Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 26

15And you shall make the planks for the Mishkan of acacia wood, upright.   טווְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁ֖ים לַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן עֲצֵ֥י שִׁטִּ֖ים עֹֽמְדִֽים:
And you shall make the planks: It should have said, “And you shall make planks” [without the definite article], as it is said concerning each thing [i.e., each part of the Mishkan]. What is the meaning of "the planks"? Of those [particular planks] that were standing [ready] and designated for this [purpose]. Our patriarch, Jacob, planted cedars in Egypt, and when he was dying, he commanded his sons to bring them up with them when they left Egypt. He told them that the Holy One, blessed is He, was destined to command them to make a Mishkan of acacia wood in the desert. "See that they should be ready in your hands." This is what the liturgical poet composed in his liturgical poem [the beginning of the Yotzer for the first day of Passover]: “It [God’s voice] flew to the planting of the quickened ones, the cedar beams of our houses,” for they hurried to have them [the cedars] ready in their hands prior to this moment, [i.e., prior to the command to build the Mishkan]. — [from Mid. Tanchuma 9]   וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁים: הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר וְעָשִׂיתָ קְרָשִׁים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּכָל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, מַהוּ הַקְּרָשִׁים? מֵאוֹתָן הָעוֹמְדִין וּמְיֻחָדִין לְכָךְ; יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ נָטַע אֲרָזִים בְּמִצְרַיִם, וּכְשֶׁמֵּת צִוָּה לְבָנָיו לְהַעֲלוֹתָם עִמָּהֶם כְּשֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְאָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁעָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְצַוּוֹת אוֹתָן לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁכָּן בַּמִּדְבָּר מֵעֲצֵי שִׁטִּים, רְאוּ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְזֻמָּנִים בְּיֶדְכֶם; הוּא שֶׁיִּסֵּד הַבַּבְלִי בַּפִּיּוּט שֶׁלּוֹ, "טָס מַטַּע מְזֹרָזִים קוֹרוֹת בָּתֵּינוּ אֲרָזִים", שֶׁנִּזְדָּרְזוּ לִהְיוֹת מוּכָנִים בְּיָדָם מִקֹּדֶם לָכֵן:
acacia wood, upright: Heb. עֹמְדִים, estantivs in Old French, upright, perpendicular. The length of the planks shall be perpendicular [to each other] in the walls of the Mishkan. You shall not make the walls of horizontal planks, so that the width of the planks will be along the height of the walls, one plank [lying] upon [another] plank. — [from Jonathan, Yoma 72a]   עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים עומדים: איתשט"נביש בְּלַעַז; שֶׁיְּהֵא אֹרֶךְ הַקְּרָשִׁים זָקוּף לְמַעְלָה בְּקִירוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה הַכְּתָלִים בִּקְרָשִׁים שׁוֹכְבִים, לִהְיוֹת רֹחַב הַקְּרָשִׁים לְגֹבַהּ הַכְּתָלִים קֶרֶשׁ עַל קֶרֶשׁ:
16Ten cubits [shall be] the length of each plank, and a cubit and a half [shall be] the width of each plank.   טזעֶ֥שֶׂר אַמּ֖וֹת אֹ֣רֶךְ הַקָּ֑רֶשׁ וְאַמָּה֙ וַֽחֲצִ֣י הָֽאַמָּ֔ה רֹ֖חַב הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
Ten cubits [shall be] the length of each plank: [From here] we learn [that] the height of the Mishkan was ten cubits. — [from Shab. 92a]   עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת אֹרֶךְ הַקָּרֶשׁ: לָמַדְנוּ גָּבְהוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת:
and a cubit and a half [shall be] the width: [From here] we learn [that] the length of the Mishkan, [which corresponds to the] twenty planks that were on the north[ern] and the south[ern sides] from east to west, was thirty cubits.   וְאַמָּה וַֽחֲצִי הָֽאַמָּה רֹחַב: לָמַדְנוּ אָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל מִשְׁכָּן, לְעֶשְׂרִים קְרָשִׁים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בַּצָּפוֹן וּבַדָּרוֹם מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, שְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה:
17Each plank shall have two square pegs, rung like, one even with the other; so shall you make all the planks of the Mishkan.   יזשְׁתֵּ֣י יָד֗וֹת לַקֶּ֨רֶשׁ֙ הָאֶחָ֔ד מְשֻׁ֨לָּבֹ֔ת אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֑הּ כֵּ֣ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל קַרְשֵׁ֥י הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
Each plank shall have two square pegs: He [Bezalel] would cut one cubit high into the plank from the bottom in its center, and leave one-fourth of its width on one side and one-fourth of its width on the other side, and these [resulting projections] are [called] the square pegs. Half the width of the plank was cut out in its center, (I.e., the plank, הַקֶּרֶשׁ, refers to what remained after he cut out from both sides; then the width of a cubit remained. The result is that half of the width of the plank in the middle is a half cubit. This is what Rashi explained explicitly on Shab. 98-[i.e.,] that in the center, the width of one-half cubit was cut out, and he [also] cut out a quarter of a cubit on each side. Every square peg was a quarter of a cubit wide, and the edge of each socket was a quarter of a cubit wide. Study this thoroughly. Then [you will see] that Ramban’s complaint against Rashi will disappear, and his astonishment will no longer be valid.) and he would insert these square pegs into the sockets, which were hollow. And the sockets were one cubit high, and forty of them were placed consecutively-one next to the other-and the square pegs of the planks that were inserted into the hollow of the sockets were cut out on three of their sides. The width of the cut [was] as thick as the edge of the socket, so that the plank covered the entire top of the socket. Otherwise, there would be a space between one plank and the next plank equal to the thickness of the edge of the two sockets, which would then separate them. This is the meaning of what is said: “And they shall be matched evenly from below” (verse 24); i.e., he [Bezalel] shall cut out the sides of the square pegs so that the boards shall join, one [plank exactly] next to the other. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan]   שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת לַקֶּרֶשׁ הָאֶחָד: הָיָה חוֹרֵץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִלְּמַטָּה בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ בְּגֹבַהּ אַמָּה, וּמַנִּיחַ רְבִיעַ רָחְבּוֹ מִכָּאן, וּרְבִיעַ רָחְבּוֹ מִכָּאן, וְהֵן הֵן הַיָּדוֹת, וְהֶחָרִיץ חֲצִי רֹחַב הַקֶּרֶשׁ בָּאֶמְצַע, וְאוֹתָן הַיָּדוֹת מַכְנִיס בָּאֲדָנִים שֶׁהָיוּ חֲלוּלִים, וְהָאֲדָנִים גָּבְהָן אַמָּה וְיוֹשְׁבִים רְצוּפִים אַרְבָּעִים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה, וִידוֹת הַקֶּרֶשׁ הַנִּכְנָסוֹת בַּחֲלַל הָאֲדָנִים חֲרוּצוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה צִדֵּיהֶן – רֹחַב הֶחָרִיץ כְּעֹבִי שְׂפַת הָאֶדֶן – שֶׁיְּכַסֶּה הַקֶּרֶשׁ אֶת כָּל רֹאשׁ הָאֶדֶן, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן, נִמְצָא רֶוַח בֵּין קֶרֶשׁ לְקֶרֶשׁ כְּעֹבִי שְׂפַת שְׁנֵי הָאֲדָנִים, שֶׁיַּפְסִיקוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיִהְיוּ תֹאֲמִים מִלְּמַטָּה, שֶׁיַּחֲרֹץ אֶת צִדֵּי הַיָּדוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְחַבְּרוּ הַקְּרָשִׁים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה:
rung-like: Heb. מְשׁוּלָּבֹת, [which means] made like the rungs of a ladder, [i.e.,] separated from one another with their ends planed off to be inserted into the openings of the sockets, like a rung that is inserted into the hole of the upright [beams] of a ladder. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan]   מְשֻׁלָּבֹת: עֲשׂוּיוֹת כְּמִין שְׁלִיבוֹת סֻלָּם, וּמֻבְדָּלוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ, וּמְשֻׁפִּין רָאשֵׁיהֶם לִכָּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ חֲלַל הָאֶדֶן כִּשְׁלִיבָה הַנִּכְנֶסֶת בְּנֶקֶב עַמּוּדֵי הַסֻּלָּם:
one even with the other: One [square peg was] aligned opposite the other so that their cut-away parts would be even, one with the measurement of the other, so that of the two square pegs, one shall not be pulled [more] toward the inside and one pulled [more] toward the outside of the thickness of the plank, which was a cubit. The Aramaic translation of יָדוֹת is צִירִין, hinges, because they resemble the hinges of a door, which are inserted into the holes of the threshold.   אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ: מְכֻוָּנוֹת זוֹ כְנֶגֶד זוֹ, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ חֲרִיצֵיהֶם שָׁוִים זוֹ כְמִדַּת זוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת זוֹ מְשׁוּכָה לְצַד פְּנִים וְזוֹ מְשׁוּכָה לְצַד חוּץ בְּעֹבִי הַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא אַמָּה, וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל יָדוֹת צִירִין, לְפִי שֶׁדּוֹמוֹת לְצִירֵי הַדֶּלֶת הַנִּכְנָסִים בְּחֹרֵי הַמִּפְתָּן:
18And you shall make the planks for the Mishkan, twenty planks for the southern side.   יחוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁ֖ים לַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן עֶשְׂרִ֣ים קֶ֔רֶשׁ לִפְאַ֖ת נֶ֥גְבָּה תֵימָֽנָה:
for the southern side: Heb. לִפְאַת נֶגְבָּה תֵימָנָה. [The word לִפְאַת is derived from פֵּאָה, which usually means “corner.”] This [use of the word] פֵּאָה is not an expression meaning “corner,” rather the whole side is referred to as פֵּאָה, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: לְרוּחַ עֵיבַר דָרוֹמָא, to the side toward the south.   לִפְאַת נֶגְבָּה תֵימָֽנָה: אֵין פֵּאָה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן מִקְצוֹעַ, אֶלָּא כָּל הָרוּחַ קְרוּיָה פֵּאָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ: לְרוּחַ עֵבַר דָּרוֹמָא:
19And you shall make forty silver sockets under the twenty planks; two sockets under one plank for its two square pegs, and two sockets under one plank for its two square pegs.   יטוְאַרְבָּעִים֙ אַדְנֵי־כֶ֔סֶף תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֕ה תַּ֖חַת עֶשְׂרִ֣ים הַקָּ֑רֶשׁ שְׁנֵ֨י אֲדָנִ֜ים תַּֽחַת־הַקֶּ֤רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָד֙ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י יְדֹתָ֔יו וּשְׁנֵ֧י אֲדָנִ֛ים תַּֽחַת־הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָ֖ד לִשְׁתֵּ֥י יְדֹתָֽיו:
20And for the second side of the Mishkan on the northern side twenty planks.   כוּלְצֶ֧לַע הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ן הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית לִפְאַ֣ת צָפ֑וֹן עֶשְׂרִ֖ים קָֽרֶשׁ:
21And their forty silver sockets: two sockets under one plank and two sockets under one plank.   כאוְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אַדְנֵיהֶ֖ם כָּ֑סֶף שְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֗ים תַּ֚חַת הַקֶּ֣רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֔ים תַּ֖חַת הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
22And for the western end of the Mishkan you shall make six planks.   כבוּלְיַרְכְּתֵ֥י הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן יָ֑מָּה תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה שִׁשָּׁ֥ה קְרָשִֽׁים:
And for the…end of: Heb. וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי, a word meaning “end” [in Hebrew, סוֹף], as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְלִסְיָפֵי. Since the entrance [of the Mishkan] is in the east, [thus] the east[ern side] is called the front and the west[ern side] the back. This is the reason it is [referred to as] the end, because the front is the beginning.   וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי: לְשׁוֹן סוֹף, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְלִסְיָפֵי, וּלְפִי שֶׁהַפֶּתַח בַּמִּזְרָח, קָרוּי מִזְרָח פָּנִים וְהַמַּעֲרָב אֲחוֹרַיִם, וְזֶהוּ סוֹף, שֶׁהַפָּנִים הוּא הָרֹאשׁ:
you shall make six planks: Hence, nine cubits are the width [of the Mishkan, since each plank is one and one-half cubits wide].   תַּֽעֲשֶׂה שִׁשָּׁה קְרָשִֽׁים: הֲרֵי תֵשַׁע אַמּוֹת רֹחַב:
23And you shall make two planks at the corners of the Mishkan at the end.   כגוּשְׁנֵ֤י קְרָשִׁים֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה לִמְקֻצְעֹ֖ת הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן בַּיַּרְכָתָֽיִם:
And you shall make two planks at the corners: One at the northwestern corner and one at the southwestern corner. All eight planks were in one row, but these two [in the corners] were not in the [interior] space of the Mishkan. Only a half cubit from here [from one plank] and a half cubit from there [from another plank] appear in the [interior] space, to complete its width to [the total of] ten [cubits]. The [extra] cubit from here and the cubit from there [i.e., of each corner plank] coincide with the cubits of the thickness of the planks of the Mishkan on the north[ern] and the south[ern sides], so that the corner would be even on the outside.   וּשְׁנֵי קְרָשִׁים תַּֽעֲשֶׂה לִמְקֻצְעֹת: אֶחָד לְמִקְצוֹעַ צְפוֹנִית מַעֲרָבִית, וְאֶחָד לְמַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית, כָּל שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים בְּסֵדֶר אֶחָד הֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵלּוּ הַשְּׁנַיִם אֵינָן בַּחֲלַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן אֶלָּא חֲצִי אַמָּה מִזּוֹ וַחֲצִי אַמָּה מִזּוֹ נִרְאוֹת בֶּחָלָל, לְהַשְׁלִים רָחְבּוֹ לְעֶשֶׂר, וְהָאַמָּה מִזֶּה וְהָאַמָּה מִזֶּה בָּאוֹת כְּנֶגֶד אַמַּת עֹבִי קַרְשֵׁי הַמִּשְׁכָּן הַצָּפוֹן וְהַדָּרוֹם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַמִּקְצוֹעַ מִבַּחוּץ שָׁוֶה:
24And they shall be matched evenly from below, and together they shall match at its top, [to be put] into the one ring; so shall it be for both of them; they shall be for the two corners.   כדוְיִֽהְי֣וּ תֹֽאֲמִם֘ מִלְּמַ֒טָּה֒ וְיַחְדָּ֗ו יִֽהְי֤וּ תַמִּים֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ אֶל־הַטַּבַּ֖עַת הָֽאֶחָ֑ת כֵּ֚ן יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לִשְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם לִשְׁנֵ֥י הַמִּקְצֹעֹ֖ת יִֽהְיֽוּ:
And they shall be matched evenly from below: All the planks must be flush at the bottom, so that the thickness of the edges of the two sockets should not form a gap to distance them [the planks] from one another. This is what I [meant when I] explained that the hinges of the square pegs [according to Yosef Hallel: the sides of the square pegs] should be cut out around their sides, so that the width of the plank should protrude on its sides away from the square pegs of the plank, [in order] to cover the edge of the socket, and so [with] the plank next to it [as well]. Thus, the planks are found to be flush with each other. [Each] corner plank in the western row was cut away in the width, in [the part of] its thickness [aligned] opposite the cut-away portion of the northern plank’s side, in order that the sockets should not separate them.   וְיִֽהְיוּ: כָּל הַקְּרָשִׁים תּוֹאֲמִים זֶה לָזֶה מִלְּמַטָּה, שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיק עֹבִי שְׂפַת שְׁנֵי הָאֲדָנִים בֵּינֵיהֶם לְהַרְחִיקָם זוֹ מִזּוֹ, זֶהוּ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ צִירֵי הַיָּדוֹת חֲרוּצִים מִצִּדֵּיהֶן, שֶׁיְּהֵא רֹחַב הַקֶּרֶשׁ בּוֹלֵט לְצִדָּיו חוּץ לִידֵי הַקֶּרֶשׁ, לְכַסּוֹת אֶת שְׂפַת הָאֶדֶן, וְכֵן הַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ, וְנִמְצְאוּ תוֹאֲמִים זֶה לָזֶה; וְקֶרֶשׁ הַמִּקְצוֹעַ שֶׁבְּסֵדֶר הַמַּעֲרָב חָרוּץ לְרָחְבּוֹ בְּעָבְיוֹ כְּנֶגֶד חָרִיץ שֶׁל צַד קֶרֶשׁ הַצְּפוֹנִי וְהַדְּרוֹמִי, כְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַפְרִידוּ הָאֲדָנִים בֵּינֵיהֶם:
and together they shall match: Heb. תַמִּים, like תְאוּמִים, twins.   וְיַחְדָּו יִֽהְיוּ תַמִּים: כְּמוֹ תוֹאֲמִים:
at its top: [The top] of the plank.   עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ: שֶׁל קֶרֶשׁ:
into the one ring: Every plank was cut away [a little] at the top along its width. [There were] two cuts on its two sides [to contain] the thickness of a ring. He [Moses] would insert them [the two planks] into one ring, thus it [the plank] would match the plank next to it. As for these rings, however, I do not know whether they were permanent or removable. On the corner plank, the ring was in the thickness of the southern and northern planks, (It appears that the words “the northern and the southern” belong further down, and Rashi means to say that the northern and the southern [planks] and the top of the corner plank in the western row were inserted into it [the ring]. What Rashi writes that the ring was in the thickness of the plank means in the thickness of the western plank. Give this some thought.) and the top of the [other] corner plank of the western row was inserted into it [this ring], resulting in the joining of the two walls.   אֶל־הַטַּבַּעַת הָֽאֶחָת: כָּל קֶרֶשׁ וְקֶרֶשׁ הָיָה חָרוּץ מִלְמַעְלָה בְרָחְבּוֹ שְׁנֵי חֲרִיצִין, בִּשְׁנֵי צִדָּיו, כְּמוֹ עֹבִי טַבַּעַת, וּמַכְנִיסוֹ בְּטַבַּעַת אַחַת, נִמְצָא מַתְאִים לַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ, אֲבָל אוֹתָן טַבָּעוֹת לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אִם קְבוּעוֹת הֵן, אִם מְטֻלְטָלוֹת, וּבַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁבַּמִּקְצוֹעַ הָיְתָה טַבַּעַת בְּעֹבִי הַקֶּרֶשׁ הַדְּרוֹמִי וְהַצְּפוֹנִי, וְרֹאשׁ קֶרֶשׁ הַמִּקְצוֹעַ שֶׁבְּסֵדֶר מַעֲרָב נִכְנָס לְתוֹכוֹ, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי הַכְּתָלִים מְחֻבָּרִים:
so shall it be for both of them: For the two planks at the corners, for the plank at the [western] end of the north[ern side] and for the [adjacent] western plank; so too for the two corners.   כֵּן יִֽהְיֶה לִשְׁנֵיהֶם: לִשְׁנֵי הַקְּרָשִׁים שֶׁבַּמִּקְצוֹעַ, לַקֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁבְּסוֹף צָפוֹן וְלַקֶּרֶשׁ הַמַּעֲרָבִי, וְכֵן לִשְׁנֵי הַמִּקְצוֹעוֹת:
25And there shall be eight planks and their silver sockets, sixteen sockets two sockets under one plank and two sockets under one plank.   כהוְהָיוּ֙ שְׁמֹנָ֣ה קְרָשִׁ֔ים וְאַדְנֵיהֶ֣ם כֶּ֔סֶף שִׁשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אֲדָנִ֑ים שְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֗ים תַּ֚חַת הַקֶּ֣רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י אֲדָנִ֔ים תַּ֖חַת הַקֶּ֥רֶשׁ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
And there shall be eight planks: Those are the [same] ones mentioned above: “you shall make six planks. And you shall make two planks at the corners of the Mishkan at the end” (verses 22, 23) [thereby there were eight planks on the western wall]. The following is the Mishnah concerning the making of the order of the planks in the [Baraitha] Melecheth HaMishkan (ch. 1): He made the sockets hollow and he cut out the plank from below, one-fourth from here and one-fourth from there, and the cut-away [area] was one half in the middle. He made for it [the plank] two square pegs like sort of two legs (חֲמוּקִים). I believe that the reading is: like sort of two חַוָּקִין, [which means] like sort of two rungs of a ladder which are separated from one another, and planed [in order] to be inserted into the hollow of the socket, like the rung, which is inserted into the hole of the side of the ladder. This is the word מְשׁוּלָּבֹת, [i.e.,] made like a sort of rung. He would insert them [the square pegs] into the two sockets, as it is said: “two sockets…two sockets…” (verse 25), and he would cut away the plank on top, [the width of] a finger from one side and [the width of] a finger from the other side, and he would insert [the edges of the two planks] into one golden ring so that they would not separate from one another, as it is said: “And they shall be matched evenly from below, etc.” (verse 24). This is [the wording of] the Mishnah [in Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan], and I presented its explanation above in the sequence of the verses.   וְהָיוּ שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים: הֵן הָאֲמוּרוֹת לְמַעְלָה תַּעֲשֶׂה שִׁשָּׁה קְרָשִׁים וּשְׁנֵי קְרָשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂה לִמְקֻצְעֹת, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים בְּסֵדֶר מַעֲרָבִי; כָּךְ שְׁנוּיָה בַּמִּשְׁנָה מַעֲשֵׂה סֵדֶר הַקְּרָשִׁים בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן; הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה אֶת הָאֲדָנִים חֲלוּלִים וְחוֹרֵץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִלְּמַטָּה רְבִיעַ מִכָּאן וּרְבִיעַ מִכָּאן, וְהֶחָרִיץ חֶצְיוֹ בָּאֶמְצַע, וְעָשָׂה לוֹ שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֲמוּקִין – וְלִי נִרְאֶה שֶׁהַגִּרְסָא כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֲוָקִין, כְּמִין שְׁנֵי שְׁלִיבוֹת סֻלָּם הַמֻּבְדָּלוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ, וּמְשֻׁפּוֹת לִכָּנֵס בַּחֲלַל הָאֶדֶן כִּשְׁלִיבָה הַנִּכְנֶסֶת בְּנֶקֶב עַמּוּד הַסֻּלָּם, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן מְשֻׁלָּבוֹת, עֲשׂוּיוֹת כְּמִין שְׁלִיבָה – וּמַכְנִיסָן לְתוֹךְ שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים, וְחוֹרֵץ אֶת הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִלְמַעְלָה אֶצְבַּע מִכָּאן וְאֶצְבַּע מִכָּאן, וְנוֹתְנָן לְתוֹךְ טַבַּעַת אַחַת שֶׁל זָהָב כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ נִפְרָדִין זֶה מִזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיִהְיוּ תֹאֲמִים מִלְּמַטָּה וְגוֹ', כָּךְ הִיא הַמִּשְׁנָה, וְהַפֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁלָּהּ הִצַּעְתִּי לְמַעְלָה בְּסֵדֶר הַמִּקְרָאוֹת:
26And you shall make bars of acacia wood, five for the planks of one side of the Mishkan,   כווְעָשִׂ֥יתָ בְרִיחִ֖ם עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים חֲמִשָּׁ֕ה לְקַרְשֵׁ֥י צֶֽלַע־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן הָֽאֶחָֽד:
bars: Heb. בְרִיחִם, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עַבְּרִין, and in Old French espar(re)s, cross-bars.   בְרִיחִם: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ עַבְּרִין, וּבְלַעַז אשפ"ריש:
five for the planks of one side of the Mishkan: These five [bars] were actually three, but the top and the bottom bars were made of two segments-one [part] would penetrate until half of the wall, and the other one would penetrate until half of the wall[’s length]. One [part of the bar] was inserted into a ring from this [one] side, and this [other] one was inserted into a ring on the other side until one [part of the bar] reached the other. Thus, the top one [bar] and the bottom one [bar] were two, but actually they were four. But the length of the middle one [bar] ran along the entire wall, and penetrated from one end of the wall to its other end, as it is said: “And the middle bar…shall [extend and] penetrate from one end to the other end” (verse 28). The top and bottom ones [bars] had rings on the planks in which they were to be inserted, two rings for every plank, attached in three places within the ten cubits of the height of the plank-one part from the highest ring to the top and one part from the lowest [ring] to the bottom. Each part was one-fourth of the length of the plank, and [there] were two parts between one ring and the other ring, so that all the rings would be aligned with the other. The middle bar, however, had no rings, but the planks were pierced through their thickness and it [the middle bar] was inserted into them by way of the holes, which were aligned one opposite the other. This is [the meaning of] what is said: “in the midst of the planks” (verse 28). The highest and lowest bars on the north[ern] and the south[ern sides] were each fifteen cubits long, and the middle one was thirty cubits long. This is [the meaning of] “from one end to the other end” (verse 28), from east to west. [Regarding] the five bars on the west: the top and bottom ones were six cubits long, and the middle one was twelve [cubits] long, corresponding to the width of the eight planks. It is explained this way in [the Baraitha] Melecheth HaMishkan (ch. 1).   חֲמִשָּׁה לְקַרְשֵׁי צֶֽלַע־הַמִּשְׁכָּן: אֵלּוּ חֲמִשָּׁה ג' הֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַבְּרִיחַ הָעֶלְיוֹן וְהַתַּחְתּוֹן עָשׂוּי מִשְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת, זֶה מַבְרִיחַ עַד חֲצִי הַכֹּתֶל וְזֶה מַבְרִיחַ עַד חֲצִי הַכֹּתֶל, זֶה נִכְנָס בַּטַּבָּעוֹת מִצַּד זֶה, וְזֶה נִכְנָס בַּטַּבָּעוֹת מִצַּד זֶה, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין זֶה לָזֶה, נִמְצָא שֶׁעֶלְיוֹן וְתַחְתּוֹן שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבָּעָה, אֲבָל הָאֶמְצָעִי אָרְכּוֹ כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַכֹּתֶל, וּמַבְרִיחַ מִקְצֵה הַכֹּתֶל וְעַד קָצֵהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְהַבְּרִיחַ הַתִּיכֹן וְגוֹ' מַבְרִחַ מִן הַקָּצֶה אֶל הַקָּצֶה", הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הָיוּ לָהֶן טַבָּעוֹת בַּקְּרָשִׁים לִכָּנֵס בְּתוֹכָן, שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת לְכָל קֶרֶשׁ מְשֻׁלָּשִׁים בְּתוֹךְ עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת שֶׁל גֹּבַהּ הַקֶּרֶשׁ – חֵלֶק אֶחָד מִן הַטַּבַּעַת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וּלְמַעְלָה, וְחֵלֶק אֶחָד מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וּלְמַטָּה, וְכָל חֵלֶק הוּא רְבִיעַ אֹרֶךָ הַקֶּרֶשׁ, וּשְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים בֵּין טַבַּעַת לְטַבַּעַת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָל הַטַּבָּעוֹת מְכֻוָּנִים זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ – אֲבָל לַבְּרִיחַ הַתִּיכוֹן אֵין טַבָּעוֹת, אֶלָּא הַקְּרָשִׁים נְקוּבִים בְּעָבְיָן, וְהוּא נִכְנָס בָּהֶם דֶּרֶךְ הַנְּקָבִים שֶׁהֵם מְכֻוָּנִין זֶה מוּל זֶה, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "בְּתוֹךְ" הַקְּרָשִׁים; הַבְּרִיחִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁבַּצָּפוֹן וְשֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם אֹרֶךָ כָּל אֶחָד חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה, וְהַתִּיכוֹן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה, וְזֶהוּ "מִן הַקָּצֶה אֶל הַקָּצֶה" – מִן הַמִּזְרָח וְעַד הַמַּעֲרָב – וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְרִיחִים שֶׁבַּמַּעֲרָב אֹרֶךְ הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֵׁשׁ אַמּוֹת, וְהַתִּיכוֹן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה, כְּנֶגֶד רֹחַב שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים, כָּךְ הִיא מְפֹרֶשֶׁת בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
27and five bars for the planks of the second side of the Mishkan, and five bars for the planks of the [rear] side of the Mishkan, on the westward end.   כזוַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֣ה בְרִיחִ֔ם לְקַרְשֵׁ֥י צֶֽלַע־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֖ן הַשֵּׁנִ֑ית וַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֣ה בְרִיחִ֗ם לְקַרְשֵׁי֙ צֶ֣לַע הַמִּשְׁכָּ֔ן לַיַּרְכָתַ֖יִם יָֽמָּה:
28And the middle bar in the midst of the planks shall [extend and] penetrate from one end to the other end.   כחוְהַבְּרִ֥יחַ הַתִּיכֹ֖ן בְּת֣וֹךְ הַקְּרָשִׁ֑ים מַבְרִ֕חַ מִן־הַקָּצֶ֖ה אֶל־הַקָּצֶֽה:
29And you shall overlay the planks with gold, and their rings you shall make of gold as holders for the bars, and you shall overlay the bars with gold.   כטוְאֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁ֞ים תְּצַפֶּ֣ה זָהָ֗ב וְאֶת־טַבְּעֹֽתֵיהֶם֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה זָהָ֔ב בָּתִּ֖ים לַבְּרִיחִ֑ם וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֶת־הַבְּרִיחִ֖ם זָהָֽב:
as holders for the bars: The rings that you shall make for them shall be holders for the bars to enter [them].   בָּתִּים לַבְּרִיחִם: הַטַּבָּעוֹת שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה בָּהֶן יִהְיוּ בָּתִּים לִכָּנֵס בָּהֵן הַבְּרִיחִים:
and you shall overlay the bars with gold: [This does] not [mean] that the gold was attached onto the bars, for they [the bars] had no covering. But he [Bezalel] attached something onto the plank akin to two tubes of gold, something like two halves of a hollow reed, and he attached them to the rings on both sides, their length filling the [entire] width of the plank from the ring to one side and from it to the other side. The bar was inserted into it [the tube], and from it into the ring, and from the ring into the second tubes. Thus, the bars were found to be overlaid with gold when they were inserted into the planks. These bars protruded to the outside [of the Mishkan]. [Thus] the rings and the tubes were not visible within the Mishkan, but from the inside the entire wall was unadorned. — [from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan with Rashi’s interpretation]   וְצִפִּיתָ אֶת־הַבְּרִיחִם זָהָב: לֹא שֶׁהָיָה הַזָּהָב מְדֻבָּק עַל הַבְּרִיחִים – שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם שׁוּם צִפּוּי – אֶלָּא בַקֶּרֶשׁ הָיָה קוֹבֵעַ כְּמִין שְׁתֵּי פִּיפִיּוֹת שֶׁל זָהָב, כְּמִין שְׁנֵי סִדְקֵי קָנֶה חָלוּל, וְקוֹבְעָן אֵצֶל הַטַּבַּעַת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, אָרְכָּן מְמַלֵּא אֶת רֹחַב הַקֶּרֶשׁ מִן הַטַּבַּעַת לְכָאן וּמִמֶּנָּה לְכָאן, וְהַבְּרִיחַ נִכְנָס לְתוֹכוֹ וּמִמֶּנּוּ לַטַּבַּעַת וּמִן הַטַּבַּעַת לַפֶּה הַשֵּׁנִי, נִמְצְאוּ הַבְּרִיחִים מְצֻפִּים זָהָב כְּשֶׁהֵן תְּחוּבִין בַּקְּרָשִׁים; וְהַבְּרִיחִים הַלָּלוּ מִבַּחוּץ הָיוּ בּוֹלְטוֹת, הַטַּבָּעוֹת וְהַפִּיפִיּוֹת לֹא הָיוּ נִרְאוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אֶלָּא כָּל הַכֹּתֶל חָלָק מִבִּפְנִים:
30And you shall erect the Mishkan according to its proper manner, as you will have been shown on the mountain.   לוַֽהֲקֵֽמֹתָ֖ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֑ן כְּמִ֨שְׁפָּט֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרְאֵ֖יתָ בָּהָֽר:
And you shall erect the Mishkan: After it is completed, erect it.   וַֽהֲקֵֽמֹתָ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן: לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּגָּמֵר הֲקִימֵהוּ:
you will have been shown on the mountain: prior to this, for I am destined to teach you and show you the order of its erection.   הָרְאֵיתָ בָּהָֽר: קֹדֶם לָכֵן, שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לְלַמֶּדְךָ וּלְהַרְאוֹתְךָ סֵדֶר הֲקָמָתוֹ: