ב"ה

Torah Reading for Terumah

Parshat Terumah
Shabbat, 1 Adar, 5785
1 March, 2025
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Complete: (Exodus 25:1 - 27:19; Numbers 28:9-15; Exodus 30:11-16; Kings II 11:17 - 12:17; Isaiah 66:1; Isaiah 66:23-24; Isaiah 66:23)
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First Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 25

1The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, and have them take for Me an offering; from every person whose heart inspires him to generosity, you shall take My offering.   בדַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְיִקְחוּ־לִ֖י תְּרוּמָ֑ה מֵאֵ֤ת כָּל־אִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִדְּבֶ֣נּוּ לִבּ֔וֹ תִּקְח֖וּ אֶת־תְּרֽוּמָתִֽי:
and have them take for Me: Heb. לִי. [I.e.,] dedicated to My name. -[from Tan. 1]   וְיִקְחוּ־לִי תְּרוּמָה: לִי – לִשְׁמִי:
offering: Heb. תְּרוּמָה, separation. They shall set apart from their property an offering for Me.   תְּרוּמָה: הַפְרָשָׁה, יַפְרִישׁוּ לִי מִמָּמוֹנָם נְדָבָה:
whose heart inspires him to generosity: Heb. יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ, an expression of נְדָבָה, which is an expression of good will, present in French, [a] gift.   יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ: לְשׁוֹן נְדָבָה וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן רָצוֹן טוֹב, פיישנ"ט בְּלַעַז:
you shall take My offering: Our Rabbis said: [The word תְּרוּמָה, mentioned three times, denotes that] three offerings are mentioned here. One is the offering of a beka [half-shekel] per head, from which they made the sockets, as is delineated in [Exod. 38:26, 27, in the parsha] “ אֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי, These are the accounts.” Another is the offering of a beka per head for the [community] coffers, from which to purchase the communal sacrifices, and another is the offering for the Mishkan, each one’s [Israelite’s] donation (Talmud Yerushalmi, Shekalim 1:1; Meg. 29b). The thirteen materials mentioned in this section [i.e., this chapter] were all required for the work of the Mishkan or for the garments of the kohanim, [as you will find] when you study them closely (Tan. 5, Song Rabbah 4:25).   תִּקְחוּ אֶת־תְּרֽוּמָתִֽי: אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שָׁלֹשׁ תְּרוּמוֹת אֲמוּרוֹת כָּאן, אַחַת תְּרוּמַת בֶּקַע לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מֵהֶם הָאֲדָנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּאֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי, וְאַחַת תְּרוּמַת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בֶּקַע לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת לַקֻּפּוֹת לִקְנוֹת מֵהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר, וְאַחַת תְּרוּמַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן נִדְבַת כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד (תלמוד ירושלמי שקלים א'). י"ג דְּבָרִים הָאֲמוּרִים בָּעִנְיָן כֻּלָּם הֻצְרְכוּ לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן אוֹ לְבִגְדֵי כְהֻנָּה כְּשֶׁתְּדַקְדֵּק בָּהֶם:
3And this is the offering that you shall take from them: gold, silver, and copper;   גוְזֹאת֙ הַתְּרוּמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּקְח֖וּ מֵֽאִתָּ֑ם זָהָ֥ב וָכֶ֖סֶף וּנְחֽשֶׁת:
gold, silver, and copper, etc.: They were all given voluntarily; each person [gave] what his heart inspired him to give, except [for] the silver, which they gave equally, a half-shekel for each individual. We do not find throughout the entire work of the Mishkan that more silver was required, as it is said: “The silver of the community census was…a beka per head…” (Exod. 38:25, 26). The rest of the silver, which was given there [in the work of the Mishkan] voluntarily, they [the workers] made into service utensils.   זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּנְחֽשֶׁת וגו': כֻּלָּם בָּאוּ בִנְדָבָה – אִישׁ אִישׁ מַה שֶּׁנְּדָבוֹ לִבּוֹ – חוּץ מִן הַכֶּסֶף שֶׁבָּא בְּשָׁוֶה, מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל לְכָל אֶחָד, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ בְכָל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן שֶׁהֻצְרַךְ שָׁם כֶּסֶף יוֹתֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְכֶסֶף פְּקוּדֵי הָעֵדָה וְגוֹ' בֶּקַע לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת וְגוֹ', וּשְׁאָר הַכֶּסֶף הַבָּא שָׁם בִּנְדָבָה עֲשָׂאוּהוּ לִכְלֵי שָׁרֵת:
4blue, purple, and crimson wool; linen and goat hair;   דוּתְכֵ֧לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֛ן וְתוֹלַ֥עַת שָׁנִ֖י וְשֵׁ֥שׁ וְעִזִּֽים:
blue…wool: Heb. תְכֵלֶת, wool dyed with the blood of the chillazon [animal], which bears a blue color. — [from Men. 44a, Tosefta Men. 9:6]   וּתְכֵלֶת: צֶמֶר צָבוּעָ בְּדַם חִלָּזוֹן וְצִבְעוֹ יָרֹק (מנחות מ"ד):
purple…wool: Heb. וְאַרְגָּמָן, wool dyed with a kind of dye named אַרְגָּמָן.   וְאַרְגָּמָן: צֶמֶר צָבוּעַ מִמִּין צֶבַע שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ אַרְגָּמָן:
linen: Heb. שֵׁשׁ. This is linen. — [from Tosefta Men. 9:6]   וְשֵׁשׁ: הוּא פִּשְׁתָּן.
and goat hair: Heb. וְעִזִים, the hair of goats. Therefore, Onkelos rendered: וּמְעַזֵי, [i.e.,] what comes from the goats, but not the goats themselves [i.e., not the goat skins], for Targum’s [Onkelos] translation of עִזִים [goats] is עִזַיָא (Gen. 30:32).   וְעִזִּֽים: נוֹצָה שֶׁל עִזִּים, לְכָךְ תִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס וּמְעַזֵּי – הַבָּא מִן הָעִזִּים – וְלֹא עִזִּים עַצְמָם, שֶׁתַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל עִזִּים עִזַּיָּא:
5ram skins dyed red, tachash skins, and acacia wood;   הוְעֹרֹ֨ת אֵילִ֧ם מְאָדָּמִ֛ים וְעֹרֹ֥ת תְּחָשִׁ֖ים וַֽעֲצֵ֥י שִׁטִּֽים:
dyed red: Heb. מְאֳָדָּמִים. They were dyed red after being tanned.   מְאָדָּמִים: צְבוּעוֹת הָיוּ אָדֹם לְאַחַר עִבּוּדָן:
tachash skins: This was a species of animal that existed only for a [short] time, and it had many hues (גַּוָּנִים). Therefore, [Onkelos] renders [it] סַסְגּוֹנָא, because it rejoices (שֶׁשָׂשׂ) [ס and שׂ are often interchangeable] and boasts of its hues (גַּוָּנִים). -[from Shab. 28a, b]   תְּחָשִׁים: מִין חַיָּה, וְלֹא הָיְתָה אֶלָּא לְשָׁעָה, וְהַרְבֵּה גְּוָנִים הָיוּ לָהּ, לְכָךְ מְתֻרְגָּם סַסְגּוֹנָא שֶׁשָּׂשׂ וּמִתְפָּאֵר בִּגְוָנִין שֶׁלּוֹ (שבת כ"ח):
and acacia wood: Where did they get these [trees] in the desert? Rabbi Tanchuma explained that our father Jacob foresaw with the holy spirit that the Israelites were destined to build a Mishkan in the desert, so he brought cedars to Egypt and planted them. He commanded his sons to take them with them when they left Egypt. — [from Mid. Tanchuma 9]   וַֽעֲצֵי שִׁטִּֽים: וּמֵאַיִן הָיוּ לָהֶם בַּמִּדְבָּר? פֵּרֵשׁ רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא: יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁעֲתִידִין יִשְׂרָאֵל לִבְנוֹת מִשְׁכָּן בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְהֵבִיא אֲרָזִים לְמִצְרַיִם וּנְטָעָם, וְצִוָּה לְבָנָיו לִטְּלָם עִמָּהֶם כְּשֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם:
6oil for lighting, spices for the anointing oil and for the incense;   ושֶׁ֖מֶן לַמָּאֹ֑ר בְּשָׂמִים֙ לְשֶׁ֣מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָ֔ה וְלִקְטֹ֖רֶת הַסַּמִּֽים:
oil for lighting: Pure olive oil to continually kindle the light.   שֶׁמֶן לַמָּאֹר: שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ לְהַעֲלוֹת נֵר תָּמִיד:
spices for the anointing oil: which was made to anoint the vessels of the Mishkan and [for] the Mishkan itself to sanctify them, and spices were required for it, as is delineated in [the parsha] כִּי תִשָׂא (Exod. 30:22-33).   בְּשָׂמִים לְשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה: שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לִמְשֹׁחַ כְּלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְהַמִּשְׁכָּן לְקַדְּשׁוֹ, וְהֻצְרְכוּ לוֹ בְשָׂמִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּכִי תִשָּׂא:
and for the incense: Heb. וְלִקְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים, which they burned every evening and morning, as is explained in [the parsha] וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה (Exod. 30:7, 8). The word קְטֹרֶת means the raising of smoke (קִיטוֹר) and columns of smoke ותִּמְרוֹת עָשָׁן.   וְלִקְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּֽים: שֶׁהָיוּ מַקְטִירִין בְּכָל עֶרֶב וָבֹקֶר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בִּוְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה, וּלְשׁוֹן קְטֹרֶת הַעֲלָאַת קִיטוֹר וְתִמְרַת עָשָׁן:
7shoham stones and filling stones for the ephod and for the choshen.   זאַבְנֵי־שֹׁ֕הַם וְאַבְנֵ֖י מִלֻּאִ֑ים לָֽאֵפֹ֖ד וְלַחֽשֶׁן:
shoham stones: Two were needed there [in the Mishkan] for the ephod, mentioned in [the parsha] וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה (Exod. 28:9-12).   אַבְנֵי־שֹׁהַם: שְׁתַּיִם הֻצְרְכוּ שָׁם לְצֹרֶךְ הָאֵפוֹד הָאָמוּר בִּוְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה:
filling: Since they make for them a seat out of gold, like a sort of hole, and the stone is placed there to fill the hole, they are called filling stones. The place of the “seat” is called מִשְׁבֶּצֶת, a setting.   מִלֻּאִים: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לָהֶם בַּזָּהָב מוֹשָׁב כְּמִין גֻּמָּא, וְנוֹתְנִין הָאֶבֶן שָׁם לְמַלֹּאות הַגֻּמָּא, קְרוּיִים אַבְנֵי מִלּוּאִים, וּמְקוֹם הַמּוֹשָׁב קָרוּי מִשְׁבֶּצֶת:
for the ephod and for the choshen: The shoham stones for the ephod and the filling stones for the choshen. The ephod and the choshen are explained in וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה they are types of ornaments [worn by the kohanim].   לָֽאֵפֹד וְלַחֽשֶׁן: אַבְנֵי הַשֹּׁהַם לָאֵפוֹד וְאַבְנֵי הַמִּלֻּאִים לַחֹשֶׁן; וְחֹשֶׁן וְאֵפוֹד מְפֹרָשִׁים בִּוְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה וְהֵם מִינֵי תַכְשִׁיט:
8And they shall make Me a sanctuary and I will dwell in their midst   חוְעָ֥שׂוּ לִ֖י מִקְדָּ֑שׁ וְשָֽׁכַנְתִּ֖י בְּתוֹכָֽם:
And they shall make Me a sanctuary: And they shall make for My name a house of sanctity.   וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ: וְעָשׂוּ לִשְׁמִי בֵּית קְדֻשָּׁה:
9according to all that I show you, the pattern of the Mishkan and the pattern of all its vessels; and so shall you do.   טכְּכֹ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִי֙ מַרְאֶ֣ה אֽוֹתְךָ֔ אֵ֚ת תַּבְנִ֣ית הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן וְאֵ֖ת תַּבְנִ֣ית כָּל־כֵּלָ֑יו וְכֵ֖ן תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
according to all that I show you: here, the pattern of the Mishkan. This verse is connected to the verse above it: “And they shall make Me a sanctuary…” according to all that I show you.   כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אֽוֹתְךָ: כָּאן את תבנית המשכן, הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה מְחֻבָּר לַמִּקְרָא שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ:
and so shall you do: in future generations (Sanh. 16b, Shev. 14b, 15a). If one of the vessels is lost, or when you make the vessels of the Temple, such as [the] tables, menorahs, wash basins, and bases that Solomon made, you shall make them according to the pattern of these [that I will describe in the following verses]. If the verse was not connected to what was written before it, He would not have written, “and so shall you do,” but" so shall you do" [without the word “and”], and it would be speaking about the making of the Tent of Meeting and its vessels.   וְכֵן תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּ: לְדוֹרוֹת (סנהדרין ט"ז), אִם יֹאבַד אֶחָד מִן הַכֵּלִים, אוֹ כְּשֶׁתַּעֲשׂוּ לִי כְּלֵי בֵית עוֹלָמִים, כְּגוֹן שֻׁלְחָנוֹת וּמְנוֹרוֹת וְכִיּוֹרוֹת וּמְכוֹנוֹת שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה, כְּתַבְנִית אֵלּוּ תַּעֲשׂוּ אוֹתָם; וְאִם לֹא הָיָה הַמִּקְרָא מְחֻבָּר לְמַעְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ, לֹא הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶלָּא כֵּן תַּעֲשׂוּ, וְהָיָה מְדַבֵּר עַל עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְכֵלָיו:
10They shall make an ark of acacia wood, two and a half cubits its length, a cubit and a half its width, and a cubit and a half its height.   יוְעָשׂ֥וּ אֲר֖וֹן עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים אַמָּתַ֨יִם וָחֵ֜צִי אָרְכּ֗וֹ וְאַמָּ֤ה וָחֵ֨צִי֙ רָחְבּ֔וֹ וְאַמָּ֥ה וָחֵ֖צִי קֹֽמָתֽוֹ:
They shall make an ark: like the chests that are made without feet, made like a sort of chest called escrin [in Old French, ecrin in modern French], (i.e., a chest or box), which rests on its bottom [without being raised off the floor by the attachment of legs].   וְעָשׂוּ אֲרוֹן: כְּמִין אֲרוֹנוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂים בְּלֹא רַגְלַיִם, עֲשׂוּיִם כְּמִין אַרְגָּז שֶׁקּוֹרִין אישקרי"ן בְּלַעַז, יוֹשֵׁב עַל שׁוּלָיו:
11And you shall overlay it with pure gold; from inside and from outside you shall overlay it, and you shall make upon it a golden crown all around.   יאוְצִפִּיתָ֤ אֹתוֹ֙ זָהָ֣ב טָה֔וֹר מִבַּ֥יִת וּמִח֖וּץ תְּצַפֶּ֑נּוּ וְעָשִׂ֧יתָ עָלָ֛יו זֵ֥ר זָהָ֖ב סָבִֽיב:
from inside and from outside you shall overlay it: Bezalel made three arks, two of gold and one of wood. Each one had four walls and a bottom, and they were open on the top. He placed the wooden one inside the golden one and the [other] golden one inside the wooden one. He covered the upper rim with gold, thus it is found that [the wooden one] was overlaid from inside and from outside [with gold]. — [from Yoma 72b, Shek. 16b]   מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ תְּצַפֶּנּוּ: שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲרוֹנוֹת עָשָׂה בְצַלְאֵל, שְׁנַיִם שֶׁל זָהָב וְאֶחָד שֶׁל עֵץ, אַרְבַּע כְּתָלִים וְשׁוּלַיִם לְכָל אֶחָד וּפְתוּחִים מִלְמַעְלָה, נָתַן שֶׁל עֵץ בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל זָהָב וְשֶׁל זָהָב בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל עֵץ וְחִפָּה שְׂפָתוֹ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה בְּזָהָב, נִמְצָא מְצֻפֶּה מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ (יומא ע"ב):
a golden crown: Like a sort of crown surrounding it above its rim. For he [Bezalel] made the outer ark higher than the inner one, until it extended upwards opposite the thickness of the ark cover and slightly higher than it, so that when the ark cover lies on the thickness of the walls, the crown extends slightly over the thickness of the ark cover (Yoma 72b). And that [the crown] is the symbol of the crown of the Torah (Tan. Vayakhel 8, Exod. Rabbah 34:2).   זֵר זָהָב: כְּמִין כֶּתֶר מֻקָּף לוֹ סָבִיב לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׂפָתוֹ, שֶׁעָשָׂה הָאָרוֹן הַחִיצוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ מִן הַפְּנִימִי, עַד שֶׁעָלָה לְמוּל עֹבִי הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּלְמַעְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ, וּכְשֶׁהַכַּפֹּרֶת שׁוֹכֵב עַל עֹבִי הַכְּתָלִים, עוֹלֶה הַזֵּר לְמַעְלָה מִכָּל עֹבִי הַכַּפֹּרֶת כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְהוּא סִימָן לְכֶתֶר תּוֹרָה:
12And you shall cast four golden rings for it, and you shall place them upon its four corners, two rings on its one side, and two rings on its other side.   יבוְיָצַ֣קְתָּ לּ֗וֹ אַרְבַּע֙ טַבְּעֹ֣ת זָהָ֔ב וְנָ֣תַתָּ֔ה עַ֖ל אַרְבַּ֣ע פַּֽעֲמֹתָ֑יו וּשְׁתֵּ֣י טַבָּעֹ֗ת עַל־צַלְעוֹ֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ת וּשְׁתֵּי֙ טַבָּעֹ֔ת עַל־צַלְע֖וֹ הַשֵּׁנִֽית:
And you shall cast: Heb. וְיָצַקְתָּ, an expression of casting, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders.   וְיָצַקְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן הַתָּכָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
its…corners: Heb. פַּעִמֹתָיו. As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: זִיוְיָתֵיהּ, its corners. They were attached on the upper corners, close to the ark cover, two from here and two from there, across the width of the ark, and the poles were placed in them [the rings]. The length of the ark separated the poles, two and one-half cubits between [one] pole and [the other] pole, so that the two people carrying the ark would walk between them [the poles]. So it is explained in Men., in the chapter entitled שתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם (98b).   פעמותיו: כְּתַרְגוּמוֹ זִוְיָתֵיהּ; וּבַזָּוִיּוֹת הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת סָמוּךְ לַכַּפֹּרֶת הָיוּ נְתוּנוֹת, שְׁתַּיִם מִכָּאן וּשְׁתַּיִם מִכָּאן לְרָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל אָרוֹן, וְהַבַּדִּים נְתוּנִים בָּהֶם, וְאָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָרוֹן מַפְסִיק בֵּין הַבַּדִּים, אַמָּתַיִם וָחֵצִי בֵּין בַּד לְבַד, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי אָדָם הַנּוֹשְׂאִין אֶת הָאָרוֹן מְהַלְּכִין בֵּינֵיהֶם; וְכֵן מְפֹרָשׁ בִּמְנָחוֹת בְּפ' שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם (מנחות דף צ"ח):
two rings on its one side: Heb. וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת, lit., and two rings. These are the four rings [mentioned] in the beginning of the verse, and [Scripture now] explains to you where they were [to be placed]. This “vav” is superfluous, and it is to be interpreted as שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת, two rings. But you can reconcile it [by interpreting it] in this way: and two of these rings [shall be] on its one side, [meaning, and two of the four rings mentioned in the beginning of this verse shall be on one side, etc.].   וּשְׁתֵּי טַבְּעֹת עַל צַלְעוֹ הָֽאֶחָת: הֵן הֵן אַרְבַּע טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא, וּפֵרֵשׁ לְךָ הֵיכָן הָיוּ; וְהַוָּי"ו זוֹ יְתֵרָה הִיא, וּפִתְרוֹנוֹ כְּמוֹ שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת, וְיֵשׁ לְךָ לְיַשְּׁבָהּ כֵּן: וּשְׁתֵּי מִן הַטַּבָּעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ עַל צַלְעוֹ הָאַחַת:
its…side: Heb. צַלְעוֹ, its side.   צַלְעוֹ: צִדּוֹ:
13And you shall make poles of acacia wood and you shall overlay them with gold.   יגוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ בַדֵּ֖י עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹתָ֖ם זָהָֽב:
poles of: Heb. בַדֵּי, poles.   בַדֵּי: מוֹטוֹת:
14And you shall bring the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark, to carry the ark with them.   ידוְהֵֽבֵאתָ֤ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים֙ בַּטַּבָּעֹ֔ת עַ֖ל צַלְעֹ֣ת הָֽאָרֹ֑ן לָשֵׂ֥את אֶת־הָֽאָרֹ֖ן בָּהֶֽם:
15The poles of the ark shall be in the rings; they shall not be removed from it.   טובְּטַבְּעֹת֙ הָֽאָרֹ֔ן יִֽהְי֖וּ הַבַּדִּ֑ים לֹ֥א יָסֻ֖רוּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
they shall not be removed from it: forever.   לֹא יָסֻרוּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ: לְעוֹלָם (יומא ע"ב):
16And you shall place into the ark the testimony, which I will give you.   טזוְנָֽתַתָּ֖ אֶל־הָֽאָרֹ֑ן אֵ֚ת הָֽעֵדֻ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶתֵּ֖ן אֵלֶֽיךָ:
And you shall place into the ark: Heb. אֶל-הָאָרֹן, lit., to the ark, [meaning] into the ark.   וְנָֽתַתָּ אֶל־הָֽאָרֹן: כְּמוֹ בָּאָרוֹן:
the testimony: [I.e.,] the Torah, which serves as testimony between Me and you [Israel] that I commanded you [to fulfill] the commandments written in it. — [from Mid. Tan. Pekudei 4, also Mid. Lekach Tov]   הָֽעֵדֻת: הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהִיא לְעֵדוּת בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם שֶׁצִּוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִצְווֹת הַכְּתוּבוֹת בָּהּ:

Second Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 25

17And you shall make an ark cover of pure gold, two and a half cubits its length and a cubit and a half its width.   יזוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ כַפֹּ֖רֶת זָהָ֣ב טָה֑וֹר אַמָּתַ֤יִם וָחֵ֨צִי֙ אָרְכָּ֔הּ וְאַמָּ֥ה וָחֵ֖צִי רָחְבָּֽהּ:
an ark cover: Heb. כַפֹּרֶת a cover over the ark, which was open from above. He [Moses] placed it [the cover] over it [the ark] like a board.   כַפֹּרֶת: כִּסּוּי עַל הָאָרוֹן, שֶׁהָיָה פָּתוּחַ מִלְמַעְלָה וּמַנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו כְּמִין דַּף:
two and a half cubits its length: like the length of the ark. Its width was like the width of the ark, and it lay on the thickness of the four walls. Although [Scripture] does not give a measure for its thickness, our Rabbis explained that it was a handbreadth thick. — [from Succah 5a]   אַמָּתַיִם וָחֵצִי אָרְכָּהּ: כְּאָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָרוֹן, וְרָחְבָּהּ כְּרָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל אָרוֹן, וּמֻנַּחַת עַל עֹבִי הַכְּתָלִים אַרְבַּעְתָּם, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן שִׁעוּר לְעָבְיָהּ, פֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁהָיָה עָבְיָהּ טֶפַח (סוכה ה'):
18And you shall make two golden cherubim; you shall make them of hammered work, from the two ends of the ark cover.   יחוְעָשִׂ֛יתָ שְׁנַ֥יִם כְּרֻבִ֖ים זָהָ֑ב מִקְשָׁה֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹתָ֔ם מִשְּׁנֵ֖י קְצ֥וֹת הַכַּפֹּֽרֶת:
cherubim: Heb. כְּרֻבִים. They had the features of a child. — [from Succah 5]   כְּרֻבִים: דְּמוּת פַּרְצוּף תִּינוֹק לָהֶם:
you shall make…of hammered work: [This means] that you should not make them separate and then join them at the ends of the ark cover after they are made, as smiths do [in a process] called solderez [in Old French], soldered. Instead, you should take a large quantity of gold at the beginning of the construction of the ark cover and beat it with a hammer and with a mallet in the center [of the mass of gold] so that its ends protrude upward, and [then you should] form the cherubim from the protrusion of its ends.   מִקְשָׁה תַּֽעֲשֶׂה: שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֵׂם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם וּתְחַבְּרֵם בְּרָאשֵׁי הַכַּפֹּרֶת לְאַחַר עֲשִׂיָּתָם כְּמַעֲשֵׂה צוֹרְפִים שֶׁקּוֹרִין שולד"יר בְּלַעַז, אֶלָּא הַטֵּל זָהָב הַרְבֵּה בִּתְחִלַּת עֲשִׂיַּת הַכַּפֹּרֶת, וְהַכֵּה בְּפַטִּישׁ וּבְקֻרְנָס בָּאֶמְצַע, וְרָאשִׁין בּוֹלְטִין לְמַעְלָה, וְצַיֵּר הַכְּרוּבִים בִּבְלִיטַת קְצוֹתָיו:
hammered: Heb. מִקְשָׁה, batediz in Old French, hammered, like “knocked (נָקְשָׁן) one against the other” (Dan. 5:6).   מִקְשָׁה: בטדי"ץ בְּלַעַז, כְּמוֹ דָּא לְדָא נָקְשָׁן (דניאל ה'):
ends of the ark cover: Heb. קְצוֹת הכַּפֹּרֶת, ends of the ark cover.   קְצוֹת הַכַּפֹּֽרֶת: רָאשֵׁי הַכַּפֹּרֶת:
19And make one cherub from the one end and the other cherub from the other end; from the ark cover you shall make the cherubim on its two ends.   יטוַֽ֠עֲשֵׂ֠ה כְּר֨וּב אֶחָ֤ד מִקָּצָה֙ מִזֶּ֔ה וּכְרוּב־אֶחָ֥ד מִקָּצָ֖ה מִזֶּ֑ה מִן־הַכַּפֹּ֛רֶת תַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִ֖ים עַל־שְׁנֵ֥י קְצוֹתָֽיו:
And make one cherub from the one end: [The text elaborates] so that you will not say [that it means] two cherubim at each end. Therefore, it had to explain, “one cherub from the one end.”   וַֽעֲשֵׂה כְּרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה: שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר שְׁנַיִם כְּרוּבִים לְכָל קָצֶה וְקָצֶה, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לְפָרֵשׁ כְּרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה:
from the ark cover: itself you shall make the cherubim. This is the meaning of “you shall make them of hammered work” -that you shall not make them [the cherubim] separately and [then] attach them to the ark cover.   מִן־הַכַּפֹּרֶת: עַצְמָהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת הַכְּרוּבִים, זֶהוּ פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁל מִקְשָׁה תַּעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָם, שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם וּתְחַבְּרֵם לַכַּפֹּרֶת:
20The cherubim shall have their wings spread upwards, shielding the ark cover with their wings, with their faces toward one another; [turned] toward the ark cover shall be the faces of the cherubim.   כוְהָי֣וּ הַכְּרֻבִים֩ פֹּֽרְשֵׂ֨י כְנָפַ֜יִם לְמַ֗עְלָה סֹֽכְכִ֤ים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם֙ עַל־הַכַּפֹּ֔רֶת וּפְנֵיהֶ֖ם אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֑יו אֶ֨ל־הַכַּפֹּ֔רֶת יִֽהְי֖וּ פְּנֵ֥י הַכְּרֻבִֽים:
their wings spread: [This means] that you shall not make their wings lying down [resting next to their bodies], but spread high alongside their heads, so that there should be ten handbreadths in the space between the wings and the ark cover, as is stated in Succah (5b).   פֹּֽרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם: שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה כַנְפֵיהֶם שׁוֹכְבִים אֶלָּא פְּרוּשִׂים וּגְבוֹהִים לְמַעְלָה אֵצֶל רָאשֵׁיהֶם, שֶׁיְּהֵא עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים בֶּחָלָל שֶׁבֵּין הַכְּנָפַיִם לַכַּפֹּרֶת, כִּדְאִיתָא בְסֻכָּה:
21And you shall place the ark cover on the ark from above, and into the ark you shall place the testimony, which I will give you.   כאוְנָֽתַתָּ֧ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּ֛רֶת עַל־הָֽאָרֹ֖ן מִלְמָ֑עְלָה וְאֶל־הָ֣אָרֹ֔ן תִּתֵּן֙ אֶת־הָ֣עֵדֻ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶתֵּ֖ן אֵלֶֽיךָ:
and into the ark you shall place the testimony: I do not know why it was repeated, for it already said: “And you shall place into the ark the testimony” (verse 16). We may say that it comes to teach that when it [the ark] is still an ark alone, without an ark cover, he [Moses] should first put in the testimony and then place the ark cover over it. So we find [that] when he [Moses] erected the Mishkan, it says: “And he placed the testimony into the ark,” and afterwards, “and he placed the ark cover on the ark from above” (Exod. 40:20).   וְאֶל־הָֽאָרֹן תִּתֵּן אֶת־הָעֵדֻת: לֹא יָדַעְתִּי לָמָּה נִכְפַּל, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר נֶאֱמַר וְנָתַתָּ אֶל הָאָרֹן אֵת הָעֵדֻת, וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר, שֶׁבָּא לְלַמֵּד שֶׁבְּעוֹדוֹ אָרוֹן לְבַדּוֹ, בְּלֹא כַפֹּרֶת, יִתֵּן תְּחִלָּה הָעֵדוּת לְתוֹכוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן אֶת הַכַּפֹּרֶת עָלָיו, וְכֵן מָצִינוּ כְּשֶׁהֵקִים אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, נֶאֱמַר וַיִּתֵּן אֶת הָעֵדֻת אֶל הָאָרֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ וַיִּתֵּן אֶת הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל הָאָרֹן מִלְמָעְלָה:
22I will arrange My meetings with you there, and I will speak with you from atop the ark cover from between the two cherubim that are upon the Ark of the Testimony, all that I will command you unto the children of Israel.   כבוְנֽוֹעַדְתִּ֣י לְךָ֘ שָׁם֒ וְדִבַּרְתִּ֨י אִתְּךָ֜ מֵעַ֣ל הַכַּפֹּ֗רֶת מִבֵּין֙ שְׁנֵ֣י הַכְּרֻבִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־אֲר֣וֹן הָֽעֵדֻ֑ת אֵ֣ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֧ר אֲצַוֶּ֛ה אֽוֹתְךָ֖ אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
I will arrange My meetings with you there: When I arrange a meeting for you to speak with you, [it is at] that place that I will arrange for the meeting where I will come to speak to you.   וְנֽוֹעַדְתִּי: כְּשֶׁאֶקְבַּע מוֹעֵד לְךָ לְדַבֵּר עִמְּךָ, אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם אֶקְבַּע לַמּוֹעֵד שֶׁאָבֹא שָׁם לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ:
and I will speak with you from atop the ark cover: But elsewhere it says: “and the Lord spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting, saying…” (Lev. 1:1). That is the Mishkan, outside the dividing curtain [whereas the ark was within the dividing curtain]. The two verses are found to contradict one another. The third verse comes and reconciles them. "And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting…he heard the voice speaking to him from atop the ark cover" (Num. 7:89). [The solution is that] Moses would enter the Mishkan and as soon as he came within the doorway, a voice would descend from heaven to [the place] between the cherubim, from where it emanated and was heard by Moses in the Tent of Meeting. — [from Sifrei, end of Naso]   וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר (ויקרא א'), זֶה הַמִּשְׁכָּן, מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי כְתוּבִים מַכְחִישִׁים זֶה אֶת זֶה, – בָּא הַכָּתוּב הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְהִכְרִיעַ בֵּינֵיהֶם: וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, וַיִּשְׁמַע אֶת הַקּוֹל מִדַּבֵּר אֵלָיו מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְגוֹ' (במדבר ז'), מֹשֶׁה הָיָה נִכְנָס לַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא בְתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח, קוֹל יוֹרֵד מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם לְבֵין הַכְּרוּבִים, וּמִשָּׁם יוֹצֵא וְנִשְׁמָע לְמֹשֶׁה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (ספרי):
and all that I will command you unto the children of Israel: Heb. וְאֵת. This “vav” [that Rashi adds, meaning “and,”] is superfluous, and there are many similar [examples] in the Torah. And you shall interpret it thus: "and all that I will speak with you there is all that I will command you unto the children of Israel."   ואֶת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֽוֹתְךָ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: הֲרֵי וָי"ו זוֹ יְתֵרָה וּטְפֵלָה, וְכָמוֹהָ הַרְבֵּה בַּמִּקְרָא, וְכֹה תִפָּתֵר: וְאֶת אֲשֶׁר אֲדַבֵּר עִמְּךָ שָׁם אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אוֹתְךָ אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא:
23And you shall make a table of acacia wood, two cubits its length, one cubit its width, and a cubit and a half its height.   כגוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ שֻׁלְחָ֖ן עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים אַמָּתַ֤יִם אָרְכּוֹ֙ וְאַמָּ֣ה רָחְבּ֔וֹ וְאַמָּ֥ה וָחֵ֖צִי קֹֽמָתֽוֹ:
its height: The height of its legs [together] with the thickness of the table [top].   קֹֽמָתֽוֹ: גֹּבַהּ רַגְלָיו עִם עֹבִי הַשֻּׁלְחָן:
24And you shall overlay it with pure gold, and you shall make for it a golden crown all around.   כדוְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹת֖וֹ זָהָ֣ב טָה֑וֹר וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ לּ֛וֹ זֵ֥ר זָהָ֖ב סָבִֽיב:
a golden crown: symbolic of the crown of kingship, for the table represents wealth and greatness, as they say, “the royal table.” -[from Yoma 72b]   זֵר זָהָב: סִימָן לְכֶתֶר מַלְכוּת, שֶׁהַשֻּׁלְחָן שֵׁם עֹשֶׁר וּגְדֻלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים שֻׁלְחַן מְלָכִים:
25And you shall make for it a frame a handbreadth [wide] all around, and you shall make a golden crown for its frame all around.   כהוְעָשִׂ֨יתָ לּ֥וֹ מִסְגֶּ֛רֶת טֹ֖פַח סָבִ֑יב וְעָשִׂ֧יתָ זֵֽר־זָהָ֛ב לְמִסְגַּרְתּ֖וֹ סָבִֽיב:
a frame: Heb. מִסְגֶּרֶת, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: גְּדַנְפָא, a rim. The Sages of Israel differed concerning the matter. Some say that it was above [i.e., extending from the table top], around the table, like the rims at the edge of the tables of the princes. Some say that it was below [the table top], inserted from one leg to the other on the four sides of the table, and the table top lay on that frame. — [from Men. 96b]   מִסְגֶּרֶת: כְּתַרְגוּמוֹ גְּדַנְפָא; וְנֶחְלְקוּ חַכְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּדָּבָר, יֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים לְמַעְלָה הָיְתָה סָבִיב לַשֻּׁלְחָן כְּמוֹ לְבִזְבְּזִין שֶׁבִּשְׂפַת שֻׁלְחַן שָׂרִים, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים לְמַטָּה הָיְתָה תְקוּעָה מֵרֶגֶל לְרֶגֶל בְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְדַף הַשֻּׁלְחָן שׁוֹכֵב עַל אוֹתָהּ מִסְגֶּרֶת:
and you shall make a golden crown for its frame: That is the crown mentioned above, and here He explains to you that it was on the frame.   וְעָשִׂיתָ זֵֽר־זָהָב לְמִסְגַּרְתּוֹ: הוּא זֵר הָאָמוּר לְמַעְלָה, וּפֵרֵשׁ לְךָ כָּאן שֶׁעַל הַמִּסְגֶּרֶת הָיְתָה:
26And you shall make for it four golden rings, and you shall place the rings on the four corners that are on its four legs.   כווְעָשִׂ֣יתָ לּ֔וֹ אַרְבַּ֖ע טַבְּעֹ֣ת זָהָ֑ב וְנָֽתַתָּ֙ אֶת־הַטַּבָּעֹ֔ת עַ֚ל אַרְבַּ֣ע הַפֵּאֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֖ר לְאַרְבַּ֥ע רַגְלָֽיו:
27The rings shall be opposite the frame as holders for the poles [with which] to carry the table.   כזלְעֻמַּת֙ הַמִּסְגֶּ֔רֶת תִּֽהְיֶ֖יןָ הַטַּבָּעֹ֑ת לְבָתִּ֣ים לְבַדִּ֔ים לָשֵׂ֖את אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָֽן:
The rings shall be opposite the frame: on the legs, inserted opposite the ends of the frame.   לְעֻמַּת הַמִּסְגֶּרֶת תִּֽהְיֶיןָ הַטַּבָּעֹת: בָּרַגְלַיִם תְּקוּעוֹת, כְּנֶגֶד רָאשֵׁי הַמִּסְגֶרֶת:
as holders for the poles: Those rings shall be holders in which to insert the poles.   לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים: אוֹתָן טַבָּעוֹת יִהְיוּ בָתִּים לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶן הַבַּדִּים:
as holders: Heb. לְבָתִּים, for the purpose of holders.   לְבָתִּים: לְצֹרֶךְ:
for the poles: Heb. לְבַדִּים, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: אַתְרָא לַאִרִיחַיָא, a place for the poles.   לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ – אַתְרָא לַאֲרִיחַיָּא:
28And you shall make the poles of acacia wood, and you shall overlay them with gold, and the table shall be carried with them.   כחוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים֙ עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֔ים וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹתָ֖ם זָהָ֑ב וְנִשָּׂא־בָ֖ם אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָֽן:
shall be carried with them: Heb. וְנִשָׂא-בָם, the passive voice. The table shall be carried with them [by the poles].   וְנִשָּׂא־בָם: לְשׁוֹן נִפְעַל, יִהְיֶה נִשָּׂא בָם אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן:
29And you shall make its forms, its spoons, its half pipes, and its supports with which it will be covered; of pure gold you shall make them.   כטוְעָשִׂ֨יתָ קְּעָֽרֹתָ֜יו וְכַפֹּתָ֗יו וּקְשׂוֹתָיו֙ וּמְנַקִּיֹּתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֻסַּ֖ךְ בָּהֵ֑ן זָהָ֥ב טָה֖וֹר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָֽם:
And you shall make its forms, its spoons: Heb. קְּעָרֹתָיו וְכַפֹּתָיו. קְּעָרֹתָיו is the form that was made according to the shape of the bread (Men. 97a). The bread was made in the shape of a type of box without a cover. It had a flat bottom (Men. 94b) and it would be bent upward on both sides [forming something] similar to walls. Therefore, it is called לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, literally, the bread of faces, because it has faces looking in both directions-toward the sides of the house [Mishkan] from here [in one direction] and from there [in the other direction]. It was placed lengthwise across the width of the table, and its walls stood vertically opposite the edge of the table. A golden form and an iron form were made for it. It was baked [on Fridays] in the iron form, and when it was taken out of the oven, it would be placed in the golden form until the next day, which was the Sabbath, when it would be arranged on the table. That form is called קְעָרָה.   וְעָשִׂיתָ קְּעָֽרֹתָיו וְכַפֹּתָיו: קְעָרוֹתָיו זֶה דְּפוּס שֶׁהָיָה עָשׂוּי כִּדְפוּס הַלֶּחֶם, וְהַלֶּחֶם הָיָה עָשׂוּי כְּמִין תֵּבָה פְּרוּצָה מִשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹתֶיהָ, שׁוּלַיִם לוֹ לְמַטָּה, וְקוֹפֵל מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה כְּמִין כְּתָלִים, וּלְכָךְ קָרוּי לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פָנִים רוֹאִין לְכָאן וּלְכָאן לְצִדֵּי הַבַּיִת מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְנוֹתֵן אָרְכּוֹ לְרָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן, וְכָתְלָיו זְקוּפִים כְּנֶגֶד שְׂפַת הַשֻּׁלְחָן; וְהָיָה עָשׂוּי לוֹ דְּפוּס זָהָב וּדְפוּס בַּרְזֶל, בְּשֶׁל בַּרְזֶל הוּא נֶאֱפֶה, וּכְשֶׁמּוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הַתַּנּוּר נוֹתְנוֹ בְשֶׁל זָהָב עַד לְמָחָר בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁמְּסַדְּרוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְאוֹתוֹ דְּפוּס קָרוּי קְעָרָה:
its spoons: Heb. וְכַפֹּתָיו. They were the spoons in which the frankincense was placed. There were two [spoons meant] for the two handfuls of frankincense that were placed beside the two stacks, as it is said: “And you shall place beside the stack pure frankincense” (Lev. 24:7). -[from Men. 97a]   וְכַפֹּתָיו: בָּזִיכִין שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בָּהֶם לְבוֹנָה שְׁתַּיִם הָיוּ לִשְׁנֵי קֻמְצֵי לְבוֹנָה שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין עַל שְׁתֵּי הַמַּעֲרָכוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְנָתַתָּ עַל הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת לְבֹנָה זַכָּה (ויקרא כ"ד):
its half-pipes: Heb. וּקְשׁוֹתָיו. They are sort of half-tubes, hollow and split along their length. They are similar to the tubes made of gold. Three [tubes] were arranged over each bread, so that each bread would rest upon those tubes. They would separate one bread from the other so that air would enter between them and they [the bread] would not grow moldy. In Arabic, any hollow thing is called kaswa. — [from Men. 96a, 97a]   וּקְשׂוֹתָיו: הֵן כְּמִין חֲצָאֵי קָנִים חֲלוּלִים הַנִּסְדָּקִין לְאָרְכָּן (מנחות צ"ו), דֻּגְמָתָן עוֹשֶׂה שֶׁל זָהָב, וּמְסַדֵּר ג' עַל רֹאשׁ כָּל לֶחֶם, שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב לֶחֶם הָאַחֵר עַל גַּבֵּי אוֹתָן הַקָּנִים, וּמַבְדִּילִין בֵּין לֶחֶם לְלֶחֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס הָרוּחַ בֵּינֵיהֶם וְלֹא יִתְעַפְּשׁוּ; וּבִלְשׁוֹן עֲרָבִי כָּל דָּבָר חָלוּל קָרוּי קס"וא:
and its supports: Heb. וּמְנַקּיֹתָיו. Its Aramaic translation is וּמְכִילָתֵיהּ, [meaning] and its bearers. They are branches like golden pegs [Mizrachi explains that they were like columns] standing on the ground and reaching a considerable height upwards above the table, corresponding to the height of the stack of bread. [They were] notched with six (Mizrachi-five) notches, one above the other, and the ends of the pipes between one bread and another were supported by these branches so that the burden of the upper breads should not weigh down on the lower ones and cause them to break. The derivation of מְכִילָתֵיהּ is “its bearers,” similar to “I am weary of bearing [it] (הָכִיל)” (Jer. 6:11). But I do not know how the מְנַקִּיוֹת applies to branches. Other Sages of Israel say that קְשׂתָיו refers to the branches, which harden (מְקֻשוֹת) it [the showbread] and strengthen it so that it does not break, and מְנַקִּיוֹתָיו refers to the pipes, which clean (מְנַקִּין) [the bread] so that it should not become moldy (Men. 96a). But Onkelos, who rendered [מְנַקִּיוֹתָיו as] מְכִילָתֵיהּ, understood it in a similar way to the words of the one [Sage] who says [that] מְנַקִּיוֹת are branches.   וּמְנַקִּיֹּתָיו: תַּרְגּוּמוֹ וּמְכִילָתֵיהּ, הֵן סְנִיפִים כְּמִין יִתְדוֹת זָהָב, עוֹמְדִין בָּאָרֶץ וּגְבוֹהִים עַד לְמַעְלָה מִן הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַרְבֵּה, כְּנֶגֶד גֹּבַהּ מַעֲרֶכֶת הַלֶּחֶם, וּמְפֻצָּלִים חֲמִשָּׁה פִצּוּלִים זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה, וְרָאשֵׁי הַקָּנִים שֶׁבֵּין לֶחֶם לְלֶחֶם סְמוּכִין עַל אוֹתָן פִּצּוּלִין, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכְבַּד מַשָּׂא הַלֶּחֶם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים וְיִשָּׁבְרוּ; וּלְשׁוֹן מְכִילָתֵיהּ סֹבְלוֹתָיו, כְּמוֹ נִלְאֵיתִי הָכִיל (ירמיהו ו'). אֲבָל לְשׁוֹן מְנַקִּיּוֹת אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיךְ נוֹפֵל עַל סְנִיפִין; וְיֵשׁ מֵחַכְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים קְשֹׂתָיו אֵלּוּ סְנִיפִין, שֶׁמַּקְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ וּמַחֲזִיקִים אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבֵר, וּמְנַקִּיֹּתָיו אֵלּוּ הַקָּנִים שֶׁמְּנַקִּין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַפֵּשׁ (מנחות צ"ז), אֲבָל אֻנְקְלוֹס שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם וּמְכִילָתֵיהּ, הָיָה שׁוֹנֶה כְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר מְנַקִּיּוֹת הֵן סְנִיפִין:
with which it will be covered: Heb. יֻסַּךְ, [meaning] with which it will be covered. Regarding the half-pipes, [Scripture] says “with which it will be covered” because they [the half-pipes] were like a sort of roof and cover over it [the bread], and similarly elsewhere (Num. 4:7) [Scripture] says, “the half- pipes which cover (הַנָּסֶךְ),” and both of these [words]- יֻסַּךְ and (הַנָּסֶךְ) Are words meaning a roof and a cover.   אֲשֶׁר יֻסַּךְ בָּהֵן: אֲשֶׁר יְכֻסֶּה בָהֵן, וְעַל קְשֹׂתָיו הוּא אוֹמֵר אֲשֶׁר יֻסַּךְ, שֶׁהָיוּ עָלָיו כְּמִין סְכָךְ וְכִסּוּי, וְכֵן בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֵת קְשׂוֹת הַנָּסֶךְ (במדבר ד'), וְזֶה וָזֶה, יֻסַּךְ וְהַנָּסֶךְ, לְשׁוֹן סְכָךְ וְכִסּוּי הֵם:
30And you shall place on the table showbread before Me at all times.   לוְנָֽתַתָּ֧ עַל־הַשֻּׁלְחָ֛ן לֶ֥חֶם פָּנִ֖ים לְפָנַ֥י תָּמִֽיד:
showbread: Heb. לֶחֶם פָּנִים, lit., bread of faces, [given this appellation] because it has faces, as I explained [on verse 29]. The number of breads and the order of their stacks are explained in [the parsha of] אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים, “Speak to the Kohanim” (Lev. 21:1).   לֶחֶם פָּנִים: שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ פָּנִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי, וּמִנְיַן הַלֶּחֶם וְסֵדֶר מַעַרְכוֹתָיו מְפֹרָשִׁים בֶּאֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים:

Third Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 25

31And you shall make a menorah of pure gold. The menorah shall be made of hammered work; its base and its stem, its goblets, its knobs, and its flowers shall [all] be [one piece] with it.   לאוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ מְנֹרַ֖ת זָהָ֣ב טָה֑וֹר מִקְשָׁ֞ה תֵּֽיעָשֶׂ֤ה הַמְּנוֹרָה֙ יְרֵכָ֣הּ וְקָנָ֔הּ גְּבִיעֶ֛יהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶ֥יהָ וּפְרָחֶ֖יהָ מִמֶּ֥נָּה יִֽהְיֽוּ:
The menorah shall be made of hammered work: [meaning] that it must not be made in sections, [which can be removed]. Its branches and its lamps should not be made individually and then attached, as is the custom of the smiths [through a process] called solderez [in French], soldering, but it [the menorah] must come [be constructed] entirely from one piece [of gold]-beaten with a hammer and cut with a tool, and the branches separated on both sides. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan.]   מִקְשָׁה תֵּֽיעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה: שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂנָּה חֻלְיוֹת וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה קָנֶיהָ וְנֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֵבָרִים אֵבָרִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַדְבִּיקֵם, כְּדֶרֶךְ הַצּוֹרְפִים שֶׁקּוֹרִין שולד"יר בְּלַעַז, אֶלָּא כֻלָּהּ בָּאָה מֵחֲתִיכָה אַחַת, וּמַקִּישׁ בַּקֻּרְנָס וְחוֹתֵךְ בִּכְלִי הָאֻמָּנוּת וּמַפְרִיד הַקָּנִים אֵילָךְ וָאֵילָךְ:
of hammered work: Heb. מִקְשָׁה. Its Aramaic translation is נְגִיד, an expression of drawing out, [meaning] that he draws the parts out of the block of gold on either side by beating [it] with a hammer. The word מִקְשָׁה means the blow of a hammer, batediz in Old French, hammered, like “knocked (נָקְשָׁן) one against the other” (Dan. 5:6).   מִקְשָׁה: תַּרְגּוּמוֹ נְגִיד, לְשׁוֹן הַמְשָׁכָה, שֶׁמַּמְשִׁיךְ אֶת הָאֵבָרִים מִן הָעֶשֶׁת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן בְּהַקָּשַׁת הַקֻּרְנָס, וּלְשׁוֹן מִקְשָׁה מַכַּת קֻרְנָס, בטדי"ץ בְּלַעַז, כְּמוֹ דָּא לְדָא נָקְשָׁן (דניאל ה'):
the menorah shall be made: By itself. Since Moses found difficulty with it [i.e., figuring out how to form the menorah], the Holy One, blessed is He, said to him, “Cast the talent [equivalent to sixty-four pounds of gold] into the fire, and it will be made by itself.” Therefore, it is not written: תֵּעָשֶׂה but תֵּיעָשֶׂה. -[from Tan. Beha’alothecha 3]   תֵּֽיעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה: מֵאֵלֶיהָ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה מֹשֶׁה מִתְקַשֶּׁה בָהּ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הַשְׁלֵךְ אֶת הַכִּכָּר לָאוּר וְהִיא נַעֲשֵׂית מֵאֵלֶיהָ, לְכָךְ לֹא נִכְתַּב תַּעֲשֶׂה (תנחומא):
its base: This refers to the foot on the bottom [of the menorah], which was made like a box with three legs coming out of it [protruding] downwards.   יְרֵכָהּ: הוּא הָרֶגֶל שֶׁלְּמַטָּה הֶעָשׂוּי כְּמִין תֵּבָה, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה רַגְלַיִם יוֹצְאִין הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְמַטָּה:
and its stem: [This refers to] its central stem rising from the middle of the base, erected upward. At the top of it was the middle lamp, made like a spoon, into which the oil was poured and the wick inserted.   וְקָנָהּ: הַקָּנֶה הָאֶמְצָעִי שֶׁלָּהּ הָעוֹלֶה בְּאֶמְצַע הַיָּרֵךְ זָקוּף כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה, וְעָלָיו נֵר הָאֶמְצָעִי עָשׂוּי כְּמִין בָּזֵךְ, לָצוּק הַשֶּׁמֶן לְתוֹכוֹ וְלָתֵת הַפְּתִילָה:
its goblets: They are a sort of cups made of glass, long and narrow, which are called maderins [in Old French], long, slender glass goblets. These, however, were made of gold, and they protruded from every branch according to the number prescribed by the text. They were [placed] on it [the menorah] only for beauty.   גְּבִיעֶיהָ: הֵן כְּמִין כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מִזְּכוּכִית, אֲרֻכִּים וּקְצָרִים, וְקוֹרִין לָהֶם מדיר"נש בְּלַעַז, וְאֵלּוּ עֲשׂוּיִין שֶׁל זָהָב, וּבוֹלְטִין וְיוֹצְאִין מִכָּל קָנֶה וְקָנֶה כַּמִּנְיָן שֶׁנָּתַן בָּהֶם הַכָּתוּב, וְלֹא הָיוּ בָהּ אֶלָּא לְנוֹי:
its knobs: [They were] like sort of round apples all around [the branch], protruding [outward] around the middle branch, in the style of the menoroth that are made for princes. They are called pomeles [in French], apple-shaped knobs (Men. 28b). Their number is prescribed in this parsha, [i.e.,] how many knobs protruded from it and how much [space] was [left] unadorned between one knob and another knob.   כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ: כְּמִין תַּפּוּחִים הָיוּ, עֲגֻלִּין סָבִיב, בּוֹלְטִין סְבִיבוֹת הַקָּנֶה הָאֶמְצָעִי, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לַמְּנוֹרוֹת שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַשָּׂרִים, וְקוֹרִין לָהֶם פומיל"ש בְּלַעַז, וּמִנְיָן שֶׁלָּהֶם כָּתוּב בַּפָּרָשָׁה, כַּמָּה כַּפְתּוֹרִים בּוֹלְטִין מִמֶּנָּה וְכַמָּה חָלָק בֵּין כַּפְתּוֹר לְכַפְתּוֹר:
and its flowers: Engravings made on it like a sort of flowers.   וּפְרָחֶיהָ: צִיּוּרִין עֲשׂוּיִן בָּהּ כְּמִין פְּרָחִין:
shall [all] be [one piece] with it: Everything shall be of hammered work, out of the solid block [of gold], and not made separately and then attached [to the main stem].   מִמֶּנָּה יִֽהְיֽוּ: הַכֹּל מִקְשָׁה יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹךְ חֲתִיכַת הָעֶשֶׁת, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה לְבַדָּם וְיַדְבִּיקֵם:
32And six branches coming out of its sides: three menorah branches from its one side and three menorah branches from its second side.   לבוְשִׁשָּׁ֣ה קָנִ֔ים יֹֽצְאִ֖ים מִצִּדֶּ֑יהָ שְׁלשָׁ֣ה | קְנֵ֣י מְנֹרָ֗ה מִצִּדָּהּ֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד וּשְׁלשָׁה֙ קְנֵ֣י מְנֹרָ֔ה מִצִּדָּ֖הּ הַשֵּׁנִֽי:
coming out of its sides: from here and there [in each direction] diagonally, drawn upwards until [they reached] the height of the menorah, which is the middle stem. They came out of the middle stem, one higher than the others: the bottom one was longest, the one above it was shorter than it, and the highest one shorter than that, because the height of their ends [at their tops] was equal to the height of the seventh, middle stem, out of which the six branches extended.   יֹֽצְאִים מִצִּדֶּיהָ: לְכָאן וּלְכָאן בַּאֲלַכְסוֹן, נִמְשָׁכִים וְעוֹלִין עַד כְּנֶגֶד גָּבְהָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא קָנֶה הָאֶמְצָעִי, וְיוֹצְאִין מִתּוֹךְ קָנֶה הָאֶמְצָעִי זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה, הַתַּחְתּוֹן אָרֹךְ, וְשֶׁל מַעְלָה קָצָר הֵימֶנּוּ, וְהָעֶלְיוֹן קָצָר הֵימֶנּוּ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה גֹּבַהּ רָאשֵׁיהֶן שָׁוֶה לְגָבְהוֹ שֶׁל קָנֶה הָאֶמְצָעִי, הַשְּׁבִיעִי, שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ יוֹצְאִים הַשִּׁשָּׁה קָנִים:
33Three decorated goblets on one branch, a knob and a flower, and three decorated goblets on one branch, a knob and a flower; so for the six branches that come out of the menorah.   לגשְׁלשָׁ֣ה גְ֠בִעִ֠ים מְשֻׁקָּדִ֞ים בַּקָּנֶ֣ה הָֽאֶחָד֘ כַּפְתֹּ֣ר וָפֶ֒רַח֒ וּשְׁלשָׁ֣ה גְבִעִ֗ים מְשֻׁקָּדִ֛ים בַּקָּנֶ֥ה הָֽאֶחָ֖ד כַּפְתֹּ֣ר וָפָ֑רַח כֵּ֚ן לְשֵׁ֣שֶׁת הַקָּנִ֔ים הַיֹּֽצְאִ֖ים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָֽה:
decorated: Heb. מְשֻׁקָּדִים, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders מְצַיְירִין. They were decorated in the manner that silver and gold vessels are made, which is called nieler [in Old French, nieller in modern French, niello in English].   מְשֻׁקָּדִים: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, מְצֻיָּרִים הָיוּ, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לִכְלֵי כֶסֶף וְזָהָב שֶׁקּוֹרִים נייל"יר בְּלַעַז:
and three decorated goblets: protruding from each branch.   שְׁלשָׁה גְבִעִים: בּוֹלְטִין מִכָּל קָנֶה וְקָנֶה:
a knob and a flower: were on each branch.   כַּפְתֹּר וָפֶרַח: הָיָה לְכָל קָנֶה וְקָנֶה:
34And on [the stem of] the menorah [shall be] four decorated goblets, its knobs and its flowers.   לדוּבַמְּנֹרָ֖ה אַרְבָּעָ֣ה גְבִעִ֑ים מְשֻׁ֨קָּדִ֔ים כַּפְתֹּרֶ֖יהָ וּפְרָחֶֽיהָ:
And on [the stem of] the menorah [shall be] four… goblets: On the main stem of the menorah were four goblets: one protruding on it below the branches and three above the exit of the three branches that extended outwards from its sides.   וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים: בְּגוּפָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה הָיוּ אַרְבָּעָה גְּבִיעִים – אֶחָד בּוֹלֵט בָּהּ לְמַטָּה מִן הַקָּנִים, וְהַשְּׁלֹשָׁה לְמַעְלָה מִן יְצִיאַת הַקָּנִים הַיּוֹצְאִין מִצִּדֶּיהָ:
decorated…its knobs and its flowers: This is one of the five verses whose meaning cannot be determined. It is unknown whether [to read] “decorated goblets” or “decorated its knobs and its flowers."-[from Yoma 52b]   מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶֽיהָ: זֶה אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה מִקְרָאוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם הֶכְרֵעַ (יומא נ"ב), אֵין יָדוּעַ אִם גְּבִיעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים אוֹ מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתּוֹרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ:
35And a knob under the two branches from it, and a knob under the two branches from it, and a knob under the two branches from it; so for the six branches that come out of the menorah.   להוְכַפְתֹּ֡ר תַּ֩חַת֩ שְׁ֨נֵי הַקָּנִ֜ים מִמֶּ֗נָּה וְכַפְתֹּר֙ תַּ֣חַת שְׁנֵ֤י הַקָּנִים֙ מִמֶּ֔נָּה וְכַפְתֹּ֕ר תַּֽחַת־שְׁנֵ֥י הַקָּנִ֖ים מִמֶּ֑נָּה לְשֵׁ֨שֶׁת֙ הַקָּנִ֔ים הַיֹּֽצְאִ֖ים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָֽה:
And a knob under the two branches: From the knob, the branches extended from its two sides in either direction. This is what we learned in the [Baraitha] Melecheth HaMishkan [ch. 10, Men. 28b, 29a]: The height of the menorah was eighteen handbreadths. [This total is arrived at as follows:] The feet [of the menorah] and the [lowest] flower were three handbreadths. That is the flower mentioned in connection with the base, as it is said: “to its base, to its flower” (Num. 8:4). Then two handbreadths [above this were] unadorned, and a handbreadth [above that] in which [there] was a goblet-[namely one] of the four goblets [mentioned in verse 34]-and a knob and a flower of the two knobs and the two flowers mentioned in connection with the menorah itself, as it is said [on verse 34]: “decorated…its knobs and its flowers.” We learn that on the main stem there were two knobs and two flowers, in addition to the three knobs from which the branches extended, as it is said [here]: “And a knob under the two branches.” And [above the lowest branches were] two handbreadths unadorned, and a handbreadth with a knob and two branches coming out of it on either side, extending upward, opposite the height of the menorah, and one handbreadth unadorned, and a handbreadth with a knob and two branches coming out of it, and one handbreadth unadorned, and a handbreadth with a knob and two branches coming out of it, extending upward, opposite the height of the menorah, and two handbreadths unadorned. [Hence,] three handbreadths remain, in which there were three goblets, a knob, and a flower. The goblets were found to number twenty-two: eighteen for the six branches [of the menorah]-three for each one-and four on the menorah itself, totaling twenty-two. And [there were] eleven knobs-six on the six branches [one on each branch], three on the menorah itself, from which the branches extended, and two more on the menorah, as it is said [in verse 34]: “decorated…its knobs,” [which means two knobs] since the minimum of [the plural] “knobs” is two. One [knob was] below, next to the base, and one in the top three handbreadths [together] with the three goblets. And it [the menorah] had nine flowers: six on the six branches [one on each branch] as it is said [in verse 33]: “on one branch, [there was] a knob and a flower,” and three [flowers] on the menorah [itself], as it is said [here], "decorated…its knobs and its flowers"-the minimum of [the plural] “flowers” is two, and one [additional flower is] mentioned in the parsha Beha’alothecha: “to its base to its flower” (Num. 8:4). If you carefully study this Mishnah that is written above, you will find them [the decorations of the menorah] according to their number, each one in its place. — [from Men. 28b]   וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים: מִתּוֹךְ הַכַּפְתּוֹר הָיוּ הַקָּנִים נִמְשָׁכִים מִשְּׁנֵי צִדֶּיהָ אֵילָךְ וָאֵילָךְ, כָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ בִמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן: גָּבְהָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה י"ח טְפָחִים, הָרַגְלַיִם וְהַפֶּרַח שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים – הוּא הַפֶּרַח הָאָמוּר בַּיָּרֵךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עַד יְרֵכָהּ עַד פִּרְחָהּ (במדבר ח') – וּטְפָחַיִם חָלָק, וְטֶפַח שֶׁבּוֹ גָּבִיעַ מֵהָאַרְבָּעָה גְבִיעִים וְכַפְתּוֹר וָפֶרַח מִשְּׁנֵי כַפְתּוֹרִים וּשְׁנֵי פְרָחִים הָאֲמוּרִים בַּמְּנוֹרָה עַצְמָהּ, שֶׁנֶּ' מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתּוֹרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָיוּ בַּקָּנֶה שְׁנֵי כַפְתּוֹרִים וּשְׁנֵי פְרָחִים לְבַד מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה כַפְתּוֹרִים שֶׁהַקָּנִים נִמְשָׁכִין מִתּוֹכָן, שֶׁנֶּ' וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים וְגוֹ', וּטְפָחַיִם חָלָק, וְטֶפַח כַּפְתּוֹר וּשְׁנֵי קָנִים יוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֵילָךְ וָאֵילָךְ נִמְשָׁכִים וְעוֹלִים כְּנֶגֶד גָּבְהָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה, טֶפַח חָלָק, וְטֶפַח כַּפְתּוֹר וּשְׁנֵי קָנִים יוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ, וְטֶפַח חָלָק, וְטֶפַח כַּפְתּוֹר וּשְׁנֵי קָנִים יוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִמְשָׁכִים וְעוֹלִין כְּנֶגֶד גָּבְהָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה, וּטְפָחַיִם חָלָק, נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים שֶׁבָּהֶם שְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִיעִים וְכַפְתּוֹר וָפֶרַח, נִמְצְאוּ גְּבִיעִים כ"ב – י"ח לְשִׁשָּׁה קָנִים, שְׁלֹשָׁה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, וְאַרְבָּעָה בְּגוּפָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה, הֲרֵי כ"ב – וְאַחַד עָשָׂר כַּפְתּוֹרִים, שִׁשָּׁה בְּשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה בְּגוּפָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה שֶׁהַקָּנִים יוֹצְאִים מֵהֶם, וּשְׁנַיִם עוֹד בַּמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּ' מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתּוֹרֶיהָ, וּמִעוּט כַּפְתּוֹרִים שְׁנַיִם, הָאֶחָד לְמַטָּה אֵצֶל הַיָּרֵךְ, וְהָאֶחָד בְּג' טְפָחִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים עִם ג' הַגְּבִיעִים, וְתִשְׁעָה פְרָחִים הָיוּ לָהּ, שִׁשָּׁה לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים, שֶׁנֶּ' בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפֶרַח, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּ' מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתּוֹרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ, וּמִעוּט פְּרָחִים שְׁנַיִם, וְאֶחָד הָאָמוּר בְּפָרָשַׁת בְּהַעֲלֹתְךָ עַד יְרֵכָהּ עַד פִּרְחָהּ, וְאִם תְּדַקְדֵּק בְּמִשְׁנָה זוֹ הַכְּתוּבָה לְמַעְלָה, תִּמְצָאֵם כְּמִנְיָנָם אִישׁ אִישׁ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:
36Their knobs and their branches shall [all] be [one piece] with it; all of it [shall be] one hammered mass of pure gold.   לוכַּפְתֹּֽרֵיהֶ֥ם וּקְנֹתָ֖ם מִמֶּ֣נָּה יִֽהְי֑וּ כֻּלָּ֛הּ מִקְשָׁ֥ה אַחַ֖ת זָהָ֥ב טָהֽוֹר:
37And you shall make its lamps seven, and he shall kindle its lamps [so that they] shed light toward its face.   לזוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־נֵֽרֹתֶ֖יהָ שִׁבְעָ֑ה וְהֶֽעֱלָה֙ אֶת־נֵ֣רֹתֶ֔יהָ וְהֵאִ֖יר עַל־עֵ֥בֶר פָּנֶֽיהָ:
its lamps: [They were] sort of cups into which the oil and the wicks were put.   אֶת־נֵֽרֹתֶיהָ: כְּמִין בָּזִיכִין שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בְּתוֹכָן הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַפְּתִילוֹת:
[so that they] shed light toward its face: [Namely,] make the openings of the six lamps [which were] at the top of the branches that extend from its [the menorah’s] sides, turned toward the middle one, so that when the lamps were lit they would shed light עֵבֶר פָּנֶיהָ, towards [or in the direction of] its face. Their light should be turned towards the face of the middle branch, which is the body of the menorah.   וְהֵאִיר עַל־עֵבֶר פָּנֶֽיהָ: עָשָׂה פִּי שֵׁשֶׁת הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁבְּרָאשֵׁי הַקָּנִים הַיּוֹצְאִים מִצִּדֶּיהָ מְסֻבִּים כְּלַפֵּי הָאֶמְצָעִי, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַנֵּרוֹת כְּשֶׁתַּדְלִיקֵם מְאִירִים אֶל עֵבֶר פָּנֶיהָ – מֻסָּב אוֹרָם אֶל צַד פְּנֵי הַקָּנֶה הָאֶמְצָעִי, שֶׁהוּא גּוּף הַמְּנוֹרָה:
38And its tongs and its scoops [shall be] of pure gold.   לחוּמַלְקָחֶ֥יהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶ֖יהָ זָהָ֥ב טָהֽוֹר:
And its tongs: Heb. וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ. They are the tongs made to take the wicks from the oil, to set them in place and to draw them into the mouths of the lamps. Since they [are used for] taking (לוֹקְחִים) [the wicks] with them, they are called מֶלְקָחַיִם, a pair of “takers.” [The Aramaic word] וְצִבְיָתָהָא, which Onkelos renders [for וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ], is a term related to צְבַת, tenailles in French, tongs.   וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ: הֵם הַצְּבָתִים הָעֲשׂוּיִין לִקַּח בָּהֶם הַפְּתִילָה מִתּוֹךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן, לְיַשְּׁבָן וּלְמָשְׁכָן בְּפִי הַנֵּרוֹת, וְעַל שֵׁם שֶׁלּוֹקְחִים בָּהֶם קְרוּיִים מֶלְקָחַיִם; וְצִבְתָהָא שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס לְשׁוֹן צְבָת, טנייל"ש בְּלַעַז:
and its scoops: Heb. וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ. They are a kind of small cup with which he [the kohen] would scoop the ashes that are in the lamp every morning when he [the kohen] cleaned the lamps from the ashes of the wicks that burned during the night and were [now] extinguished. The word מַחְךְתָּה is [the equivalent of] poseydure [or poysedure] in Old French, a little shovel [or] ash pan, like “to scoop (לַחְתּוֹת) fire from a hearth” (Isa. 30:14).   וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ: הֵם כְּמִין בָּזִיכִין קְטַנִּים שֶׁחוֹתֶה בָּהֶן אֶת הָאֵפֶר שֶׁבַּנֵּר בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר, כְּשֶׁהוּא מֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת מֵאֵפֶר הַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁדָּלְקוּ הַלַּיְלָה וְכָבוּ, וּלְשׁוֹן מַחְתָּה פויישר"יא בְּלַעַז, כְּמוֹ לַחְתּוֹת אֵשׁ מִיָּקוּד (ישעיהו ל'):
39He shall make it of a talent of pure gold, with all these implements.   לטכִּכַּ֛ר זָהָ֥ב טָה֖וֹר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹתָ֑הּ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַכֵּלִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
a talent pure gold: Heb. כִּכַּר.[This means] that its weight along with all its implements shall be nothing but a talent, no less and no more. The talent used for mundane matters was sixty maneh, and the one used for holy matters was double, thus one hundred twenty maneh (Bech. 5a). The maneh is the litra with which silver is weighed according to the weight used in Cologne, which is the equivalent of one hundred gold pieces [or] twenty-five selas, for the sela is equivalent to four gold pieces. [This is the equivalent of sixty-four pounds.]   כִּכַּר זָהָב טָהוֹר: שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מִשְׁקָלָהּ עִם כָּל כֵּלֶיהָ אֶלָּא כִּכָּר, לֹא פָּחוֹת וְלֹא יוֹתֵר (מנחות פ"ח). וְהַכִּכָּר שֶׁל חֹל שִׁשִּׁים מָנֶה, וְשֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ הָיָה כָּפוּל, ק"ך מָנֶה, וְהַמָּנֶה הוּא לִיטְרָא שֶׁשּׁוֹקְלִין בָּהּ כֶּסֶף לְמִשְׁקַל קוֹלוֹנְיָא, וְהֵם מֵאָה זְהוּבִים – עֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים וְהַסֶּלַע אַרְבָּעָה זְהוּבִים:
40Now see and make according to their pattern, which you are shown on the mountain.   מוּרְאֵ֖ה וַֽעֲשֵׂ֑ה בְּתַ֨בְנִיתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה מָרְאֶ֖ה בָּהָֽר:
Now see and make: See here on the mountain the pattern that I am showing you. [This] informs us that Moses had difficulties with the construction of the menorah, until the Holy One, blessed is He, showed him a [model] menorah of fire. -[from Men. 29a]   וּרְאֵה וַֽעֲשֵׂה: רְאֵה כָאן בָּהָר תַּבְנִית שֶׁאֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ, מַגִּיד שֶׁנִּתְקַשָּׁה מֹשֶׁה בְמַעֲשֵׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה עַד שֶׁהֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְנוֹרָה שֶׁל אֵשׁ (שם כ"ט):
which you are shown: Heb. אַשֶׁר-אַתָּה מָרְאֶה, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: דִי אַךְתְּ מִתְחַזֵי, which you are shown. If it were punctuated מַרְאֶה with a “pattach,” it would mean that you show others. Now that it is punctuated with a short “kamatz,” it means that you are shown, that others show you, (for the punctuation distinguishes between the active and the passive).   אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה מָרְאֶה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ דְּאַתְּ מִתְחֲזֵי בְּטוּרָא; אִלּוּ הָיָה נָקוּד מַרְאֶה, בְּפַתָּח, הָיָה פִּתְרוֹנוֹ אַתָּה מַרְאֶה לַאֲחֵרִים, עַכְשָׁו שֶׁנָּקוּד חֲטַף קָמָץ, פִּתְרוֹנוֹ דְּאַתְּ מִתְחֲזֵי – שֶׁאֲחֵרִים מַרְאִים לְךָ (שֶׁהַנִּקּוּד מַפְרִיד בֵּין עוֹשֶׂה לְנַעֲשֶׂה):

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 26

1And the Mishkan you shall make out of ten curtains [consisting] of twisted fine linen, and blue, purple, and crimson wool. A cherubim design of the work of a master weaver you shall make them.   אוְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֥ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה עֶ֣שֶׂר יְרִיעֹ֑ת שֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֗ר וּתְכֵ֤לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן֙ וְתֹלַ֣עַת שָׁנִ֔י כְּרֻבִ֛ים מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה חשֵׁ֖ב תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָֽם:
And the Mishkan you shall make out of ten curtains: to be its roof and [cover its] walls outside the planks, for the curtains are hung behind them to cover them.   וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה עֶשֶׂר יְרִיעֹת: לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְגַג וְלִמְחִצּוֹת מִחוּץ לַקְּרָשִׁים, שֶׁהַיְרִיעוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת מֵאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן לְכַסּוֹתָן:
of twisted fine linen, and blue, purple, and crimson wool: Thus there are four kinds [of material] together in each thread, one of linen and three of wool, and each thread was doubled six times. Thus, four kinds [of material], when they are twisted together, yield twenty-four strands to a thread. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 2, Yoma 71b]   שֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר וּתְכֵלֶת וְתֹלַעַת שָׁנִי: הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין יַחַד חוּט וְחוּט – אֶחָד שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן וּשְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁל צֶמֶר – וְכָל חוּט וְחוּט כָּפוּל ו' הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין כְּשֶׁהֵן שְׁזוּרִין יַחַד כ"ד כְּפָלִים לַחוּט (יומא ע"א):
A cherubim design of the work of a master weaver: Cherubim were drawn on them [the curtains] in their weave; not with embroidery, which is needlework, but with weaving on both sides, one face from here [one side] and one face from there [the other side]: a lion from this side and an eagle from that side, as silk girdles, called feysses in Old French, are woven. — [from Yoma 72b]   כְּרֻבִים מַֽעֲשֵׂה חשֵׁב: כְּרוּבִים הָיוּ מְצֻיָּרִין בָּהֶם בַּאֲרִיגָתָן, וְלֹא בִרְקִימָה שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֵׂה מַחַט, אֶלָּא בַאֲרִיגָה בִשְׁנֵי כְּתָלִים, פַּרְצוּף אֶחָד מִכָּאן וּפַרְצוּף אֶחָד מִכָּאן – אֲרִי מִצַּד זֶה וְנֶשֶׁר מִצַּד זֶה – כְּמוֹ שֶׁאוֹרְגִין חֲגוֹרוֹת שֶׁל מֶשִׁי שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלַעַז פיישי"שא:
2The length of one curtain [shall be] twenty eight cubits, and the width of one curtain [shall be] four cubits; the same measure for all the curtains.   באֹ֣רֶךְ | הַיְרִיעָ֣ה הָֽאַחַ֗ת שְׁמֹנֶ֤ה וְעֶשְׂרִים֙ בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה וְרֹ֨חַב֙ אַרְבַּ֣ע בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה הַיְרִיעָ֖ה הָֽאֶחָ֑ת מִדָּ֥ה אַחַ֖ת לְכָל־הַיְרִיעֹֽת:
3Five of these curtains shall be joined to one another, and [the other] five curtains shall [also] be joined to one another.   גחֲמֵ֣שׁ הַיְרִיעֹ֗ת תִּֽהְיֶ֨יןָ֙ חֹֽבְרֹ֔ת אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֑הּ וְחָמֵ֤שׁ יְרִיעֹת֙ חֹֽבְרֹ֔ת אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָֽהּ:
shall be joined: He [Bezalel] would sew them with a needle, one [curtain] alongside the other, five separately and [the other] five separately.   תִּֽהְיֶיןָ חֹֽבְרֹת: תּוֹפְרָן בְּמַחַט זוֹ בְצַד זוֹ, חָמֵשׁ לְבַד וְחָמֵשׁ לְבַד:
to one another: Heb. אִשָׁה אֶל-אִחֹתָהּ, lit., a woman to her sister. It is customary for Scripture to speak this way concerning a noun in the feminine gender, and concerning a noun in the masculine gender, אִישׁ אֶל-אָחִיו [lit., a man to his brother], as it is said concerning the cherubim: אִישׁ אֶל-אָחִיו (Exod. 25:20).   אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ: כָּךְ דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָא לְדַבֵּר בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, וּבְדָבָר שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן זָכָר אוֹמֵר אִישׁ אֶל אָחִיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱ' בַּכְּרוּבִים וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל אָחִיו (שמות כ"ה):
4And you shall make loops of blue wool on the edge of one curtain [that is] at the edge of the [first] set, and so shall you do on the edge of the outermost curtain of the second set.   דוְעָשִׂ֜יתָ לֻֽלְאֹ֣ת תְּכֵ֗לֶת עַ֣ל שְׂפַ֤ת הַיְרִיעָה֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ת מִקָּצָ֖ה בַּֽחֹבָ֑רֶת וְכֵ֤ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֙ בִּשְׂפַ֣ת הַיְרִיעָ֔ה הַקִּ֣יצוֹנָ֔ה בַּמַּחְבֶּ֖רֶת הַשֵּׁנִֽית:
loops: Heb. לֻלָאֹת, lazoles in Old French, loops. So did Onkelos render [it]: עִנוּבִין, a term meaning a bow.   לֻֽלְאֹת: לצול"ש בְּלַעַז, וְכֵן תִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס עֲנוּבִין, לְשׁוֹן עֲנִיבָה:
curtain [that is] at the edge of the [first] set: Heb. בַּחֹבָרֶת. On the curtain that is the outermost of the set. The group of five curtains is called חוֹבֶרֶת.   מִקָּצָה בַּֽחֹבָרֶת: בְּאוֹתָהּ יְרִיעָה שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַחִבּוּר, קְבוּצַת חֲמֵשֶׁת הַיְרִיעוֹת קְרוּיָה חוֹבֶרֶת:
and so shall you do on the edge of the outermost curtain of the second set: On that curtain that is the outermost (הַקִּצוֹנָה), an expression derived from קָצֶה, end, meaning at the end of the set [of curtains].   וְכֵן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה בִּשְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הַקִּיצוֹנָה בַּמַּחְבֶּרֶת הַשֵּׁנִֽית: בְּאוֹתָהּ יְרִיעָה שֶׁהִיא קִיצוֹנָה, לְשׁוֹן קָצֶה, כְּלוֹמַר לְסוֹף הַחוֹבֶרֶת:
5You shall make fifty loops on [the edge of] one curtain, and you shall make fifty loops on the edge of the curtain in the second set; the loops shall correspond to one another.   החֲמִשִּׁ֣ים לֻֽלָאֹ֗ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֘ בַּיְרִיעָ֣ה הָֽאֶחָת֒ וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֣ים לֻֽלָאֹ֗ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֙ בִּקְצֵ֣ה הַיְרִיעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בַּמַּחְבֶּ֣רֶת הַשֵּׁנִ֑ית מַקְבִּילֹת֙ הַלֻּֽלָאֹ֔ת אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָֽהּ:
the loops shall correspond to one another: Heb. מַקְבִּילֹתהַלֻּלָאֹת. Make sure that you make the loops exactly equidistant from one another. Their measure on this curtain should be the same for its mate. When you spread one set [of curtains] next to the other set, the loops of this curtain shall line up exactly opposite the loops of the other [curtain]. This is the [meaning of the] word מַקְבִּילֹת, [i.e.,] this one opposite that one. The Aramaic translation of נֶגֶד, opposite, is לָקֳבֵל. [Each] curtain was twenty-eight [cubits] long and four [cubits] wide. When five curtains were joined together, it was found that [altogether] they were twenty [cubits] wide, and so [too] with the second set. The length of the Mishkan was thirty [cubits] from east to west, as it is said: “twenty planks for the southern side” (verse 18), and so for the north, [with] every plank a cubit and a half [wide]. Thus, [we have altogether] thirty [cubits] from east to west. The width of the Mishkan from north to south was ten cubits, as it is said: “And for the western end of the Mishkan [you shall make six planks]” (verse 22), and [thus with] two planks at the corners [i.e., one plank at each end of the western wall], we have ten. [I.e., the interior of the Mishkan was ten cubits wide, not counting the northern and southern walls, which were each one cubit thick. Hence, the remainder of the two corner planks that do not fit against the side planks is a half cubit each, equaling one cubit. The six planks along the western side total nine cubits, thus we have altogether ten cubits on the western side.] In their [respective] places, I will explain these verses. The curtains were placed [so that] their length [was across] the [interior] width of the Mishkan, ten [of the curtains’] middle cubits as the roof of the space of the width of the Mishkan. [Another] cubit from here and a cubit from there covered the thickness of the tops of the planks, whose width was a cubit thick. Thus remained sixteen cubits: eight on the north[ern side] and eight on the south[ern side], covering the height of the planks, which were ten [cubits] high. [Thus] the bottom two cubits were exposed. The curtains were forty cubits wide when they were joined-twenty cubits for each set. Thirty of them [of the forty cubits] were for the roof of the Mishkan’s [interior] space lengthwise; one cubit corresponded to the thickness of the ends of the planks on the [Mishkan’s] west[ern side] and one cubit [was meant] to cover the thickness of the pillars on the east[ern side]-for there were no planks on the [Mishkan’s] east[ern side], only four (Old Rashi-five) pillars upon whose hooks the screen was spread and hung, like a curtain. [Aside from the above two cubits,] there remained eight cubits that hung in the back of the Mishkan on the west[ern side], with the bottom two cubits uncovered. I found this in the Baraitha of Forty-Nine Middoth. However, in Tractate Shabbath (98b) [it is stated]: The curtains did not cover the eastern pillars, and nine cubits hung in the back of the Mishkan. The text supports us [in our quotation of the Talmud, for the Torah states]: “And you shall place the dividing curtain beneath the clasps” (verse 33), but if [the truth is] like the words of this Baraitha, [it would mean that] the dividing curtain would be found to be drawn back one cubit to the west of the clasps.   מַקְבִּילֹת הַלֻּֽלָאֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָֽהּ: שְׁמֹר שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה הַלּוּלָאוֹת בְּמִדָּה אַחַת, מְכֻוֶּנֶת הַבְדָּלָתָן זוֹ מִזּוֹ, וּכְמִדָּתָן בִּירִיעָה זוֹ כֵּן יְהֵא בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁתִּפְרֹשׂ חוֹבֶרֶת אֵצֶל חוֹבֶרֶת יִהְיוּ הַלּוּלָאוֹת שֶׁל יְרִיעָה זוֹ מְכֻוָּנוֹת כְּנֶגֶד לוּלָאוֹת שֶׁל זוֹ, וְזֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן מַקְבִּילוֹת – זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ, תַּרְגּוּמוֹ שֶׁל נֶגֶד לָקֳבֵל. הַיְרִיעוֹת אָרְכָּן כ"ח וְרָחְבָּן אַרְבַּע, וּכְשֶׁחִבֵּר חָמֵשׁ יְרִיעוֹת יַחַד נִמְצָא רָחְבָּן עֶשְׂרִים, וְכֵן הַחוֹבֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית, וְהַמִּשְׁכָּן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּ' עֶשְׂרִים קְרָשִׁים לִפְאַת נֶגֶב תֵּימָנָה, וְכֵן לַצָּפוֹן, וְכָל קֶרֶשׁ אַמָּה וַחֲצִי הָאַמָּה, הֲרֵי שְׁלֹשִׁים מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, רֹחַב הַמִּשְׁכָּן מִן הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָמָּה וְגוֹ' וּשְׁנֵי קְרָשִׁים לִמְקֻצְעֹת הֲרֵי עֶשֶׂר – וּבִמְקוֹמָם אֲפָרְשֵׁם לַמִּקְרָאוֹת הַלָּלוּ – נוֹתֵן הַיְרִיעוֹת אָרְכָּן לְרָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן, עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת לְגַג חֲלַל רֹחַב הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְאַמָּה מִכָּאן וְאַמָּה מִכָּאן לְעֹבִי רָאשֵׁי הַקְּרָשִׁים שֶׁעָבְיָם אַמָּה, נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ ט"ז אַמָּה, ח' לַצָפוֹן וְח' לַדָרוֹם, מְכַסּוֹת קוֹמַת הַקְּרָשִׁים שֶׁגָּבְהָן עֶשֶׂר, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת מְגֻלּוֹת; רָחְבָּן שֶׁל יְרִיעוֹת אַרְבָּעִים אַמָּה כְּשֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרוֹת, עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה לְחוֹבֶרֶת. שְׁלֹשִׁים מֵהֶן לְגַג חֲלַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן לְאָרְכּוֹ, וְאַמָּה כְנֶגֶד עֹבִי רָאשֵׁי הַקְּרָשִׁים שֶׁבַּמַּעֲרָב, וְאַמָּה לְכַסּוֹת עֹבִי הָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח – שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ קְרָשִׁים בַּמִּזְרָח, אֶלָּא חֲמִשָּׁה עַמּוּדִים שֶׁהַמָּסָךְ פָּרוּשׂ וְתָלוּי בַּוָּוִין שֶׁבָּהֶן כְּמִין וִילוֹן – נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת הַתְּלוּיִין עַל אֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן שֶׁבַּמַּעֲרָב, וּשְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת מְגֻלּוֹת, זוֹ מָצָאתִי בְּבָרַיְתָא דְּאַרְבָּעִים וְתֵשַׁע מִדּוֹת. אֲבָל בְּמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת אֵין הַיְרִיעוֹת מְכַסּוֹת אֶת עַמּוּדֵי הַמִּזְרָח, וְתֵשַׁע אַמּוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת אֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְהַכָּתוּב בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ מְסַיְּעֵנוּ, וְנָתַתָּ אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת "תַּחַת" הַקְּרָסִים, וְאִם כְּדִבְרֵי הַבָּרַיְתָא הַזֹּאת, נִמְצֵאת פָּרֹכֶת מְשׁוּכָה מִן הַקְּרָסִים וְלַמַּעֲרָב אַמָּה:
6And you shall make fifty golden clasps, and you shall fasten the curtains to one another with the clasps; so shall the Mishkan become one.   ווְעָשִׂ֕יתָ חֲמִשִּׁ֖ים קַרְסֵ֣י זָהָ֑ב וְחִבַּרְתָּ֙ אֶת־הַיְרִיעֹ֜ת אִשָּׁ֤ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ֙ בַּקְּרָסִ֔ים וְהָיָ֥ה הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן אֶחָֽד:
golden clasps: Heb. קַרְסֵי, fermeylz, fermels, fermails in Old French, [meaning] hooks, clasps. One of its ends is inserted into [one of] the loops of this [one] set [of curtains] and the other end into the loops of the [second] set [of curtains, thus] fastening them [the loops] with them [the clasps].   קַרְסֵי זָהָב: פירמי"לש בְּלַעַז, וּמַכְנִיסִין רֹאשָׁן אֶחָד בַּלּוּלָאוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבֶרֶת זוֹ וְרֹאשָׁן אֶחָד בַּלּוּלָאוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבֶרֶת זוֹ וּמְחַבְּרָן בָּהֶן:
7And [then] you shall make curtains of goat hair for a tent over the Mishkan; you shall make eleven curtains.   זוְעָשִׂ֨יתָ֙ יְרִיעֹ֣ת עִזִּ֔ים לְאֹ֖הֶל עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן עַשְׁתֵּֽי־עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה יְרִיעֹ֖ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָֽם:
curtains of goat hair: Heb. עִזִים, goats, from the hair of goats. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 3]   יְרִיעֹת עִזִּים: מִנּוֹצָה שֶׁל עִזִּים:
for a tent over the Mishkan: To spread them over the lower curtains.   לְאֹהֶל עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן: לִפְרֹשׂ אוֹתָן עַל הַיְרִיעוֹת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת:
8The length of one curtain [shall be] thirty cubits, and the width of one curtain four cubits; the same measure for the eleven curtains.   חאֹ֣רֶךְ | הַיְרִיעָ֣ה הָֽאַחַ֗ת שְׁלשִׁים֙ בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה וְרֹ֨חַב֙ אַרְבַּ֣ע בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה הַיְרִיעָ֖ה הָֽאֶחָ֑ת מִדָּ֣ה אַחַ֔ת לְעַשְׁתֵּ֥י עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה יְרִיעֹֽת:
thirty cubits: For when [Moses] placed their [the curtains’] length across the width of the Mishkan, as he did with the first [set of curtains], these were found to exceed [and overhang them] by a cubit from here [on one side] and a cubit from there [on the other side] to cover one of the two cubits of the planks that remained exposed. The bottom cubit of the plank, which the curtain did not cover, was the cubit [that was] inserted into the socket hole, for the sockets were a cubit deep. — [from Shab. 98b]   שְׁלשִׁים בָּֽאַמָּה: שֶׁכְּשֶׁנּוֹתֵן אָרְכָּן לְרֹחַב הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, נִמְצְאוּ אֵלּוּ עוֹדְפוֹת אַמָּה מִכָּאן וְאַמָּה מִכָּאן לְכַסּוֹת אַחַת מֵהַשְּׁתֵי אַמּוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ מְגֻלּוֹת מִן הַקְּרָשִׁים, וְהָאַמָּה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה שֶׁל קֶרֶשׁ שֶׁאֵין הַיְרִיעָה מְכַסָּה אוֹתוֹ הִיא הָאַמָּה הַתְּחוּבָה בְּנֶקֶב הָאֶדֶן, שֶׁהָאֲדָנִים גָּבְהָן אַמָּה:
9And you shall join the five curtains by themselves, and the [other] six curtains by themselves; and you shall fold the sixth curtain before the front of the tent.   טוְחִבַּרְתָּ֞ אֶת־חֲמֵ֤שׁ הַיְרִיעֹת֙ לְבָ֔ד וְאֶת־שֵׁ֥שׁ הַיְרִיעֹ֖ת לְבָ֑ד וְכָֽפַלְתָּ֙ אֶת־הַיְרִיעָ֣ה הַשִּׁשִּׁ֔ית אֶל־מ֖וּל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֹֽהֶל:
and you shall fold the sixth curtain: [I.e.,] of these upper curtains, which exceeds [overhangs] the lower ones.   וְכָֽפַלְתָּ אֶת־הַיְרִיעָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית: הָעוֹדֶפֶת בְּאֵלּוּ הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת יוֹתֵר מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת:
before the front of the tent: Half its width [of the sixth curtain] was hanging and folded over the screen on the east[ern side of the Mishkan], before the entrance, resembling a modest bride whose face is covered with a veil.   אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי הָאֹֽהֶל: חֲצִי רָחְבָּה הָיָה תָלוּי וְכָפוּל עַל הַמָּסָךְ שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח, דּוֹמֶה לְכַלָּה צְנוּעָה הַמְכֻסָּה בְּצָעִיף עַל פָּנֶיהָ:
10And you shall make fifty loops on the edge of one curtain, [which is] at the edge of the [first] set, and fifty loops on the edge of the [outermost] curtain of the second set.   יוְעָשִׂ֜יתָ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים לֻֽלָאֹ֗ת עַ֣ל שְׂפַ֤ת הַיְרִיעָה֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ת הַקִּֽיצֹנָ֖ה בַּֽחֹבָ֑רֶת וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֣ים לֻֽלָאֹ֗ת עַ֚ל שְׂפַ֣ת הַיְרִיעָ֔ה הַֽחֹבֶ֖רֶת הַשֵּׁנִֽית:
11And you shall make fifty copper clasps; you shall bring the clasps into the loops, and you shall fasten the tent together so that it will become one.   יאוְעָשִׂ֛יתָ קַרְסֵ֥י נְח֖שֶׁת חֲמִשִּׁ֑ים וְהֵֽבֵאתָ֤ אֶת־הַקְּרָסִים֙ בַּלֻּ֣לָאֹ֔ת וְחִבַּרְתָּ֥ אֶת־הָאֹ֖הֶל וְהָיָ֥ה אֶחָֽד:
12And the overhanging excess in the curtains of the tent half of the extra curtain shall hang over the rear of the Mishkan.   יבוְסֶ֨רַח֙ הָֽעֹדֵ֔ף בִּֽירִיעֹ֖ת הָאֹ֑הֶל חֲצִ֤י הַיְרִיעָה֙ הָֽעֹדֶ֔פֶת תִּסְרַ֕ח עַ֖ל אֲחֹרֵ֥י הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
And the overhanging excess in the curtains of the tent: over the curtains of the Mishkan. The curtains of the tent were the upper ones, [curtains] of goat hair. [They are] referred to as “tent,” as it is written about them, “for a tent over the Mishkan” (verse 7). Every expression of “tent” (אֹהֶל) stated in their context [i.e., referring to the upper curtains] is only an expression meaning a roof, for they form a tent and a roof over the lower [curtains]. They [the upper curtains] exceeded the lower ones by half a curtain on the west[ern side], since half of the extra eleventh curtain was folded opposite the front of the tent. [Hence,] there remained two cubits, [representing] the width of half of it [the upper curtains], exceeding the width of the lower [curtains].   וְסֶרַח הָֽעֹדֵף בִּֽירִיעֹת הָאֹהֶל: עַל יְרִיעוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן; יְרִיעוֹת הָאֹהֶל הֵן הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת שֶׁל עִזִּים, שֶׁקְּרוּיִים אֹהֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶם לְאֹהֶל עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְכָל אֹהֶל הָאָמוּר בָּהֶן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן גַּג, שֶׁמַּאֲהִילוֹת וּמְסַכְּכוֹת עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת, וְהֵן הָיוּ עוֹדְפוֹת עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת חֲצִי הַיְרִיעָה לַמַּעֲרָב, שֶׁהַחֵצִי שֶׁל יְרִיעָה אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה הַיְתֵרָה הָיָה נִכְפָּל אֶל מוּל פְּנֵי הָאֹהֶל, נִשְׁאֲרוּ שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת רֹחַב חֶצְיָהּ עוֹדֵף עַל רֹחַב הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת:
shall hang over the rear of the Mishkan: to cover the two cubits of the planks that were exposed.   תִּסְרַח עַל אֲחֹרֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן: לְכַסּוֹת שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ מְגֻלּוֹת בַּקְּרָשִׁים:
the rear of the Mishkan: This means the western side, since the entrance [to the Mishkan] was on the east[ern side], which is [referred to as] its front, and the north[ern] and south[ern sides] are referred to as sides to the right and to the left.   אֲחֹרֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן: הוּא צַד מַעֲרָבִי, לְפִי שֶׁהַפֶּתַח בַּמִּזְרָח שֶׁהֵן פָּנָיו, וְצָפוֹן וְדָרוֹם קְרוּיִין צְדָדִין לַיָּמִין וְלַשְּׂמֹאל:
13And the cubit from here and the cubit from there of the excess in the length of the curtains of the tent shall hang over the sides of the Mishkan from here and from there to cover it.   יגוְהָֽאַמָּ֨ה מִזֶּ֜ה וְהָֽאַמָּ֤ה מִזֶּה֙ בָּֽעֹדֵ֔ף בְּאֹ֖רֶךְ יְרִיעֹ֣ת הָאֹ֑הֶל יִֽהְיֶ֨ה סָר֜וּחַ עַל־צִדֵּ֧י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ן מִזֶּ֥ה וּמִזֶּ֖ה לְכַסֹּתֽוֹ:
And the cubit from here and the cubit from there: on the north[ern] and on the south[ern] sides of the Mishkan].   וְהָֽאַמָּה מִזֶּה וְהָֽאַמָּה מִזֶּה: לַצָּפוֹן וְלַדָּרוֹם:
of the excess in the length of the curtains of the tent: which exceed the length of the lower curtains of the Mishkan by two cubits.   בָּֽעֹדֵף בְּאֹרֶךְ יְרִיעֹת הָאֹהֶל: שֶׁהֵן עוֹדְפוֹת עַל אֹרֶךְ יְרִיעוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת:
shall hang over the sides of the Mishkan: [I.e.,] on the northern and southern [sides], as I explained above [verse 12]. The Torah taught [us] manners, that one should spare the beautiful. — [from an unknown midrashic source, also quoted by Yalkut Shimoni 422]   יִֽהְיֶה סָרוּחַ עַל־צִדֵּי הַמִּשְׁכָּן: לַצָּפוֹן וְלַדָּרוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי לְמַעְלָה. לִמְּדָה תוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם חָס עַל הַיָּפֶה (ילקוט שמעוני):
14And you shall make a covering for the tent of ram skins dyed red and a covering of tachash skins above.   ידוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ מִכְסֶה֙ לָאֹ֔הֶל עֹרֹ֥ת אֵילִ֖ם מְאָדָּמִ֑ים וּמִכְסֵ֛ה עֹרֹ֥ת תְּחָשִׁ֖ים מִלְמָֽעְלָה:
a covering for the tent: For the roof of goat hair curtains, make an additional covering of ram skins dyed red. Additionally, above it [place] a covering of tachash skins. These [two] coverings covered only the roof, their length being thirty [cubits] and their width ten. These are Rabbi Nehemiah’s words, but according to Rabbi Judah, there was [only] one cover, half of [it made from] ram skins dyed red and half of [it made from] tachash skins. -[from Shab. 28a]   מִכְסֶה לָאֹהֶל: לְאוֹתוֹ גַּג שֶׁל יְרִיעוֹת עִזִּים עֲשֵׂה עוֹד מִכְסֶה אַחֵר שֶׁל עוֹרוֹת אֵילִים מְאָדָּמִים, וְעוֹד לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ מִכְסֵה עוֹרוֹת תְּחָשִׁים; וְאוֹתָן מִכְסָאוֹת לֹא הָיוּ מְכַסִּין אֶלָּא אֶת הַגָּג, אָרְכָּן ל' וְרָחְבָּן י', אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, וּלְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מִכְסֶה אֶחָד הָיָה, חֶצְיוֹ שֶׁל עוֹרוֹת אֵילִים מְאָדָּמִים וְחֶצְיוֹ שֶׁל עוֹרוֹת תְּחָשִׁים (שבת כ"ח):

Fourth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 26

15And you shall make the planks for the Mishkan of acacia wood, upright.   טווְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁ֖ים לַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן עֲצֵ֥י שִׁטִּ֖ים עֹֽמְדִֽים:
And you shall make the planks: It should have said, “And you shall make planks” [without the definite article], as it is said concerning each thing [i.e., each part of the Mishkan]. What is the meaning of "the planks"? Of those [particular planks] that were standing [ready] and designated for this [purpose]. Our patriarch, Jacob, planted cedars in Egypt, and when he was dying, he commanded his sons to bring them up with them when they left Egypt. He told them that the Holy One, blessed is He, was destined to command them to make a Mishkan of acacia wood in the desert. "See that they should be ready in your hands." This is what the liturgical poet composed in his liturgical poem [the beginning of the Yotzer for the first day of Passover]: “It [God’s voice] flew to the planting of the quickened ones, the cedar beams of our houses,” for they hurried to have them [the cedars] ready in their hands prior to this moment, [i.e., prior to the command to build the Mishkan]. — [from Mid. Tanchuma 9]   וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁים: הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר וְעָשִׂיתָ קְרָשִׁים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּכָל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, מַהוּ הַקְּרָשִׁים? מֵאוֹתָן הָעוֹמְדִין וּמְיֻחָדִין לְכָךְ; יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ נָטַע אֲרָזִים בְּמִצְרַיִם, וּכְשֶׁמֵּת צִוָּה לְבָנָיו לְהַעֲלוֹתָם עִמָּהֶם כְּשֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְאָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁעָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְצַוּוֹת אוֹתָן לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁכָּן בַּמִּדְבָּר מֵעֲצֵי שִׁטִּים, רְאוּ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְזֻמָּנִים בְּיֶדְכֶם; הוּא שֶׁיִּסֵּד הַבַּבְלִי בַּפִּיּוּט שֶׁלּוֹ, "טָס מַטַּע מְזֹרָזִים קוֹרוֹת בָּתֵּינוּ אֲרָזִים", שֶׁנִּזְדָּרְזוּ לִהְיוֹת מוּכָנִים בְּיָדָם מִקֹּדֶם לָכֵן:
acacia wood, upright: Heb. עֹמְדִים, estantivs in Old French, upright, perpendicular. The length of the planks shall be perpendicular [to each other] in the walls of the Mishkan. You shall not make the walls of horizontal planks, so that the width of the planks will be along the height of the walls, one plank [lying] upon [another] plank. — [from Jonathan, Yoma 72a]   עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים עומדים: איתשט"נביש בְּלַעַז; שֶׁיְּהֵא אֹרֶךְ הַקְּרָשִׁים זָקוּף לְמַעְלָה בְּקִירוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה הַכְּתָלִים בִּקְרָשִׁים שׁוֹכְבִים, לִהְיוֹת רֹחַב הַקְּרָשִׁים לְגֹבַהּ הַכְּתָלִים קֶרֶשׁ עַל קֶרֶשׁ:
16Ten cubits [shall be] the length of each plank, and a cubit and a half [shall be] the width of each plank.   טזעֶ֥שֶׂר אַמּ֖וֹת אֹ֣רֶךְ הַקָּ֑רֶשׁ וְאַמָּה֙ וַֽחֲצִ֣י הָֽאַמָּ֔ה רֹ֖חַב הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
Ten cubits [shall be] the length of each plank: [From here] we learn [that] the height of the Mishkan was ten cubits. — [from Shab. 92a]   עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת אֹרֶךְ הַקָּרֶשׁ: לָמַדְנוּ גָּבְהוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת:
and a cubit and a half [shall be] the width: [From here] we learn [that] the length of the Mishkan, [which corresponds to the] twenty planks that were on the north[ern] and the south[ern sides] from east to west, was thirty cubits.   וְאַמָּה וַֽחֲצִי הָֽאַמָּה רֹחַב: לָמַדְנוּ אָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן, לְעֶשְׂרִים קְרָשִׁים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בַּצָּפוֹן וּבַדָּרוֹם מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, שְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה:
17Each plank shall have two square pegs, rung like, one even with the other; so shall you make all the planks of the Mishkan.   יזשְׁתֵּ֣י יָד֗וֹת לַקֶּ֨רֶשׁ֙ הָאֶחָ֔ד מְשֻׁ֨לָּבֹ֔ת אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֑הּ כֵּ֣ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל קַרְשֵׁ֥י הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
Each plank shall have two square pegs: He [Bezalel] would cut one cubit high into the plank from the bottom in its center, and leave one-fourth of its width on one side and one-fourth of its width on the other side, and these [resulting projections] are [called] the square pegs. Half the width of the plank was cut out in its center, (I.e., the plank, הַקֶּרֶשׁ, refers to what remained after he cut out from both sides; then the width of a cubit remained. The result is that half of the width of the plank in the middle is a half cubit. This is what Rashi explained explicitly on Shab. 98-[i.e.,] that in the center, the width of one-half cubit was cut out, and he [also] cut out a quarter of a cubit on each side. Every square peg was a quarter of a cubit wide, and the edge of each socket was a quarter of a cubit wide. Study this thoroughly. Then [you will see] that Ramban’s complaint against Rashi will disappear, and his astonishment will no longer be valid.) and he would insert these square pegs into the sockets, which were hollow. And the sockets were one cubit high, and forty of them were placed consecutively-one next to the other-and the square pegs of the planks that were inserted into the hollow of the sockets were cut out on three of their sides. The width of the cut [was] as thick as the edge of the socket, so that the plank covered the entire top of the socket. Otherwise, there would be a space between one plank and the next plank equal to the thickness of the edge of the two sockets, which would then separate them. This is the meaning of what is said: “And they shall be matched evenly from below” (verse 24); i.e., he [Bezalel] shall cut out the sides of the square pegs so that the boards shall join, one [plank exactly] next to the other. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan]   שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת לַקֶּרֶשׁ הָאֶחָד: הָיָה חוֹרֵץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִלְּמַטָּה בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ בְּגֹבַהּ אַמָּה, וּמַנִּיחַ רְבִיעַ רָחְבּוֹ מִכָּאן, וּרְבִיעַ רָחְבּוֹ מִכָּאן, וְהֵן הֵן הַיָּדוֹת, וְהֶחָרִיץ חֲצִי רֹחַב הַקֶּרֶשׁ בָּאֶמְצַע, וְאוֹתָן הַיָּדוֹת מַכְנִיס בָּאֲדָנִים שֶׁהָיוּ חֲלוּלִים, וְהָאֲדָנִים גָּבְהָן אַמָּה וְיוֹשְׁבִים רְצוּפִים אַרְבָּעִים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה, וִידוֹת הַקֶּרֶשׁ הַנִּכְנָסוֹת בַּחֲלַל הָאֲדָנִים חֲרוּצוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה צִדֵּיהֶן – רֹחַב הֶחָרִיץ כְּעֹבִי שְׂפַת הָאֶדֶן – שֶׁיְּכַסֶּה הַקֶּרֶשׁ אֶת כָּל רֹאשׁ הָאֶדֶן, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן, נִמְצָא רֶוַח בֵּין קֶרֶשׁ לְקֶרֶשׁ כְּעֹבִי שְׂפַת שְׁנֵי הָאֲדָנִים, שֶׁיַּפְסִיקוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיִהְיוּ תֹאֲמִים מִלְּמַטָּה, שֶׁיַּחֲרֹץ אֶת צִדֵּי הַיָּדוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְחַבְּרוּ הַקְּרָשִׁים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה:
rung-like: Heb. מְשׁוּלָּבֹת, [which means] made like the rungs of a ladder, [i.e.,] separated from one another with their ends planed off to be inserted into the openings of the sockets, like a rung that is inserted into the hole of the upright [beams] of a ladder. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan]   מְשֻׁלָּבֹת: עֲשׂוּיוֹת כְּמִין שְׁלִיבוֹת סֻלָּם, וּמֻבְדָּלוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ, וּמְשֻׁפִּין רָאשֵׁיהֶם לִכָּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ חֲלַל הָאֶדֶן כִּשְׁלִיבָה הַנִּכְנֶסֶת בְּנֶקֶב עַמּוּדֵי הַסֻּלָּם:
one even with the other: One [square peg was] aligned opposite the other so that their cut-away parts would be even, one with the measurement of the other, so that of the two square pegs, one shall not be pulled [more] toward the inside and one pulled [more] toward the outside of the thickness of the plank, which was a cubit. The Aramaic translation of יָדוֹת is צִירִין, hinges, because they resemble the hinges of a door, which are inserted into the holes of the threshold.   אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ: מְכֻוָּנוֹת זוֹ כְנֶגֶד זוֹ, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ חֲרִיצֵיהֶם שָׁוִים זוֹ כְמִדַּת זוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת זוֹ מְשׁוּכָה לְצַד פְּנִים וְזוֹ מְשׁוּכָה לְצַד חוּץ בְּעֹבִי הַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא אַמָּה, וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל יָדוֹת צִירִין, לְפִי שֶׁדּוֹמוֹת לְצִירֵי הַדֶּלֶת הַנִּכְנָסִים בְּחֹרֵי הַמִּפְתָּן:
18And you shall make the planks for the Mishkan, twenty planks for the southern side.   יחוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁ֖ים לַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן עֶשְׂרִ֣ים קֶ֔רֶשׁ לִפְאַ֖ת נֶ֥גְבָּה תֵימָֽנָה:
for the southern side: Heb. לִפְאַת נֶגְבָּה תֵימָנָה. [The word לִפְאַת is derived from פֵּאָה, which usually means “corner.”] This [use of the word] פֵּאָה is not an expression meaning “corner,” rather the whole side is referred to as פֵּאָה, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: לְרוּחַ עֵיבַר דָרוֹמָא, to the side toward the south.   לִפְאַת נֶגְבָּה תֵימָֽנָה: אֵין פֵּאָה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן מִקְצוֹעַ, אֶלָּא כָּל הָרוּחַ קְרוּיָה פֵּאָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ: לְרוּחַ עֵבַר דָּרוֹמָא:
19And you shall make forty silver sockets under the twenty planks; two sockets under one plank for its two square pegs, and two sockets under one plank for its two square pegs.   יטוְאַרְבָּעִים֙ אַדְנֵי־כֶ֔סֶף תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֕ה תַּ֖חַת עֶשְׂרִ֣ים הַקָּ֑רֶשׁ שְׁנֵ֨י אֲדָנִ֜ים תַּֽחַת־הַקֶּ֤רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָד֙ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י יְדֹתָ֔יו וּשְׁנֵ֧י אֲדָנִ֛ים תַּֽחַת־הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָ֖ד לִשְׁתֵּ֥י יְדֹתָֽיו:
20And for the second side of the Mishkan on the northern side twenty planks.   כוּלְצֶ֧לַע הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ן הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית לִפְאַ֣ת צָפ֑וֹן עֶשְׂרִ֖ים קָֽרֶשׁ:
21And their forty silver sockets: two sockets under one plank and two sockets under one plank.   כאוְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם כָּ֑סֶף שְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֗ים תַּ֚חַת הַקֶּ֣רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֔ים תַּ֖חַת הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
22And for the western end of the Mishkan you shall make six planks.   כבוּלְיַרְכְּתֵ֥י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן יָ֑מָּה תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה שִׁשָּׁ֥ה קְרָשִֽׁים:
And for the…end of: Heb. וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי, a word meaning “end” [in Hebrew, סוֹף], as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְלִסְיָפֵי. Since the entrance [of the Mishkan] is in the east, [thus] the east[ern side] is called the front and the west[ern side] the back. This is the reason it is [referred to as] the end, because the front is the beginning.   וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי: לְשׁוֹן סוֹף, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְלִסְיָפֵי, וּלְפִי שֶׁהַפֶּתַח בַּמִּזְרָח, קָרוּי מִזְרָח פָּנִים וְהַמַּעֲרָב אֲחוֹרַיִם, וְזֶהוּ סוֹף, שֶׁהַפָּנִים הוּא הָרֹאשׁ:
you shall make six planks: Hence, nine cubits are the width [of the Mishkan, since each plank is one and one-half cubits wide].   תַּֽעֲשֶׂה שִׁשָּׁה קְרָשִֽׁים: הֲרֵי תֵשַׁע אַמּוֹת רֹחַב:
23And you shall make two planks at the corners of the Mishkan at the end.   כגוּשְׁנֵ֤י קְרָשִׁים֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה לִמְקֻצְעֹ֖ת הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן בַּיַּרְכָתָֽיִם:
And you shall make two planks at the corners: One at the northwestern corner and one at the southwestern corner. All eight planks were in one row, but these two [in the corners] were not in the [interior] space of the Mishkan. Only a half cubit from here [from one plank] and a half cubit from there [from another plank] appear in the [interior] space, to complete its width to [the total of] ten [cubits]. The [extra] cubit from here and the cubit from there [i.e., of each corner plank] coincide with the cubits of the thickness of the planks of the Mishkan on the north[ern] and the south[ern sides], so that the corner would be even on the outside.   וּשְׁנֵי קְרָשִׁים תַּֽעֲשֶׂה לִמְקֻצְעֹת: אֶחָד לְמִקְצוֹעַ צְפוֹנִית מַעֲרָבִית, וְאֶחָד לְמַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית, כָּל שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים בְּסֵדֶר אֶחָד הֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵלּוּ הַשְּׁנַיִם אֵינָן בַּחֲלַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן אֶלָּא חֲצִי אַמָּה מִזּוֹ וַחֲצִי אַמָּה מִזּוֹ נִרְאוֹת בֶּחָלָל, לְהַשְׁלִים רָחְבּוֹ לְעֶשֶׂר, וְהָאַמָּה מִזֶּה וְהָאַמָּה מִזֶּה בָּאוֹת כְּנֶגֶד אַמַּת עֹבִי קַרְשֵׁי הַמִּשְׁכָּן הַצָּפוֹן וְהַדָּרוֹם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַמִּקְצוֹעַ מִבַּחוּץ שָׁוֶה:
24And they shall be matched evenly from below, and together they shall match at its top, [to be put] into the one ring; so shall it be for both of them; they shall be for the two corners.   כדוְיִֽהְי֣וּ תֹֽאֲמִם֘ מִלְּמַ֒טָּה֒ וְיַחְדָּ֗ו יִֽהְי֤וּ תַמִּים֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ אֶל־הַטַּבַּ֖עַת הָֽאֶחָ֑ת כֵּ֚ן יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לִשְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם לִשְׁנֵ֥י הַמִּקְצֹעֹ֖ת יִֽהְיֽוּ:
And they shall be matched evenly from below: All the planks must be flush at the bottom, so that the thickness of the edges of the two sockets should not form a gap to distance them [the planks] from one another. This is what I [meant when I] explained that the hinges of the square pegs [according to Yosef Hallel: the sides of the square pegs] should be cut out around their sides, so that the width of the plank should protrude on its sides away from the square pegs of the plank, [in order] to cover the edge of the socket, and so [with] the plank next to it [as well]. Thus, the planks are found to be flush with each other. [Each] corner plank in the western row was cut away in the width, in [the part of] its thickness [aligned] opposite the cut-away portion of the northern plank’s side, in order that the sockets should not separate them.   וְיִֽהְיוּ: כָּל הַקְּרָשִׁים תּוֹאֲמִים זֶה לָזֶה מִלְּמַטָּה, שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיק עֹבִי שְׂפַת שְׁנֵי הָאֲדָנִים בֵּינֵיהֶם לְהַרְחִיקָם זוֹ מִזּוֹ, זֶהוּ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ צִירֵי הַיָּדוֹת חֲרוּצִים מִצִּדֵּיהֶן, שֶׁיְּהֵא רֹחַב הַקֶּרֶשׁ בּוֹלֵט לְצִדָּיו חוּץ לִידֵי הַקֶּרֶשׁ, לְכַסּוֹת אֶת שְׂפַת הָאֶדֶן, וְכֵן הַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ, וְנִמְצְאוּ תוֹאֲמִים זֶה לָזֶה; וְקֶרֶשׁ הַמִּקְצוֹעַ שֶׁבְּסֵדֶר הַמַּעֲרָב חָרוּץ לְרָחְבּוֹ בְּעָבְיוֹ כְּנֶגֶד חָרִיץ שֶׁל צַד קֶרֶשׁ הַצְּפוֹנִי וְהַדְּרוֹמִי, כְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַפְרִידוּ הָאֲדָנִים בֵּינֵיהֶם:
and together they shall match: Heb. תַמִּים, like תְאוּמִים, twins.   וְיַחְדָּו יִֽהְיוּ תַמִּים: כְּמוֹ תוֹאֲמִים:
at its top: [The top] of the plank.   עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ: שֶׁל קֶרֶשׁ:
into the one ring: Every plank was cut away [a little] at the top along its width. [There were] two cuts on its two sides [to contain] the thickness of a ring. He [Moses] would insert them [the two planks] into one ring, thus it [the plank] would match the plank next to it. As for these rings, however, I do not know whether they were permanent or removable. On the corner plank, the ring was in the thickness of the southern and northern planks, (It appears that the words “the northern and the southern” belong further down, and Rashi means to say that the northern and the southern [planks] and the top of the corner plank in the western row were inserted into it [the ring]. What Rashi writes that the ring was in the thickness of the plank means in the thickness of the western plank. Give this some thought.) and the top of the [other] corner plank of the western row was inserted into it [this ring], resulting in the joining of the two walls.   אֶל־הַטַּבַּעַת הָֽאֶחָת: כָּל קֶרֶשׁ וְקֶרֶשׁ הָיָה חָרוּץ מִלְמַעְלָה בְרָחְבּוֹ שְׁנֵי חֲרִיצִין, בִּשְׁנֵי צִדָּיו, כְּמוֹ עֹבִי טַבַּעַת, וּמַכְנִיסוֹ בְּטַבַּעַת אַחַת, נִמְצָא מַתְאִים לַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ, אֲבָל אוֹתָן טַבָּעוֹת לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אִם קְבוּעוֹת הֵן, אִם מְטֻלְטָלוֹת, וּבַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁבַּמִּקְצוֹעַ הָיְתָה טַבַּעַת בְּעֹבִי הַקֶּרֶשׁ הַדְּרוֹמִי וְהַצְּפוֹנִי, וְרֹאשׁ קֶרֶשׁ הַמִּקְצוֹעַ שֶׁבְּסֵדֶר מַעֲרָב נִכְנָס לְתוֹכוֹ, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי הַכְּתָלִים מְחֻבָּרִים:
so shall it be for both of them: For the two planks at the corners, for the plank at the [western] end of the north[ern side] and for the [adjacent] western plank; so too for the two corners.   כֵּן יִֽהְיֶה לִשְׁנֵיהֶם: לִשְׁנֵי הַקְּרָשִׁים שֶׁבַּמִּקְצוֹעַ, לַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁבְּסוֹף צָפוֹן וְלַקֶּרֶשׁ הַמַּעֲרָבִי, וְכֵן לִשְׁנֵי הַמִּקְצוֹעוֹת:
25And there shall be eight planks and their silver sockets, sixteen sockets two sockets under one plank and two sockets under one plank.   כהוְהָיוּ֙ שְׁמֹנָ֣ה קְרָשִׁ֔ים וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֣ם כֶּ֔סֶף שִׁשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אֲדָנִ֑ים שְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֗ים תַּ֚חַת הַקֶּ֣רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֔ים תַּ֖חַת הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
And there shall be eight planks: Those are the [same] ones mentioned above: “you shall make six planks. And you shall make two planks at the corners of the Mishkan at the end” (verses 22, 23) [thereby there were eight planks on the western wall]. The following is the Mishnah concerning the making of the order of the planks in the [Baraitha] Melecheth HaMishkan (ch. 1): He made the sockets hollow and he cut out the plank from below, one-fourth from here and one-fourth from there, and the cut-away [area] was one half in the middle. He made for it [the plank] two square pegs like sort of two legs (חֲמוּקִים). I believe that the reading is: like sort of two חַוָּקִין, [which means] like sort of two rungs of a ladder which are separated from one another, and planed [in order] to be inserted into the hollow of the socket, like the rung, which is inserted into the hole of the side of the ladder. This is the word מְשׁוּלָּבֹת, [i.e.,] made like a sort of rung. He would insert them [the square pegs] into the two sockets, as it is said: “two sockets…two sockets…” (verse 25), and he would cut away the plank on top, [the width of] a finger from one side and [the width of] a finger from the other side, and he would insert [the edges of the two planks] into one golden ring so that they would not separate from one another, as it is said: “And they shall be matched evenly from below, etc.” (verse 24). This is [the wording of] the Mishnah [in Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan], and I presented its explanation above in the sequence of the verses.   וְהָיוּ שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים: הֵן הָאֲמוּרוֹת לְמַעְלָה תַּעֲשֶׂה שִׁשָּׁה קְרָשִׁים וּשְׁנֵי קְרָשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂה לִמְקֻצְעֹת, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים בְּסֵדֶר מַעֲרָבִי; כָּךְ שְׁנוּיָה בַּמִּשְׁנָה מַעֲשֵׂה סֵדֶר הַקְּרָשִׁים בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן; הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה אֶת הָאֲדָנִים חֲלוּלִים וְחוֹרֵץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִלְּמַטָּה רְבִיעַ מִכָּאן וּרְבִיעַ מִכָּאן, וְהֶחָרִיץ חֶצְיוֹ בָּאֶמְצַע, וְעָשָׂה לוֹ שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֲמוּקִין – וְלִי נִרְאֶה שֶׁהַגִּרְסָא כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֲוָקִין, כְּמִין שְׁנֵי שְׁלִיבוֹת סֻלָּם הַמֻּבְדָּלוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ, וּמְשֻׁפּוֹת לִכָּנֵס בַּחֲלַל הָאֶדֶן כִּשְׁלִיבָה הַנִּכְנֶסֶת בְּנֶקֶב עַמּוּד הַסֻּלָּם, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן מְשֻׁלָּבוֹת, עֲשׂוּיוֹת כְּמִין שְׁלִיבָה – וּמַכְנִיסָן לְתוֹךְ שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים, וְחוֹרֵץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִלְמַעְלָה אֶצְבַּע מִכָּאן וְאֶצְבַּע מִכָּאן, וְנוֹתְנָן לְתוֹךְ טַבַּעַת אַחַת שֶׁל זָהָב כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ נִפְרָדִין זֶה מִזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיִהְיוּ תֹאֲמִים מִלְּמַטָּה וְגוֹ', כָּךְ הִיא הַמִּשְׁנָה, וְהַפֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁלָּהּ הִצַּעְתִּי לְמַעְלָה בְּסֵדֶר הַמִּקְרָאוֹת:
26And you shall make bars of acacia wood, five for the planks of one side of the Mishkan,   כווְעָשִׂ֥יתָ בְרִיחִ֖ם עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים חֲמִשָּׁ֕ה לְקַרְשֵׁ֥י צֶֽלַע־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן הָֽאֶחָֽד:
bars: Heb. בְרִיחִם, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עַבְּרִין, and in Old French espar(re)s, cross-bars.   בְרִיחִם: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ עַבְּרִין, וּבְלַעַז אשפ"ריש:
five for the planks of one side of the Mishkan: These five [bars] were actually three, but the top and the bottom bars were made of two segments-one [part] would penetrate until half of the wall, and the other one would penetrate until half of the wall[’s length]. One [part of the bar] was inserted into a ring from this [one] side, and this [other] one was inserted into a ring on the other side until one [part of the bar] reached the other. Thus, the top one [bar] and the bottom one [bar] were two, but actually they were four. But the length of the middle one [bar] ran along the entire wall, and penetrated from one end of the wall to its other end, as it is said: “And the middle bar…shall [extend and] penetrate from one end to the other end” (verse 28). The top and bottom ones [bars] had rings on the planks in which they were to be inserted, two rings for every plank, attached in three places within the ten cubits of the height of the plank-one part from the highest ring to the top and one part from the lowest [ring] to the bottom. Each part was one-fourth of the length of the plank, and [there] were two parts between one ring and the other ring, so that all the rings would be aligned with the other. The middle bar, however, had no rings, but the planks were pierced through their thickness and it [the middle bar] was inserted into them by way of the holes, which were aligned one opposite the other. This is [the meaning of] what is said: “in the midst of the planks” (verse 28). The highest and lowest bars on the north[ern] and the south[ern sides] were each fifteen cubits long, and the middle one was thirty cubits long. This is [the meaning of] “from one end to the other end” (verse 28), from east to west. [Regarding] the five bars on the west: the top and bottom ones were six cubits long, and the middle one was twelve [cubits] long, corresponding to the width of the eight planks. It is explained this way in [the Baraitha] Melecheth HaMishkan (ch. 1).   חֲמִשָּׁה לְקַרְשֵׁי צֶֽלַע־הַמִּשְׁכָּן: אֵלּוּ חֲמִשָּׁה ג' הֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַבְּרִיחַ הָעֶלְיוֹן וְהַתַּחְתּוֹן עָשׂוּי מִשְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת, זֶה מַבְרִיחַ עַד חֲצִי הַכֹּתֶל וְזֶה מַבְרִיחַ עַד חֲצִי הַכֹּתֶל, זֶה נִכְנָס בַּטַּבָּעוֹת מִצַּד זֶה, וְזֶה נִכְנָס בַּטַּבָּעוֹת מִצַּד זֶה, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין זֶה לָזֶה, נִמְצָא שֶׁעֶלְיוֹן וְתַחְתּוֹן שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבָּעָה, אֲבָל הָאֶמְצָעִי אָרְכּוֹ כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַכֹּתֶל, וּמַבְרִיחַ מִקְצֵה הַכֹּתֶל וְעַד קָצֵהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְהַבְּרִיחַ הַתִּיכֹן וְגוֹ' מַבְרִחַ מִן הַקָּצֶה אֶל הַקָּצֶה", הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הָיוּ לָהֶן טַבָּעוֹת בַּקְּרָשִׁים לִכָּנֵס בְּתוֹכָן, שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת לְכָל קֶרֶשׁ מְשֻׁלָּשִׁים בְּתוֹךְ עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת שֶׁל גֹּבַהּ הַקֶּרֶשׁ – חֵלֶק אֶחָד מִן הַטַּבַּעַת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וּלְמַעְלָה, וְחֵלֶק אֶחָד מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וּלְמַטָּה, וְכָל חֵלֶק הוּא רְבִיעַ אֹרֶךָ הַקֶּרֶשׁ, וּשְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים בֵּין טַבַּעַת לְטַבַּעַת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָל הַטַּבָּעוֹת מְכֻוָּנִים זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ – אֲבָל לַבְּרִיחַ הַתִּיכוֹן אֵין טַבָּעוֹת, אֶלָּא הַקְּרָשִׁים נְקוּבִים בְּעָבְיָן, וְהוּא נִכְנָס בָּהֶם דֶּרֶךְ הַנְּקָבִים שֶׁהֵם מְכֻוָּנִין זֶה מוּל זֶה, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "בְּתוֹךְ" הַקְּרָשִׁים; הַבְּרִיחִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁבַּצָּפוֹן וְשֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם אֹרֶךָ כָּל אֶחָד חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה, וְהַתִּיכוֹן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה, וְזֶהוּ "מִן הַקָּצֶה אֶל הַקָּצֶה" – מִן הַמִּזְרָח וְעַד הַמַּעֲרָב – וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְרִיחִים שֶׁבַּמַּעֲרָב אֹרֶךְ הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֵׁשׁ אַמּוֹת, וְהַתִּיכוֹן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה, כְּנֶגֶד רֹחַב שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים, כָּךְ הִיא מְפֹרֶשֶׁת בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
27and five bars for the planks of the second side of the Mishkan, and five bars for the planks of the [rear] side of the Mishkan, on the westward end.   כזוַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֣ה בְרִיחִ֔ם לְקַרְשֵׁ֥י צֶֽלַע־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן הַשֵּׁנִ֑ית וַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֣ה בְרִיחִ֗ם לְקַרְשֵׁי֙ צֶ֣לַע הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן לַיַּרְכָתַ֖יִם יָֽמָּה:
28And the middle bar in the midst of the planks shall [extend and] penetrate from one end to the other end.   כחוְהַבְּרִ֥יחַ הַתִּיכֹ֖ן בְּת֣וֹךְ הַקְּרָשִׁ֑ים מַבְרִ֕חַ מִן־הַקָּצֶ֖ה אֶל־הַקָּצֶֽה:
29And you shall overlay the planks with gold, and their rings you shall make of gold as holders for the bars, and you shall overlay the bars with gold.   כטוְאֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁ֞ים תְּצַפֶּ֣ה זָהָ֗ב וְאֶת־טַבְּעֹֽתֵיהֶם֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה זָהָ֔ב בָּתִּ֖ים לַבְּרִיחִ֑ם וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֶת־הַבְּרִיחִ֖ם זָהָֽב:
as holders for the bars: The rings that you shall make for them shall be holders for the bars to enter [them].   בָּתִּים לַבְּרִיחִם: הַטַּבָּעוֹת שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה בָּהֶן יִהְיוּ בָּתִּים לִכָּנֵס בָּהֵן הַבְּרִיחִים:
and you shall overlay the bars with gold: [This does] not [mean] that the gold was attached onto the bars, for they [the bars] had no covering. But he [Bezalel] attached something onto the plank akin to two tubes of gold, something like two halves of a hollow reed, and he attached them to the rings on both sides, their length filling the [entire] width of the plank from the ring to one side and from it to the other side. The bar was inserted into it [the tube], and from it into the ring, and from the ring into the second tubes. Thus, the bars were found to be overlaid with gold when they were inserted into the planks. These bars protruded to the outside [of the Mishkan]. [Thus] the rings and the tubes were not visible within the Mishkan, but from the inside the entire wall was unadorned. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan with Rashi’s interpretation]   וְצִפִּיתָ אֶת־הַבְּרִיחִם זָהָב: לֹא שֶׁהָיָה הַזָּהָב מְדֻבָּק עַל הַבְּרִיחִים – שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם שׁוּם צִפּוּי – אֶלָּא בַקֶּרֶשׁ הָיָה קוֹבֵעַ כְּמִין שְׁתֵּי פִּיפִיּוֹת שֶׁל זָהָב, כְּמִין שְׁנֵי סִדְקֵי קָנֶה חָלוּל, וְקוֹבְעָן אֵצֶל הַטַּבַּעַת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, אָרְכָּן מְמַלֵּא אֶת רֹחַב הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִן הַטַּבַּעַת לְכָאן וּמִמֶּנָּה לְכָאן, וְהַבְּרִיחַ נִכְנָס לְתוֹכוֹ וּמִמֶּנּוּ לַטַּבַּעַת וּמִן הַטַּבַּעַת לַפֶּה הַשֵּׁנִי, נִמְצְאוּ הַבְּרִיחִים מְצֻפִּים זָהָב כְּשֶׁהֵן תְּחוּבִין בַּקְּרָשִׁים; וְהַבְּרִיחִים הַלָּלוּ מִבַּחוּץ הָיוּ בּוֹלְטוֹת, הַטַּבָּעוֹת וְהַפִּיפִיּוֹת לֹא הָיוּ נִרְאוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אֶלָּא כָּל הַכֹּתֶל חָלָק מִבִּפְנִים:
30And you shall erect the Mishkan according to its proper manner, as you will have been shown on the mountain.   לוַֽהֲקֵֽמֹתָ֖ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן כְּמִ֨שְׁפָּט֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרְאֵ֖יתָ בָּהָֽר:
And you shall erect the Mishkan: After it is completed, erect it.   וַֽהֲקֵֽמֹתָ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן: לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּגָּמֵר הֲקִימֵהוּ:
you will have been shown on the mountain: prior to this, for I am destined to teach you and show you the order of its erection.   הָרְאֵיתָ בָּהָֽר: קֹדֶם לָכֵן, שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לְלַמֶּדְךָ וּלְהַרְאוֹתְךָ סֵדֶר הֲקָמָתוֹ:

Fifth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 26

31And you shall make a dividing curtain of blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen; the work of a master weaver he shall make it, in a [woven] cherubim design.   לאוְעָשִׂ֣יתָ פָרֹ֗כֶת תְּכֵ֧לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֛ן וְתוֹלַ֥עַת שָׁנִ֖י וְשֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֑ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה חשֵׁ֛ב יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֖הּ כְּרֻבִֽים:
a dividing curtain: Heb. פָּרֹכֶת. [This is] a word denoting a dividing curtain. In the language of the Sages [it is called] פַּרְגוֹד (Chag. 15a), something that separates between the king and the people.   פָרֹכֶת: לְשׁוֹן מְחִצָּה הוּא, וּבִלְשׁוֹן חֲכָמִים פַּרְגּוֹד דָּבָר הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבֵין הָעָם:
blue, purple: Each type was doubled in each thread with six strands. — [from Yoma 71b]   תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן: כָּל מִין וָמִין הָיָה כָפוּל בְּכָל חוּט וָחוּט שִׁשָּׁה חוּטִין:
the work of a master weaver: Heb. מַעִשֵׂה חשֵׁב I have already explained (verse 1) that this is weaving of two walls, and the designs on both sides of it are unlike one another.   מַֽעֲשֵׂה חשֵׁב: כְּבָר פֵּרַשְׁתִּי שֶׁזּוֹ הִיא אֲרִיגָה שֶׁל שְׁתֵּי קִירוֹת, וְהַצִּיּוּרִין שֶׁמִּשְּׁנֵי עֲבָרֶיהָ אֵינָן דּוֹמִין זֶה לָזֶה:
cherubim: He shall make designs of creatures.   כְּרֻבִֽים: צִיּוּרִין שֶׁל בְּרִיּוֹת יַעֲשֶׂה בָהּ:
32And you shall place it on four pillars of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, their hooks [shall be] gold, on four silver sockets.   לבוְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה אֹתָ֗הּ עַל־אַרְבָּעָה֙ עַמּוּדֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֔ים מְצֻפִּ֣ים זָהָ֔ב וָֽוֵיהֶ֖ם זָהָ֑ב עַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה אַדְנֵי־כָֽסֶף:
four pillars: inserted into four sockets, with hooks attached to them [the pillars], bent on the top [in order] to place upon them a pole around which the top of the dividing curtain was wound. These hooks are the וָוִין [mentioned in the next verse, given this name] because they are made in the shape of [the letter] “vav” (ו). The dividing curtain was ten cubits long, corresponding to the width of the Mishkan [from north to south], and ten cubits wide, like the height of the planks. [It was] spread out at the one-third [point] of the Mishkan [from east to west], so that from it [the dividing curtain] toward the [Mishkan’s] interior were ten cubits, and from it [the dividing curtain] toward the exterior were twenty cubits. Hence, the Holy of Holies was ten [cubits] by ten [cubits], as it is said: “And you shall place the dividing curtain beneath the clasps” (verse 33), which join the two sets of the curtains of the Mishkan, the width of the set being twenty cubits. When he [Moses] spread them on the roof the Mishkan from the entrance [all the way] to the west, it [the first set of curtains] ended after two-thirds of the [way into the] Mishkan. The second set covered [the remaining] third of the Mishkan with the remainder [of the curtains] hanging over its rear to cover the planks.   אַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים: תְּקוּעִים בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבָּעָה אֲדָנִים, וְאוּנְקְלִיּוֹת קְבוּעִין בָּהֵן, עֲקֻמִּים לְמַעְלָה, לְהוֹשִׁיב עֲלֵיהֶן כְּלוֹנָס שֶׁרֹאשׁ הַפָּרֹכֶת כָּרוּךְ בָּהּ, וְהָאוּנְקְלִיּוֹת הֵן הַוָּוִין – שֶׁהֲרֵי כְמִין וָוִין הֵן עֲשׂוּיִים – וְהַפָּרֹכֶת אָרְכָּהּ עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת לְרָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן וְרָחְבָּהּ עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת כְּגָבְהָן שֶׁל קְרָשִׁים, פְּרוּסָה בִּשְׁלִישִׁית שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן, שֶׁיְּהֵא הֵימֶנָּה וְלִפְנִים עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת וְהֵימֶנָּה וְלַחוּץ עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, נִמְצָא בֵית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים עֶשֶׂר עַל עֶשֶׂר, שֶׁנֶּ' "וְנָתַתָּה אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת תַּחַת הַקְּרָסִים" – הַמְחַבְּרִים אֶת שְׁתֵּי חוֹבְרוֹת שֶׁל יְרִיעוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן; רֹחַב הַחוֹבֶרֶת עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, וּכְשֶׁפְּרָשָׂהּ עַל גַּג הַמִּשְׁכָּן מִן הַפֶּתַח לַמַּעֲרָב, כָּלְתָה בִּשְׁנֵי שְׁלִישִׁי הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְהַחוֹבֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית כִּסְּתָה שְׁלִישׁוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן, וְהַמּוֹתָר תָּלוּי לַאֲחוֹרָיו לְכַסּוֹת אֶת הַקְּרָשִׁים:
33And you shall place the dividing curtain beneath the clasps. You shall bring there on the inner side of the dividing curtain the Ark of the Testimony, and the dividing curtain shall separate for you between the Holy and the Holy of Holies.   לגוְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה אֶת־הַפָּרֹ֘כֶת֘ תַּ֣חַת הַקְּרָסִים֒ וְהֵֽבֵאתָ֥ שָׁ֨מָּה֙ מִבֵּ֣ית לַפָּרֹ֔כֶת אֵ֖ת אֲר֣וֹן הָֽעֵד֑וּת וְהִבְדִּילָ֤ה הַפָּרֹ֨כֶת֙ לָכֶ֔ם בֵּ֣ין הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ וּבֵ֖ין קֹ֥דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִֽׁים:
34And you shall place the ark cover over the Ark of the Testimony in the Holy of Holies.   לדוְנָֽתַתָּ֙ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּ֔רֶת עַ֖ל אֲר֣וֹן הָֽעֵדֻ֑ת בְּקֹ֖דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִֽׁים:
35And you shall place the table on the outer side of the dividing curtain and the menorah opposite the table, on the southern side of the Mishkan, and you shall place the table on the northern side.   להוְשַׂמְתָּ֤ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן֙ מִח֣וּץ לַפָּרֹ֔כֶת וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה֙ נֹ֣כַח הַשֻּׁלְחָ֔ן עַ֛ל צֶ֥לַע הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן תֵּימָ֑נָה וְהַ֨שֻּׁלְחָ֔ן תִּתֵּ֖ן עַל־צֶ֥לַע צָפֽוֹן:
And you shall place the table: The table was in the north, drawn away from the northern wall [of the Mishkan by] two and one-half cubits. The menorah was [placed] in the south, drawn away from the southern wall [by] two and one-half cubits. The golden altar was placed opposite the space between the table and the menorah, drawn a short distance toward the east. They [the table, menorah, and golden altar] were all situated in the inner half of the Mishkan. How was this? The length of the Mishkan from the entrance to the dividing curtain was twenty cubits. The altar, the table, and the menorah were drawn away from the entrance toward the western side ten cubits. — [from Yoma 33b]   וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן: שֻׁלְחָן בַּצָּפוֹן, מָשׁוּךְ מִן הַכֹּתֶל הַצְּפוֹנִי שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה, וּמְנוֹרָה בַדָּרוֹם, מְשׁוּכָה מִן הַכֹּתֶל הַדְּרוֹמִי שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה, וּמִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב נָתוּן כְּנֶגֶד אֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּין שֻׁלְחָן לַמְּנוֹרָה מָשׁוּךְ קִמְעָא כְּלַפֵּי הַמִּזְרָח, וְכֻלָּם נְתוּנִים מִן חֲצִי הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְלִפְנִים; כֵּיצַד? אֹרֶךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּן מִן הַפֶּתַח לַפָּרֹכֶת עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַמְּנוֹרָה מְשׁוּכִים מִן הַפֶּתַח לְצַד מַעֲרָב עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת (יומא ל"ג):
36And you shall make a screen for the entrance of the tent, of blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen the work of an embroiderer.   לווְעָשִׂ֤יתָ מָסָךְ֙ לְפֶ֣תַח הָאֹ֔הֶל תְּכֵ֧לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֛ן וְתוֹלַ֥עַת שָׁנִ֖י וְשֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֑ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֖ה רֹקֵֽם:
And you shall make a screen: Heb. מָסָךְ, a curtain that is a protector opposite the entrance, like “You made a hedge (שַׂכְתָּ) around him” (Job 1:10), an expression of protection. [Note that the “samech” and the “sin” are interchangeable.]   וְעָשִׂיתָ מָסָךְ: וִילוֹן, הוּא מָסָךְ כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח, כְּמוֹ "שַׂכְתָּ בַעֲדוֹ" (איוב א'), לְשׁוֹן מָגֵן:
the work of an embroiderer: The figures [on the screen] are produced on it with needlework-just as the face [was] on one side, so was the face on that [other] side. — [from Yoma 72b, Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 4]   מַֽעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵֽם: הַצּוּרוֹת עֲשׂוּיוֹת בּוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה מַחַט, כְּפַרְצוּף שֶׁל עֵבֶר זֶה כָּךְ פַּרְצוּף שֶׁל עֵבֶר זֶה:
an embroiderer: Heb. רֹקֵם, the name of the craftsman, not the name of the craft. Its Aramaic translation is עוֹבַד צַיָיר, work of an artist, but not עוֹבֵד צִיוּר, work of artistry. The measurements of the screen were the same as the measurements of the dividing curtain, [namely] ten cubits by ten cubits. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 4]   רֹקֵֽם: שֵׁם הָאָמָּן וְלֹא שֵׁם הָאָמָּנוּת, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ עוֹבַד צַיָּר וְלֹא עוֹבַד צִיּוּר. מִדַּת הַמָּסָךְ כְּמִדַּת הַפָּרֹכֶת – עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת עַל עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת:
37You shall make for the screen five pillars of acacia and overlay them with gold, their hooks [shall be] gold, and you shall cast for them five copper sockets.   לזוְעָשִׂ֣יתָ לַמָּסָ֗ךְ חֲמִשָּׁה֙ עַמּוּדֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֔ים וְצִפִּיתָ֤ אֹתָם֙ זָהָ֔ב וָֽוֵיהֶ֖ם זָהָ֑ב וְיָֽצַקְתָּ֣ לָהֶ֔ם חֲמִשָּׁ֖ה אַדְנֵ֥י נְחֽשֶׁת:

Sixth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 27

1And you shall make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits wide; the altar shall be square, and its height [shall be] three cubits.   אוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים חָמֵשׁ֩ אַמּ֨וֹת אֹ֜רֶךְ וְחָמֵ֧שׁ אַמּ֣וֹת רֹ֗חַב רָב֤וּעַ יִֽהְיֶה֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְשָׁל֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת קֹֽמָתֽוֹ:
And you shall make the altar…and its height [shall be] three cubits: The words are [to be understood] literally. These are the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Jose says: It says here “square,” and concerning the inner altar, it says “square” (Exod. 30:2). Just as there, its height was twice its length [i.e, it was one cubit long and two cubits high], here too, its height was twice its length. [This method of expounding is known as גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, similar wording.] How then do I understand “and its height [shall be] three cubits"? [This means measuring] from the edge of the sovev [the ledge surrounding the altar] and higher. — [from Zev 60a] [According to Rabbi Judah, the altar was literally three cubits high. According to Rabbi Yose, it was ten cubits high, with the upper three cubits above the ledge mentioned in verse 5]   וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וגו' וְשָׁלשׁ אַמּוֹת קֹֽמָתֽוֹ: דְּבָרִים כִּכְתָבָן, דִּבְרֵי רַ' יְהוּדָה, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר נֶאֱמַר כָּאן רָבוּעַ וְנֶאֱמַר בַּפְּנִימִי רָבוּעַ, מַה לְּהַלָּן גָּבְהוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּאָרְכּוֹ, אַף כָּאן גָּבְהוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּאָרְכּוֹ, וּמָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קֹמָתוֹ? מִשְּׂפַת סוֹבֵב וּלְמַעְלָה (זבח' נ"ט):
2And you shall make its horns on its four corners; its horns shall be from it, and you shall overlay it with copper.   בוְעָשִׂ֣יתָ קַרְנֹתָ֗יו עַ֚ל אַרְבַּ֣ע פִּנֹּתָ֔יו מִמֶּ֖נּוּ תִּֽהְיֶ֣יןָ קַרְנֹתָ֑יו וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹת֖וֹ נְחֽשֶׁת:
its horns shall be from it: [This means] that he should not make them [the horns] separately and [then] attach them to it [the altar].   מִמֶּנּוּ תִּֽהְיֶיןָ קַרְנֹתָיו: שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֵׂם לְבַדָּם וִיחַבְּרֵם בּוֹ:
and you shall overlay it with copper: to atone for brazenness, as it is said: “and your forehead is brazen (נְחוֹּשָה)” (Isa. 48:4). [I.e., נְחֹשֶת, which means copper, is also used idiomatically to mean brazen or bold.]-[from Tanchuma 11]   וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ נְחֽשֶׁת: לְכַפֵּר עַל עַזּוּת מֶצַח, שֶׁנֶּ' וּמִצְחֲךָ נְחוּשָׁה (ישעיהו מ"ח):
3And you shall make its pots to remove its ashes, and its shovels and its sprinkling basins and its flesh hooks and its scoops; you shall make all its implements of copper.   גוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ סִּֽירֹתָיו֙ לְדַשְּׁנ֔וֹ וְיָעָיו֙ וּמִזְרְקֹתָ֔יו וּמִזְלְגֹתָ֖יו וּמַחְתֹּתָ֑יו לְכָל־כֵּלָ֖יו תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה נְחֽשֶׁת:
its pots: Heb. סִּירֹתָיו, sort of kettles. — [from targumim]   סִּֽירֹתָיו: כְּמִין יוֹרוֹת:
to remove its ashes: Heb. לְדַשְׂנוֹ, to remove its ashes [and place them] into them [the kettles]. This is what Onkelos rendered: לְמִסְפֵּי קִטְמֵיהּ, to remove its ashes into them. In Hebrew, some words [are used in such a manner that] one word [i.e., the same root] changes in its meaning to serve [both] as building and demolishing [i.e., it has a positive and a negative meaning], like, “it took root (וַתַַּשְׁרֵשׁ)” (Ps. 80:10), “a fool taking root (מַשְׁרִישׁ)” (Job 5:3), and its opposite, “and it uproots (תְשָׁרֵשׁ) all my grain” (Job 31:12); similar to this, “on its branches (בִּסְעִיפֶיהָ) when it produces fruit” (Isa. 17:6), and its opposite, “lops off (מְסָעֵף) the branches” (Isa. 10:33); similar to this, “and this last one broke his bones (עִצְּמוֹ)” (Jer. 50:17) [עִצְּמוֹ, which usually means “became boned,” here means] “broke his bones” ; similar to this, “and stoned him with stones (וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָּאִבָנִים)” (I Kings 21:13), and its opposite, "clear it of stones (סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן) ” (Isa. 62:10), [meaning] remove its stones, and so, “and he fenced it in, and he cleared it of stones (וַיִּסְקְלֵהוּ)” (Isa. 5:2). Here too, לְדַשְׁנוֹ means “to remove its ashes (דִשְׁנוֹ),” and in Old French, adeszandrer, to remove ashes.   לְדַשְּׁנוֹ: לְהָסִיר דִּשְׁנוֹ לְתוֹכָם, וְהוּא שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס לְמִסְפֵּי קִטְמֵהּ – לִסְפּוֹת הַדֶּשֶׁן לְתוֹכָם; כִּי יֵשׁ מִלּוֹת בְּלָשׁוֹן עִבְרִית מִלָּה אַחַת מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בַּפִּתְרוֹן לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּנְיָן וּסְתִירָה, כְּמוֹ וַתַּשְׁרֵשׁ שָׁרָשֶׁיהָ (תהילים פ'), אֱוִיל מַשְׁרִישׁ (איוב ה'), וְחִלּוּפוֹ וּבְכָל תְּבוּאָתִי תְשָׁרֵשׁ (איוב ל״א:י״ב); וְכָמוֹהוּ בִּסְעִפֶּיהָ פֹּרִיָּה (ישעיהו י״ז:ו׳), וְחִלּוּפוֹ מְסָעֵף פֻּארָה (ישעיהו י׳:ל״ג) – מְפַשֵּׁחַ סְעִפֶּיהָ; וְכָמוֹהוּ וְזֶה הָאַחֲרוֹן עִצְּמוֹ (ירמיהו נ') – שִׁבַּר עֲצָמָיו; וְכָמוֹהוּ וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָאֲבָנִים (מלכים א כ״א:י״ג), וְחִלּוּפוֹ סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן (ישעיהו ס״ב:י׳) – הָסִירוּ אֲבָנֶיהָ, וְכֵן וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ (שם ה'), אַף כָּאן לְדַשְּׁנוֹ – לְהָסִיר דִּשְׁנוֹ, וּבְלַעַז אדשצנדר"יר:
and its shovels: Heb. וְיָעָיו. [Its meaning is] as the Targum [Onkelos renders: וּמַגְרפְיָתֵיה]: shovels with which he [the kohen] takes the ashes. They are [similar to] a kind of thin, metal lid of a pot, and it has a handle. In Old French [it is called] videl, vedil, vadil, [all meaning] shovel.   וְיָעָיו: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, מִגְרָפוֹת שֶׁנּוֹטְלִים בָּהֶם הַדֶּשֶׁן, וְהֵן כְּמִין כִּסּוּי הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת דַּק וְלֹוֹ בֵית יָד, וּבְלַעַז ווד"יל:
and its sprinkling basins: Heb. וּמִזְרְקֹתָיו, with which to receive the blood of the sacrifices.   וּמִזְרְקֹתָיו: לְקַבֵּל בָּהֶם דַּם הַזְּבָחִים:
and its flesh hooks: Heb. וּמִזְלְגֹתָיו. Sort of bent hooks, with which he [the kohen] would strike the [sacrificial] flesh. They [the hooks] would be imbedded into it, and with them, he would turn it over on the coals of the [altar] pyre in order to hasten its burning. In Old French [they are called] crozins, [meaning flesh] hooks, and in the language of the Sages [they are called], צִינוֹרִיּוֹת (Yoma 12a).   וּמִזְלְגֹתָיו: כְּמִין אֻנְקְלִיּוֹת כְּפוּפִים, וּמַכֶּה בָהֶם בַּבָּשָׂר וְנִתְחָבִים בּוֹ וּמְהַפֵּךְ בָּהֶן עַל גַּחֲלֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה שֶׁיְּהֵא מְמַהֵר שְׂרֵפָתָן, ובְלַעַז קרוצי"נש, וּבִלְשׁוֹן חֲכָמִים צִנּוֹרִיּוֹת (יומא י"ב):
and its scoops: Heb. וּמַחְתֹּתָיו. They had a cavity in which to take coals from the altar and to carry them onto the inner altar for incense [which was within the Mishkan]. Because of their [function of] scooping (חֲתִיֹּתָן), they are called scoops (מַחְתּוֹת), like “to scoop (לַחְתּוֹת) fire from a hearth” (Isa. 30:14), an expression of raking fire from its place, and likewise, “Can a man rake (הִיַחְתֶּה) embers with his clothes?” (Prov. 6:27).   וּמַחְתֹּתָיו: בֵּית קִבּוּל יֵשׁ לָהֶם לִטֹּל בָּהֶן גֶּחָלִים מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, לְשֵׂאתָם עַל מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי לַקְּטֹרֶת, וְעַל שֵׁם חֲתִיָּתָן קְרוּיִים מַחְתּוֹת, כְּמוֹ לַחְתּוֹת אֵשׁ מִיָּקוּד (ישעיהו ל'), לְשׁוֹן שְׁאִיבַת אֵשׁ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ, וְכֵן הֲיַחְתֶּה אִישׁ אֵשׁ בְּחֵיקוֹ (משלי ו'):
all its implements: Heb. לְכָל-כֵּלָיו. Like כָּל כֵּלָיו.   לְכָל־כֵּלָיו: כְּמוֹ כָּל כֵּלָיו:
4And you shall make for it a copper grating of netting work, and you shall make on the netting four copper rings on its four ends.   דוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ לּוֹ֙ מִכְבָּ֔ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֖ה רֶ֣שֶׁת נְח֑שֶׁת וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ עַל־הָרֶ֗שֶׁת אַרְבַּע֙ טַבְּעֹ֣ת נְח֔שֶׁת עַ֖ל אַרְבַּ֥ע קְצוֹתָֽיו:
grating: Heb. מִכְבָּר, a word meaning a sieve (כְּבָרָה), which is called crible [in French], [meaning] a sort of garment made for the altar, made with holes like a sort of net. This verse is inverted, and this is its meaning: And you shall make for it a copper grating of netting work.   מִכְבָּר: לְשׁוֹן כְּבָרָה, שֶׁקּוֹרִין קרי"בלא בְּלַעַז, כְּמִין לְבוּשׁ עָשׂוּי לוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, עָשׂוּי חֹרִין חֹרִין, כְּמִין רֶשֶׁת; וּמִקְרָא זֶה מְסֹרָס וְכֹה פִּתְרוֹנוֹ: וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ מִכְבַּר נְחֹשֶׁת מַעֲשֵׂה רֶשֶׁת:
5And you shall place it beneath the ledge of the altar from below, and the net shall [extend downward] until the middle of the altar.   הוְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה אֹתָ֗הּ תַּ֛חַת כַּרְכֹּ֥ב הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ מִלְּמָ֑טָּה וְהָֽיְתָ֣ה הָרֶ֔שֶׁת עַ֖ד חֲצִ֥י הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
the ledge of the altar: Heb. כַּרְכֹּב, a surrounding ledge. Anything that encircles anything else is called כַּרְכֹּב, as we learned in [the chapter entitled] Everyone May Slaughter (Chul. 25a): “The following are unfinished wooden vessels: Any [vessel] that is destined to be smoothed or banded (לְכַרְכֵּב).” This [refers to the practice] of making round grooves [or bands] in the planks of the walls of wooden chests and benches. For the altar as well, he [Bezalel] made a groove around it a cubit wide. [The groove was] on its wall for decoration, and that was at the end of three (other editions: six) cubits of its height, according to the one who says that its height was twice its length and [asks] how then can I understand [the verse] "and three cubits its height"? [Three cubits] from the edge of the ledge and higher. There was, however, no surrounding ledge [i.e., walkway] on the copper altar for the kohanim to walk on, except on its top, within its horns. So we learned in Zev. (62a): What is the ledge? [The space] between one horn and the other horn which was a cubit wide. Within that there was a cubit for the kohanim to walk, and these two cubits are called כַּרְכֹּב. We [the Sages of the Gemara] questioned this: But is it not written, "beneath the ledge of the altar from below"? [Thus we learned] that the כַּרְכֹּב was on its [the altar’s] wall, and the “garment” of the grating was below it [the ledge]. The one who answered [i.e., one of the Sages of the Gemara] replied: “There were two [ledges], one for beauty and one so that the kohanim should not slip.” The one on the wall was for decoration, and below it, they adorned [it with] the grating, whose width extended halfway up the altar. Thus, the grating was a cubit wide, and this was the sign of the middle of its [the altar’s] height, to distinguish between the upper “bloods” and the lower “bloods” [i. e., the blood of the sacrifices required to be sprinkled on the top of the altar and the blood of the sacrifices required to be sprinkled on the bottom of the altar]. Corresponding to this, they made for the altar in the Temple a kind of red line [other editions: the “girdle” of the red line] in it [the altar’s] center [point] (Middoth 3:1) and a ramp upon which they [the kohanim] would ascend it [the altar]. Although [the Torah] did not explain it in this section, we were already informed in the parsha [that begins] “An altar of earth you shall make for Me” (Exod. 20:21-23): “And you shall not ascend with steps.” [I.e.,] you shall not make steps for it on its ramp, but [you shall make] a smooth ramp. [Thus] we learn that it [the altar] had a ramp. [All the above] we learned in the Mechilta (Exod. 20:23). The “altar of earth” [mentioned in Exod. 20:21] was the copper altar, which they filled with earth in [all] the places of their encampment. The ramp was to the south of the altar, separated from the altar by a hairbreadth. Its base reached [until] a cubit adjacent to the hangings of the courtyard on the Mishkan’s southern [side], according to [the opinion of] those who say that it was ten cubits high. According to the opinion of those who say that the words are [to be understood] literally -"its height [shall be] three cubits" (verse 1)-the ramp was only ten cubits long. I found this in the Mishnah of Forty-Nine Middoth. [What I stated,] that it [the ramp] was separated from the altar by the width of a thread [i.e., a hairbreadth], [derives from] Tractate Zevachim (62b), [where] we learned it from the text.   כַּרְכֹּב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: סוֹבֵב; כָּל דָּבָר הַמַּקִּיף סָבִיב בְּעִגּוּל קָרוּי כַּרְכֹּב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְּהַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין אֵלּוּ הֵן גָּלְמֵי כְלֵי עֵץ כָּל שֶׁעָתִיד לָשׁוּף וּלְכַרְכֵּב, וְהוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁעוֹשִׂים חֲרִיצִין עֲגֻלִּין בְּקַרְשֵׁי דָּפְנֵי הַתֵּבוֹת וְסַפְסָלֵי הָעֵץ, אַף לַמִּזְבֵּחַ עָשָׂה חָרִיץ סְבִיבוֹ, וְהָיָה רָחְבּוֹ אַמָּה בְדָפְנוֹ לְנוֹי וְהוּא לְסוֹף שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת שֶׁל גָּבְהוֹ כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר גָּבְהוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּאָרְכּוֹ, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ? מִשְּׂפַת סוֹבֵב וּלְמַעְלָה, אֲבָל סוֹבֵב לְהִלּוּךְ הַכֹּהֲנִים לֹא הָיָה לְמִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת, אֶלָּא עַל רֹאשׁוֹ לִפְנִים מִקַּרְנוֹתָיו, וְכֵן שָׁנִינוּ בִזְבָחִים: אֵי זֶהוּ כַּרְכּוֹב? בֵּין קֶרֶן לְקֶרֶן; וְהָיָה רֹחַב אַמָּה, וְלִפְנִים מֵהֶן אַמָּה שֶׁל הִלּוּךְ רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים, שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת הַלָּלוּ קְרוּיִים כַּרְכּוֹב; וְדִקְדַּקְנוּ שָׁם וְהָכְתִיב תַּחַת כַּרְכֹּב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלְּמָטָּה? לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַכַּרְכּוֹב בְּדָפְנוֹ הוּא וּלְבוּשׁ הַמִּכְבָּר תַּחְתָּיו? וְתֵרֵץ הַמְתָרֵץ תְּרֵי הֲווֹ, חַד לְנוֹי וְחַד לַכֹּהֲנִים דְּלֹא יִשְׂתָּרְגוּ, זֶה שֶׁבַּדֹּפֶן לְנוֹי הָיָה, וּמִתַּחְתָּיו הִלְבִּישׁוֹ הַמִּכְבָּר וְהִגִּיעַ רָחְבוֹ עַד חֲצִי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְהוּא הָיָה סִימָן לַחֲצִי גָּבְהוֹ, לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין דָּמִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לְדָמִים הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים; וּכְנֶגְדּוֹ עָשׂוּ לְמִזְבַּח בֵּית עוֹלָמִים דֻּגְמַת חוּט הַסִּקְרָא בְאֶמְצָעוֹ, וְכֶבֶשׁ שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹלִין בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵרְשׁוֹ בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, כְּבָר שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּפָרָשַׁת מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי וְלֹא תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת – לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה לוֹ מַעֲלוֹת בְּכֶבֶשׁ שֶׁלּוֹ, אֶלָּא כֶּבֶשׁ חָלָק, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ כֶּבֶשׁ; כָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ בַּמְּכִילְתָּא. וּמִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה הוּא מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת, שֶׁהָיוּ מְמַלְּאִין חֲלָלוֹ אֲדָמָה בִמְקוֹם חֲנִיָּתָן, וְהַכֶּבֶשׁ הָיָה בִּדְרוֹם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, מֻבְדָּל מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְלֹא חוּט הַשַּׂעֲרָה, וְרַגְלָיו מַגִּיעִין עַד אַמָּה סָמוּךְ לְקַלְעֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם, כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ, וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר דְּבָרִים כִּכְתָבָן – שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ – לֹא הָיָה אֹרֶךְ הַכֶּבֶשׁ אֶלָּא עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, כָּךְ מָצָאתִי בְּמִשְׁנַת אַרְבָּעִים וְתֵשַׁע מִדּוֹת, וְזֶה שֶׁהוּא מֻבְדָּל מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְלֹא הַחוּט, בְּמַסֶּכֶת זְבָחִים (דף ס"ב) לְמָדוּהוּ מִן הַמִּקְרָא:
6And you shall make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and you shall overlay them with copper.   ווְעָשִׂ֤יתָ בַדִּים֙ לַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ בַּדֵּ֖י עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹתָ֖ם נְחֽשֶׁת:
7And its poles shall be inserted into the rings, and the poles shall be on both sides of the altar when it is carried.   זוְהוּבָ֥א אֶת־בַּדָּ֖יו בַּטַּבָּעֹ֑ת וְהָי֣וּ הַבַּדִּ֗ים עַל־שְׁתֵּ֛י צַלְעֹ֥ת הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ בִּשְׂאֵ֥ת אֹתֽוֹ:
into the rings: Into the four rings that were made for the grating.   בַּטַּבָּעֹת: בְּאַרְבַּע טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לַמִּכְבָּר:
8You shall make it hollow, out of boards; as He showed you on the mountain, so shall they do.   חנְב֥וּב לֻחֹ֖ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹת֑וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶרְאָ֥ה אֹֽתְךָ֛ בָּהָ֖ר כֵּ֥ן יַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
hollow, out of boards: Heb. נְבוּב לֻחֹת as the Targum [Onkelos and Jonathan] renders: חִלִיל לוּחִין. [There should be] boards of acacia wood from all sides with a space in the middle. But all of it shall not be [made of] one piece of wood [that would measure] five cubits by five cubits, like a sort of anvil [i.e., like one solid block].   נְבוּב לֻחֹת: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ חֲלִיל לוּחִין, לֻחֹת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים מִכָּל צַד וְהֶחָלָל בְאֶמְצַע, וְלֹא יְהֵא כֻּלּוֹ עֵץ אֶחָד שֶׁיְּהֵא עָבְיוֹ חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת עַל חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת כְּמִין סַדָּן:
9And you shall make the courtyard of the Mishkan on the southern side [there shall be] hangings for the courtyard of twisted fine linen, one hundred cubits long on one side.   טוְעָשִׂ֕יתָ אֵ֖ת חֲצַ֣ר הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן לִפְאַ֣ת נֶֽגֶב־תֵּ֠ימָ֠נָה קְלָעִ֨ים לֶֽחָצֵ֜ר שֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֗ר מֵאָ֤ה בָֽאַמָּה֙ אֹ֔רֶךְ לַפֵּאָ֖ה הָֽאֶחָֽת:
hangings: Heb. קְלָעִים. Made like the sails of a ship, with many holes, braided, and not the work of a weaver. Its Aramaic translation is סְרָדִין [a sieve], like the Aramaic translation of מִכְבָּר, which is סְרָדָא, because they were [both] perforated like a sieve.   קְלָעִים: עֲשׂוּיִין כְּמִין קַלְעֵי סְפִינָה, נְקָבִים נְקָבִים, מַעֲשֵׂה קְלִיעָה וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂה אוֹרֵג, וְתַרְגּוּם סְרָדִים כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ שֶׁל מִכְבָּר הַמְתֻרְגָּם סְרָדָה, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מְנֻקָּבִין כִּכְבָרָה:
on one side: Heb. לַפֵּאָה הָאֶחָת. The entire side is called פֵּאָה. — [from targumim] [Although פֵּאָה usually means a corner, in this case it refers to the entire side.]   לַפֵּאָה הָֽאֶחָֽת: כָּל הָרוּחַ קָרוּי פֵּאָה:
10And its pillars [shall be] twenty and their sockets twenty of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their bands [shall be of] silver.   יוְעַמֻּדָ֣יו עֶשְׂרִ֔ים וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֥ם עֶשְׂרִ֖ים נְח֑שֶׁת וָוֵ֧י הָֽעַמֻּדִ֛ים וַֽחֲשֻֽׁקֵיהֶ֖ם כָּֽסֶף:
And its pillars [shall be] twenty: Five cubits between [one] pillar and [another] pillar.   וְעַמֻּדָיו עֶשְׂרִים: חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת בֵּין עַמּוּד לְעַמּוּד:
and their sockets: [I.e., the sockets] of the pillars were copper. The sockets rested on the ground and the pillars were inserted into them. He [Bezalel] made a sort of rod, called pals in Old French. [It was] six handbreadths long and three [handbreadths] wide, with a copper ring affixed to it [each rod] in the middle. He would wrap the edge of the hanging around it [the rod] with cords [placed] opposite every pillar. He would hang [each] rod by its ring from the hook that was on [each] pillar. [The hook was] made resembling a sort of “vav” (ו) its end upright and one end inserted into the pillar, like those [hooks] made to hold up doors, which are called gons, hinges in Old French. The width of the hanging hung below [the hooks], and this was the height of the partitions of the courtyard. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 5]   וְאַדְנֵיהֶם: שֶׁל הָעַמּוּדִים נְחֹשֶׁת, הָאֲדָנִים יוֹשְׁבִים עַל הָאָרֶץ וְהָעַמּוּדִים תְּקוּעִין לְתוֹכָן; הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה כְמִין קֻנְדָּסִין שֶׁקּוֹרִין פל"ש בְּלַעַז, אָרְכָּן שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְרָחְבָּן שְׁלֹשָׁה, וְטַבַּעַת נְחֹשֶׁת קְבוּעָה בוֹ בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ וְכוֹרֵךְ שְׂפַת הַקֶּלַע סְבִיבָיו בְּמֵיתָרִים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל עַמּוּד וְעַמּוּד, וְתוֹלֶה הַקֻּנְדָּס דֶּרֶךְ טַבַּעְתּוֹ בָאֻנְקְלִיּוֹת שֶׁבָּעַמּוּד הֶעָשׂוּי כְּמִין וָי"ו – רֹאשׁוֹ זָקוּף לְמַעְלָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ אֶחָד תָּקוּעַ בָּעַמּוּד – כְּאוֹתָן שֶעוֹשִׂין לְהַצִּיב דְּלָתוֹת, שֶׁקּוֹרִין גונ"ש בְּלַעַז, וְרֹחַב הַקֶּלַע תָּלוּי מִלְּמַטָּה וְהִיא קוֹמַת מְחִצּוֹת הֶחָצֵר:
the hooks of the pillars: Heb. וָוֵי הָעַמֻּדִים. They are the hooks.   וָוֵי הָֽעַמֻּדִים: הֵם הָאֻנְקְלִיּוֹת:
and their bands: Heb. וַחִשֻׁקֵיהֶם. The pillars were encircled all around with silver threads. I do not know whether [they were encircled] on their entire surface, [or only] at their top or in their middle, but I do know that חִשׁוּק is an expression of girding [or belting], for so we find in [the episode of] the concubine in Gibeah: “And with him was a team of saddled (חֲבוּשִׁים) donkeys” (Jud. 19:10), which is translated into Aramaic [by Jonathan] as חִשִׁיקִין.   וַֽחֲשֻֽׁקֵיהֶם: מֻקָּפִין הָיוּ הָעַמּוּדִים בְּחוּטֵי כֶסֶף סָבִיב, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם עַל פְּנֵי כֻלָּן, אִם בְּרֹאשָׁם, וְאִם בְּאֶמְצָעָם, אַךְ יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁחָשׁוּק לְשׁוֹן חֲגוֹרָה, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְּפִילֶגֶשׁ בַּגִּבְעָה וְעִמּוֹ צֶמֶד חֲמוֹרִים חֲבוּשִׁים (שופטים י"ט), תַּרְגּוּמוֹ חֲשׁוּקִים:
11And so for the northern end in the length hangings one hundred [cubits] long, its pillars twenty, and their sockets twenty of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their bands of silver.   יאוְכֵ֨ן לִפְאַ֤ת צָפוֹן֙ בָּאֹ֔רֶךְ קְלָעִ֖ים מֵ֣אָה אֹ֑רֶךְ וְעַמּוּדָ֣יו (כתיב ועמדו) עֶשְׂרִ֗ים וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֤ם עֶשְׂרִים֙ נְח֔שֶׁת וָוֵ֧י הָֽעַמֻּדִ֛ים וַֽחֲשֻֽׁקֵיהֶ֖ם כָּֽסֶף:
12The width of the courtyard on the western side, hangings fifty cubits, their pillars ten and their sockets ten.   יבוְרֹ֤חַב הֶֽחָצֵר֙ לִפְאַת־יָ֔ם קְלָעִ֖ים חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּ֑ה עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם עֲשָׂרָ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם עֲשָׂרָֽה:
13The width of the courtyard on the eastern side, fifty cubits.   יגוְרֹ֣חַב הֶֽחָצֵ֗ר לִפְאַ֛ת קֵ֥דְמָה מִזְרָ֖חָה חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אַמָּֽה:
on the eastern side: Heb. לִפְאַתקֵדְמָה מִזְרָחָה. The eastern side is called קֶדֶם, a word meaning the face [or front], and אָחוֹר signifies the back. Therefore, the east is called קֶדֶם, which is the face, and the west is called אָחוֹר, as it is said: “the back (הָאַחִרוֹן) sea” (Deut. 11:24, 34:2), [which is translated into Aramaic as] יַמָּא מַעַרְבָא, the western sea.   לִפְאַת קֵדְמָה מִזְרָחָה: פְּנֵי הַמִּזְרָח; קֶדֶם לְשׁוֹן פָּנִים, אָחוֹר לָשׁוֹן אֲחוֹרַיִם, לְפִיכָךְ הַמִּזְרָח קָרוּי קֶדֶם שֶׁהוּא פָּנִים, וּמַעֲרָב קָרוּי אָחוֹר, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן (דברים י"א:כ"ד, דברים ל"ד:ב'), יַמָּא מַעַרְבָא:
fifty cubits: These fifty cubits were not all closed off with hangings, because the entrance was there, but [there were] fifteen cubits of hangings for [one] shoulder of the entrance from here [from one side] and similarly for the second shoulder. There remained the width of the space of the entrance in between, [which was] twenty cubits. This is what is said [in verse 16]: “And at the gate of the courtyard shall be a screen of twenty cubits,” [i. e.,] a screen for protection opposite the entrance, twenty cubits long, which equaled the width of the entrance.   חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּֽה: אוֹתָן נ' אַמָּה לֹא הָיוּ סְתוּמִים כֻּלָּם בַּקְּלָעִים, לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁם הַפֶּתַח, אֶלָּא ט"ו אַמָּה קְלָעִים לְכֶתֶף הַפֶּתַח מִכָּאן, וְכֵן לַכָּתֵף הַשֵּׁנִית, נִשְׁאַר רֹחַב חֲלַל הַפֶּתַח בֵּינְתַיִם כ' אַמָּה, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּ' וּלְשַׁעַר הֶחָצֵר מָסָךְ כ' אַמָּה – וִילוֹן לַמָּסָךְ כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח כ' אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ, כְּרֹחַב הַפֶּתַח:
14The hangings on the shoulder [shall be] fifteen cubits, their pillars three and their sockets three.   ידוַֽחֲמֵ֨שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה אַמָּ֛ה קְלָעִ֖ים לַכָּתֵ֑ף עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם שְׁלשָׁ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁלשָֽׁה:
their pillars three: Five cubits between [one] pillar and [another] pillar. Between the pillar that is at the beginning of the south, which stands at the southeastern corner, until the pillar that is [one] of the three in the east, there were five cubits. And from it [this pillar] to the second one [there was a space of] five cubits, and from the second to the third [were] five cubits, and likewise for the second [i.e., the northeastern] shoulder, and four pillars for the screen. Thus, there were ten pillars on the east, corresponding to the ten pillars on the west.   עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶם שְׁלשָׁה: חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת בֵּין עַמּוּד לְעַמּוּד. בֵּין עַמּוּד שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַדָּרוֹם הָעוֹמֵד בְּמִקְצוֹעַ דְּרוֹמִית מִזְרָחִית עַד עַמּוּד שֶׁהוּא מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת, וּמִמֶּנּוּ לַשֵּׁנִי חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת, וּמִן הַשֵּׁנִי לַשְּׁלִישִׁי חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת, וְכֵן לַכָּתֵף הַשֵּׁנִית, וְאַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדִים לַמָּסָךְ, הֲרֵי עֲשָׂרָה עַמּוּדִים לַמִּזְרָח כְּנֶגֶד י' לַמַּעֲרָב:
15And on the second shoulder [there shall be] fifteen hangings, their pillars three and their sockets three.   טווְלַכָּתֵף֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔ית חֲמֵ֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה קְלָעִ֑ים עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם שְׁלשָׁ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁלשָֽׁה:
16And at the gate of the courtyard shall be a screen of twenty cubits, [made] of blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen, the work of an embroiderer; their pillars four and their sockets four.   טזוּלְשַׁ֨עַר הֶֽחָצֵ֜ר מָסָ֣ךְ | עֶשְׂרִ֣ים אַמָּ֗ה תְּכֵ֨לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֜ן וְתוֹלַ֧עַת שָׁנִ֛י וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מָשְׁזָ֖ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה רֹקֵ֑ם עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם אַרְבָּעָ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם אַרְבָּעָֽה:
17All the pillars around the courtyard [shall have] silver bands, silver hooks, and copper sockets.   יזכָּל־עַמּוּדֵ֨י הֶֽחָצֵ֤ר סָבִיב֙ מְחֻשָּׁקִ֣ים כֶּ֔סֶף וָֽוֵיהֶ֖ם כָּ֑סֶף וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם נְחֽשֶׁת:
All the pillars around the courtyard, etc.: Since [the text] explained only [that there were to be] hooks, bands, and copper sockets for the north[ern] and the south[ern sides], but for the east[ern] and the west[ern sides] no hooks, bands, or copper sockets were mentioned, therefore [the text] teaches it here. [Lit., it comes and teaches here.]   כָּל־עַמּוּדֵי הֶֽחָצֵר סָבִיב וגו': לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ וָוִין וַחֲשׁוּקִים וְאַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת אֶלָּא לַצָּפוֹן וְלַדָּרוֹם, אֲבָל לַמִּזְרָח וְלַמַּעֲרָב לֹא נֶאֱמַר וָוִין וַחֲשׁוּקִים וְאַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת, לְכָךְ בָּא וְלִמֵּד כָּאן:
18The length of the courtyard [shall be] one hundred cubits and the width fifty by fifty [cubits]. The height [of the hangings] shall be five cubits of twisted fine linen, and their sockets [shall be of] copper.   יחאֹ֣רֶךְ הֶֽחָצֵר֩ מֵאָ֨ה בָֽאַמָּ֜ה וְרֹ֣חַב | חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֗ים וְקֹמָ֛ה חָמֵ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת שֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֑ר וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם נְחֽשֶׁת:
The length of the courtyard: the north[ern] and the south[ern sides] from east to west were one hundred cubits.   אֹרֶךְ הֶֽחָצֵר: הַצָּפוֹן וְהַדָּרוֹם שֶׁמִּן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מאה באמה:
and the width fifty by fifty: The courtyard in the east was fifty [cubits] by fifty [cubits] square-for the Mishkan was thirty [cubits] long and ten [cubits] wide. He [Moses] placed its entrance on the east, at the edge of the outer fifty [cubits] of the length of the courtyard. Thus, it [the Mishkan] was all in the inner fifty [cubits of the courtyard], and its length ended at the end of thirty [cubits of the inner fifty]. Hence, there was a space of twenty cubits behind it, between the hangings in the west and the curtains of the rear of the Mishkan. The Mishkan was ten cubits wide in the center of the width of the courtyard. Thus, it had twenty cubits of space to the north and to the south- from the hangings of the courtyard to the curtains of the Mishkan-and similarly to the west. And [there was] a courtyard of fifty by fifty [cubits] in front of it [These are the outer fifty cubits, which faced the entrance of the Mishkan.] -[from Eruv. 23b, Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 5]   וְרֹחַב חֲמִשִּׁים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁים: חָצֵר שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח הָיְתָה מְרֻבַּעַת, חֲמִשִּׁים עַל חֲמִשִּׁים, שֶׁהַמִּשְׁכָּן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים וְרָחְבּוֹ עֶשֶׂר, הֶעֱמִיד מִזְרַח פִּתְחוֹ בִּשְׂפַת נ' הַחִיצוֹנִים שֶׁל אֹרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר, נִמְצָא כֻּלּוֹ בַּחֲמִשִּׁים הַפְּנִימִיִּים וְכָלֶה אָרְכּוֹ לְסוֹף שְׁלֹשִׁים, נִמְצְאוּ עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה רֶוַח לַאֲחוֹרָיו בֵּין הַקְּלָעִים שֶׁבַּמַּעֲרָב לַיְרִיעוֹת שֶׁל אֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְרֹחַב הַמִּשְׁכָּן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, בְּאֶמְצַע רֹחַב הֶחָצֵר, נִמְצְאוּ לוֹ עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה רֶוַח לַצָּפוֹן וְלַדָּרוֹם מִן קַלְעֵי הֶחָצֵר לִירִיעוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְכֵן לַמַּעֲרָב, וַחֲמִשִּׁים עַל חֲמִשִּׁים חָצֵר לְפָנָיו:
The height…five cubits: [I.e.,] the height of the partitions of the courtyard, which was the width of the hangings.   וְקֹמָה חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת: גֹּבַהּ מְחִצּוֹת הֶחָצֵר וְהוּא רֹחַב הַקְּלָעִים:
and their sockets [shall be of] copper: [This is mentioned] to include the sockets of the screen, so that you would not say [that] copper sockets were mentioned only in regard to the pillars of the hangings, but the sockets of the [pillars of the] screen were of another kind [i.e., a different material]. So it appears to me that for this [reason], they [the copper sockets] were repeated.   וְאַדְנֵיהֶם נְחֽשֶׁת: לְהָבִיא אַדְנֵי הַמָּסָךְ, שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר לֹא נֶאֶמְרוּ אַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת אֶלָּא לְעַמּוּדֵי הַקְּלָעִים אֲבָל אַדְנֵי הַמָּסָךְ שֶׁל מִין אַחֵר, כֵּן נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי שֶׁלְּכָךְ חָזַר וּשְׁנָאָן:
19All the implements of the Mishkan for all its labor, and all its pegs and all the pegs of the courtyard [shall be] copper.   יטלְכֹל֙ כְּלֵ֣י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן בְּכֹ֖ל עֲבֹֽדָת֑וֹ וְכָל־יְתֵֽדֹתָ֛יו וְכָל־יִתְדֹ֥ת הֶֽחָצֵ֖ר נְחֽשֶׁת:
All the implements of the Mishkan: that were required for its assembling and its disassembling, e.g., sledge hammers to drive in the pegs and the pillars.   לְכֹל כְּלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן: שֶׁהָיוּ צְרִיכִין לַהֲקָמָתוֹ וּלְהוֹרָדָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן מַקָּבוֹת לִתְקֹעַ יְתֵדוֹת וְעַמּוּדִים:
the pegs: [These were] like copper bars, made for the curtains of the tent and for the hangings of the courtyard, tied with cords all around [them] at their bases [i.e., at the bases of the curtains and the hangings], so that the wind would not lift them up. But I do not know whether they [the pegs] were driven into the ground or whether they were tied [with cords] and hung-their [heavy] weight weighted down the bottoms of the curtains so that they would not move in the wind. I say, however, that their name [i.e., pegs] indicates that they were driven into the ground. Therefore, they were called יְתֵדוֹת, and this verse supports me [my assertion]: “a tent that shall not fall, whose pegs (יְתֵדֹתָיו) shall never be moved” (Isa. 33:20).   יִתְדֹת: כְּמִין נִגְרֵי נְחֹשֶׁת עֲשׂוּיִין לִירִיעוֹת הָאֹהֶל וּלְקַלְעֵי הֶחָצֵר, קְשׁוּרִים בְּמֵיתָרִים סָבִיב סָבִיב בְּשִׁפּוּלֵיהֶן, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא הָרוּחַ מַגְבִּיהָתָן, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם תְּחוּבִין בָּאָרֶץ אוֹ קְשׁוּרִין וּתְלוּיִין וְכָבְדָּן מַכְבִּיד שִׁפּוּלֵי הַיְרִיעוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יָנוּעוּ בָרוּחַ, וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁמָן מוֹכִיחַ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֵם תְּקוּעִים בָּאָרֶץ, לְכָךְ נִקְרְאוּ יְתֵדוֹת, וּמִקְרָא זֶה מְסַיְּעֵנִי אֹהֶל בַּל יִצְעָן בַּל יִסַּע יְתֵדֹתָיו לָנֶצַח (ישעיהו ל"ג):

Seventh Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 28

9And on the Sabbath day, two unblemished lambs in the first year, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil, and its libation.   טוּבְיוֹם֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת שְׁנֵֽי־כְבָשִׂ֥ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֖ה תְּמִימִ֑ם וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֧לֶת מִנְחָ֛ה בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
10[This is] the burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath, in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   יעֹלַ֥ת שַׁבַּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ עַל־עֹלַ֥ת הַתָּמִ֖יד וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:
The burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath: But not the burnt offering of this Sabbath on another Sabbath. For if they did not offer one up on this Sabbath, I might think that two should be offered up on the following Sabbath. Scripture therefore says, “on its Sabbath” to instruct us that if its day passes, its offering is canceled. — [Sifrei Pinchas 40]   עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ: וְלֹא עוֹלַת שַׁבָּת זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת, הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְרִיב בְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי יַקְרִיב שְׁתַּיִם לַשַּׁבָּת הַבָּאָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ", מַגִּיד שֶׁאִם עָבַר יוֹמוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ (ספרי):
in addition to the continual burnt offering: This refers to the additional [musaf] offerings, besides those two lambs of the continual burnt offering. And it teaches us that they [the additional sacrifices] may be offered only between the two continual offerings. Similarly, in the case of all the additional offerings it says, “In addition to the continual burnt offering” for this teaching. — [Sifrei Pinchas 40]   עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד: אֵלּוּ מוּסָפִין, לְבַד אוֹתָן שְׁנֵי כְבָשִׂים שֶׁל עוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד, וּמַגִּיד שֶׁאֵין קְרֵבִין אֶלָּא בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַתְּמִידִין, וְכֵן בְּכָל הַמּוּסָפִין נֶאֱמַר עַל עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד לְתַלְמוּד זֶה:
11And on the beginning of your months, you shall offer up a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   יאוּבְרָאשֵׁי֙ חָדְשֵׁיכֶ֔ם תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ עֹלָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה פָּרִ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־בָקָ֤ר שְׁנַ֨יִם֙ וְאַ֣יִל אֶחָ֔ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:
12Three tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each bull, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each ram.   יבוּשְׁלשָׁ֣ה עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַפָּ֖ר הָֽאֶחָ֑ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לָאַ֖יִל הָֽאֶחָֽד:
Three tenths: As is the case with the libations brought with a bull, for thus they are fixed in the portion dealing with libations [see 15:9].   וּשְׁלשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים: כְּמִשְׁפַּט נִסְכֵּי פַר, שֶׁכֵּן הֵן קְצוּבִין בְּפָרָשַׁת נְסָכִים:
13And one tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil as a meal offering for each lamb. A burnt offering with a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord.   יגוְעִשָּׂרֹ֣ן עִשָּׂר֗וֹן סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד עֹלָה֙ רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
14And their libations: a half of a hin for each bull, a third of a hin for each ram, and a quarter of a hin for each lamb wine; this is the burnt offering of each new month in its month, throughout the months of the year.   ידוְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם חֲצִ֣י הַהִין֩ יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לַפָּ֜ר וּשְׁלִישִׁ֧ת הַהִ֣ין לָאַ֗יִל וּרְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִ֛ין לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ יָ֑יִן זֹ֣את עֹלַ֥ת חֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְחָדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה:
This is the burnt offering of each new month in its month: However, once the day passes, its offering is canceled, and there is no way to make it up. — [Sifrei Pinchas 43]   זֹאת עֹלַת חֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁוֹ: שֶׁאִם עָבַר יוֹמוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ וְשׁוּב אֵין לוֹ תַשְׁלוּמִין:
15And one young male goat for a sin offering to the Lord; it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   טווּשְׂעִ֨יר עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֛ד לְחַטָּ֖את לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה עַל־עֹלַ֧ת הַתָּמִ֛יד יֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
And one young male goat…: All the additional-offering goats were brought to atone for defiling the Sanctuary and its holy sacrifices, as is outlined in the Tractate of Shevuoth (9a). The young male goat [brought] on the first day of the month differs insofar as with regard to it Scripture says, “to the Lord.” This teaches you that it atones for a case where there is no awareness [of the person’s uncleanness] either before [entering the Temple or eating sacrificial food] or after [the sin has been committed]. The only One aware of the sin is the Holy One, blessed is He. We derive [the law of] the other young male goats from this one. In the Aggadah, it is expounded thus: The Holy One, blessed is He, said, “Bring atonement for Me because I diminished [the size of] the moon.” - [Shev. 9a]   וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים וגו': כָּל שְׂעִירֵי הַמּוּסָפִין בָּאִין לְכַפֵּר עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, הַכֹּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּמַסֶּכֶת שְׁבוּעוֹת (דף ט'), וְנִשְׁתַּנָּה שְׂעִיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ "לַה'"; לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁמְּכַפֵּר עַל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ יְדִיעָה לֹא בַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַסּוֹף — שֶׁאֵין מַכִּיר בַּחֵטְא אֶלָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִלְבָד, וּשְׁאָר הַשְּׂעִירִים לְמֵדִין מִמֶּנוּ; וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ בָּאַגָּדָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָבִיאוּ כַפָּרָה עָלַי עַל שֶׁמִּעַטְתִּי אֶת הַיָּרֵחַ (חולין ס'):
it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering: This entire offering [not just the young male goat].   עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵֽעָשֶׂה: כָּל הַקָּרְבָּן הַזֶּה:
and its libation: [The phrase] “and its libation” does not refer to the young male goat because sin-offerings have no libations.   וְנִסְכּֽוֹ: אֵין "וְנִסְכּוֹ" מוּסָב עַל הַשָּׂעִיר, שֶׁאֵין נְסָכִים לְחַטָּאת:

Maftir Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 30

11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12"When you take the sum of the children of Israel according to their numbers, let each one give to the Lord an atonement for his soul when they are counted; then there will be no plague among them when they are counted.   יבכִּ֣י תִשָּׂ֞א אֶת־רֹ֥אשׁ בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לִפְקֻֽדֵיהֶם֒ וְנָ֨תְנ֜וּ אִ֣ישׁ כֹּ֧פֶר נַפְשׁ֛וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בִּפְקֹ֣ד אֹתָ֑ם וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בָהֶ֛ם נֶ֖גֶף בִּפְקֹ֥ד אֹתָֽם:
When you take: Heb. כִּי תִשָׂא. [This is] an expression of taking, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. [I.e.,] when you wish to take the sum [total] of their numbers to know how many they are, do not count them by the head, but each one shall give a half-shekel, and you shall count the shekels. [Thereby] you will know their number.   כִּי תִשָּׂא: לְשׁוֹן קַבָּלָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ; כְּשֶׁתַּחְפֹּץ לְקַבֵּל סְכוּם מִנְיָנָם לָדַעַת כַּמָּה הֵם, אַל תִּמְנֵם לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת, אֶלָּא יִתְּנוּ כָּל אֶחָד מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל וְתִמְנֶה אֶת הַשְּׁקָלִים וְתֵדַע מִנְיָנָם:
then there will be no plague among them: for the evil eye has power over numbered things, and pestilence comes upon them, as we find in David’s time (II Sam. 24).   וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶה בָהֶם נֶגֶף: שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן שׁוֹלֵט בּוֹ עַיִן הָרָע, וְהַדֶּבֶר בָּא עֲלֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בִימֵי דָּוִד (שמואל ב כ"ד):
13This they shall give, everyone who goes through the counting: half a shekel according to the holy shekel. Twenty gerahs equal one shekel; half of [such] a shekel shall be an offering to the Lord.   יגזֶ֣ה | יִתְּנ֗וּ כָּל־הָֽעֹבֵר֙ עַל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים מַֽחֲצִ֥ית הַשֶּׁ֖קֶל בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֤ים גֵּרָה֙ הַשֶּׁ֔קֶל מַֽחֲצִ֣ית הַשֶּׁ֔קֶל תְּרוּמָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
This they shall give: He [God] showed him [Moses] a sort of coin of fire weighing half a shekel, and He said to him, “Like this one they shall give.” -[from Tanchuma 9; Tanchuma Buber, Naso p. 35; Pesikta d’Rav Kahana 19a; Midrash Psalms 91:1; Yerushalmi, Shekalim 1:4]   זֶה יִתְּנוּ: הֶרְאָה לוֹ כְּמִין מַטְבֵּעַ שֶׁל אֵשׁ וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ כָּזֶה יִתְּנוּ (תלמוד ירושלמי שק' א'):
who goes through the counting: Heb. הָעֹבֵר עַל-הַפְקֻדִים. It is customary for those who count to pass the ones who have been counted one following another, and so [too the word יַעִבֹר in] “each one that passes under the rod” (Lev. 27:32), and so [the word תַּעִבֹרְנָה in] “flocks will again pass under the hands of one who counts them” (Jer. 33:13).   הָֽעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים: דֶּרֶךְ הַמּוֹנִין מַעֲבִירִין אֶת הַנִּמְנִין זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְכֵן כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹר תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט (ויקרא כ"ז), וְכֵן תַּעֲבֹרְנָה הַצֹּאן עַל יְדֵי מוֹנֶה (ירמיהו ל"ג):
half a shekel according to the holy shekel: By the weight of the shekel that I fixed for you [against which] to weigh the holy shekels, such as the shekels mentioned in the section dealing with personal evaluations (Lev. 27:1-8) and [in the section concerning] inherited fields (Lev. 27:16-21).   מַֽחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ: בְּמִשְׁקַל הַשֶּׁקֶל שֶׁקָּצַבְתִּי לְךָ לִשְׁקֹל בּוֹ שִׁקְלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, כְּגוֹן שְׁקָלִים הָאֲמוּרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת עֲרָכִין וּשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה:
Twenty gerahs equal one shekel: Now He explains to you how much it is.   עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל: עַכְשָׁו פֵּרֵשׁ לְךָ כַּמָּה הוּא:
gerahs: Heb. גֵרָה, a word meaning a ma’ah [a small coin]. Likewise, “will come to prostrate himself before him for a silver piece (אִגוֹרַת כֶּסֶף) and a morsel of bread” (I Sam. 2:36).   גֵּרָה: לְשׁוֹן מָעָה; וְכֵן בִּשְׁמְוּאֵל (א' ב'), יָבוֹא לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹת לוֹ לַאֲגוֹרַת כֶּסֶף וְכִכַּר לָחֶם:
Twenty gerahs equal one shekel: for a whole shekel equals four zuzim, and the zuz was originally five ma’oth, but they came and added a sixth to it and raised it to six ma’oth of silver, and half of this shekel [of] which I have spoken to you [here in this verse], they shall give as an offering to the Lord.   עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל: שֶׁהַשֶּׁקֶל הַשָּׁלֵם אַרְבָּעָה זוּזִים, וְהַזּוּז מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ חָמֵשׁ מָעוֹת, אֶלָּא בָאוּ וְהוֹסִיפוּ עָלָיו שְׁתוּת וְהֶעֱלוּהוּ לְשֵׁשׁ מָעָה כֶסֶף, וּמַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל הַזֶּה שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְךָ יִתְּנוּ תְּרוּמָה לַה' (בכורות ה'):
14Everyone who goes through the counting, from the age of twenty and upward, shall give an offering to the Lord.   ידכֹּ֗ל הָֽעֹבֵר֙ עַל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים מִבֶּ֛ן עֶשְׂרִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וָמָ֑עְלָה יִתֵּ֖ן תְּרוּמַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה:
from the age of twenty and upward: [The Torah] teaches you here that no one under twenty years old goes out [to serve] in the army or is counted among men.   מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמָעְלָה: לִמֶּדְךָ כָּאן שֶׁאֵין פָּחוּת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים יוֹצֵא לַצָּבָא וְנִמְנֶה בִּכְלַל אֲנָשִׁים:
15The rich shall give no more, and the poor shall give no less than half a shekel, with which to give the offering to the Lord, to atone for your souls.   טוהֶֽעָשִׁ֣יר לֹֽא־יַרְבֶּ֗ה וְהַדַּל֙ לֹ֣א יַמְעִ֔יט מִמַּֽחֲצִ֖ית הַשָּׁ֑קֶל לָתֵת֙ אֶת־תְּרוּמַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם:
to atone for your souls: That they should not be struck by a plague because of the counting. Another explanation: [This was written] because [God] hinted to them [the Israelites] here [about] three offerings, because “an offering to the Lord” is written here three times. The first [represents] the offering [of silver] for the sockets [of the Mishkan], for he [Moses] counted them when they commenced with the donations for the Mishkan. Everyone gave a half-shekel, amounting to one hundred talents, as it is said: “And the silver of the community census was one hundred talents” (Exod. 38:25). The sockets were made from this, as it is said: “One hundred talents of the silver was [used to cast the sockets of the Mishkan and the sockets of the dividing curtain]” (Exod. 38:27). The second [offering mentioned here] was also [collected] through counting, for he [Moses] counted them after the Mishkan was erected. This is the counting mentioned in the beginning of the Book of Numbers: “on the first of the second month in the second year” (Num. 1:1). [For this offering] everyone gave a half-shekel, [the total of] which was [earmarked] for the purchase of communal sacrifices for every year. The rich and poor were equal in them [i.e., they gave equally in these two offerings]. Concerning that [second] offering, it is said: “to atone for your souls,” because the sacrifices are brought for the purpose of atonement. The third one [offering] is the offering for the Mishkan, as it is said: “Whoever set aside an offering of silver or copper” (Exod. 35:24). In this [offering] not everyone gave the same amount, but each one [gave] according to what his heart inspired him to give. -[from Shekalim 2b]   לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם: שֶׁלֹא תִנָּגְפוּ עַל יְדֵי מִנְיָן; דָּבָר אַחֵר לְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם, לְפִי שֶׁרָמַז לָהֶם כָּאן ג' תְּרוּמוֹת – שֶׁנִּכְתַּב כָּאן תְּרוּמַת ה' שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, אַחַת תְּרוּמַת אֲדָנִים שֶׁמְּנָאָן כְּשֶׁהִתְחִילוּ בְנִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, שֶׁנָּתְנוּ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל, וְעָלָה לִמְאַת הַכִּכָּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְכֶסֶף פְּקוּדֵי הָעֵדָה מְאַת כִּכָּר (שמות ל"ח), וּמֵהֶם נַעֲשׂוּ הָאֲדָנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי מְאַת כִּכַּר הַכֶּסֶף וְגוֹ' (שם); וְהַשֵּׁנִית אַף הִיא עַל יְדֵי מִנְיָן, שֶׁמְּנָאָן מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, הוּא הַמִּנְיָן הָאָמוּר בִּתְחִלַּת חֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית (במדבר א'), וְנָתְנוּ כָּל אֶחָד מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל, וְהֵן לִקְנוֹת מֵהֶן קָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר שֶׁל כָּל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה, וְהֻשְׁווּ בָהֶם עֲנִיִּים וַעֲשִׁירִים, וְעַל אוֹתָהּ תְּרוּמָה נֶאֱמַר לְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם, שֶׁהַקָּרְבָּנוֹת לְכַפָּרָה הֵם בָּאִים; וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית הִיא תְרוּמַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּל מֵרִים תְּרוּמַת כֶּסֶף וּנְחֹשֶׁת (שמות ל"ה), וְלֹא הָיְתָה יַד כֻּלָּם שָׁוָה בָהּ אֶלָּא אִישׁ מַה שֶּׁנְּדָבוֹ לִבּוֹ:
16You shall take the silver of the atonements from the children of Israel and use it for the work of the Tent of Meeting; it shall be a remembrance for the children of Israel before the Lord, to atone for your souls."   טזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֞ אֶת־כֶּ֣סֶף הַכִּפֻּרִ֗ים מֵאֵת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְנָֽתַתָּ֣ אֹת֔וֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַ֖ת אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְהָיָה֩ לִבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל לְזִכָּרוֹן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם:
and use it for the work of the Tent of Meeting: [From this] you learn that they were commanded to count them at the beginning of the donation for the Mishkan after the incident of the calf. [They were commanded then] because a plague had befallen them, as it is said: “And the Lord plagued the people” (Exod. 32:35). This can be compared to a flock of sheep, treasured by its owner, which was stricken with pestilence. When it [the pestilence] was over, he [the owner] said to the shepherd, “Please count my sheep to know how many are left,” in order to make it known that he treasured it [the flock] (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 9). It is, however, impossible to say that this counting [mentioned here] was the [same] one mentioned in the Book of Numbers, for in that one [counting] it says: “on the first of the second month” (Num. 1:1), and the Mishkan was erected on the first [day] of the first month, as it is said: On the day of the first month, on the first of the month, you shall erect, etc. (Exod. 40:2). The sockets were made from shekels realized from that counting, as it is said: “One hundred talents of the silver were used to cast, etc.” (Exod. 38:27). Thus you learn that they [the countings] were two-one at the beginning of their donation [to the Mishkan] after Yom Kippur in the first year [after the Exodus], and one in the second year in Iyar after the Mishkan had been erected. Now if you ask, how is it possible that in both of these countings the Israelites equaled six hundred three thousand, five hundred fifty? In the case of the silver of the community census, it says this number, and also in the Book of Numbers it says the same: “And all the counted ones were six hundred three thousand, five hundred fifty” (Num. 1:46). Were they [the countings] not in two [separate] years? It is impossible that in the first census there were none who were nineteen years old and consequently not counted, and by the second counting became twenty years old [and were counted]. The answer to this matter is that in the context of the ages of people, they were counted in the same year, but in the context of the Exodus they [the two dates] were two [separate] years, since [to figure the time] from the Exodus, we count from [the month of] Nissan, as we learned in [tractate] Rosh Hashanah (2b). In this context, the Mishkan was built in the first year [after the Exodus] and erected in the second year, for the new year started on the first of Nissan. People’s ages, however, are counted according to the number of years of the world, beginning with [the month of] Tishri. Thus, the two countings were [taken] in the same year. The first counting was in Tishri after Yom Kippur, when the Omnipresent was placated toward Israel to forgive them, and they were commanded concerning [building] the Mishkan. The second one [counting] was on the first of Iyar. -[from Num. Rabbah 1:10]   וְנָֽתַתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ לִמְנוֹתָם בִּתְחִלַּת נִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אַחַר מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכְנַס בָּהֶם מַגֵּפָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת הָעָם; מָשָׁל לְצֹאן הַחֲבִיבָה עַל בְּעָלֶיהָ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ דֶּבֶר וּמִשֶּׁפָּסַק אָמַר לוֹ לָרוֹעֶה בְּבַקָּשָׁה מִמְּךָ מְנֵה אֶת צֹאנִי וְדַע כַּמָּה נוֹתְרוּ בָהֶם, לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהִיא חֲבִיבָה עָלָיו; וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן הַזֶּה הוּא הָאָמוּר בְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וְהַמִּשְׁכָּן הוּקַם בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּיוֹם הַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ תָּקִים וְגוֹ' (שמות מ'), וּמֵהַמִּנְיָן הַזֶּה נַעֲשׂוּ הָאֲדָנִים – מִשְּׁקָלִים שֶׁלּוֹ – שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי מְאַת כִּכַּר הַכֶּסֶף לָצֶקֶת וְגוֹ' (שם ל"ח), הָא לָמַדְתָּ שְׁתַּיִם הָיוּ, אֶחָד בִּתְחִלַּת נִדְבָתָן אַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְאַחַת בְּשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה בְּאִיָּר מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן. וְאִם תֹּאמַר וְכִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶם הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׁוִים – ו' מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וְג' אֲלָפִים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים – שֶׁהֲרֵי בְכֶסֶף פְּקוּדֵי הָעֵדָה נֶאֱמַר כֵּן, וּבְחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים אַף בּוֹ נֶאֱמַר כֵּן וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַפְּקוּדִים שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים (במדבר א'), וַהֲלֹא בִשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים הָיוּ, וְאִי אֶפְשַָׁר שֶׁלֹא הָיוּ בִשְׁעַת מִנְיָן הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּנֵי י"ט שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא נִמְנוּ וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה נַעֲשׂוּ בְּנֵי כ'! תְּשׁוּבָה לַדָּבָר: אֵצֶל שְׁנוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּשָׁנָה אַחַת נִמְנוּ, אֲבָל לְמִנְיַן יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, לְפִי שֶׁלִּיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם מוֹנִין מִנִּיסָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְמַסֶּ' רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה (דף ב'), וְנִבְנָה הַמִּשְׁכָּן בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהוּקַם בַּשְּׁנִיָּה, שֶׁנִּתְחַדְּשָׁה שָׁנָה בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן, אֲבָל שְׁנוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים מְנוּיִין לְמִנְיַן שְׁנוֹת עוֹלָם, הַמַּתְחִילִין מִתִּשְׁרֵי, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמִּנְיָנִים בְּשָׁנָה אַחַת – הַמִּנְיָן הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיָה בְּתִשְׁרֵי לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים שֶׁנִּתְרַצָּה הַמָּקוֹם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִסְלֹחַ לָהֶם וְנִצְטַוּוּ עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְהַשֵּׁנִי בְּאֶחָד בְּאִיָּר:
for the work of the Tent of Meeting: These are the sockets made from it [i.e., from the silver of the atonements].   עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: הֵן הָאֲדָנִים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בוֹ:

Haftarah

Melachim II (II Kings) Chapter 11

17And Jehoiada enacted the covenant between the Lord and between the king and [between] the people, to be the people of the Lord, and between the king and between the people.   יזוַיִּכְרֹ֨ת יְהוֹיָדָ֜ע אֶֽת־הַבְּרִ֗ית בֵּ֚ין יְהֹוָה֙ וּבֵ֚ין הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וּבֵ֣ין הָעָ֔ם לִהְי֥וֹת לְעָ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וּבֵ֥ין הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וּבֵ֥ין הָעָֽם:
between the Lord and between the king and (between) the people: that the king and the people will follow the Lord, and afterwards he enacted a covenant between the king and between the people that they should be servants of the king.   בֵּין ה' וּבֵין הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבֵין הָעָם: שֶׁיְּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָעָם אַחֲרֵי ה', וְאַחַר כָּךְ בֵּין הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבֵין הָעָם, שֶׁיְּהוּ עֲבָדִים לַמֶּלֶךְ.
18And all the people of the land came to the temple of the Baal and tore it down, its altars and its images they smashed, and Mattan the priest of the Baal they slew before the altars; and the priest set up appointees over the house of the Lord.   יחוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ כָל־עָם֩ הָאָ֨רֶץ בֵּית־הַבַּ֜עַל וַֽיִּתְּצֻ֗הוּ אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָ֚יו (כתיב מִזְבְּחֹתָ֚ו) וְאֶת־צְלָמָיו֙ שִׁבְּר֣וּ הֵיטֵ֔ב וְאֵ֗ת מַתָּן֙ כֹּהֵ֣ן הַבַּ֔עַל הָרְג֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י הַֽמִּזְבְּח֑וֹת וַיָּ֧שֶׂם הַכֹּהֵ֛ן פְּקֻדֹּ֖ת עַל־בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
appointees: appointed to watch in the place of their watch according to their law, since Athaliah had abolished the order of the watches of the Temple.   פְּקֻדֹּת: מְמֻנִּים לִשְׁמֹר בִּמְקוֹם מִשְׁמַרְתָּם כְּהִלְכָתָן, כִּי עֲתַלְיָהוּ בִּטְּלָה אֶת סֵדֶר מִשְׁמְרוֹת הַבַּיִת.
19And he took the officers of the hundreds and the mighty warriors and the couriers and all the people of the land, and they brought the king down from the house of the Lord, and they came by way of the gate of the couriers to the king's palace; and he sat on the throne of the kings.   יטוַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־שָׂרֵ֣י הַ֠מֵּאוֹת וְאֶת־הַכָּרִ֨י וְאֶת־הָרָצִ֜ים וְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֗רֶץ וַיֹּרִ֚ידוּ אֶת־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיָּב֛וֹאוּ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֥עַר הָרָצִ֖ים בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב עַל־כִּסֵּ֥א הַמְּלָכִֽים:
and they came by way of the gate of the couriers: to the king’s palace.   וַיָּבוֹאוּ דֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר הָרָצִים: אֶל בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ.
20And all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city quieted down, and Athaliah they had dispatched by the sword in the royal palace.   כוַיִּשְׂמַ֥ח כָּל־עַם־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְהָעִ֣יר שָׁקָ֑טָה וְאֶת־עֲתַלְיָ֛הוּ הֵמִ֥יתוּ בַחֶ֖רֶב בֵּ֥ית הַמֶּֽלֶךְ (כתיב מֶּֽלֶךְ) :

Melachim II (II Kings) Chapter 12

1Jehoash was seven years old when he became king.   אבֶּן־שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים יְהוֹאָ֥שׁ בְּמָלְכֽוֹ:
2Jehoash became king in the seventh year of Jehu, and he reigned in Jerusalem for forty years; and his mother's name was Zibiah from Beersheba.   בבִּשְׁנַת־שֶׁ֚בַע לְיֵהוּא֙ מָלַ֣ךְ יְהוֹאָ֔שׁ וְאַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירֽוּשָׁלָ֑םִ וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ צִבְיָ֖ה מִבְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע:
3And Jehoash did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord all his days, what Jehoiada the priest instructed him.   גוַיַּ֨עַשׂ יְהוֹאָ֧שׁ הַיָּשָׁ֛ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה כָּל־יָמָ֑יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוֹרָ֔הוּ יְהוֹיָדָ֖ע הַכֹּהֵֽן:
all his days, that Jehoiada the priest instructed him: but after Jehoiada died, the princes of Judah came to prostrate themselves before the king, and they deified him. They said to him, One who enters the Holy of Holies is in peril of dying. Yet you hid there for six years. You are fit to be a god. “Then the king listened to them” (II Chron. 24:17).   כָּל יָמָיו. אֲשֶׁר הוֹרָהוּ יְהוֹיָדָע: אֲבָל מִשֶּׁמֵּת יְהוֹיָדָע, אָז בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹת לַמֶּלֶךְ, וַעֲשָׂאוּהוּ אֱלוֹהַּ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ: הַנִּכְנָס לְבֵית קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים שָׁעָה אַחַת מְסֻכָּן לָמוּת, וְאַתָּה נֶחְבֵּאתָ בּוֹ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים, כְּדַאי אַתָּה לִהְיוֹת אֱלוֹהַּ, אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם.
4However, the high places were not removed. The people were still slaughtering sacrifices and burning incense on the high places.   דרַ֥ק הַבָּמ֖וֹת לֹא־סָ֑רוּ ע֥וֹד הָעָ֛ם מְזַבְּחִ֥ים וּֽמְקַטְּרִ֖ים בַּבָּמֽוֹת:
5And Jehoash said to the priests, "All money of the hallowed things which is brought to the house of the Lord, the money of anyone who passes [the numbering], each one the money of the value of the people [whose value he vows to donate,] all money which comes upon a man's heart to bring to the house of the Lord.   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹאָ֜שׁ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִ֗ים כֹּל֩ כֶּ֨סֶף הַקֳּדָשִׁ֜ים אֲשֶׁר־יוּבָ֚א בֵית־יְהֹוָה֙ כֶּ֣סֶף עוֹבֵ֔ר אִ֕ישׁ כֶּ֥סֶף נַפְשׁ֖וֹת עֶרְכּ֑וֹ כָּל־כֶּ֗סֶף אֲשֶׁ֚ר יַֽעֲלֶה֙ עַ֣ל לֶב־אִ֔ישׁ לְהָבִ֖יא בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
the money of anyone who passes the numbering, each one the money of the value of the people, [whose value he vows to donate]: Two types of money are mentioned here: (1) the money of anyone who passes the numbering. That is the money of the shekels, concerning which it is stated (Ex. 30:13,14), “Everyone who passes the numbering,” and (2) anyone who volunteers the value of his person; i.e., One who says, My value shall be incumbent upon me to donate.   כֶּסֶף עוֹבֵר אִישׁ כֶּסֶף נַפְשׁוֹת עֶרְכּוֹ: שְׁנֵי כְסָפִים יֵשׁ כָּאן, כָּל הָעוֹבֵר עַל הַפְּקֻדִים, כֶּסֶף עוֹבֵר, הוּא כֶּסֶף הַשְּׁקָלִים שֶׁבְּכָל שָׁנָה, הַנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ: וְאִישׁ שֶׁיִּתְנַדֵּב עֶרְכַּת נַפְשׁוֹ, הָאוֹמֵר עֶרְכִּי עָלַי.
all money which comes upon…: [I.e., all money which one desires to give,] such as one who says, It is incumbent upon me to donate a maneh (twenty-five selaim or one hundred dinarim) for the repairs of the Temple.   כָּל כֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְגוֹ': כְּגוֹן הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי מָנָה לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת.
6The priests shall take for themselves each one from his acquaintance; and they shall strengthen the damage of the house, wherever damage is found."   ויִקְח֚וּ לָהֶם֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אִ֖ישׁ מֵאֵ֣ת מַכָּר֑וֹ וְהֵ֗ם יְחַזְּקוּ֙ אֶת־בֶּ֣דֶק הַבַּ֔יִת לְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵ֥א שָׁ֖ם בָּֽדֶק:
The priests shall take for themselves: It shall be theirs, and they shall take upon themselves to strengthen the damage of the Temple from their own money.   יִקְחוּ לָהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים: יִהְיֶה שֶׁלָּהֶם, וְהֵם יְקַבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לְחַזֵּק אֶת בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם.
from his acquaintance: [Heb. מַכָּרוֹ, like מַכִּירוֹ, i.e.,] from his acquaintance who frequently visits him.   מֵאֵת מַכָּרוֹ: מֵאֵת מַכִּירוֹ הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ.
damage: splits and cracks in the wall.   בֶּדֶק: בְּקִיעָה וְסֶדֶק הַחוֹמָה.
7And it was that in the twenty-third year of King Jehoash, the priests did not strengthen the damages of the house.   זוַיְהִ֗י בִּשְׁנַ֨ת עֶשְׂרִ֧ים וְשָׁל֛שׁ שָׁנָ֖ה לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ יְהוֹאָ֑שׁ לֹֽא־חִזְּק֥וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים אֶת־בֶּ֥דֶק הַבָּֽיִת:
8And King Jehoash summoned Jehoiada the priest and the priests and said to them, "Why are you not repairing the damage of the house? Now, take no money from your acquaintances, but give it for the damage of the house."   חוַיִּקְרָא֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ יְהוֹאָ֜שׁ לִיהוֹיָדָ֚ע הַכֹּהֵן֙ וְלַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מַדּ֛וּעַ אֵינְכֶ֥ם מְחַזְּקִ֖ים אֶת־בֶּ֣דֶק הַבָּ֑יִת וְעַתָּ֗ה אַל־תִּקְחוּ־כֶ֙סֶף֙ מֵאֵ֣ת מַכָּֽרֵיכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־לְבֶ֥דֶק הַבַּ֖יִת תִּתְּנֻֽהוּ:
Now, take no money: anymore, and do not repair the Temple from your money.   וְעַתָּה אַל תִּקְחוּ כֶסֶף: עוֹד, וְאַל תְּחַזְּקוּ הַבַּיִת מִשֶּׁלָּכֶם.
but give it for the damage of the house: If it will be little, let it be little, and if it will be left over, let it be left over.   כִּי לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת תִּתְּנֻהוּ: אִם יִפְחוֹת יִפְחוֹת, וְאִם יוֹתִיר יוֹתִיר.
9And the priests agreed not to take money from the people and not to repair the damage of the house.   טוַיֵּאֹ֖תוּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֑ים לְבִלְתִּ֚י קְחַת־כֶּ֙סֶף֙ מֵאֵ֣ת הָעָ֔ם וּלְבִלְתִּ֥י חַזֵּ֖ק אֶת־בֶּ֥דֶק הַבָּֽיִת:
10And Jehoiada the priest took one chest and bored a hole in its door; and he placed it near the altar on the right, where a person enters the house of the Lord: and the priests, the guards of the threshold, would put all the money that was brought into the house of the Lord, into there.   יוַיִּקַּ֞ח יְהוֹיָדָ֚ע הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֲר֣וֹן אֶחָ֔ד וַיִּקֹּ֥ב חֹ֖ר בְּדַלְתּ֑וֹ וַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֹתוֹ֩ אֵ֨צֶל הַמִּזְבֵּ֜חַ מִיָּמִ֗ין (כתיב בִיָּמִ֗ין) בְּבֽוֹא־אִישׁ֙ בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֔ה וְנָֽתְנוּ־שָׁ֚מָּה הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ שֹׁמְרֵ֣י הַסַּ֔ף אֶת־כָּל־הַכֶּ֖סֶף הַמּוּבָ֥א בֵית־יְהֹוָֽה:
near the altar: in the Temple court.   אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: בָּעֲזָרָה.
on the right, where a person comes: on the right of the people’s entrance.   מִיָּמִין בְּבוֹא אִישׁ: מִימִין בִּיאַת הָאֲנָשִׁים.
the guards of the threshold: the thresholds of the Temple court, those in charge of the keys of the Temple court, for Jonathan rendered it as “Amarkalia,” and the “Amarkalim” were seven, for the seven gates of the Temple court. Tosefta Shekalim 2:15   שֹׁמְרֵי הַסַּף: סִפֵּי הָעֲזָרָה, הַמְמֻנִּים עַל מַפְתְּחוֹת הָעֲזָרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי תִּרְגְּמוֹ יוֹנָתָן: אֲמַרְכְּלַיָּא. וְהָאֲמַרְכָּלִים שִׁבְעָה הָיוּ, לְשִׁבְעָה שַׁעֲרֵי הָעֲזָרָה, בְּתוֹסֶפְתָּא דִּשְׁקָלִים.
11And it was when they saw that there was much money in the chest, that the king's scribe and the high priest went up and packed and counted the money which was brought into the house of the Lord.   יאוַֽיְהִי֙ כִּרְאוֹתָ֔ם כִּֽי־רַ֥ב הַכֶּ֖סֶף בָּֽאָר֑וֹן וַיַּ֨עַל סֹפֵ֚ר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְהַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל וַיָּצֻ֙רוּ֙ וַיִּמְנ֔וּ אֶת־הַכֶּ֖סֶף הַנִּמְצָ֥א בֵית־יְהֹוָֽה:
And it was: from day to day.   וַיְהִי: מִיּוֹם אֶל יוֹם. כִּרְאוֹתָם כִּי רַב הַכֶּסֶף בָּאָרוֹן וַיַּעַל סֹפֵר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְגוֹ'.
12And they would give the counted money into the hands of the foremen of the work who were appointed in the house of the Lord; and they spent it for the carpenters and for the builders who work in the house of the Lord.   יבוְנָתְנוּ֙ אֶת־הַכֶּ֣סֶף הַֽמְתֻכָּ֔ן עַל־יְדֵי֙ (כתיב יְדֵ֙) עֹשֵֹ֣י הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה הַמֻּפְקָדִ֖ים (כתיב הַֻפְקָדִ֖ים) בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיּוֹצִיאֻ֜הוּ לְחָרָשֵׁ֚י הָעֵץ֙ וְלַבֹּנִ֔ים הָעֹשִֹ֖ים בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
And they would give the counted money: They would give that counted money. After they would take it out of the chest and weigh it, they would give it into the hands of the treasurers who were in charge of the performers of the work.   וְנָתְנוּ אֶת הַכֶּסֶף הַמְתֻכָּן: הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ הַכֶּסֶף הַמָּנוּי, לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ מִן הָאָרוֹן וּשְׁקָלוּהוּ וּמְנָאוּהוּ, הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַגִּזְבָּרִין הַמְמֻנִּים עַל עוֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה.
the counted: Heb. [הַמְתֻכָּן,] an expression of a number, like (Ex. 5:18) “and the number (וְתֹכֶן) of bricks you shall give.”   הַמְתֻכָּן: לְשׁוֹן מִנְיָן, כְּמוֹ: וְתוֹכֵן לְבֵנִים תִּתֵּנוּ.
who were appointed: [Heb. הַמֻּפְקָדִים].   הַמֻּפְקָדִים: הַמְמֻנִּים.
and they spent it: [lit. and they took it out.] An expression of expenditure to hire carpenters.   וַיּוֹצִיאֻהוּ: לְשׁוֹן הוֹצָאָה, לִשְׂכֹּר חָרָשֵׁי הָעֵץ.
and for the builders: They are the architects, the stonesmiths whose colleagues would work under their orders, the supervisors of the crafts.   וְלַבֹּנִים: הֵם הָאַרְדְּכָלִין חָרָשֵׁי הָאֶבֶן, שֶׁחַבְרֵיהֶם עוֹשִׂים עַל פִּיהֶם רָאשֵׁי הָאֻמָּנוּת.
13And for the masons and for the stonecutters and to buy wood and quarried stones to repair the damage of the house of the Lord, and for everything which would be spent for the house to strengthen it.   יגוְלַגֹּֽדְרִים֙ וּלְחֹצְבֵ֣י הָאֶ֔בֶן וְלִקְנ֚וֹת עֵצִים֙ וְאַבְנֵ֣י מַחְצֵ֔ב לְחַזֵּ֖ק אֶת־בֶּ֣דֶק בֵּית־יְהֹוָ֑ה וּלְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵ֥א עַל־הַבַּ֖יִת לְחַזְקָֽה:
And for the masons: for the builders of the wall, the apprentices of the architects.   וְלַגֹּדְרִים: לְבוֹנֵי הַחוֹמָה, תַּלְמִידֵי אַרְדְּכָלִין.
and for the stonecutters: from the mountain.   וּלְחֹצְבֵי הָאֶבֶן: מִן הָהָר.
14However, there would not be made for the house of the Lord, silver pitchers, musical instruments, basins, trumpets, or any golden or silver utensils, from the money brought into the house of the Lord.   ידאַךְ֩ לֹ֨א יֵעָשֶֹ֜ה בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֗ה סִפּ֥וֹת כֶּ֙סֶף֙ מְזַמְּר֚וֹת מִזְרָקוֹת֙ חֲצֹ֣צְר֔וֹת כָּל־כְּלִ֥י זָהָ֖ב וּכְלִי־כָ֑סֶף מִן־הַכֶּ֖סֶף הַמּוּבָ֥א בֵית־יְהֹוָֽה:
  סִפּוֹת כֶּסֶף מְזַמְּרוֹת: וְהֵם כְּלֵי שִׁיר.
15But they would give it to the foremen over the work, and they would repair therewith the house of the Lord.   טוכִּֽי־לְעֹשֵֹ֥י הַמְּלָאכָ֖ה יִתְּנֻ֑הוּ וְחִזְּקוּ־ב֖וֹ אֶת־בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
16And they would not reckon with the men into whose hand they would give the money to give the foremen over the work, for they did [the work] honestly.   טזוְלֹ֧א יְחַשְּׁב֣וּ אֶת־הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתְּנ֚וּ אֶת־הַכֶּ֙סֶף֙ עַל־יָדָ֔ם לָתֵ֖ת לְעֹשֵֹ֣י הַמְּלָאכָ֑ה כִּ֥י בֶאֱמֻנָ֖ה הֵ֥ם עֹשִֹֽים:
And they would not reckon with the men: The supervisors would not make a reckoning with the men, the treasurers into whose hand the supervisors would always give the money to give it to the foremen over the work, since they were not suspicious in their eyes, for they did the work honestly.   וְלֹא יְחַשְּׁבוּ אֶת הָאֲנָשִׁים: לֹא הָיוּ הָאַמְרְכָּלִין בָּאִין לְחֶשְׁבּוֹן עִם הָאֲנָשִׁים הַגִּזְבָּרִין, אֲשֶׁר יִתְּנוּ הָאַמְרְכָּלִין אֶת הַכֶּסֶף תָּמִיד עַל יָדָם לְתִתּוֹ לְעוֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ חֲשׁוּדִים בְּעֵינֵיהֶם, כִּי בֶאֱמוּנָה הֵם עוֹשִׂים.
17The money for guilt-offerings and the money for sin-offerings would not be brought to the house of the Lord; they would go to the priests.   יזכֶּ֚סֶף אָשָׁם֙ וְכֶ֣סֶף חַטָּא֔וֹת לֹ֥א יוּבָ֖א בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה לַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים יִהְיֽוּ:
The money for guilt-offerings and the money for sin-offerings: If one set aside money for his sin-offering or for his guilt-offering, and purchased an animal, and there remained of the money.   כֶּסֶף אָשָׁם וְכֶסֶף חַטָּאוֹת: הַמַּפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לְחַטָּאתוֹ וְלַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְלָקַח אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וְנוֹתַר מִן הַמָּעוֹת.
would not be brought to the house of the Lord: to repair the damage of the Temple.   לֹא יוּבָא בֵּית ה': לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת.
they would go to the priests: who would in turn purchase therefrom burnt-offerings, “fruit” for the altar; the flesh was for a burnt-offering and the hides were theirs. Thus we learned in Temurah (23b). This interpretation Jehoiada the priest expounded on. Everything that comes from the remainder of a guilt-offering shall be used to purchase burnt-offerings.   לַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ: וְהֵם לוֹקְחִים מֵהֶם עוֹלוֹת קַיִץ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, הַבָּשָׂר לְעוֹלָה, וְהָעוֹרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ בִּתְמוּרָה: זֶה מִדְרָשׁ דָּרַשׁ יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן, כָּל הַבָּא מִמּוֹתַר חַטָּאת וּמִמּוֹתַר אָשָׁם, יִלָּקַח בָּהֶן עוֹלוֹת.

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 66

1So says the Lord, "The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool; which is the house that you will build for Me, and which is the place of My rest?   אכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם כִּסְאִ֔י וְהָאָ֖רֶץ הֲדֹ֣ם רַגְלָ֑י אֵי־זֶ֥ה בַ֙יִת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּבְנוּ־לִ֔י וְאֵי־זֶ֥ה מָק֖וֹם מְנֽוּחָתִֽי:
The heavens are My throne: I do not need your Temple.   השמים כסאי: איני צריך לבית המקדש שלכם:
which is the house: that is fitting for My Shechinah.   איזה בית: אשר הוא כדאי לשכינתי:

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 66

23And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh shall come to prostrate themselves before Me," says the Lord.   כגוְהָיָ֗ה מִֽדֵּי־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ וּמִדֵּ֥י שַׁבָּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ יָב֧וֹא כָל־בָּשָֹ֛ר לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֥ת לְפָנַ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
24"And they shall go out and see the corpses of the people who rebelled against Me, for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring for all flesh."   כדוְיָצְאוּ֨ וְרָא֔וּ בְּפִגְרֵי֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים הַפֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים בִּ֑י כִּ֣י תֽוֹלַעְתָּ֞ם לֹ֣א תָמ֗וּת וְאִשָּׁם֙ לֹ֣א תִכְבֶּ֔ה וְהָי֥וּ דֵֽרָא֖וֹן לְכָל־בָּשָֽׂר:
their worm: The worm that consumes their flesh.   תולעתם: רמה האוכלת את בשרם:
and their fire: in Gehinnom.   ואשם: בגיהנם:
and abhorring: Heb. דֵרָאוֹן, an expression of contempt. Jonathan, however, renders it as two words: enough (דֵּי) seeing (רְאִיָה), until the righteous say about them, We have seen enough.   דראון: לשון בזיון, וי"ת כמין שתי תיבות די ראייה, עד דיימרון עליהון צדיקיא מיסת חזינא:

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 66

23And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh shall come to prostrate themselves before Me," says the Lord.   כגוְהָיָ֗ה מִֽדֵּי־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ וּמִדֵּ֥י שַׁבָּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ יָב֧וֹא כָל־בָּשָֹ֛ר לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֥ת לְפָנַ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
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