Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 27

1And you shall make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits wide; the altar shall be square, and its height [shall be] three cubits.   אוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים חָמֵשׁ֩ אַמּ֨וֹת אֹ֜רֶךְ וְחָמֵ֧שׁ אַמּ֣וֹת רֹ֗חַב רָב֤וּעַ יִֽהְיֶה֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְשָׁל֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת קֹֽמָתֽוֹ:
And you shall make the altar…and its height [shall be] three cubits: The words are [to be understood] literally. These are the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Jose says: It says here “square,” and concerning the inner altar, it says “square” (Exod. 30:2). Just as there, its height was twice its length [i.e, it was one cubit long and two cubits high], here too, its height was twice its length. [This method of expounding is known as גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, similar wording.] How then do I understand “and its height [shall be] three cubits"? [This means measuring] from the edge of the sovev [the ledge surrounding the altar] and higher. — [from Zev 60a] [According to Rabbi Judah, the altar was literally three cubits high. According to Rabbi Yose, it was ten cubits high, with the upper three cubits above the ledge mentioned in verse 5]   וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וגו' וְשָׁלשׁ אַמּוֹת קֹֽמָתֽוֹ: דְּבָרִים כִּכְתָבָן, דִּבְרֵי רַ' יְהוּדָה, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר נֶאֱמַר כָּאן רָבוּעַ וְנֶאֱמַר בַּפְּנִימִי רָבוּעַ, מַה לְּהַלָּן גָּבְהוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּאָרְכּוֹ, אַף כָּאן גָּבְהוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּאָרְכּוֹ, וּמָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קֹמָתוֹ? מִשְּׂפַת סוֹבֵב וּלְמַעְלָה (זבח' נ"ט):
2And you shall make its horns on its four corners; its horns shall be from it, and you shall overlay it with copper.   בוְעָשִׂ֣יתָ קַרְנֹתָ֗יו עַ֚ל אַרְבַּ֣ע פִּנֹּתָ֔יו מִמֶּ֖נּוּ תִּֽהְיֶ֣יןָ קַרְנֹתָ֑יו וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹת֖וֹ נְחֽשֶׁת:
its horns shall be from it: [This means] that he should not make them [the horns] separately and [then] attach them to it [the altar].   מִמֶּנּוּ תִּֽהְיֶיןָ קַרְנֹתָיו: שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֵׂם לְבַדָּם וִיחַבְּרֵם בּוֹ:
and you shall overlay it with copper: to atone for brazenness, as it is said: “and your forehead is brazen (נְחוֹּשָה)” (Isa. 48:4). [I.e., נְחֹשֶת, which means copper, is also used idiomatically to mean brazen or bold.]-[from Tanchuma 11]   וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ נְחֽשֶׁת: לְכַפֵּר עַל עַזּוּת מֶצַח, שֶׁנֶּ' וּמִצְחֲךָ נְחוּשָׁה (ישעיהו מ"ח):
3And you shall make its pots to remove its ashes, and its shovels and its sprinkling basins and its flesh hooks and its scoops; you shall make all its implements of copper.   גוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ סִּֽירֹתָיו֙ לְדַשְּׁנ֔וֹ וְיָעָיו֙ וּמִזְרְקֹתָ֔יו וּמִזְלְגֹתָ֖יו וּמַחְתֹּתָ֑יו לְכָל־כֵּלָ֖יו תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה נְחֽשֶׁת:
its pots: Heb. סִּירֹתָיו, sort of kettles. — [from targumim]   סִּֽירֹתָיו: כְּמִין יוֹרוֹת:
to remove its ashes: Heb. לְדַשְׂנוֹ, to remove its ashes [and place them] into them [the kettles]. This is what Onkelos rendered: לְמִסְפֵּי קִטְמֵיהּ, to remove its ashes into them. In Hebrew, some words [are used in such a manner that] one word [i.e., the same root] changes in its meaning to serve [both] as building and demolishing [i.e., it has a positive and a negative meaning], like, “it took root (וַתַַּשְׁרֵשׁ)” (Ps. 80:10), “a fool taking root (מַשְׁרִישׁ)” (Job 5:3), and its opposite, “and it uproots (תְשָׁרֵשׁ) all my grain” (Job 31:12); similar to this, “on its branches (בִּסְעִיפֶיהָ) when it produces fruit” (Isa. 17:6), and its opposite, “lops off (מְסָעֵף) the branches” (Isa. 10:33); similar to this, “and this last one broke his bones (עִצְּמוֹ)” (Jer. 50:17) [עִצְּמוֹ, which usually means “became boned,” here means] “broke his bones” ; similar to this, “and stoned him with stones (וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָּאִבָנִים)” (I Kings 21:13), and its opposite, "clear it of stones (סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן) ” (Isa. 62:10), [meaning] remove its stones, and so, “and he fenced it in, and he cleared it of stones (וַיִּסְקְלֵהוּ)” (Isa. 5:2). Here too, לְדַשְׁנוֹ means “to remove its ashes (דִשְׁנוֹ),” and in Old French, adeszandrer, to remove ashes.   לְדַשְּׁנוֹ: לְהָסִיר דִּשְׁנוֹ לְתוֹכָם, וְהוּא שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס לְמִסְפֵּי קִטְמֵהּ – לִסְפּוֹת הַדֶּשֶׁן לְתוֹכָם; כִּי יֵשׁ מִלּוֹת בְּלָשׁוֹן עִבְרִית מִלָּה אַחַת מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בַּפִּתְרוֹן לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּנְיָן וּסְתִירָה, כְּמוֹ וַתַּשְׁרֵשׁ שָׁרָשֶׁיהָ (תהילים פ'), אֱוִיל מַשְׁרִישׁ (איוב ה'), וְחִלּוּפוֹ וּבְכָל תְּבוּאָתִי תְשָׁרֵשׁ (איוב ל״א:י״ב); וְכָמוֹהוּ בִּסְעִפֶּיהָ פֹּרִיָּה (ישעיהו י״ז:ו׳), וְחִלּוּפוֹ מְסָעֵף פֻּארָה (ישעיהו י׳:ל״ג) – מְפַשֵּׁחַ סְעִפֶּיהָ; וְכָמוֹהוּ וְזֶה הָאַחֲרוֹן עִצְּמוֹ (ירמיהו נ') – שִׁבַּר עֲצָמָיו; וְכָמוֹהוּ וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָאֲבָנִים (מלכים א כ״א:י״ג), וְחִלּוּפוֹ סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן (ישעיהו ס״ב:י׳) – הָסִירוּ אֲבָנֶיהָ, וְכֵן וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ (שם ה'), אַף כָּאן לְדַשְּׁנוֹ – לְהָסִיר דִּשְׁנוֹ, וּבְלַעַז אדשצנדר"יר:
and its shovels: Heb. וְיָעָיו. [Its meaning is] as the Targum [Onkelos renders: וּמַגְרפְיָתֵיה]: shovels with which he [the kohen] takes the ashes. They are [similar to] a kind of thin, metal lid of a pot, and it has a handle. In Old French [it is called] videl, vedil, vadil, [all meaning] shovel.   וְיָעָיו: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, מִגְרָפוֹת שֶׁנּוֹטְלִים בָּהֶם הַדֶּשֶׁן, וְהֵן כְּמִין כִּסּוּי הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת דַּק וְלֹוֹ בֵית יָד, וּבְלַעַז ווד"יל:
and its sprinkling basins: Heb. וּמִזְרְקֹתָיו, with which to receive the blood of the sacrifices.   וּמִזְרְקֹתָיו: לְקַבֵּל בָּהֶם דַּם הַזְּבָחִים:
and its flesh hooks: Heb. וּמִזְלְגֹתָיו. Sort of bent hooks, with which he [the kohen] would strike the [sacrificial] flesh. They [the hooks] would be imbedded into it, and with them, he would turn it over on the coals of the [altar] pyre in order to hasten its burning. In Old French [they are called] crozins, [meaning flesh] hooks, and in the language of the Sages [they are called], צִינוֹרִיּוֹת (Yoma 12a).   וּמִזְלְגֹתָיו: כְּמִין אֻנְקְלִיּוֹת כְּפוּפִים, וּמַכֶּה בָהֶם בַּבָּשָׂר וְנִתְחָבִים בּוֹ וּמְהַפֵּךְ בָּהֶן עַל גַּחֲלֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה שֶׁיְּהֵא מְמַהֵר שְׂרֵפָתָן, ובְלַעַז קרוצי"נש, וּבִלְשׁוֹן חֲכָמִים צִנּוֹרִיּוֹת (יומא י"ב):
and its scoops: Heb. וּמַחְתֹּתָיו. They had a cavity in which to take coals from the altar and to carry them onto the inner altar for incense [which was within the Mishkan]. Because of their [function of] scooping (חֲתִיֹּתָן), they are called scoops (מַחְתּוֹת), like “to scoop (לַחְתּוֹת) fire from a hearth” (Isa. 30:14), an expression of raking fire from its place, and likewise, “Can a man rake (הִיַחְתֶּה) embers with his clothes?” (Prov. 6:27).   וּמַחְתֹּתָיו: בֵּית קִבּוּל יֵשׁ לָהֶם לִטֹּל בָּהֶן גֶּחָלִים מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, לְשֵׂאתָם עַל מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי לַקְּטֹרֶת, וְעַל שֵׁם חֲתִיָּתָן קְרוּיִים מַחְתּוֹת, כְּמוֹ לַחְתּוֹת אֵשׁ מִיָּקוּד (ישעיהו ל'), לְשׁוֹן שְׁאִיבַת אֵשׁ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ, וְכֵן הֲיַחְתֶּה אִישׁ אֵשׁ בְּחֵיקוֹ (משלי ו'):
all its implements: Heb. לְכָל-כֵּלָיו. Like כָּל כֵּלָיו.   לְכָל־כֵּלָיו: כְּמוֹ כָּל כֵּלָיו:
4And you shall make for it a copper grating of netting work, and you shall make on the netting four copper rings on its four ends.   דוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ לּוֹ֙ מִכְבָּ֔ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֖ה רֶ֣שֶׁת נְח֑שֶׁת וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ עַל־הָרֶ֗שֶׁת אַרְבַּע֙ טַבְּעֹ֣ת נְח֔שֶׁת עַ֖ל אַרְבַּ֥ע קְצוֹתָֽיו:
grating: Heb. מִכְבָּר, a word meaning a sieve (כְּבָרָה), which is called crible [in French], [meaning] a sort of garment made for the altar, made with holes like a sort of net. This verse is inverted, and this is its meaning: And you shall make for it a copper grating of netting work.   מִכְבָּר: לְשׁוֹן כְּבָרָה, שֶׁקּוֹרִין קרי"בלא בְּלַעַז, כְּמִין לְבוּשׁ עָשׂוּי לוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, עָשׂוּי חֹרִין חֹרִין, כְּמִין רֶשֶׁת; וּמִקְרָא זֶה מְסֹרָס וְכֹה פִּתְרוֹנוֹ: וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ מִכְבַּר נְחֹשֶׁת מַעֲשֵׂה רֶשֶׁת:
5And you shall place it beneath the ledge of the altar from below, and the net shall [extend downward] until the middle of the altar.   הוְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה אֹתָ֗הּ תַּ֛חַת כַּרְכֹּ֥ב הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ מִלְּמָ֑טָּה וְהָֽיְתָ֣ה הָרֶ֔שֶׁת עַ֖ד חֲצִ֥י הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
the ledge of the altar: Heb. כַּרְכֹּב, a surrounding ledge. Anything that encircles anything else is called כַּרְכֹּב, as we learned in [the chapter entitled] Everyone May Slaughter (Chul. 25a): “The following are unfinished wooden vessels: Any [vessel] that is destined to be smoothed or banded (לְכַרְכֵּב).” This [refers to the practice] of making round grooves [or bands] in the planks of the walls of wooden chests and benches. For the altar as well, he [Bezalel] made a groove around it a cubit wide. [The groove was] on its wall for decoration, and that was at the end of three (other editions: six) cubits of its height, according to the one who says that its height was twice its length and [asks] how then can I understand [the verse] "and three cubits its height"? [Three cubits] from the edge of the ledge and higher. There was, however, no surrounding ledge [i.e., walkway] on the copper altar for the kohanim to walk on, except on its top, within its horns. So we learned in Zev. (62a): What is the ledge? [The space] between one horn and the other horn which was a cubit wide. Within that there was a cubit for the kohanim to walk, and these two cubits are called כַּרְכֹּב. We [the Sages of the Gemara] questioned this: But is it not written, "beneath the ledge of the altar from below"? [Thus we learned] that the כַּרְכֹּב was on its [the altar’s] wall, and the “garment” of the grating was below it [the ledge]. The one who answered [i.e., one of the Sages of the Gemara] replied: “There were two [ledges], one for beauty and one so that the kohanim should not slip.” The one on the wall was for decoration, and below it, they adorned [it with] the grating, whose width extended halfway up the altar. Thus, the grating was a cubit wide, and this was the sign of the middle of its [the altar’s] height, to distinguish between the upper “bloods” and the lower “bloods” [i. e., the blood of the sacrifices required to be sprinkled on the top of the altar and the blood of the sacrifices required to be sprinkled on the bottom of the altar]. Corresponding to this, they made for the altar in the Temple a kind of red line [other editions: the “girdle” of the red line] in it [the altar’s] center [point] (Middoth 3:1) and a ramp upon which they [the kohanim] would ascend it [the altar]. Although [the Torah] did not explain it in this section, we were already informed in the parsha [that begins] “An altar of earth you shall make for Me” (Exod. 20:21-23): “And you shall not ascend with steps.” [I.e.,] you shall not make steps for it on its ramp, but [you shall make] a smooth ramp. [Thus] we learn that it [the altar] had a ramp. [All the above] we learned in the Mechilta (Exod. 20:23). The “altar of earth” [mentioned in Exod. 20:21] was the copper altar, which they filled with earth in [all] the places of their encampment. The ramp was to the south of the altar, separated from the altar by a hairbreadth. Its base reached [until] a cubit adjacent to the hangings of the courtyard on the Mishkan’s southern [side], according to [the opinion of] those who say that it was ten cubits high. According to the opinion of those who say that the words are [to be understood] literally -"its height [shall be] three cubits" (verse 1)-the ramp was only ten cubits long. I found this in the Mishnah of Forty-Nine Middoth. [What I stated,] that it [the ramp] was separated from the altar by the width of a thread [i.e., a hairbreadth], [derives from] Tractate Zevachim (62b), [where] we learned it from the text.   כַּרְכֹּב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: סוֹבֵב; כָּל דָּבָר הַמַּקִּיף סָבִיב בְּעִגּוּל קָרוּי כַּרְכֹּב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְּהַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין אֵלּוּ הֵן גָּלְמֵי כְלֵי עֵץ כָּל שֶׁעָתִיד לָשׁוּף וּלְכַרְכֵּב, וְהוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁעוֹשִׂים חֲרִיצִין עֲגֻלִּין בְּקַרְשֵׁי דָּפְנֵי הַתֵּבוֹת וְסַפְסָלֵי הָעֵץ, אַף לַמִּזְבֵּחַ עָשָׂה חָרִיץ סְבִיבוֹ, וְהָיָה רָחְבּוֹ אַמָּה בְדָפְנוֹ לְנוֹי וְהוּא לְסוֹף שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת שֶׁל גָּבְהוֹ כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר גָּבְהוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּאָרְכּוֹ, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ? מִשְּׂפַת סוֹבֵב וּלְמַעְלָה, אֲבָל סוֹבֵב לְהִלּוּךְ הַכֹּהֲנִים לֹא הָיָה לְמִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת, אֶלָּא עַל רֹאשׁוֹ לִפְנִים מִקַּרְנוֹתָיו, וְכֵן שָׁנִינוּ בִזְבָחִים: אֵי זֶהוּ כַּרְכּוֹב? בֵּין קֶרֶן לְקֶרֶן; וְהָיָה רֹחַב אַמָּה, וְלִפְנִים מֵהֶן אַמָּה שֶׁל הִלּוּךְ רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים, שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת הַלָּלוּ קְרוּיִים כַּרְכּוֹב; וְדִקְדַּקְנוּ שָׁם וְהָכְתִיב תַּחַת כַּרְכֹּב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלְּמָטָּה? לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַכַּרְכּוֹב בְּדָפְנוֹ הוּא וּלְבוּשׁ הַמִּכְבָּר תַּחְתָּיו? וְתֵרֵץ הַמְתָרֵץ תְּרֵי הֲווֹ, חַד לְנוֹי וְחַד לַכֹּהֲנִים דְּלֹא יִשְׂתָּרְגוּ, זֶה שֶׁבַּדֹּפֶן לְנוֹי הָיָה, וּמִתַּחְתָּיו הִלְבִּישׁוֹ הַמִּכְבָּר וְהִגִּיעַ רָחְבוֹ עַד חֲצִי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְהוּא הָיָה סִימָן לַחֲצִי גָּבְהוֹ, לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין דָּמִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לְדָמִים הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים; וּכְנֶגְדּוֹ עָשׂוּ לְמִזְבַּח בֵּית עוֹלָמִים דֻּגְמַת חוּט הַסִּקְרָא בְאֶמְצָעוֹ, וְכֶבֶשׁ שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹלִין בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵרְשׁוֹ בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, כְּבָר שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּפָרָשַׁת מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי וְלֹא תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת – לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה לוֹ מַעֲלוֹת בְּכֶבֶשׁ שֶׁלּוֹ, אֶלָּא כֶּבֶשׁ חָלָק, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ כֶּבֶשׁ; כָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ בַּמְּכִילְתָּא. וּמִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה הוּא מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת, שֶׁהָיוּ מְמַלְּאִין חֲלָלוֹ אֲדָמָה בִמְקוֹם חֲנִיָּתָן, וְהַכֶּבֶשׁ הָיָה בִּדְרוֹם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, מֻבְדָּל מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְלֹא חוּט הַשַּׂעֲרָה, וְרַגְלָיו מַגִּיעִין עַד אַמָּה סָמוּךְ לְקַלְעֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם, כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ, וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר דְּבָרִים כִּכְתָבָן – שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ – לֹא הָיָה אֹרֶךְ הַכֶּבֶשׁ אֶלָּא עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, כָּךְ מָצָאתִי בְּמִשְׁנַת אַרְבָּעִים וְתֵשַׁע מִדּוֹת, וְזֶה שֶׁהוּא מֻבְדָּל מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְלֹא הַחוּט, בְּמַסֶּכֶת זְבָחִים (דף ס"ב) לְמָדוּהוּ מִן הַמִּקְרָא:
6And you shall make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and you shall overlay them with copper.   ווְעָשִׂ֤יתָ בַדִּים֙ לַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ בַּדֵּ֖י עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹתָ֖ם נְחֽשֶׁת:
7And its poles shall be inserted into the rings, and the poles shall be on both sides of the altar when it is carried.   זוְהוּבָ֥א אֶת־בַּדָּ֖יו בַּטַּבָּעֹ֑ת וְהָי֣וּ הַבַּדִּ֗ים עַל־שְׁתֵּ֛י צַלְעֹ֥ת הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ בִּשְׂאֵ֥ת אֹתֽוֹ:
into the rings: Into the four rings that were made for the grating.   בַּטַּבָּעֹת: בְּאַרְבַּע טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לַמִּכְבָּר:
8You shall make it hollow, out of boards; as He showed you on the mountain, so shall they do.   חנְב֥וּב לֻחֹ֖ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹת֑וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶרְאָ֥ה אֹֽתְךָ֛ בָּהָ֖ר כֵּ֥ן יַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
hollow, out of boards: Heb. נְבוּב לֻחֹת as the Targum [Onkelos and Jonathan] renders: חִלִיל לוּחִין. [There should be] boards of acacia wood from all sides with a space in the middle. But all of it shall not be [made of] one piece of wood [that would measure] five cubits by five cubits, like a sort of anvil [i.e., like one solid block].   נְבוּב לֻחֹת: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ חֲלִיל לוּחִין, לֻחֹת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים מִכָּל צַד וְהֶחָלָל בְאֶמְצַע, וְלֹא יְהֵא כֻּלּוֹ עֵץ אֶחָד שֶׁיְּהֵא עָבְיוֹ חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת עַל חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת כְּמִין סַדָּן:
9And you shall make the courtyard of the Mishkan on the southern side [there shall be] hangings for the courtyard of twisted fine linen, one hundred cubits long on one side.   טוְעָשִׂ֕יתָ אֵ֖ת חֲצַ֣ר הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן לִפְאַ֣ת נֶֽגֶב־תֵּ֠ימָ֠נָה קְלָעִ֨ים לֶֽחָצֵ֜ר שֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֗ר מֵאָ֤ה בָֽאַמָּה֙ אֹ֔רֶךְ לַפֵּאָ֖ה הָֽאֶחָֽת:
hangings: Heb. קְלָעִים. Made like the sails of a ship, with many holes, braided, and not the work of a weaver. Its Aramaic translation is סְרָדִין [a sieve], like the Aramaic translation of מִכְבָּר, which is סְרָדָא, because they were [both] perforated like a sieve.   קְלָעִים: עֲשׂוּיִין כְּמִין קַלְעֵי סְפִינָה, נְקָבִים נְקָבִים, מַעֲשֵׂה קְלִיעָה וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂה אוֹרֵג, וְתַרְגּוּם סְרָדִים כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ שֶׁל מִכְבָּר הַמְתֻרְגָּם סְרָדָה, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מְנֻקָּבִין כִּכְבָרָה:
on one side: Heb. לַפֵּאָה הָאֶחָת. The entire side is called פֵּאָה. — [from targumim] [Although פֵּאָה usually means a corner, in this case it refers to the entire side.]   לַפֵּאָה הָֽאֶחָֽת: כָּל הָרוּחַ קָרוּי פֵּאָה:
10And its pillars [shall be] twenty and their sockets twenty of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their bands [shall be of] silver.   יוְעַמֻּדָ֣יו עֶשְׂרִ֔ים וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֥ם עֶשְׂרִ֖ים נְח֑שֶׁת וָוֵ֧י הָֽעַמֻּדִ֛ים וַֽחֲשֻֽׁקֵיהֶ֖ם כָּֽסֶף:
And its pillars [shall be] twenty: Five cubits between [one] pillar and [another] pillar.   וְעַמֻּדָיו עֶשְׂרִים: חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת בֵּין עַמּוּד לְעַמּוּד:
and their sockets: [I.e., the sockets] of the pillars were copper. The sockets rested on the ground and the pillars were inserted into them. He [Bezalel] made a sort of rod, called pals in Old French. [It was] six handbreadths long and three [handbreadths] wide, with a copper ring affixed to it [each rod] in the middle. He would wrap the edge of the hanging around it [the rod] with cords [placed] opposite every pillar. He would hang [each] rod by its ring from the hook that was on [each] pillar. [The hook was] made resembling a sort of “vav” (ו) its end upright and one end inserted into the pillar, like those [hooks] made to hold up doors, which are called gons, hinges in Old French. The width of the hanging hung below [the hooks], and this was the height of the partitions of the courtyard. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 5]   וְאַדְנֵיהֶם: שֶׁל הָעַמּוּדִים נְחֹשֶׁת, הָאֲדָנִים יוֹשְׁבִים עַל הָאָרֶץ וְהָעַמּוּדִים תְּקוּעִין לְתוֹכָן; הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה כְמִין קֻנְדָּסִין שֶׁקּוֹרִין פל"ש בְּלַעַז, אָרְכָּן שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְרָחְבָּן שְׁלֹשָׁה, וְטַבַּעַת נְחֹשֶׁת קְבוּעָה בוֹ בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ וְכוֹרֵךְ שְׂפַת הַקֶּלַע סְבִיבָיו בְּמֵיתָרִים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל עַמּוּד וְעַמּוּד, וְתוֹלֶה הַקֻּנְדָּס דֶּרֶךְ טַבַּעְתּוֹ בָאֻנְקְלִיּוֹת שֶׁבָּעַמּוּד הֶעָשׂוּי כְּמִין וָי"ו – רֹאשׁוֹ זָקוּף לְמַעְלָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ אֶחָד תָּקוּעַ בָּעַמּוּד – כְּאוֹתָן שֶעוֹשִׂין לְהַצִּיב דְּלָתוֹת, שֶׁקּוֹרִין גונ"ש בְּלַעַז, וְרֹחַב הַקֶּלַע תָּלוּי מִלְּמַטָּה וְהִיא קוֹמַת מְחִצּוֹת הֶחָצֵר:
the hooks of the pillars: Heb. וָוֵי הָעַמֻּדִים. They are the hooks.   וָוֵי הָֽעַמֻּדִים: הֵם הָאֻנְקְלִיּוֹת:
and their bands: Heb. וַחִשֻׁקֵיהֶם. The pillars were encircled all around with silver threads. I do not know whether [they were encircled] on their entire surface, [or only] at their top or in their middle, but I do know that חִשׁוּק is an expression of girding [or belting], for so we find in [the episode of] the concubine in Gibeah: “And with him was a team of saddled (חֲבוּשִׁים) donkeys” (Jud. 19:10), which is translated into Aramaic [by Jonathan] as חִשִׁיקִין.   וַֽחֲשֻֽׁקֵיהֶם: מֻקָּפִין הָיוּ הָעַמּוּדִים בְּחוּטֵי כֶסֶף סָבִיב, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם עַל פְּנֵי כֻלָּן, אִם בְּרֹאשָׁם, וְאִם בְּאֶמְצָעָם, אַךְ יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁחָשׁוּק לְשׁוֹן חֲגוֹרָה, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְּפִילֶגֶשׁ בַּגִּבְעָה וְעִמּוֹ צֶמֶד חֲמוֹרִים חֲבוּשִׁים (שופטים י"ט), תַּרְגּוּמוֹ חֲשׁוּקִים:
11And so for the northern end in the length hangings one hundred [cubits] long, its pillars twenty, and their sockets twenty of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their bands of silver.   יאוְכֵ֨ן לִפְאַ֤ת צָפוֹן֙ בָּאֹ֔רֶךְ קְלָעִ֖ים מֵ֣אָה אֹ֑רֶךְ וְעַמּוּדָ֣יו (כתיב ועמדו) עֶשְׂרִ֗ים וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֤ם עֶשְׂרִים֙ נְח֔שֶׁת וָוֵ֧י הָֽעַמֻּדִ֛ים וַֽחֲשֻֽׁקֵיהֶ֖ם כָּֽסֶף:
12The width of the courtyard on the western side, hangings fifty cubits, their pillars ten and their sockets ten.   יבוְרֹ֤חַב הֶֽחָצֵר֙ לִפְאַת־יָ֔ם קְלָעִ֖ים חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּ֑ה עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם עֲשָׂרָ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם עֲשָׂרָֽה:
13The width of the courtyard on the eastern side, fifty cubits.   יגוְרֹ֣חַב הֶֽחָצֵ֗ר לִפְאַ֛ת קֵ֥דְמָה מִזְרָ֖חָה חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אַמָּֽה:
on the eastern side: Heb. לִפְאַתקֵדְמָה מִזְרָחָה. The eastern side is called קֶדֶם, a word meaning the face [or front], and אָחוֹר signifies the back. Therefore, the east is called קֶדֶם, which is the face, and the west is called אָחוֹר, as it is said: “the back (הָאַחִרוֹן) sea” (Deut. 11:24, 34:2), [which is translated into Aramaic as] יַמָּא מַעַרְבָא, the western sea.   לִפְאַת קֵדְמָה מִזְרָחָה: פְּנֵי הַמִּזְרָח; קֶדֶם לְשׁוֹן פָּנִים, אָחוֹר לָשׁוֹן אֲחוֹרַיִם, לְפִיכָךְ הַמִּזְרָח קָרוּי קֶדֶם שֶׁהוּא פָּנִים, וּמַעֲרָב קָרוּי אָחוֹר, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן (דברים י"א:כ"ד, דברים ל"ד:ב'), יַמָּא מַעַרְבָא:
fifty cubits: These fifty cubits were not all closed off with hangings, because the entrance was there, but [there were] fifteen cubits of hangings for [one] shoulder of the entrance from here [from one side] and similarly for the second shoulder. There remained the width of the space of the entrance in between, [which was] twenty cubits. This is what is said [in verse 16]: “And at the gate of the courtyard shall be a screen of twenty cubits,” [i. e.,] a screen for protection opposite the entrance, twenty cubits long, which equaled the width of the entrance.   חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּֽה: אוֹתָן נ' אַמָּה לֹא הָיוּ סְתוּמִים כֻּלָּם בַּקְּלָעִים, לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁם הַפֶּתַח, אֶלָּא ט"ו אַמָּה קְלָעִים לְכֶתֶף הַפֶּתַח מִכָּאן, וְכֵן לַכָּתֵף הַשֵּׁנִית, נִשְׁאַר רֹחַב חֲלַל הַפֶּתַח בֵּינְתַיִם כ' אַמָּה, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּ' וּלְשַׁעַר הֶחָצֵר מָסָךְ כ' אַמָּה – וִילוֹן לַמָּסָךְ כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח כ' אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ, כְּרֹחַב הַפֶּתַח:
14The hangings on the shoulder [shall be] fifteen cubits, their pillars three and their sockets three.   ידוַֽחֲמֵ֨שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה אַמָּ֛ה קְלָעִ֖ים לַכָּתֵ֑ף עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם שְׁלשָׁ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁלשָֽׁה:
their pillars three: Five cubits between [one] pillar and [another] pillar. Between the pillar that is at the beginning of the south, which stands at the southeastern corner, until the pillar that is [one] of the three in the east, there were five cubits. And from it [this pillar] to the second one [there was a space of] five cubits, and from the second to the third [were] five cubits, and likewise for the second [i.e., the northeastern] shoulder, and four pillars for the screen. Thus, there were ten pillars on the east, corresponding to the ten pillars on the west.   עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶם שְׁלשָׁה: חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת בֵּין עַמּוּד לְעַמּוּד. בֵּין עַמּוּד שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַדָּרוֹם הָעוֹמֵד בְּמִקְצוֹעַ דְּרוֹמִית מִזְרָחִית עַד עַמּוּד שֶׁהוּא מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת, וּמִמֶּנּוּ לַשֵּׁנִי חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת, וּמִן הַשֵּׁנִי לַשְּׁלִישִׁי חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת, וְכֵן לַכָּתֵף הַשֵּׁנִית, וְאַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדִים לַמָּסָךְ, הֲרֵי עֲשָׂרָה עַמּוּדִים לַמִּזְרָח כְּנֶגֶד י' לַמַּעֲרָב:
15And on the second shoulder [there shall be] fifteen hangings, their pillars three and their sockets three.   טווְלַכָּתֵף֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔ית חֲמֵ֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה קְלָעִ֑ים עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם שְׁלשָׁ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁלשָֽׁה:
16And at the gate of the courtyard shall be a screen of twenty cubits, [made] of blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen, the work of an embroiderer; their pillars four and their sockets four.   טזוּלְשַׁ֨עַר הֶֽחָצֵ֜ר מָסָ֣ךְ | עֶשְׂרִ֣ים אַמָּ֗ה תְּכֵ֨לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֜ן וְתוֹלַ֧עַת שָׁנִ֛י וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מָשְׁזָ֖ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה רֹקֵ֑ם עַמֻּֽדֵיהֶ֣ם אַרְבָּעָ֔ה וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם אַרְבָּעָֽה:
17All the pillars around the courtyard [shall have] silver bands, silver hooks, and copper sockets.   יזכָּל־עַמּוּדֵ֨י הֶֽחָצֵ֤ר סָבִיב֙ מְחֻשָּׁקִ֣ים כֶּ֔סֶף וָֽוֵיהֶ֖ם כָּ֑סֶף וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם נְחֽשֶׁת:
All the pillars around the courtyard, etc.: Since [the text] explained only [that there were to be] hooks, bands, and copper sockets for the north[ern] and the south[ern sides], but for the east[ern] and the west[ern sides] no hooks, bands, or copper sockets were mentioned, therefore [the text] teaches it here. [Lit., it comes and teaches here.]   כָּל־עַמּוּדֵי הֶֽחָצֵר סָבִיב וגו': לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ וָוִין וַחֲשׁוּקִים וְאַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת אֶלָּא לַצָּפוֹן וְלַדָּרוֹם, אֲבָל לַמִּזְרָח וְלַמַּעֲרָב לֹא נֶאֱמַר וָוִין וַחֲשׁוּקִים וְאַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת, לְכָךְ בָּא וְלִמֵּד כָּאן:
18The length of the courtyard [shall be] one hundred cubits and the width fifty by fifty [cubits]. The height [of the hangings] shall be five cubits of twisted fine linen, and their sockets [shall be of] copper.   יחאֹ֣רֶךְ הֶֽחָצֵר֩ מֵאָ֨ה בָֽאַמָּ֜ה וְרֹ֣חַב | חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֗ים וְקֹמָ֛ה חָמֵ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת שֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֑ר וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם נְחֽשֶׁת:
The length of the courtyard: the north[ern] and the south[ern sides] from east to west were one hundred cubits.   אֹרֶךְ הֶֽחָצֵר: הַצָּפוֹן וְהַדָּרוֹם שֶׁמִּן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מאה באמה:
and the width fifty by fifty: The courtyard in the east was fifty [cubits] by fifty [cubits] square-for the Mishkan was thirty [cubits] long and ten [cubits] wide. He [Moses] placed its entrance on the east, at the edge of the outer fifty [cubits] of the length of the courtyard. Thus, it [the Mishkan] was all in the inner fifty [cubits of the courtyard], and its length ended at the end of thirty [cubits of the inner fifty]. Hence, there was a space of twenty cubits behind it, between the hangings in the west and the curtains of the rear of the Mishkan. The Mishkan was ten cubits wide in the center of the width of the courtyard. Thus, it had twenty cubits of space to the north and to the south- from the hangings of the courtyard to the curtains of the Mishkan-and similarly to the west. And [there was] a courtyard of fifty by fifty [cubits] in front of it [These are the outer fifty cubits, which faced the entrance of the Mishkan.] -[from Eruv. 23b, Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 5]   וְרֹחַב חֲמִשִּׁים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁים: חָצֵר שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח הָיְתָה מְרֻבַּעַת, חֲמִשִּׁים עַל חֲמִשִּׁים, שֶׁהַמִּשְׁכָּן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים וְרָחְבּוֹ עֶשֶׂר, הֶעֱמִיד מִזְרַח פִּתְחוֹ בִּשְׂפַת נ' הַחִיצוֹנִים שֶׁל אֹרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר, נִמְצָא כֻּלּוֹ בַּחֲמִשִּׁים הַפְּנִימִיִּים וְכָלֶה אָרְכּוֹ לְסוֹף שְׁלֹשִׁים, נִמְצְאוּ עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה רֶוַח לַאֲחוֹרָיו בֵּין הַקְּלָעִים שֶׁבַּמַּעֲרָב לַיְרִיעוֹת שֶׁל אֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְרֹחַב הַמִּשְׁכָּן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, בְּאֶמְצַע רֹחַב הֶחָצֵר, נִמְצְאוּ לוֹ עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה רֶוַח לַצָּפוֹן וְלַדָּרוֹם מִן קַלְעֵי הֶחָצֵר לִירִיעוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְכֵן לַמַּעֲרָב, וַחֲמִשִּׁים עַל חֲמִשִּׁים חָצֵר לְפָנָיו:
The height…five cubits: [I.e.,] the height of the partitions of the courtyard, which was the width of the hangings.   וְקֹמָה חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת: גֹּבַהּ מְחִצּוֹת הֶחָצֵר וְהוּא רֹחַב הַקְּלָעִים:
and their sockets [shall be of] copper: [This is mentioned] to include the sockets of the screen, so that you would not say [that] copper sockets were mentioned only in regard to the pillars of the hangings, but the sockets of the [pillars of the] screen were of another kind [i.e., a different material]. So it appears to me that for this [reason], they [the copper sockets] were repeated.   וְאַדְנֵיהֶם נְחֽשֶׁת: לְהָבִיא אַדְנֵי הַמָּסָךְ, שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר לֹא נֶאֶמְרוּ אַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת אֶלָּא לְעַמּוּדֵי הַקְּלָעִים אֲבָל אַדְנֵי הַמָּסָךְ שֶׁל מִין אַחֵר, כֵּן נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי שֶׁלְּכָךְ חָזַר וּשְׁנָאָן:
19All the implements of the Mishkan for all its labor, and all its pegs and all the pegs of the courtyard [shall be] copper.   יטלְכֹל֙ כְּלֵ֣י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן בְּכֹ֖ל עֲבֹֽדָת֑וֹ וְכָל־יְתֵֽדֹתָ֛יו וְכָל־יִתְדֹ֥ת הֶֽחָצֵ֖ר נְחֽשֶׁת:
All the implements of the Mishkan: that were required for its assembling and its disassembling, e.g., sledge hammers to drive in the pegs and the pillars.   לְכֹל כְּלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן: שֶׁהָיוּ צְרִיכִין לַהֲקָמָתוֹ וּלְהוֹרָדָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן מַקָּבוֹת לִתְקֹעַ יְתֵדוֹת וְעַמּוּדִים:
the pegs: [These were] like copper bars, made for the curtains of the tent and for the hangings of the courtyard, tied with cords all around [them] at their bases [i.e., at the bases of the curtains and the hangings], so that the wind would not lift them up. But I do not know whether they [the pegs] were driven into the ground or whether they were tied [with cords] and hung-their [heavy] weight weighted down the bottoms of the curtains so that they would not move in the wind. I say, however, that their name [i.e., pegs] indicates that they were driven into the ground. Therefore, they were called יְתֵדוֹת, and this verse supports me [my assertion]: “a tent that shall not fall, whose pegs (יְתֵדֹתָיו) shall never be moved” (Isa. 33:20).   יִתְדֹת: כְּמִין נִגְרֵי נְחֹשֶׁת עֲשׂוּיִין לִירִיעוֹת הָאֹהֶל וּלְקַלְעֵי הֶחָצֵר, קְשׁוּרִים בְּמֵיתָרִים סָבִיב סָבִיב בְּשִׁפּוּלֵיהֶן, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא הָרוּחַ מַגְבִּיהָתָן, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם תְּחוּבִין בָּאָרֶץ אוֹ קְשׁוּרִין וּתְלוּיִין וְכָבְדָּן מַכְבִּיד שִׁפּוּלֵי הַיְרִיעוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יָנוּעוּ בָרוּחַ, וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁמָן מוֹכִיחַ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֵם תְּקוּעִים בָּאָרֶץ, לְכָךְ נִקְרְאוּ יְתֵדוֹת, וּמִקְרָא זֶה מְסַיְּעֵנִי אֹהֶל בַּל יִצְעָן בַּל יִסַּע יְתֵדֹתָיו לָנֶצַח (ישעיהו ל"ג):