֖א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
9A ritually clean person shall gather the cow's ashes and place them outside the camp in a clean place, and It shall be as a keepsake for the congregation of the children of Israel for sprinkling water, [used] for cleansing.   טוְאָסַ֣ף | אִ֣ישׁ טָה֗וֹר אֵ֚ת אֵ֣פֶר הַפָּרָ֔ה וְהִנִּ֛יחַ מִח֥וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה בְּמָק֣וֹם טָה֑וֹר וְ֠הָֽיְתָ֠ה לַֽעֲדַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל לְמִשְׁמֶ֛רֶת לְמֵ֥י נִדָּ֖ה חַטָּ֥את הִֽוא:
and place them outside the camp: He divided it into three parts; one was put on the Mount of Olives, one was divided among all the watches, and one who put on the rampart surrounding the Temple area. The one given to the watches was outside the courtyard, allowing access to it for the inhabitants of outlying cities, whoever needed to purify himself. The one on the Mount of Olives was for the kohanim gedolim to sanctify themselves from it for use with other [red] cows. The one put on the rampart was kept as a keepsake by Scriptural ruling, as it says, "It shall be as a keepsake for the congregation of Israel." — [Sifrei Chukath 30, Parah 3:11 Tosefta Parah 3:8]   וְהִנִּיחַ מִחוּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶה: לִשְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלָקִים מְחַלְּקָהּ, אֶחָד נָתַן בְּהַר הַמִּשְׁחָה, וְאֶחָד מִתְחַלֵּק לְכָל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת, וְאֶחָד נָתַן בַּחֵיל (ספרי; פרה פ"ג), זֶה שֶׁל מִשְׁמָרוֹת הָיָה חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה, לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּנֵי הָעֲיָרוֹת וְכָל הַצְּרִיכִין לִטָּהֵר, וְזֶה שֶׁבְּהַר הַמִּשְׁחָה כֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים לְפָרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת מְקַדְּשִׁין הֵימֶנָּה, וְזֶה שֶׁבַּחֵיל נָתוּן לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת מִגְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר והיתה לעדת בני ישראל למשמרת:
for sprinkling water: Heb. לְמֵי נִדָּה, water used for sprinkling, as in, “they cast (וַיַּדּוּ) a stone at me” (Lam. 3: 53); “to cast down (לְיַדּוֹת) the horns of the nations” (Zech. 2:4); an expression denoting throwing.   לְמֵי נִדָּה: לְמֵי הַזָּיָה, כְּמוֹ "וַיַּדּוּ אֶבֶן בִּי" (איכה ג'), "לְיַדּוֹת אֶת קַרְנוֹת הַגּוֹיִם" (זכריה ב'), לְשׁוֹן זְרִיקָה:
for purification: חַטָּאת, an expression of cleansing (חִטּוּי), according to its simple meaning, but according to its halachoth, Scripture calls it חַטָּאת, “sin-offering,” to tell us that it is like holy objects, and using it for personal benefit is forbidden. — [Sifrei Chukath 34]   חַטָּאת הִֽוא: לְשׁוֹן חִטּוּי, כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ, וּלְפִי הִלְכוֹתָיו קְרָאָהּ הַכָּתוּב חַטָּאת, לוֹמַר שֶׁהִיא כְּקָדָשִׁים לֵאָסֵר בַּהֲנָאָה (עי' ספרי; מנחות נ"א):
10The one who gathers the cow's ashes shall wash his clothes, and he shall be unclean until evening. It shall be an everlasting statute for the children of Israel and for the proselyte who resides in their midst.   יוְכִבֶּ֠ס הָֽאֹסֵ֨ף אֶת־אֵ֤פֶר הַפָּרָה֙ אֶת־בְּגָדָ֔יו וְטָמֵ֖א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְהָֽיְתָ֞ה לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְלַגֵּ֛ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתוֹכָ֖ם לְחֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָֽם:
11Anyone touching the corpse of a human soul shall become unclean for seven days.   יאהַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּמֵ֖ת לְכָל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם וְטָמֵ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
12On the third and seventh days, he shall cleanse himself with it, so that he can become clean. But if he does not sprinkle himself with it on the third and seventh days, he shall not become clean.   יבה֣וּא יִתְחַטָּא־ב֞וֹ בַּיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י יִטְהָ֑ר וְאִם־לֹ֨א יִתְחַטָּ֜א בַּיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י לֹ֥א יִטְהָֽר:
He shall cleanse himself with it: With these ashes. - [Sifrei Chukath 39]   הוּא יִתְחַטָּא־בוֹ: בָּאֵפֶר הַזֶּה:
13Whoever touches the corpse of a human soul which dies, and he does not cleanse himself, he has defiled the Mishkan of the Lord, and that soul shall be cut off from Israel. For the sprinkling water was not sprinkled on him, so he remains unclean, and his uncleanness remains upon him.   יגכָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֡עַ בְּמֵ֣ת בְּנֶ֩פֶשׁ֩ הָֽאָדָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֜וּת וְלֹ֣א יִתְחַטָּ֗א אֶת־מִשְׁכַּ֤ן יְהֹוָה֙ טִמֵּ֔א וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּי֩ מֵ֨י נִדָּ֜ה לֹֽא־זֹרַ֤ק עָלָיו֙ טָמֵ֣א יִֽהְיֶ֔ה ע֖וֹד טֻמְאָת֥וֹ בֽוֹ:
corpse of a human soul: Which type of corpse? That of a human soul, to exclude an animal, that its uncleanness does not require sprinkling. Another explanation: “Of a human soul” refers to a quarter [of a log] of blood [necessary for maintaining life] - [Chul. 72a]   בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ: וְאֵי זֶה מֵת? שֶׁל נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם, לְהוֹצִיא נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה שֶׁאֵין טֻמְאָתָהּ צְרִיכָה הַזָּאָה; דָּבָר אַחֵר, בנפש זוֹ רְבִיעִית דָּם (חולין ע"ב):
he has defiled the Mishkan of the Lord: If he enters the courtyard even after [ritual] immersion, without having been sprinkled on both the third and seventh days. — [Sifrei Chukath 45]   אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן ה' טִמֵּא: אִם נִכְנַס לָעֲזָרָה אֲפִלּוּ בִטְבִילָה בְּלֹא הַזָּאַת שְׁלִישִׁי וּשְׁבִיעִי:
his uncleanness remains: Although he [ritually] immersed himself. - [Sifrei Chukath 45]   עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בֽוֹ: , אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּבַל:
14This is the law: if a man dies in a tent, anyone entering the tent and anything in the tent shall be unclean for seven days.   ידזֹ֚את הַתּוֹרָ֔ה אָדָ֖ם כִּֽי־יָמ֣וּת בְּאֹ֑הֶל כָּל־הַבָּ֤א אֶל־הָאֹ֨הֶל֙ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּאֹ֔הֶל יִטְמָ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
anyone entering the tent: while the corpse is inside.   כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל: בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַמֵּת בְּתוֹכוֹ:
15Any open vessel which has no seal fastened around it becomes unclean.   טווְכֹל֙ כְּלִ֣י פָת֔וּחַ אֲשֶׁ֛ר אֵֽין־צָמִ֥יד פָּתִ֖יל עָלָ֑יו טָמֵ֖א הֽוּא:
any open vessel: Scripture refers to an earthenware vessel, whose exterior does not accept contamination, only its interior. Thus, if the seal around its top is not securely fastened, it becomes contaminated. But if there is a securely fastened seal, it remains clean. - [Sifrei Chukath 50, Chul. 25a]   וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ: בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, שֶׁאֵין מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִגַּבּוֹ אֶלָּא מִתּוֹכוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אֵין מְגוּפַת צְמִידָתוֹ פְּתוּלָה עָלָיו יָפֶה בְּחִבּוּר, טָמֵא הוּא, הָא אִם יֵשׁ צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָהוֹר (שם כ"ה):
fastened: Heb. פָּתִיל, an expression meaning “fastened” in Hebrew. Similarly, “[With] divine bonds נִפְתַּלְתּי, I have been joined, with my sister” (Gen. 30:8).   פָּתִיל: לְשׁוֹן מְחֻבָּר בִּלְשׁוֹן עֲרָבִי, וְכֵן (בראשית ל') "נַפְתּוּלֵי אֱלֹהִים נִפְתַּלְתִּי" — נִתְחַבַּרְתִּי עִם אֲחוֹתִי:
16Anyone who touches one slain by the sword, or a corpse, or a human bone or a grave, in an open field, he shall be unclean for seven days.   טזוְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּ֜ע עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה בַּֽחֲלַל־חֶ֨רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בְמֵ֔ת אֽוֹ־בְעֶ֥צֶם אָדָ֖ם א֣וֹ בְקָ֑בֶר יִטְמָ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
in an open field: The Sages expounded [on this phrase] to include the top and side of a coffin (Sifrei Chukath 56, Chul. 72a). But the simple meaning is that in an open field, where there is no tent, a corpse contaminates through contact.   עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה: רַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ לְרַבּוֹת גּוֹלֵל וְדוֹפֵק (ספרי; חולין ע"ב). וּפְשׁוּטוֹ — עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה, שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אֹהֶל, מְטַמֵּא הַמֵּת שָׁם בִּנְגִיעָה:
17They shall take for that unclean person from the ashes of the burnt purification offering, and it shall be placed in a vessel [filled] with spring water.   יזוְלָֽקְחוּ֙ לַטָּמֵ֔א מֵֽעֲפַ֖ר שְׂרֵפַ֣ת הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְנָתַ֥ן עָלָ֛יו מַ֥יִם חַיִּ֖ים אֶל־כֶּֽלִי:
18A ritually clean person shall take the hyssop and dip it into the water and sprinkle it on the tent, on all the vessels, and on the people who were in it, and on anyone who touched the bone, the slain person, the corpse, or the grave.   יחוְלָקַ֨ח אֵז֜וֹב וְטָבַ֣ל בַּמַּ֘יִם֘ אִ֣ישׁ טָהוֹר֒ וְהִזָּ֤ה עַל־הָאֹ֨הֶל֙ וְעַל־כָּל־הַכֵּלִ֔ים וְעַל־הַנְּפָשׁ֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָֽיוּ־שָׁ֑ם וְעַל־הַנֹּגֵ֗עַ בַּעֶ֨צֶם֙ א֣וֹ בֶֽחָלָ֔ל א֥וֹ בַמֵּ֖ת א֥וֹ בַקָּֽבֶר:
19The ritually clean person shall sprinkle on the unclean person on the third day and on the seventh day, and he shall cleanse him on the seventh day, and he shall wash his clothes and bathe in water, and he shall become ritually clean in the evening.   יטוְהִזָּ֤ה הַטָּהֹר֙ עַל־הַטָּמֵ֔א בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֖י וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑י וְחִטְּאוֹ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וְכִבֶּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָהֵ֥ר בָּעָֽרֶב:
and he shall cleanse him: This consummates his cleansing.   וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי: הוּא גְמַר טָהֳרָתוֹ (עי' ספרי):
20If a person becomes unclean and does not cleanse himself, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation, for he has defiled the Sanctuary of the Lord; the sprinkling waters were not sprinkled upon him. He is unclean.   כוְאִ֤ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא֙ וְלֹ֣א יִתְחַטָּ֔א וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַקָּהָ֑ל כִּי֩ אֶת־מִקְדַּ֨שׁ יְהֹוָ֜ה טִמֵּ֗א מֵ֥י נִדָּ֛ה לֹֽא־זֹרַ֥ק עָלָ֖יו טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא:
If a person becomes unclean…: If “Sanctuary” is stated [here], why need it say “ Mishkan …” [in verse 13]? The answer is that if it would say “ Mishkan,” I would say that the person is punished with excision only if he enters the Mishkan in a state of uncleanness because the Mishkan was anointed with the anointing oil, but if he enters the Temple in a state of uncleanness, he would not be punished since the Temple was not anointed with the anointing oil. If it would say, “Sanctuary,” denoting the Temple, I would say that only for entering the Temple in a state of uncleanness, would he be punished by excision because its sanctity is permanent, but for entering the Mishkan in a state of uncleanness, he would not be punished because its sanctity was temporary. Therefore, it was necessary to mention both,]… as it is stated in [Tractate] Shevuoth [16b].   וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא וגו': אִם נֶאֱמַר מִקְדָּשׁ לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר מִשְׁכָּן? כו' כִּדְאִיתָא בִשְׁבוּעוֹת (דף ט"ז):
21This shall be for them as a perpetual statute, and the one who sprinkles the sprinkling waters shall wash his clothes, and one who touches the sprinkling waters shall be unclean until evening.   כאוְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לָהֶ֖ם לְחֻקַּ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם וּמַזֵּ֤ה מֵֽי־הַנִּדָּה֙ יְכַבֵּ֣ס בְּגָדָ֔יו וְהַנֹּגֵ֨עַ֙ בְּמֵ֣י הַנִּדָּ֔ה יִטְמָ֖א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
and the one who sprinkles the sprinkling waters: Our Rabbis said that the one who sprinkles is actually ritually clean, but this teaches us that the one who carries the purifying waters becomes defiled with a stringent uncleanness, for even the clothes he is wearing are contaminated, unlike the one who merely touches [the sprinkling waters]. Scripture uses the expression מַזֵּה, “the one who sprinkles” to teach that the waters do not contaminate until there is an amount of water adequate for sprinkling. — [Yoma 14a]   וּמַזֵּה מֵֽי־הַנִּדָּה: רַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַמַּזֶּה טָהוֹר, וְזֶה בָא לְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַנּוֹשֵׂא מֵי חַטָּאת טָמֵא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה לְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים שֶׁעָלָיו, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּנּוֹגֵעַ, וְזֶה שֶׁהוֹצִיא בִּלְשׁוֹן "מַזֶּה", לוֹמַר לְךָ שֶׁאֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהֶן שִׁעוּר הַזָּאָה (נדה ט'):
and the one who touches… shall be unclean: but he is not required to wash his clothes.   וְהַנֹּגֵעַ יִטְמָא: וְאֵין טָעוּן כִּבּוּס בְּגָדִים:
22Whatever the unclean one touches shall become unclean, and anyone touching him shall be unclean until evening.   כבוְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּ֥וֹ הַטָּמֵ֖א יִטְמָ֑א וְהַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַנֹּגַ֖עַת תִּטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
Whatever the unclean one touches: I.e., this unclean one who was defiled by a corpse [touches], “becomes unclean.”   וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַטָּמֵא: הַזֶּה שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמֵת, יטמא:
and anyone touching: him, that is, the one defiled by a corpse-   וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הַנֹּגַעַת: בּוֹ: בִּטְמֵא מֵת:
shall be unclean until evening: From here we derive that a corpse is the supreme source of contamination, whereas one touching it is a primary source of contamination, who can in turn defile another person [through contact]. This is the explanation [of this passage] according to its literal meaning and the laws associated with it. I have transcribed a homiletic interpretation from the commentary of R. Moshe Hadarshan [the preacher], which is as follows: [2]   תִּטְמָא עַד־הָעָֽרֶב: כָּאן לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַמֵּת אֲבִי אֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאָה, וְנוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ אַב הַטֻּמְאָה וּמְטַמֵּא אָדָם; זֶה פֵרוּשָׁהּ לְפִי מַשְׁמָעָהּ וְהִלְכוֹתֶיהָ. וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר הֶעְתַּקְתִּי מִיסוֹדוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן וְזֶהוּ:
and have them take for you: From their own [possessions]; just as they removed their own golden earrings for the [golden] calf, so shall they bring this [cow] from their own [possessions] in atonement. — [Midrash Aggadah]   ויקחו אליך: מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵם פֵּרְקוּ נִזְמֵי הַזָּהָב לָעֵגֶל מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם, כָּךְ יָבִיאוּ זוֹ לְכַפָּרָה מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
a red cow: This can be compared to the son of a maidservant who soiled the king’s palace. They said, “Let his mother come and clean up the mess.” Similarly, let the cow come and atone for the calf. — [Midrash Aggadah and Tanchuma Chukath 8]   פרה אדמה: מָשָׁל לְבֶן שִׁפְחָה שֶׁטִּנֵּף פָּלָטִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, אָמְרוּ תָּבֹא אִמּוֹ וּתְקַנֵּחַ הַצּוֹאָה, כָּךְ תָּבֹא פָרָה וּתְכַפֵּר עַל הָעֵגֶל (תנחומא): [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
red: Alluding to [the verse], “if they [your sins] prove to be as red as crimson dye” (Isa. 1:18), for sin is described as [being] ‘red.’ - [Midrash Aggadah]   אדמה: עַל שֵׁם "אִם יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע" (ישעיהו א'), שֶׁהַחֵטְא קָרוּי אָדֹם: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
perfectly: An allusion to the Israelites, who were perfect, but became blemished. Let this come and atone for them so that they regain their perfection. — [See Midrash Aggadah.]   תמימה: עַל שֵׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ תְמִימִים, וְנַעֲשׂוּ בוֹ בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, תָּבֹא זוֹ וּתְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְיַחְזְרוּ לְתַמּוּתָם: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
and upon which no yoke was laid: Just as they cast off from themselves the yoke of Heaven. — [Midrash Aggadah] [3]   לא עלה עליה על: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁפָּרְקוּ מֵעֲלֵיהֶם עֹל שָׁמַיִם: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
to Eleazar the kohen: just as they assembled against Aaron, who was a kohen, to make the calf, but because Aaron made the calf, this service was not performed through him, for the prosecution cannot serve as the defense. — [Midrash Aggadah] [5]   אל אלעזר הכהן: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּקְהֲלוּ עַל אַהֲרֹן, שֶׁהוּא כֹּהֵן, לַעֲשׂוֹת הָעֵגֶל; וּלְפִי שֶׁאַהֲרֹן עָשָׂה אֶת הָעֵגֶל לֹא נִתְּנָה לוֹ עֲבוֹדָה זוֹ עַל יָדוֹ, שֶׁאֵין קַטֵּיגוֹר נַעֲשֶׂה סַנֵּיגוֹר: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
The cow shall then be burned: just as the calf was burned. - [Midrash Aggadah   ושרף את הפרה: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף הָעֵגֶל: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
a piece of cedar wood, hyssop, and of crimson wool: These three types [of objects] correspond to the three thousand men who fell because of the [sin of the golden] calf. The cedar is the highest of all trees, and the hyssop is the lowest of them all. This symbolizes that the one of high standing who acts haughtily and sins should lower himself like a hyssop and a worm [for the תּוֹלַעַת means ‘worm’ as well as ‘crimson.’ See Rashi on Isa. 1:18], and he will then gain atonement. - [Midrash Aggadah] [9]   עץ ארז ואזוב ושני תולעת: שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין הַלָּלוּ כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי אִישׁ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ בָעֵגֶל, וְאֶרֶז הוּא הַגָּבוֹהַּ מִכָּל הָאִילָנוֹת וְאֵזוֹב נָמוּךְ מִכֻּלָּם, סִימָן שֶׁהַגָּבוֹהַּ שֶׁנִּתְגָּאָה וְחָטָא יַשְׁפִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ כְּאֵזוֹב וְתוֹלַעַת וְיִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ: [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]
a keepsake: Just as the transgression of the calf is preserved throughout the generations for retribution, for there is no reckoning [punishment] which does not include a reckoning for the calf, as it says, “But on the day I make an accounting [of sins upon them], I will bring their sin to account…” (Exod. 32:34). Just as the calf defiled all those who were involved in it, so does the cow render unclean all those involved with it. And just as they were cleansed through its ashes, as it says, “[he] scattered [the ashes of the burned calf] upon the surface of the water” (ibid. 20), so [with the cow], “They shall take for that unclean person from the ashes of the burnt purification offering…” (verse 17). - [Midrash Aggadah]   למשמרת: כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֶּשַׁע הָעֵגֶל שָׁמוּר לְדוֹרוֹת לְפֻרְעָנוּת, וְאֵין לְךָ פְּקֻדָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ מִפְּקֻדַּת הָעֵגֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וּבְיוֹם פָּקְדִי וּפָקַדְתִּי" וְגוֹ' (שמות ל"ב), וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהָעֵגֶל מְטַמֵּא כָּל הָעוֹסְקִים בּוֹ, כָּךְ פָּרָה תְטַמֵּא כָּל הָעוֹסְקִין בּוֹ, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁנִּטְהֲרוּ בְּאֶפְרוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיִּזֶר עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם" וְגוֹ' (שם), כָּךְ "וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא מֵעֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הַחַטָּאת" וְגוֹ": [רש"י בשם ר' משה הדרשן]


Yechezkel (Ezekiel) Chapter 36

16And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   טזוַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
17"Son of man! The house of Israel, as long as they lived on their own land, they defiled it by their way and by their misdeeds, like the uncleanness of a woman in the period of her separation was their way before Me.   יזבֶּן־אָדָ֗ם בֵּ֚ית יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יֹֽשְׁבִ֣ים עַל־אַדְמָתָ֔ם וַיְטַמְּא֣וּ אוֹתָ֔הּ בְּדַרְכָּ֖ם וּבַֽעֲלִֽילוֹתָ֑ם כְּטֻמְאַת֙ הַנִּדָּ֔ה הָֽיְתָ֥ה דַרְכָּ֖ם לְפָנָֽי:
Son of man! The house of Israel, as long as they lived, etc., like the uncleanness of a woman in the period of her separation: Scripture likened them to a woman in the period of her separation, whose husband looks forward to when she will become clean, and longs to return to her.   בן אדם בית ישראל יושבים על אדמתם וגו': כטומאת הנדה המשילה הכתוב לנדה שבעלה מצפה מתי תטהר ותאב לשוב אליה:
18Wherefore I poured My wrath upon them for the blood that they had shed in the land, because they had defiled it with their idols.   יחוָֽאֶשְׁפֹּ֚ךְ חֲמָתִי֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם עַל־הַדָּ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־שָֽׁפְכ֣וּ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וּבְגִלּֽוּלֵיהֶ֖ם טִמְּאֽוּהָ:
19And I scattered them among the nations, and they were dispersed through the countries. According to their way and their misdeeds did I judge them.   יטוָֽאָפִ֚יץ אֹתָם֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם וַיִּזָּר֖וּ בָּֽאֲרָצ֑וֹת כְּדַרְכָּ֥ם וְכַֽעֲלִילוֹתָ֖ם שְׁפַטְתִּֽים:
20And they entered the nations where they came, and they profaned My Holy Name, inasmuch as it was said of them, 'These are the people of the Lord, and they have come out of His land.'   כוַיָּב֗וֹא אֶל־הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣אוּ שָׁ֔ם וַֽיְחַלְּל֖וּ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י בֶּֽאֱמֹ֚ר לָהֶם֙ עַם־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֵ֔לֶּה וּמֵֽאַרְצ֖וֹ יָצָֽאוּ:
And they entered: [Heb. וַיָבוֹא, lit. and he entered.] Since he says, “the house of Israel” at the beginning of the segment, He refers to them in the singular throughout the segment. According to Midrash Aggadah: the Holy One, blessed be He, came with them in exile and bent His ear [to hear] what the captors were saying. “Behold these are God’s people, and He had no power to save them.” In Midrash Lamentations Rabbah (Proem 15).   ויבוא: לפי שאמר בית ישראל בראש הפרשה קרא כל הפרשה בלשון יחיד ומדרש אגדה הקב"ה בא עמהם בגולה והטה אוזן מה היו אומרים השבאין הרי אלו עם ה' ולא היה לו יכולת להצילן במדרש איכה רבתי:
and they profaned My Holy Name: They lowered My honor. And what is the profanation? In that their enemies said of them, “These are the people of the Lord, and they have come out of His land, and He had no power to save His people and His land.”   ויחללו את שם קדשי: השפילו את כבודי ומהו החילול באמור אויביהם עליהם עם ה' אלה ומארצו יצאו ולא היה יכולת בידו להציל את עמו ואת ארצו:
21But I had pity on My Holy Name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations to which they had come.   כאוָֽאֶחְמֹ֖ל עַל־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י אֲשֶׁ֚ר חִלְּל֙וּהוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥אוּ שָֽׁמָּה:
22Therefore, say to the house of Israel; So says the Lord God: Not for your sake do I do this, O house of Israel, but for My Holy Name, which you have profaned among the nations to which they have come.   כבלָכֵ֞ן אֱמֹ֣ר לְבֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה לֹ֧א לְמַֽעַנְכֶ֛ם אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּ֚י אִם־לְשֵֽׁם־קָדְשִׁי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חִלַּלְתֶּ֔ם בַּגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥אתֶם שָֽׁם:
Not for your sake, etc.: is the salvation that I shall save you [by].   לא למענכם אני עושה: התשועה שאושיעכם:
23And I will sanctify My great Name, which was profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst; and the nations shall know that I am the Lord-is the declaration of the Lord God-when I will be sanctified through you before their eyes.   כגוְקִדַּשְׁתִּ֞י אֶת־שְׁמִ֣י הַגָּד֗וֹל הַֽמְחֻלָּל֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר חִלַּלְתֶּ֖ם בְּתוֹכָ֑ם וְיָֽדְע֨וּ הַגּוֹיִ֜ם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה בְּהִקָּֽדְשִׁ֥י בָכֶ֖ם לְעֵֽינֵיהֶֽם:
And I will sanctify My… Name: Now what is the sanctification?“I will take you from among the nations.”   וקדשתי את שמי: ומה הוא הקידוש ולקחתי אתכם מן הגוים:
24For I will take you from among the nations and gather you from all the countries, and I will bring you to your land.   כדוְלָֽקַחְתִּ֚י אֶתְכֶם֙ מִן־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְקִבַּצְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִכָּל־הָֽאֲרָצ֑וֹת וְהֵֽבֵאתִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֶל־אַדְמַתְכֶֽם:
25And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and you will be clean; from all your impurities and from all your abominations will I cleanse you.   כהוְזָֽרַקְתִּ֧י עֲלֵיכֶ֛ם מַ֥יִם טְהוֹרִ֖ים וּטְהַרְתֶּ֑ם מִכֹּ֧ל טֻמְאֽוֹתֵיכֶ֛ם וּמִכָּל־גִּלּֽוּלֵיכֶ֖ם אֲטַהֵ֥ר אֶתְכֶֽם:
clean water: I will grant you atonement and remove your uncleanliness by sprinkling purification water, which removes [even the highest degree of defilement,] the defilement caused by a corpse.   מים טהורים: אכפר עליכם ואעביר טומאותיכם בהזית מי חטאת המעבירין טומאת המת:
26And I will give you a new heart, and a new spirit will I put within you, and I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh.   כווְנָתַתִּ֚י לָכֶם֙ לֵ֣ב חָדָ֔שׁ וְר֥וּחַ חֲדָשָׁ֖ה אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם וַֽהֲסִ֨רֹתִ֜י אֶת־לֵ֚ב הָאֶ֙בֶן֙ מִבְּשַׂרְכֶ֔ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֥י לָכֶ֖ם לֵ֥ב בָּשָֽׂר:
a new heart: An inclination that has been renewed for the better.   לב חדש: יצר שנתחדש לטובה:
27And I will put My spirit within you and bring it about that you will walk in My statutes and you will keep My ordinances and do [them].   כזוְאֶת־רוּחִ֖י אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם וְעָשִׂ֗יתִי אֵ֚ת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי֙ תֵּלֵ֔כוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶֽם:
28Then will you dwell in the land that I gave your fathers, and you will be a people to Me, and I will be to you as a God.   כחוִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֣ם בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לַֽאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם וִֽהְיִ֚יתֶם לִי֙ לְעָ֔ם וְאָ֣נֹכִ֔י אֶֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
29And I will save you from all your uncleannesses, and I will call to the corn and will multiply it, and I will not decree famine again over you.   כטוְהֽוֹשַׁעְתִּ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם מִכֹּ֖ל טֻמְאֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם וְקָרָ֚אתִי אֶל־הַדָּגָן֙ וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֣י אֹת֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֥ן עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם רָעָֽב:
30And I will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, so that you shall no more have to accept the shame of famine among the nations.   לוְהִרְבֵּיתִי֙ אֶת־פְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ וּתְנוּבַ֖ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה לְמַ֗עַן אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹ֣א תִקְח֥וּ ע֛וֹד חֶרְפַּ֥ת רָעָ֖ב בַּגּוֹיִֽם:
31And you shall remember your evil ways and your deeds that were not good, and you will loathe yourselves in your own eyes on account of your sins and on account of your abominations.   לאוּזְכַרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־דַּרְכֵיכֶ֣ם הָֽרָעִ֔ים וּמַֽעַלְלֵיכֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־טוֹבִ֑ים וּנְקֹֽטֹתֶם֙ בִּפְנֵיכֶ֔ם עַל עֲו‍ֹנֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעַ֖ל תּֽוֹעֲבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
and you will loathe yourselves in your own eyes: [Heb. וּנְקטֹתֶם,] demonir in Old French, to melt. You will melt in yourselves, from your shame over the evil recompense that you repaid Me whereas I recompense you with good.   ונקוטותם בפניכם: דמוניי"ר בלע"ז תמקו בעצמיכם בבשתכם על הגמול הרע אשר גמלתם לפני ואני גומל לכם טובה:
32Not for your sake do I do it, says the Lord God, may it be known to you; be ashamed and confounded for your ways, O house of Israel.   לבלֹ֧א לְמַֽעַנְכֶ֣ם אֲנִֽי־עֹשֶׂ֗ה נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה יִוָּדַ֖ע לָכֶ֑ם בּ֧וֹשׁוּ וְהִכָּֽלְמ֛וּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶ֖ם בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
33So says the Lord God: On the day that I will have cleansed you from all your iniquities, and I will resettle the cities, and the ruins shall be built up.   לגכֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה בְּיוֹם֙ טַֽהֲרִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם מִכֹּ֖ל עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם וְהֽוֹשַׁבְתִּי֙ אֶת־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים וְנִבְנ֖וּ הֶֽחֳרָבֽוֹת:
34And the desolate land shall be worked, instead of its lying desolate in the sight of all that pass by.   לדוְהָאָ֥רֶץ הַֽנְשַׁמָּ֖ה תֵּֽעָבֵ֑ד תַּחַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָֽיְתָ֣ה שְׁמָמָ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־עוֹבֵֽר:
And the desolate land: The land that was desolate until now will be tilled and sown.   והארץ הנשמה תעבד: הארץ אשר היתה שממה עד הנה תהיה נעבדת ונזרעת:
35And they shall say, 'This land that was desolate has become like the Garden of Eden, and the cities that were destroyed and desolate and pulled down have become settled as fortified [cities].'   להוְאָֽמְר֗וּ הָאָ֚רֶץ הַלֵּ֙זוּ֙ הַנְּשַׁמָּ֔ה הָֽיְתָ֖ה כְּגַן־עֵ֑דֶן וְהֶֽעָרִ֧ים הֶֽחֳרֵב֛וֹת וְהַֽנְשַׁמּ֥וֹת וְהַנֶּֽהֱרָס֖וֹת בְּצוּר֥וֹת יָשָֽׁבוּ:
has become like the Garden of Eden: [Heb. הָיְתָה,] has now been transformed into being like the Garden of Eden.   היתה כגן עדן: עכשיו נהפכה להיות כגן עדן:
and the cities that were destroyed: these many days, have now become settled as fortified cities.   והערים החרבות: זה ימים רבים עכשיו בצורות ישבו:
36And the nations that are left round about you shall know that I, the Lord, have built up the ruined places and have planted the desolate ones; I, the Lord, have spoken, and I will perform [it].   לווְיָֽדְע֣וּ הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשָּֽׁאֲרוּ֘ סְבִיבֽוֹתֵיכֶם֒ כִּ֣י | אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה בָּנִ֙יתִי֙ הַנֶּֽהֱרָס֔וֹת נָטַ֖עְתִּי הַֽנְשַׁמָּ֑ה אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה דִּבַּ֥רְתִּי וְעָשִֽׂיתִי:
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