I Kings Chapter 5

26And the Lord gave Solomon wisdom, as He had promised him, and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon, and they both made a league together.   כווַיהֹוָ֗ה נָתַ֚ן חָכְמָה֙ לִשְׁלֹמֹ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־ל֑וֹ וַיְהִ֣י שָׁלֹ֗ם בֵּ֚ין חִירָם֙ וּבֵ֣ין שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה וַיִּכְרְת֥וּ בְרִ֖ית שְׁנֵיהֶֽם:
27And King Solomon raised a levy out of all Israel, and the levy was thirty thousand men.   כזוַיַּ֨עַל הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה מַ֖ס מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֣י הַמַּ֔ס שְׁלשִׁ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ:
And the levy was thirty thousand men: which amounted to the wages of thirty thousand men.  
28And he sent them to Lebanon, ten thousand a month alternately, a month they were in Lebanon, (and) two months at home, and Adoniram (was) over the levy.   כחוַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֣ם לְבָנ֗וֹנָה עֲשֶֹ֨רֶת אֲלָפִ֚ים בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ חֲלִיפ֔וֹת חֹדֶשׁ יִהְי֣וּ בַלְּבָנ֔וֹן שְׁנַ֥יִם חֳדָשִׁ֖ים בְּבֵית֑וֹ וַאֲדֹנִירָ֖ם עַל־הַמָּֽס:
Ten thousand a month alternately: When the thousand men were in Lebanon in Tishrei and the twenty thousand men were at home, in Marcheshvan the second ten thousand would alternate and go out to Lebanon and these would return to their homes. And in the month of Kislev the third group of ten thousand go out, and they would go out to Lebanon, and these second ones would return to their homes. And in the month of Teveth the first ones go out and return to Lebanon, and thus they return again and again. So it is found that each group of ten thousand amongst them would be one month in Lebanon and two months at home.  
And Adoniram was over the levy: to collect the levy.  
29And Solomon had seventy thousand who bore burdens, and eighty thousand hewers in the mountains.   כטוַיְהִ֧י לִשְׁלֹמֹ֛ה שִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף נֹשֵֹ֣א סַבָּ֑ל וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף חֹצֵ֥ב בָּהָֽר:
Seventy thousand that bore burdens: to bring the stones from the mountains to the city, and the eighty thousand men were the ones who hewed them in the mountains. There is altogether one hundred fifty thousand men. And they were all proselytes who were drawn and attracted to the Jewish people, that converted because of Solomon’s greatness and hospitality. And it is likewise written in Chronicles II (2: 16) “And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in the land of Israel… and they were found a hundred and fifty thousand. And he set seventy thousand…”  
30Besides Solomon's chief officers that were over the work, three thousand and three hundred, who bore rule over the people that wrought in the work.   ללְ֠בַד מִשָּׂרֵ֨י הַנִּצָּבִ֚ים לִשְׁלֹמֹה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה שְׁל֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים וּשְׁל֣שׁ מֵא֑וֹת הָרֹדִ֣ים בָּעָ֔ם הָעֹשִֹ֖ים בַּמְּלָאכָֽה:
The chief officers: These were the oppressors and overseers over those who did the work.  
Three thousand and three hundred: And in Chronicles II (2:1) it says three thousand and six hundred. It is, therefore, my opinion that the three thousand three hundred men were in charge of one hundred fifty thousand men, so that each one was in charge of forty five and some odd men, and the three hundred men who were added in Chronicles were in charge of all of them, so that each of these three hundred men was in charge of five hundred and some odd men. And you shall know the evidence in support of my opinion that there are two other passages on this subject, and they contradict one another. For it says on this topic in this book of Kings I (9:23) “These were the chief officers that were over Solomon’s work, five hundred and fifty,” and in the book of Chronicles II (8:10) it says “two hundred and fifty.” There are, therefore, altogether, four verses contradicting one another. But we may explain it thus. Those that are mentioned in the latter verses in I Kings 9:23 and in Chronicles II (8:10), were in charge of all of them. And it is a fact that Solomon had employed these proselytes to be bearers of burdens and to hew stones in the mountains. And, in addition, he had the remaining workers for the store cities which he also built, who were native born Jews. Because these passages are stated there in Chronicles II which discusses the store-cities. And to sum it up then, in the book of Kings he counted the proselyte officers in two separate totals. First, he counted the three thousand three hundred men, the officers who were in charge of forty-five men each, separately. And in (9:23) he combined the three hundred superior officers, who were in charge of these three thousand three hundred men, with the two hundred and fifty men who were in charge of the builders of the store-cities, and totaled together five hundred and fifty officers. And, on the other hand, in Chronicles II he counted all the proselyte officers, the major and minor ones, together, three thousand six hundred men, and they were all proselytes. And the officers in charge of the workers in the store-cities, who were Jews, totaling two hundred and fifty men, he counted separately.  
Who bore rule over the people that wrought in the work: Who bore rule over the people that did the work.  
31And the king commanded, and they quarried great stones, heavy stones, to lay the foundation of the house (with) hewn stone.   לאוַיְצַ֣ו הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ וַיַּסִּעוּ֩ אֲבָנִ֨ים גְּדֹל֜וֹת אֲבָנִ֧ים יְקָר֛וֹת לְיַסֵּ֥ד הַבָּ֖יִת אַבְנֵ֥י גָזִֽית:
And they quarried: the stones from the mountains. This is an expression of uprooting.  
Great stones, heavy stones: Heb. יקרות, heavy.  
Hewn stone: They were carved and chiseled [precisely to the required measurement]. And if you ask it has already been stated (6:7) “There was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building.” How then were the stones cut to a specific size? The explanation is, that although no tool of iron was heard in the house, while it was in building, but he would chisel the stones while still on the outside, and then bring them in and build from the inside. Thus is this explained in the Tractate Sota (48b).  
32And Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders and the Gebalites did hew (them), and they prepared the timber and the stones to build the house.   לבוַֽיִּפְסְל֞וּ בֹּנֵ֧י שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה וּבֹנֵ֥י חִיר֖וֹם וְהַגִּבְלִ֑ים וַיָּכִ֛ינוּ הָעֵצִ֥ים וְהָאֲבָנִ֖ים לִבְנ֥וֹת הַבָּֽיִת:
And they did hew them: in the mountains.  
And the Gebalites: a nation whose name was Gebal. And they were skilled in the art of chiseling stones and building. As it is stated in reference to the wise men of Tyre (Ezek. 27:9) “The elders of Cebal and the wise men thereof, were in you your calkers.”  
And they prepared: An expression of designation.  

I Kings Chapter 6

1And it was in the four hundred and eightieth year after the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, in the fourth year, in the month Ziv, which (is) the second month of Solomon's reign over Israel, that he did (begin to) build the house of the Lord.   אוַיְהִ֣י בִשְׁמוֹנִ֣ים שָׁנָ֣ה וְאַרְבַּ֣ע מֵא֣וֹת שָׁנָ֡ה לְצֵ֣את בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל מֵאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם֩ בַּשָּׁנָ֨ה הָרְבִיעִ֜ית בְּחֹ֣דֶשׁ זִ֗ו הוּא הַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י לִמְלֹ֥ךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּ֥בֶן הַבַּ֖יִת לַיהֹוָֽה:
In the month of Ziv: This is Iyar. The word Ziv means bloom. [It is called Ziv] because [in that month] there is the bloom of the trees. And Targum Jonathan translated this similarly ‘the bloom of the buds.’  
Which is the second month: [Iyar is considered the second month] when numbering the months, since Nissan is the beginning of the year in [the numbering of] the months.  
Of Solomon’s reign: “the fourth year.” [It was] the fourth [year] of Solomon’s reign. And so does he also state in Chronicles II (3:2) “And he began to build in the second month in the fourth year of his reign.”  
2And the house which king Solomon built for the Lord, the length thereof (was) sixty cubits, and the breadth thereof twenty cubits, and the height thereof thirty cubits.   בוְהַבַּ֗יִת אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנָ֜ה הַמֶּ֚לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁשִּֽׁים־אַמָּ֥ה אָרְכּ֖וֹ וְעֶשְׂרִ֣ים רָחְבּ֑וֹ וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אַמָּ֖ה קוֹמָתֽוֹ:
Sixty cubits: [This included] the Temple [proper] and the Holy of Holies together.  
3And the porch before the temple of the house, twenty cubits (was) the length thereof, before the breadth of the house, (and) ten cubits (was) the breadth thereof before the house.   גוְהָאוּלָ֗ם עַל־פְּנֵי֙ הֵיכַ֣ל הַבַּ֔יִת עֶשְׂרִ֚ים אַמָּה֙ אָרְכּ֔וֹ עַל־פְּנֵ֖י רֹ֣חַב הַבָּ֑יִת עֶ֧שֶׂר בָּאַמָּ֛ה רָחְבּ֖וֹ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַבָּֽיִת:
And the porch before: before the Temple, in it’s entranceway.  
The length thereof before the breadth of the house: The length of the porch was along the width of the Temple [and extended] from the north to the south. All larger [measurements] are called the length, and the lesser [measurements] are called the width. Since in the Temple proper the measurement from the east to the west was greater, that was called the length, and in the porch that the measurement from the north to the south was the larger, therein was called the length from the north to the south, and from the east to the west therein was called the width.  
Before the house: [The porch was] in front of the house [of the Temple], on the eastern side [and was] on the outside.  
4And he made for the house windows broad without, and narrow within.   דוַיַּ֣עַשׂ לַבָּ֔יִת חַלּוֹנֵ֖י שְׁקֻפִ֥ים אֲטֻמִֽים:
Broad without and narrow within: Our Sages explained שְּׁקוּפִים as an expression of looking and an opening and an observation. These windows were constructed so that they were open on the outside and closed (אֲטוּמִים) on the inside. [The opening was wider on the outside] and narrow on the inside. This was not in the usual manner of all other windows which are made [expressly] for illumination.  
5And against the wall of the house he built a chamber round about, (against) the walls of the house round about, (both) of the temple and of the sanctuary, and he made chambers round about.   הוַיִּבֶן֩ עַל־קִ֨יר הַבַּ֚יִת יָצִ֙יעַ֙ (כתיב יָצִ֙ועַ֙) סָבִ֔יב אֶת־קִיר֚וֹת הַבַּ֙יִת֙ סָבִ֔יב לַֽהֵיכָ֖ל וְלַדְּבִ֑יר וַיַּ֥עַשׂ צְלָע֖וֹת סָבִֽיב:
A chamber: Appentis in French, a projecting gallery. This chamber had three names, יָצִיעַ a wing or extension of the building תָּא, a compartment, צֶלָע a side chamber. Thus is this explained in Baba Bathra 61a.  
Against the walls of the house round about: That is to say against the Temple and the house of the Holy of Holies, which is [synonymous with] the דְבִיר, he made chambers on the outside at the south, and at the west and the north. And the end of the sentence is an explanation of the beginning. And he built “on” the wall of the house, meaning “near” the wall of the house, a chamber round about. How did he make it? Against the walls of the house, that is, the Temple and the Holy of Holies, he made chambers.  
He made: Heb. ויעש, like עשה, “he made.” And likewise, “He was (ויהי) my salvation” (Exodus 15:2), like, “He was (היה) my salvation.”  
6The nethermost chamber (was) five cubits broad, and the middle (was) six cubits broad, and the third (was) seven cubits broad, for he made rebatements in (the wall of) the house round about on the outside, that (the beams) should not have hold in the walls of the house.   והַיָּצִ֨יעַ (כתיב הַיָּצִ֨ועַ) הַתַּחְתֹּנָ֜ה חָמֵ֧שׁ בָּאַמָּ֣ה רָחְבָּ֗הּ וְהַתִּֽיכֹנָה֙ שֵׁ֚שׁ בָּֽאַמָּה֙ רָחְבָּ֔הּ וְהַ֨שְּׁלִישִׁ֔ית שֶׁ֥בַע בָּאַמָּ֖ה רָחְבָּ֑הּ כִּ֡י מִגְרָעוֹת֩ נָתַ֨ן לַבַּ֚יִת סָבִיב֙ ח֔וּצָה לְבִלְתִּ֖י אֲחֹ֥ז בְּקִֽירוֹת־הַבָּֽיִת:
The nethermost chamber: On each side [of the Temple] the chambers were [built in] three [tiers], one on the other. And the measurement of its length is not stated here, [only its width]. And in the Tractate Midoth (4:3) we learned [as follows]: There were thirty-eight chambers [in all], fifteen in the north, five on top of five, and five [more] on top of them, and the same [number] in the south. And eight [more were] in the west, three on top of three and two [more] on top of them. The nethermost [chamber] was five [cubits wide] and the middle ones were six [cubits], and the top ones seven. Why [was this difference]? For he made rebatements in [the wall] of the house round about on the outside. The height of the chamber was five cubits, and as the height of the wall of the Temple [proper] reached five cubits he reduced its thickness and recessed it one cubit inward [on the outside], and on that recess he placed the ends of the beams of the roof at the top of the chamber which served as the floor of the middle one. And as the wall reached ten [cubits] he again recessed it one cubit [in order] to place the ends of the beams of the roof of the middle chamber which served as the floor of the upper chamber. We [thus] find the middle one is broader than the lower one by one cubit, and the upper one is broader than the middle one by one cubit.  
That the beams should not have hold in the walls of the house: In order not to join the ends of the beams to the walls through perforations in the walls of the house, since this causes the deterioration of the wall and is [also] not beautiful, architecturally.  
7And the house, when it was in building, was built of stone finished at the quarry, and there was neither hammer nor axe (nor) any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building.   זוְהַבַּ֙יִת֙ בְּהִבָּ֣נֹת֔וֹ אֶ֥בֶן שְׁלֵמָ֖ה מַסָּ֣ע נִבְנָ֑ה וּמַקָּב֚וֹת וְהַגַּרְזֶן֙ כָּל־כְּלִ֣י בַרְזֶ֔ל לֹֽא־נִשְׁמַ֥ע בַּבַּ֖יִת בְּהִבָּנֹתֽוֹ:
When it was in building, of stone finished at the quarry: as it was removed from the mountain, through the worm שָּׁמִיר [which cuts through stones]. Exactly as it came from there, they set it into the wall of the structure, and they did not chisel it further with any metal tools. And the hewn stones which are mentioned above [in 5:31, indicating that the stones were cut to some degree], is a controversy discussed in the Tractate Sota (48b).  
And hammers: Delutta, a chisel, in the Russian language.  
8The door of the lowest chamber (was) in the right side of the house, and with winding stairs they went up into the middle (chamber), and from the middle into the third.   חפֶּ֗תַח הַצֵּלָע֙ הַתִּ֣יכֹנָ֔ה אֶל־כֶּ֥תֶף הַבַּ֖יִת הַיְמָנִ֑ית וּבְלוּלִּ֗ים יַֽעֲלוּ֙ עַל־הַתִּ֣יכֹנָ֔ה וּמִן־הַתִּֽיכֹנָ֖ה אֶל־הַשְּׁלִשִֽׁים:
The door of the lowest chamber was in the right side of the house: Jonathan rendered this word תִּיכוֹנָה as “the lowest,” not תִּיכוֹנָה [which is] between the upper and lower ones [as is usually translated]. Because the five chambers on the southern side had one opening to the outside which was in the lowest story. And this [second usage of the word תִּיכוֹנָה in this same verse] “and with winding stairs they went up into the middle (תִּיכוֹנָה) chamber,” Jonathan rendered תִּיכוֹנָה; “the middle” because these chambers were not opened to the outside. There were three openings to each [of the chambers]. Thus is this taught in the Tractate Midos (4: 3), “One was to the chamber on the right and one was to the chamber on the left and one to the chamber above.” And the prophet teaches us here that [only] one of the lower [chambers] on the southern side had an opening to the outside and [only] through that opening can we enter all of the chambers on all sides. And the “middle chamber” of the verse, הַצֵלָע הַתִּיכוֹנָה, is not the middle one between the upper and the lower, but the middle one of the five chambers on the southern side which had an opening to the outside in the lowest story. And this is the meaning of “and with winding stairs they went up” עַל הַתִּיכוֹנָה“into the middle chamber” which was above it, signifying that צֵלָע הַתִּיכוֹנָה was below.  
With winding stairs: Jonathan rendered the word לוּל, a winding staircase, and that is called in our language vis (o.f.) and in German Vindelstein, and the commonly used name is schvindel stieg, and that is a structure of stone pillars made in the form of stairs, and he who goes on them is likened to one spiraling around a column and ascending on it several cubits high without inclining the steps as [would be necessary] by an ordinary ladder because its spiral serves as its incline.  
into the third: Heb. שְּׁלִישִׁים, like שְּׁלִישִׁיִּים.  
9And he built the house, and finished it, and he covered the house with panelling and joined planks of cedar.   טוַיִּ֥בֶן אֶת־הַבַּ֖יִת וַיְכַלֵּ֑הוּ וַיִּסְפֹּ֚ן אֶת־הַבַּ֙יִת֙ גֵּבִ֔ים וּשְׂדֵרֹ֖ת בָּאֲרָזִֽים:
And he covered: An expression of covering of the ceiling.  
With panelling and joined planks of cedar: [There were] two ceilings. [The] one made for beauty was below, and [the] one of planks of cedar was above. That of panelling was the lower one. And Jonathan rendered גֵּבִים as הַנְתּוּכִין, but I do not know what they are. And I did hear in the name of Rabbi Menachem… that they are boards woven beautifully in the form of a design, and it is called in our language (o.f.) celed and in German it [is called] gehimmelt and that is an expression of [something] heavenly [in appearance or in height] as the highest part of the beam. And I say they are hollowed bricks, and they are like half a round reed, which are used as coverings for houses [in German, dekziegel].  
panelling: In Aramaic, vaulted canes.  
joined planks: Planks of cedar were laid over the panels, to provide a footing for when they would go to oversee the maintenance of the house [Temple]. Similarly, Jonathan renders, “and above them [the panels] were rows of joined planks made of cedars beams.” The word רכפת [in the Targum] denotes adjacency [as the planks were adjoining to each other]. Elsewhere (II Sam. 22:12) it says, “thick clouds of the sky” for which the Targum renders: “a cluster of light clouds” [which gave the appearance of thick clouds].  
10And he built the chambers against all the house, (each) five cubits high; and he covered the house with timber of cedar.   יוַיִּ֚בֶן אֶת־הַיָּצִ֙יעַ֙ (כתיב הַיָּצִ֙ועַ֙) עַל־כָּל־הַבַּ֔יִת חָמֵ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת קֽוֹמָת֑וֹ וַיֶּאֱחֹ֥ז אֶת־הַבַּ֖יִת בַּעֲצֵ֥י אֲרָזִֽים:
Five cubits high: [was the height] of each chamber. Therefore their [total] height of the three stories was fifteen cubits besides the thickness of the ceiling.  
And he covered the house: That was the upper covering of the roof, and the covering mentioned above (6:9) that was the ceiling of the upper story.  
11And the word of the Lord came to Solomon saying,   יאוַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
12(Concerning) this house which you are building, if you walk in My statutes, and execute My ordinances, and keep all My commandments to walk in them; then will I establish My word with you, which I spoke to David your father.   יבהַבַּ֨יִת הַזֶּ֜ה אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֣ה בֹנֶ֗ה אִם־תֵּלֵ֚ךְ בְּחֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֣י תַּֽעֲשֶֹ֔ה וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֥ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּהֶ֑ם וַהֲקִמֹתִ֚י אֶת־דְּבָרִי֙ אִתָּ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־דָּוִ֥ד אָבִֽיךָ:
13And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will not forsake My people, Israel.   יגוְשָׁ֣כַנְתִּ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹ֥א אֶעֱזֹ֖ב אֶת־עַמִּ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: