Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 15

27They came to Elim, and there were twelve water fountains and seventy palms, and they encamped there by the water.   כזוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אֵילִ֔מָה וְשָׁ֗ם שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֛ה עֵינֹ֥ת מַ֖יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֣ים תְּמָרִ֑ים וַיַּֽחֲנוּ־שָׁ֖ם עַל־הַמָּֽיִם:
twelve water fountains: Corresponding to the twelve tribes, were prepared for them. — [from Mechilta]   שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה עֵינֹת מַיִם: כְּנֶגֶד י"ב שְׁבָטִים נִזְדַּמְּנוּ לָהֶם:
and seventy palms: Corresponding to the seventy elders. — [from Mechilta, Jonathan]   וְשִׁבְעִים תְּמָרִים: כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעִים זְקֵנִים (מכילתא):

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 16

1They journeyed from Elim, and the entire community of the children of Israel came to the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from the land of Egypt.   אוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מֵֽאֵילִ֔ם וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִ֔ין אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּֽין־אֵילִ֖ם וּבֵ֣ין סִינָ֑י בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י לְצֵאתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
on the fifteenth day: The day of this encampment is stated because on that day the cakes that they had taken out of Egypt were depleted, and they needed manna. We learn [from this] that they ate of the remaining dough (or from the remaining matzoth) sixty- one meals. And the manna fell for them on the sixteenth of Iyar, which was a Sunday, as appears in tractate Shabbath (87b). — [from Mechilta]   בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם: נִתְפָּרֵשׁ הַיּוֹם שֶׁל חֲנָיָה זוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁבּוֹ בַיּוֹם כָּלְתָה הַחֲרָרָה שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם וְהֻצְרְכוּ לַמָּן, לְלַמְּדֵנוּ, שֶׁאָכְלוּ מִשְּׁיָרֵי הַבָּצֵק שִׁשִּׁים וְאַחַת סְעוּדוֹת וְיָרַד לָהֶם מָן בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּאִיָּר, וְיוֹם א' בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת (פ"ז):
2The entire community of the children of Israel complained against Moses and against Aaron in the desert.   בוַיִּלּ֜וֹנוּ (כתיב וילינו) כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עַל־משֶׁ֥ה וְעַל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
complained: Because the bread [they had taken out of Egypt] was depleted.   וילונו: לְפִי שֶׁכָּלָה הַלֶּחֶם:
3The children of Israel said to them, If only we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by pots of meat, when we ate bread to our fill! For you have brought us out into this desert, to starve this entire congregation to death.   גוַיֹּֽאמְר֨וּ אֲלֵהֶ֜ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מִֽי־יִתֵּ֨ן מוּתֵ֤נוּ בְיַד־יְהֹוָה֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּשִׁבְתֵּ֨נוּ֙ עַל־סִ֣יר הַבָּשָׂ֔ר בְּאָכְלֵ֥נוּ לֶ֖חֶם לָשׂ֑בַע כִּי־הֽוֹצֵאתֶ֤ם אֹתָ֨נוּ֙ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה לְהָמִ֛ית אֶת־כָּל־הַקָּהָ֥ל הַזֶּ֖ה בָּֽרָעָֽב:
If only we had died: Heb. מוּתֵנוּ, that we would have died, but it is not a noun like מוֹתֵנוּ, our death, but like עִשׂוֹתֵנוּ, חִנוֹתֵנוּ, שׁוּבֵנוּ, that we do, that we encamp, [that we return,] that we die. [Literally, this would be translated: Who would grant that we die.] Its targum [Onkelos, however,] is: לְוַי דְמִיתְנָא, like “If only we had died לוּ מָתְנוּ” (Num. 14:2), if only we would have died.   מִֽי־יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ: שֶׁנָּמוּת; וְאֵינוֹ שֵׁם דָּבָר כְּמוֹ מִיתָתֵנוּ, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ עֲשׂוֹתֵנוּ חֲנוֹתֵנוּ שׁוּבֵנוּ, לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲנַחְנוּ, לַחֲנוֹת אֲנַחְנוּ, לָמוּת אֲנַחְנוּ. תַּרְגּוּמוֹ לְוַי דְּמִיתְנָא, "לוּ מַתְנוּ" (במדבר יד, ב) — הַלְוַאי וְהָיִינוּ מֵתִים:
4So the Lord said to Moses, Behold! I am going to rain down for you bread from heaven, and the people shall go out and gather what is needed for the day, so that I can test them, whether or not they will follow My teaching.   דוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה הִֽנְנִ֨י מַמְטִ֥יר לָכֶ֛ם לֶ֖חֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְיָצָ֨א הָעָ֤ם וְלָֽקְטוּ֙ דְּבַר־י֣וֹם בְּיוֹמ֔וֹ לְמַ֧עַן אֲנַסֶּ֛נּוּ הֲיֵלֵ֥ךְ בְּתֽוֹרָתִ֖י אִם־לֹֽא:
what is needed for the day: Heb. דְבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ, lit., the thing of a day in its day. What is needed for a day’s eating they will gather on its day, but they will not gather today for the needs of tomorrow. — [from Mechilta]   דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ: צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת יוֹם יִלְקְטוּ בְּיוֹמוֹ וְלֹא הַיּוֹם לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָר (מכילתא):
so that I can test them, whether…they will follow My teaching: [Through giving the manna I will test] whether they will keep the commandments contingent upon it, [i.e.,] that they will not leave any of it over, and that they will not go out on the Sabbath to gather [the manna].   לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתֽוֹרָתִי: אִם יִשְׁמְרוּ מִצְווֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא יֵצְאוּ בַּשַּׁבָּת לִלְקֹט:
5And it shall be on the sixth day that when they prepare what they will bring, it will be double of what they gather every day.   הוְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֔י וְהֵכִ֖ינוּ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־יָבִ֑יאוּ וְהָיָ֣ה מִשְׁנֶ֔ה עַ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יִלְקְט֖וּ י֥וֹם | יֽוֹם:
and it will be double: For that day and for the morrow.   וְהָיָה מִשְׁנֶה: לַיּוֹם וְלַמָּחֳרָת:
double: of what they were accustomed to gather each day of the rest of the days of the week. I believe that [the meaning of] “what they will bring, and it will be double” is that after they bring it [the manna], by measuring [it], they will find it [to be] double of what they gather and measure every day. That is [the meaning of] “they gathered a double portion of bread” (verse 22). Their gathering was found to be a double portion of bread. That is [the meaning of] “Therefore, on the sixth day, He gives you bread for two days” (verse 29). He gives you a blessing (foison [in French, meaning plenty, abundance]) in the house to fill the omer twice for two days of bread.   מִשְׁנֶה: עַל שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים לִלְקֹט יוֹם יוֹם שֶׁל שְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁבוּעַ; אוֹמֵר אֲנִי "אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ וְהָיָה מִשְׁנֶה" – לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ, יִמְצְאוּ מִשְׁנֶה בַּמְּדִידָה עַל אֲשֶׁר יִלְקְטוּ וְיָמֹדּוּ יוֹם יוֹם, וְזֶהוּ לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה – בִּלְקִיטָתוֹ הָיָה נִמְצָא לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה. וְזֶהוּ עַל כֵּן הוּא נוֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם – נוֹתֵן לָכֶם בְּרָכָה, פוי"שן, בַּבַּיִת לְמַלֹּאת הָעֹמֶר פַּעֲמַיִם לְלֶחֶם יוֹמַיִם:
6[Thereupon,] Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, [In the] evening, you shall know that the Lord brought you out of the land of Egypt.   ווַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עֶ֕רֶב וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה הוֹצִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
evening: Heb. עֶרֶב. Like בָּעֶרֶב, toward evening. [According to Sifthei Chachamim, the correct reading is בָּעֶרֶב, in the evening.] [from Onkelos and Jonathan]   עֶרֶב: כְּמוֹ לָעֶרֶב:
you shall know that the Lord brought you out of the land of Egypt: Since you [the people of Israel] said to us [Moses and Aaron], “For you have brought us out” (verse 3), you shall know that we are not the ones who brought [you] out, but [it was] the Lord [Who] brought you out, for He will cause the quail to fly to you.[See commentary on verse 13]   וִֽידַעְתֶּם כִּי ה' הוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם: לְפִי שֶׁאֲמַרְתֶּם לָנוּ כִּי הוֹצֵאתֶם אוֹתָנוּ, תֵּדְעוּ כִּי לֹא אֲנַחְנוּ הַמּוֹצִיאִים אֶלָּא ה' הוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם שֶׁיָּגִיז לָכֶם אֶת הַשְּׂלָו:
7And [in the] morning, you shall see the glory of the Lord when He hears your complaints against the Lord but [of] what [significance] are we, that you make [the people] complain against us?   זוּבֹ֗קֶר וּרְאִיתֶם֙ אֶת־כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּשָׁמְע֥וֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶ֖ם עַל־יְהֹוָ֑ה וְנַ֣חְנוּ מָ֔ה כִּ֥י תַלִּ֖ינוּ (כתיב תלונו) עָלֵֽינוּ:
And [in the] morning, you shall see: This was not stated in reference to “and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud” (verse 10), but this is what he [Moses] said to them: In the evening you shall know that He has the ability to grant your desire, and He will give [you] meat; but He will not give it to you with a smiling countenance, because you requested it inappropriately and with a full stomach. As for the bread, which you requested out of necessity, however, when it comes down in the morning, you shall see the glory of the radiance of His countenance. For He will bring it down to you lovingly, in the morning, when there is time to prepare it, and with dew over it and dew under it as if it were lying in a box. — [from Mechilta Yoma 75a,b]   וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם: לֹא עַל הַכָּבוֹד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד ה' נִרְאָה בֶּעָנָן" נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר לָהֶם, עֶרֶב וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי הַיְכֹלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לִתֵּן תַּאֲוַתְכֶם, וּבָשָׂר יִתֵּן, אַךְ לֹא בְּפָנִים מְאִירוֹת יִתְּנֶנָּה לָכֶם, כִּי שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֹגֶן שְׁאַלְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ וּמִכָּרֵס מְלֵאָה, וְהַלֶּחֶם שֶׁשְּׁאַלְתֶּם לְצֹרֶךְ, בִּירִידָתוֹ לַבֹּקֶר תִּרְאוּ אֶת כְּבוֹד אוֹר פָּנָיו – שֶׁיּוֹרִידֵהוּ לָכֶם דֶּרֶךְ חִבָּה, בַּבֹּקֶר, שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁעוֹת לַהֲכִינוֹ וְטַל מִלְמַעְלָה וְטַל מִלְּמַטָּה, כְּמֻנָּח בְּקֻפְסָא (יומא ע"ה):
your complaints against the Lord: As [if it would say]: "your complaints, which are against the Lord."   אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶם עַל־ה': כְּמוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַל ה':
but [of] what [significance] are we: Of what importance are we? -[from Jonathan Mechilta]   וְנַחְנוּ מָה: מָה אֲנַחְנוּ חֲשׁוּבִין?
that you make [the people] complain: Heb. תַלִּינוּ, that you make everyone complain against us: your sons, your wives, your daughters, and the mixed multitude. Perforce, I must interpret תַלִּינוּ, in the sense of “you make do something,” [i.e., the hiph’il conjugation] because of its [the “lammed’s”] “dagesh” and the way it is read [i.e., the keri as opposed to the kethiv]; because if it were weak [i.e., not punctuated with a “dagesh”], I would interpret it as “you do something,” [i.e., in the kal conjugation,] like “and the people complained (וַיָלֶן) against Moses” (Exod. 17:3), or if it [the “lammed”] were punctuated with a “dagesh” and it did not have a “yud” [after it], and read תִלּוֹנוּ, [as it is written], I would explain it as meaning “you complain.” Now, however, it means: “you cause others to complain,” like [the verse written in reference to] the spies: “and they caused the entire congregation to complain (וַיַלִינוּ) against him” (Num. 14:36).   כִּי תלינו עָלֵֽינוּ: שֶׁתַּרְעִימוּ עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַכֹּל, וְאֶת בְּנֵיכֶם וּנְשֵׁיכֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיכֶם וְעֵרֶב רַב. וְעַל כָּרְחִי אֲנִי זָקוּק לְפָרֵשׁ תַּלִּינוּ בִּלְשׁוֹן תַּפְעִילוּ מִפְּנֵי דַּגְשׁוּתוֹ וּקְרִיָּתוֹ, שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה רָפֶה, הָיִיתִי מְפָרְשׁוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן תִּפְעֲלוּ, כְּמוֹ "וַיָּלֶן הָעָם עַל מֹשֶׁה" (שמות י"ז), אוֹ אִם הָיָה דָגוּשׁ וְאֵין בּוֹ יוֹ"ד וְנִקְרָא תִלּוֹנוּ, הָיִיתִי מְפָרְשׁוֹ לְשׁוֹן תִּתְלוֹנְנוּ, עַכְשָׁיו הוּא מַשְׁמַע תַּלִּינוּ אֶת אֲחֵרִים, כְּמוֹ בַּמְּרַגְּלִים "וַיַּלִּינוּ עָלָיו אֶת כָּל הָעֵדָה" (במדבר י"ד):
8And Moses said, When the Lord gives you in the evening meat to eat and bread in the morning [with which] to become sated, when the Lord hears your complaints, which you are making [the people] complain against Him, but [of] what [significance] are we? Not against us are your complaints, but against the Lord.   חוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה בְּתֵ֣ת יְהֹוָה֩ לָכֶ֨ם בָּעֶ֜רֶב בָּשָׂ֣ר לֶֽאֱכֹ֗ל וְלֶ֤חֶם בַּבֹּ֨קֶר֙ לִשְׂבֹּ֔עַ בִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֥ם מַלִּינִ֖ם עָלָ֑יו וְנַ֣חְנוּ מָ֔ה לֹֽא־עָלֵ֥ינוּ תְלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶ֖ם כִּ֥י עַל־יְהֹוָֽה:
meat to eat: But not to be satiated. The Torah [here] teaches us a rule of behavior we should not eat meat to satiety. What did He see [what reason did He have] to bring down bread in the morning and meat in the evening? Because they requested bread appropriately, since it is impossible for a person to get along without bread, but they requested meat inappropriately, because they had many animals, and furthermore, it was possible for them to get along without meat. Therefore, He gave it to them at a time when it would be a burden for them to prepare it, [at an] inappropriate [time]. — [from Mechilta Yoma 75b]   בָּשָׂר לֶֽאֱכֹל: וְלֹא לִשְׂבֹּעַ; לִמְּדָה תוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר לָשֹׂבַע. וּמָה רָאָה לְהוֹרִיד לֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר וּבָשָׂר בָּעֶרֶב? לְפִי שֶׁהַלֶּחֶם שָׁאֲלוּ כַּהֹגֶן, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לָאָדָם בְּלֹא לֶחֶם, אֲבָל בָּשָׂר שָׁאֲלוּ שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֹגֶן, שֶׁהַרְבֵּה בְהֵמוֹת הָיוּ לָהֶם, וְעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם בְּלֹא בָשָׂר, לְפִיכָךְ נָתַן לָהֶם בִּשְׁעַת טֹרַח שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֹגֶן (יומא ע"ה):
which you are making [the people] complain against Him: [You are making] others who hear you complaining [complain].   אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו: אֶת הָאֲחֵרִים הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶתְכֶם מִתְלוֹנְנִים:
9And Moses said to Aaron, Say to the entire community of the children of Israel, Draw near before the Lord, for He has heard your complaints.   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֱמֹ֗ר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל קִרְב֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֣י שָׁמַ֔ע אֵ֖ת תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶֽם:
Draw near: to the place where the cloud has descended.   קִרְבוּ: לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֶעָנָן יֵרֵד:
10And it came to pass when Aaron spoke to the entire community of the children of Israel, that they turned toward the desert, and behold! the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.   יוַיְהִ֗י כְּדַבֵּ֤ר אַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּפְנ֖וּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְהִנֵּה֙ כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה נִרְאָ֖ה בֶּֽעָנָֽן: