Exodus Chapter 34

10And He said: "Behold! I will form a covenant; in the presence of all your people, I will make distinctions such as have not been created upon all the earth and among all the nations, and all the people in whose midst you are shall see the work of the Lord how awe inspiring it is that which I will perform with you.   יוַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֣ה אָנֹכִי֘ כֹּרֵ֣ת בְּרִית֒ נֶ֤גֶד כָּל־עַמְּךָ֙ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֣ה נִפְלָאֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־נִבְרְא֥וּ בְכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ וּבְכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְרָאָ֣ה כָל־הָ֠עָ֠ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֨ה בְקִרְבּ֜וֹ אֶת־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־נוֹרָ֣א ה֔וּא אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י עֹשֶׂ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ:
[I will] form a covenant: Concerning this.   כֹּרֵת בְּרִית: עַל זֹאת:
in the presence of all your people, I will make distinctions: Heb. נִפְלָאֹת אֶעֱשִֶׂה, an expression related to וְנִפְלִינוּ, “and [we] shall be distinguished” (Exod. 33:16), [meaning] that you shall be separated from all the pagan nations, that My Shechinah shall not rest upon them [these other nations].   אֶֽעֱשֶׂה נִפְלָאֹת: לְשׁוֹן וְנִפְלִינוּ, שֶׁתִּהְיוּ מֻבְדָּלִים בְּזוֹ מִכָּל הָאֻמּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתִי עֲלֵיהֶם:
11Keep carefully what I am commanding you today: Lo! I will drive out from before you the Amorites and the Canaanites, the Hittites and the Perizzites, the Hivvites and the Jebusites.   יאשְׁמָ֨ר־לְךָ֔ אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוְּךָ֣ הַיּ֑וֹם הִֽנְנִ֧י גֹרֵ֣שׁ מִפָּנֶ֗יךָ אֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֔י וְהַֽחִתִּי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי:
the Amorites…: Six nations are [enumerated] here [not the proverbial seven], because the Girgashites [i.e., the seventh nation] got up and emigrated because of them [the Israelites]. -[from Lev. Rabbah 17:6, Yerushalmi Shevi ith 6:1.]   אֵת הָֽאֱמֹרִי וגו': ו' אֻמּוֹת יֵשׁ כָּאן, כִּי הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי עָמַד וּפָנָה מִפְּנֵיהֶם:
12Beware lest you form a covenant with the inhabitant[s] of the land into which you are coming, lest it become a snare in your midst.   יבהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹ֤ת בְּרִית֙ לְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה בָּ֣א עָלֶ֑יהָ פֶּן־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְמוֹקֵ֖שׁ בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
13But you shall demolish their altars, shatter their monuments, and cut down their sacred trees.   יגכִּ֤י אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם֙ תִּתֹּצ֔וּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּֽבֹתָ֖ם תְּשַׁבֵּר֑וּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָ֖יו תִּכְרֹתֽוּן:
their sacred trees: This is a tree they worship.   אֲשֵׁרָיו: הוּא אִילָן שֶׁעוֹבְדִים אוֹתוֹ:
14For you shall not prostrate yourself before another god, because the Lord, Whose Name is "Jealous One," is a jealous God.   ידכִּ֛י לֹ֥א תִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֖ה לְאֵ֣ל אַחֵ֑ר כִּ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ קַנָּ֣א שְׁמ֔וֹ אֵ֥ל קַנָּ֖א הֽוּא:
Whose Name is “Jealous One”: He is zealous to mete out retribution, and He is not indulgent. That is [the meaning of] every expression of jealousy (קִנְאָה) [when used in connection with God]. [It] means that He is steadfast in His superiority [over other deities] and exacts retribution upon those who forsake Him.   קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ: מְקַנֵּא לִפָּרַע וְאֵינוֹ מְוַתֵּר, וְזֶהוּ כָּל לְשׁוֹן קִנְאָה – אוֹחֵז בְּנִצְחוֹנוֹ וּפוֹרֵעַ מֵאוֹיְבָיו:
15Lest you form a covenant with the inhabitant[s] of the land, and they [the gentiles] go astray after their gods, and they offer sacrifices to their gods, and they invite you, and you eat of their slaughtering,   טופֶּן־תִּכְרֹ֥ת בְּרִ֖ית לְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֑רֶץ וְזָנ֣וּ | אַֽחֲרֵ֣י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֗ם וְזָבְחוּ֙ לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם וְקָרָ֣א לְךָ֔ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֖ מִזִּבְחֽוֹ:
and you eat of their slaughtering: You [may] think that there is no punishment for eating it, but [when you eat it] I consider it for you as if you endorsed its worship, for through this [eating of the sacrifice] you will come to take from their daughters for your sons.   וְאָֽכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחֽוֹ: כַּסָּבוּר אַתָּה שֶׁאֵין עֹנֶשׁ בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ, וַאֲנִי מַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ כְּמוֹדֶה בַעֲבוֹדָתָם, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ אַתָּה בָא וְלוֹקֵחַ מִבְּנוֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ (עבודה זרה ח'):
16and you take of their daughters for your sons; then their daughters will go astray after their gods and lead your sons astray after their gods.   טזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֥ מִבְּנֹתָ֖יו לְבָנֶ֑יךָ וְזָנ֣וּ בְנֹתָ֗יו אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ן וְהִזְנוּ֙ אֶת־בָּנֶ֔יךָ אַֽחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽן:
17You shall not make molten gods for yourself.   יזאֱלֹהֵ֥י מַסֵּכָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ:
18The Festival of Unleavened Cakes you shall keep; seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes which I have commanded you, at the appointed meeting time of the month of spring, for in the month of spring you went out of Egypt.   יחאֶת־חַ֣ג הַמַּצּוֹת֘ תִּשְׁמֹר֒ שִׁבְעַ֨ת יָמִ֜ים תֹּאכַ֤ל מַצּוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֔ךָ לְמוֹעֵ֖ד חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֑יב כִּ֚י בְּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב יָצָ֖אתָ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
the month of spring: The month of early ripening, when the grain first ripens.   חֹדֶשׁ הָֽאָבִיב: חֹדֶשׁ הַבִּכּוּר, שֶׁהַתְּבוּאָה מִתְבַּכֶּרֶת בְּבִשּׁוּלָהּ:
19All that opens the womb is Mine, and all your livestock [that] bears a male, [by] the emergence of ox or lamb.   יטכָּל־פֶּ֥טֶר רֶ֖חֶם לִ֑י וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ֙ תִּזָּכָ֔ר פֶּ֖טֶר שׁ֥וֹר וָשֶֽׂה:
All that opens the womb is Mine: Among humans.   כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לִי: בָּאָדָם:
and all your livestock [that] bears a male…: Heb. תִּזָּכָר. And all your livestock that bears a [firstborn] male by the emergence of an ox or lamb [from the womb], meaning that a male will open its womb [i.e., its firstborn is a male].   וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ וגו': וְכָל מִקְנְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּזָּכָר בְּפֶטֶר שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה – אֲשֶׁר יִפְטֹר זָכָר אֶת רַחְמָהּ:
emergence: Heb. פֶּטֶר, a word that means opening. Similarly, “The beginning of strife is like letting out (פּוֹטֵר) water” (Prov. 17:14). The “tav” of תִּזָּכָר is an expression of the feminine, referring to the [animal] that gives birth.   פֶּטֶר: לְשׁוֹן פְּתִיחָה, וְכֵן פּוֹטֵר מַיִם רֵאשִׁית מָדוֹן (משלי י"ז); תי"ו שֶׁל תִּזָּכָר לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה הִיא, מוּסָב עַל הַיּוֹלֶדֶת:
20And a firstborn donkey you shall redeem with a lamb; if you do not redeem it, you shall decapitate it; every firstborn of your sons you shall redeem, and they shall not appear before Me empty handed.   כוּפֶ֤טֶר חֲמוֹר֙ תִּפְדֶּ֣ה בְשֶׂ֔ה וְאִם־לֹ֥א תִפְדֶּ֖ה וַֽעֲרַפְתּ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל בְּכ֤וֹר בָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ תִּפְדֶּ֔ה וְלֹא־יֵֽרָא֥וּ פָנַ֖י רֵיקָֽם:
And a firstborn donkey: But not [the firstborn of] other unclean animals. -[from Bech. 5b]   וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר: וְלֹא שְׁאָר בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה:
you shall redeem with a lamb: [The owner] gives a lamb to the kohen, and it [becomes] the ordinary [unconsecrated] property of the kohen, and the firstborn donkey may be put to work by its owner. -[from Bech. 9b]   תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה: נוֹתֵן שֶׂה לַכֹּהֵן וְהוּא חֻלִּין בְּיַד כֹּהֵן, וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר מֻתָּר בַּעֲבוֹדָה לַבְּעָלִים:
you shall decapitate it: He decapitates it with a cleaver. [The rationale is:] He caused the kohen to lose his money [by neglecting to give him the redemption lamb]. Therefore, he must lose his own money [by decapitating his donkey]. -[from Bech. 10b, Mechilta on Exod. 13:13]   וַֽעֲרַפְתּוֹ: עוֹרְפוֹ בְּקוֹפִיץ; הוּא הִפְסִיד מָמוֹן כֹּהֵן, לְפִיכָךְ יֻפְסַד מָמוֹנוֹ:
every firstborn of your sons you shall redeem: His redemption is established as five selas, as it is said: “And his redemption you shall perform from the age of one month [by the evaluation of five shekels, etc.]” (Num. 18:16).   כֹּל בְּכוֹר בָּנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה: חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים פִּדְיוֹנוֹ קָצוּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶה (במדבר י"ח):
and they shall not appear before Me empty-handed: According to the simple meaning of the verse, this is a separate matter [from the rest of this verse] and is unrelated to the firstborn, because there is no obligation to appear [in the Temple] in the commandment dealing with the firstborn. Instead this is another warning, [meaning] and when you ascend [to the Temple] on the festivals, you shall not appear before Me empty-handed, [but] it is incumbent upon you to bring burnt offerings (Chag. 7a) whenever appearing before God. According to the way it is interpreted by a Baraitha, this is a superfluous verse [for this was already stated in Exod. 23:15], and it is free [i.e., has no additional reason for being here other than] to be used for a גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, [i.e.,] an instance of similar wording, to teach [us] about the provisions given a Hebrew slave [when he is freed]-that it is five selas from each kind [i.e., of sheep, grain, and wine], as much as the redemption of a firstborn. [This is elaborated upon] in tractate Kiddushin (17a).   וְלֹא־יֵֽרָאוּ פָנַי רקם: לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא דָּבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הוּא, וְאֵינוֹ מוּסָב עַל הַבְּכוֹר – שֶׁאֵין בְּמִצְוַת בְּכוֹר רְאִיַּת פָּנִים – אֶלָּא אַזְהָרָה אַחֶרֶת הִיא, וּכְשֶׁתַּעֲלוּ לָרֶגֶל לֵרָאוֹת לֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם – מִצְוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהָבִיא עוֹלַת רְאִיַּת פָּנִים. וּלְפִי מִדְרַשׁ בָּרַיְתָא מִקְרָא יָתֵר הוּא, וּמֻפְנֶה לִגְזֵרָה שָׁוָה, לְלַמֵּד עַל הַעֲנָקָתוֹ שֶׁל עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֶׁהוּא חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים מִכָּל מִין וָמִין, כְּפִדְיוֹן בְּכוֹר; בְּמַסֶּכֶת קִדּוּשִׁין (דף י"ז):
21Six days you may work, and on the seventh day you shall rest; in plowing and in harvest you shall rest.   כאשֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת בֶּֽחָרִ֥ישׁ וּבַקָּצִ֖יר תִּשְׁבֹּֽת:
in plowing and in harvest you shall rest: [If this refers to the Sabbath,] why are plowing and harvest mentioned [in particular, and not other kinds of work]? Some of our Rabbis say that this [verse prohibits] plowing before the seventh year [i.e., the sixth year] which enters the seventh year [i.e., plowing that benefits crops that grow in the seventh year], and the harvest of the seventh year that grows after the seventh year [i.e., crops that have at least one third of their growth during the seventh year must be treated with the sanctity of the seventh year]. This is to teach you that we must add from the unholy [the year preceding the seventh year] to the holy [the seventh year]. Accordingly, this is its meaning: “Six days you may work, and on the seventh day you shall rest” -and [concerning] the work of the six days, which I have permitted you, there is a year in which plowing and harvest are prohibited. The plowing and harvest of the seventh year need not be stated, because it already says: “Your field you shall not sow…” (Lev. 25:4). [Consequently, we deduce that this verse means the plowing before the seventh year and the harvest after the seventh year.] Others [of the Rabbis] say that [the verse] speaks only about the [weekly] Sabbath, and the plowing and harvest mentioned in its context are to inform you that just as [the prohibited] plowing is optional [plowing], so is harvest [referred to here] optional [harvesting]. The harvest of the omer [however] is excluded [from this prohibition] because it is mandatory, and [consequently] it supersedes the Sabbath. -[from R.H. 9a]   בֶּֽחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר: לָמָּה נִזְכָּר חָרִישׁ וְקָצִיר? יֵשׁ מֵרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אוֹמְרִים עַל חָרִישׁ שֶׁל עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית הַנִּכְנָס לַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְקָצִיר שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית הַיּוֹצֵא לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְכָךְ מַשְׁמָעוֹ: שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת, וַעֲבוֹדַת ו' הַיָּמִים שֶׁהִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ, יֵשׁ שָׁנָה שֶׁהֶחָרִישׁ וְהַקָּצִיר אָסוּר, וְאֵין צֹרֶךְ לוֹמַר חָרִישׁ וְקָצִיר שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְבָר נֶאֱמַר שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְגוֹ' (ויקרא כ"ה), וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בַּשַּׁבָּת, וְחָרִישׁ וְקָצִיר שֶׁהֻזְכַּר בּוֹ לוֹמַר לְךָ, מֶה חָרִישׁ רְשׁוּת אַף קָצִיר רְשׁוּת, יָצָא קְצִיר הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא מִצְוָה וְדוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת (ראש השנה ט'):
22And you shall make for yourself a Festival of Weeks, the first of the wheat harvest, and the festival of the ingathering, at the turn of the year.   כבוְחַ֤ג שָֽׁבֻעֹת֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לְךָ֔ בִּכּוּרֵ֖י קְצִ֣יר חִטִּ֑ים וְחַג֙ הָ֣אָסִ֔יף תְּקוּפַ֖ת הַשָּׁנָֽה:
the first of the wheat harvest: [This is the festival] on which you bring the two breads made from the wheat [as in Lev. 23:17].   בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים: שֶׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא בוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מִן הַחִטִּים:
the first: For it is the first meal offering brought to Temple from the new wheat crop, because the meal offering of the omer on Passover is brought from the barley. -[from Men. 84a]   בִּכּוּרֵי: שֶׁהִיא מִנְחָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הַבָּאָה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁל חִטִּים לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, כִּי מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר הַבָּאָה בַפֶּסַח, מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים הִיא (מנחות פ"ד):
and the festival of the ingathering: Heb. וְחַג הָאָָסִיף, [which occurs] at the time you gather your grain from the field into the house. This gathering (אִסִיפָה) is a term denoting bringing into the house, like “you shall take it (וַאִסַפְתּוֹ) into your house” (Deut. 22:2).   וְחַג הָאָסִיף: בִּזְמַן שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹסֵף תְּבוּאָתְךָ מִן הַשָּׂדֶה לַבַּיִת; אֲסִיפָה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה לַבַּיִת, כְּמוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ (דברים כ"ב):
at the turn of the year: which is at the return of the year, at the beginning of the coming year. [I.e., it is in the month of Tishri, which is the first month of the year, counting from Creation.]   תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָֽה: שֶׁהִיא בַחֲזָרַת הַשָּׁנָה – בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׁנָה הַבָּאָה:
at the turn of: Heb. תְּקוּפַת, a term denoting going around and encompassing (הַקָּפָה) [i.e., going in a circle].   תְּקוּפַת: לְשׁוֹן מְסִבָּה וְהַקָּפָה:
23Three times during the year shall all your male[s] appear directly before the Master, the Lord, the God of Israel.   כגשָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה יֵֽרָאֶה֙ כָּל־זְכ֣וּרְךָ֔ אֶת־פְּנֵ֛י הָֽאָדֹ֥ן | יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
all your male[s]: Heb. כָּל זְכוּרְ, all the males among you. [This is repeated elsewhere as are] many commandments in the Torah, [which] are stated and repeated, many of them three or four times, in order to cause liability and mete out punishment according to the number of the negative commandments they contain and the number of positive commandments they contain.   כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ: כָּל הַזְּכָרִים שֶׁבְּךָ; הַרְבֵּה מִצְוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה נֶאֶמְרוּ וְנִכְפְּלוּ – וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וְאַרְבַּע – לְחַיֵּב וְלַעֲנֹשׁ עַל מִנְיַן לָאוִין שֶׁבָּהֶם וְעַל מִנְיַן עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהֶם:
24When I drive out nations from before you and I widen your border, no one will covet your land when you go up, to appear before the Lord, your God, three times each year.   כדכִּֽי־אוֹרִ֤ישׁ גּוֹיִם֙ מִפָּנֶ֔יךָ וְהִרְחַבְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּבֻלֶ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־יַחְמֹ֥ד אִישׁ֙ אֶת־אַרְצְךָ֔ בַּֽעֲלֹֽתְךָ֗ לֵֽרָאוֹת֙ אֶת־פְּנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ שָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָֽה:
I drive out: Heb. אוֹרִישׁ as the Targum renders: אִתָרֵ, I will drive out, and so is “begin to drive out (רָשׁ) ” (Deut. 2:31), and so is “and he drove out (וַיוֹרֶשׁ) the Amorites” (Num. 21:32), an expression of driving out.   אוֹרִישׁ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ אֲתָרִיךְ, וְכֵן הָחֵל רָשׁ (דברים ב'), וְכֵן וַיּוֹרֶשׁ אֶת הָאֱמֹרִי (במדבר כ"א) – לְשׁוֹן גֵּרוּשִׁין:
and I widen your border: And [this way] you will be far from the Temple, and [so] you cannot constantly appear before Me. Therefore, I am setting these three pilgrimage festivals for you.   וְהִרְחַבְתִּי אֶת־גְּבֻלֶךָ: וְאַתָּה רָחוֹק מִבֵּית הַבְּחִירָה, וְאֵינְךָ יָכוֹל לֵרָאוֹת לְפָנַי תָּמִיד, לְכָךְ אֲנִי קוֹבֵעַ לְךָ שָׁלֹֹשׁ רְגָלִים הַלָּלוּ:
25You shall not slaughter [or sprinkle] the blood of My sacrifice with leaven, and the offering of the Passover feast shall not remain overnight until the morning.   כהלֹֽא־תִשְׁחַ֥ט עַל־חָמֵ֖ץ דַּם־זִבְחִ֑י וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֣ין לַבֹּ֔קֶר זֶ֖בַח חַ֥ג הַפָּֽסַח:
You shall not slaughter…: You shall not slaughter the Passover sacrifice as long as leaven still exists. This is a [specific] warning to the slaughterer, to the one who sprinkles the blood, or to one of the members of the group [bringing this sacrifice]. -[from Pes. 63b]   לֹֽא־תִשְׁחַט וגו': לֹא תִשְׁחַט אֶת הַפֶּסַח וַעֲדַיִן חָמֵץ קַיָּם; אַזְהָרָה לַשּׁוֹחֵט אוֹ לַזּוֹרֵק אוֹ לְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה (פסח' ס"ג):
shall not remain overnight until the morning: As the Targum [Onkelos] paraphrases: [it shall not remain overnight until the morning away from the altar]. Remaining overnight on top of the altar has no effect [i.e., does not disqualify the sacrifice] (Mechilta, Exodus 23:18), and [the prohibition of] staying overnight is only completed at the break of dawn (Zev. 87a).   וְלֹֽא־יָלִין: כְּתַרְגוּמוֹ; אֵין לִינָה מוֹעֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֵין לִינָה אֶלָּא בְּעַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר (זבחים פ"ז):
and the offering of the Passover feast: [This refers to] its sacrificial parts. From here you learn [to apply this rule to all instances of] burning the fats or the limbs [of sacrifices, namely that it may not be performed after the break of dawn if the sacrificial parts stayed off the altar all night until the break of dawn].   זֶבַח חַג הַפָּֽסַח: אֵמוּרָיו, וּמִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד לְכָל הֶקְטֵר חֲלָבִים וְאֵבָרִים:
26The choicest of the first of your soil you shall bring to the house of the Lord, your God. You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk."   כורֵאשִׁ֗ית בִּכּוּרֵי֙ אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ תָּבִ֕יא בֵּ֖ית יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּֽחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ:
The choicest of the first of your soil: [This refers to the fruits] of the seven species delineated as the praise of your land, “A land of wheat and barley, vines, [figs, and pomegranates, a land of oil-producing olives,] and honey” (Deut. 8:8). That is the honey of dates. -[from Bikkurim 3:1]   רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ: מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין הָאֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁבַח אַרְצְךָ, אֶרֶץ חִטָּה וּשְׂעֹרָה וְגֶפֶן וְגוֹ' (דברים ח') – וּדְבָשׁ הוּא דְּבַשׁ תְּמָרִים:
You shall not cook a kid: This is the warning against [cooking] meat and milk [together]. This commandment is written in the Torah three times (Exod. 23:19, Deut. 14:21), one for eating, one for deriving benefit, and one for the prohibition of cooking. -[from Chul. 115b]   לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי: אַזְהָרָה לְבָשָׂר בְחָלָב, וְשָׁלֹֹשׁ פְעָמִים כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, אֶחָד לַאֲכִילָה וְאֶחָד לַהֲנָאָה וְאֶחָד לְאִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּל (חולין קט"ו):
a kid: Heb. גְּדִי. Any young offspring is meant, even a calf or a lamb. Since [the Torah] had to specify in many places גְּדִי עִזִּים [when a young goat is meant], you learn that [mention of] גְּדִי unqualified means all sucklings. -[from Chul. 113b]   גְּדִי: כָּל וָלָד רַךְ בְּמַשְׁמָע, וְאַף עֵגֶל וָכֶבֶשׂ; מִמַּה שֶּׁהֻצְרַךְ לְפָרֵשׁ בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת "גְּדִי עִזִּים" לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁגְּדִי סְתָם כָּל יוֹנְקִים בְּמַשְׁמָע (שם קי"ג):
in its mother’s milk: This excludes fowl, which has no milk, which is not prohibited by the Torah but by the decree of the Scribes [the Sages]. -[from Chul. 113a]   בַּֽחֲלֵב אִמּֽוֹ: פְּרָט לָעוֹף שֶׁאֵין לוֹ חָלָב, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים (שם):