Exodus Chapter 14

26Thereupon, the Lord said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea, and let the water return upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen   כווַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה נְטֵ֥ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ עַל־הַיָּ֑ם וְיָשֻׁ֤בוּ הַמַּ֨יִם֙ עַל־מִצְרַ֔יִם עַל־רִכְבּ֖וֹ וְעַל־פָּֽרָשָֽׁיו:
and let the water return: [I.e., the water] that is standing upright like a wall [will] return to its place and cover up the Egyptians.   וְיָשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם: שֶׁזְּקוּפִין וְעוֹמְדִים כְּחוֹמָה, יָשׁוּבוּ לִמְקוֹמָם וִיכַסּוּ עַל מִצְרַיִם:
27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and toward morning the sea returned to its strength, as the Egyptians were fleeing toward it, and the Lord stirred the Egyptians into the sea.   כזוַיֵּט֩ משֶׁ֨ה אֶת־יָד֜וֹ עַל־הַיָּ֗ם וַיָּ֨שָׁב הַיָּ֜ם לִפְנ֥וֹת בֹּ֨קֶר֙ לְאֵ֣יתָנ֔וֹ וּמִצְרַ֖יִם נָסִ֣ים לִקְרָאת֑וֹ וַיְנַעֵ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־מִצְרַ֖יִם בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
toward morning: Heb. לִפְנוֹת בֹּקֶר, at the time the morning approaches [lit., turns (פּוֹנֶה) to come].   לִפְנוֹת בֹּקֶר: לְעֵת שֶׁהַבֹּקֶר פּוֹנֶה לָבֹא:
to its strength: Heb. לְאֵיתָנוֹ. To its original strength. — [from Mechilta]   לְאֵיתָנוֹ: לְתָקְפּוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן (מכילתא):
were fleeing toward it: Because they were confused and crazed and running toward the water.   נָסִים לִקְרָאתוֹ: שֶׁהָיוּ מְהֻמָּמִים וּמְטֹרָפִים וְרָצִין לִקְרַאת הַמַּיִם:
and the Lord stirred: Heb. וַיְנַעֵר. As a person stirs (מְנַעֵר) a pot [of food] and turns what is on the top to the bottom and what is on the bottom to the top, so were they [the Egyptians] bobbing up and down and being smashed in the sea, and the Holy One, blessed be He, kept them alive to bear their tortures. — [from Mechilta]   וַיְנַעֵר ה': כְּאָדָם שֶׁמְּנַעֵר אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה וְהוֹפֵךְ הָעֶלְיוֹן לְמַטָּה וְהַתַּחְתּוֹן לְמַעְלָה, כָּךְ הָיוּ עוֹלִין וְיוֹרְדִין וּמִשְׁתַּבְּרִין בַּיָּם, וְנָתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּהֶם חַיּוּת לְקַבֵּל הַיִּסּוּרִין (שם):
stirred: Heb. וַיְנַעֵר. [Onkelos renders it] וְֹשַנִּיק, which means stirring in the Aramaic language, and there are many [examples of this word] in aggadic midrashim.   וַיְנַעֵר: "וְשַׁנֵּיק", וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן טֵרוּף בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, וְהַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ בְּמִקְרָא אַחֵר:
28And the waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, the entire force of Pharaoh coming after them into the sea; not even one of them survived.   כחוַיָּשֻׁ֣בוּ הַמַּ֗יִם וַיְכַסּ֤וּ אֶת־הָרֶ֨כֶב֙ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֣רָשִׁ֔ים לְכֹל֙ חֵ֣יל פַּרְעֹ֔ה הבָּאִ֥ים אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֖ם בַּיָּ֑ם לֹֽא־נִשְׁאַ֥ר בָּהֶ֖ם עַד־אֶחָֽד:
and covered the chariots…the entire force of Pharaoh: Heb. לְכֹל חֵיל פַּרְעֹה So is the custom of Scriptural verses to write a superfluous “lammed,” such as in “all (לְכָל) its utensils you shall make copper” (Exod. 27:3); and similarly, “all (לְכֹל) the utensils of the Tabernacle for all its services” (Exod. 27:19); [and in the phrase] “their stakes and their ropes, along with all (לְכָל) their utensils” (Num. 4:32), and it [the “lammed”] is [used] merely to enhance the language.   וַיְכַסּוּ אֶת־הָרֶכֶב לְכֹל חֵיל פַּרְעֹה: כָּךְ דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָאוֹת לִכְתֹּב לָמֶ"ד יְתֵרָה, כְּמוֹ "לְכָל כֵּלָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה נְחֹשֶׁת" (שמות כ"ז), וְכֵן "לְכֹל כְּלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן בְּכֹל עֲבֹדָתוֹ" (במדבר ד'), "וִיתֵדוֹתָם וּמֵיתְרֵיהֶם לְכָל כְּלֵיהֶם" (שם), וְאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא תִּקּוּן לָשׁוֹן:
29But the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea, and the water was to them like a wall from their right and from their left.   כטוּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָֽלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֣וֹךְ הַיָּ֑ם וְהַמַּ֤יִם לָהֶם֙ חֹמָ֔ה מִֽימִינָ֖ם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָֽם:
30On that day the Lord saved Israel from the hand[s] of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the seashore.   לוַיּ֨וֹשַׁע יְהֹוָ֜ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֛וּא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיַּ֤רְא יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵ֖ת עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיָּֽם:
and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the seashore: For the sea spewed them out on its shore, so that the Israelites would not say, "Just as we are coming up on this side [of the sea], so are they coming up on another side, far from us, and they will pursue us."-[from Mechilta and Pes. 118b]   וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מִצְרָיִם מֵת: שֶׁפְּלָטָן הַיָּם עַל שְׂפָתוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָנוּ עוֹלִים מִצַּד זֶה כָּךְ הֵם עוֹלִין מִצַּד אַחֵר, רָחוֹק מִמֶּנּוּ, וְיִרְדְּפוּ אַחֲרֵינוּ (פסחים קי"ח):
31And Israel saw the great hand, which the Lord had used upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in Moses, His servant.   לאוַיַּ֨רְא יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַיָּ֣ד הַגְּדֹלָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּֽירְא֥וּ הָעָ֖ם אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽאֲמִ֨ינוּ֙ בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּבְמשֶׁ֖ה עַבְדּֽוֹ:
the great hand: The great mighty deed that the hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, had performed. Many meanings fit the term יָד, and they are all expressions derived from an actual hand, and he who interprets it must adjust the wording according to the context.   אֶת־הַיָּד הגדולה: אֶת הַגְּבוּרָה הַגְּדוֹלָה שֶׁעָשְׂתָה יָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. וְהַרְבֵּה לְשׁוֹנוֹת נוֹפְלִין עַל לְשׁוֹן יָד וְכֻלָּן לְשׁוֹן יָד מַמָּשׁ הֵן, וְהַמְפָרְשׁוֹ יְתַקֵּן הַלָּשׁוֹן אַחַר עִנְיַן הַדִּבּוּר:

Exodus Chapter 15

1Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to the Lord, and they spoke, saying, I will sing to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea.   אאָ֣ז יָשִֽׁיר־משֶׁה֩ וּבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ לֵאמֹ֑ר אָשִׁ֤ירָה לַּֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹֽכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם:
Then…sang: Heb. אָז יָשִׁיר. [The future tense presents a problem. Therefore, Rashi explains:] Then, when he [Moses] saw the miracle, it occurred to him to recite a song, and similarly, “Then Joshua spoke (אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ)” (Josh. 10:12); and similarly, “and the house [which] he would make (יַעֲשֶׂה) for Pharaoh’s daughter” (I Kings 7: 8), [which means] he decided to make it for her. Here too, יָשִׁיר [in the future tense means that] his heart dictated to him that he should sing, and so he did, “and they spoke, saying, I will sing to the Lord.’ ” Likewise, with [the above reference to] Joshua, when he saw the miracle [of the defeat of the Amorite kings (Josh. 10:11)], his heart dictated to him that he speak [praises to God], and so he did, “and he said in the sight of Israel” (Josh. 10:12). Likewise, the song of the well, with which [Scripture] commences: “Then Israel sang (אָז יָשִׁיר)” (Num. 21:17), it explains after it, “Ascend, O well!, sing to it.” [I.e., in these three instances, the “yud” of the future tense denotes the thought, and after each one, Scripture continues that the thought was brought to fruition.] “Then did Solomon build (אָז יִבְנֶה) a high place” (I Kings 11:7); the Sages of Israel explain that he sought to build [it] but did not build [it] (Sanh. 91b). We [thus] learn that the “yud” may serve to indicate a thought. This is to explain its simple meaning, but the midrashic interpretation is [as follows]: Our Rabbis of blessed memory stated: From here is an allusion from the Torah to the resurrection of the dead (Sanh. 91b, Mechilta), and so it is [i.e., the future tense is used] with them all, except that of Solomon, which they explained as [implying] “he sought to build but did not build.” One cannot say and explain this form like other words written in the future, but which mean [that they occurred] immediately, such as “So would Job do (וָעִשֶׂה)” (Job 1:5); “by the command of the Lord would they encamp (יַחֲנוּ)” (Num. 9:23); “And sometimes the cloud would be (יִהְיֶה)” (Num. 9:21), because that is [an example of] something that occurs continually, and either the future or the past is appropriate for it, but that which occurred only once [i.e., the song that was sung], cannot be explained in this manner. —   אָז יָשִֽׁיר־משֶׁה: אָז כְּשֶׁרָאָה הַנֵּס עָלָה בְלִבּוֹ שֶׁיָּשִׁיר שִׁירָה. וְכֵן "אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ" (יהושע י'), וְכֵן "וּבַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה לְבַת פַּרְעֹה" (מלכים א ז') – חָשַׁב בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לָהּ, אַף כָּאן יָשִׁיר אָמַר לוֹ לִבּוֹ שֶׁיָּשִׁיר וְכֵן עָשָׂה – וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַה', וְכֵן בִּיהוֹשֻׁעַ כְּשֶׁרָאָה הַנֵּס אָמַר לוֹ לִבּוֹ שֶׁיְּדַבֵּר וְכֵן עָשָׂה – "וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל" (יהושע י'), וְכֵן שִׁירַת הַבְּאֵר, שֶׁפָּתַח בָּהּ אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל, פֵּרֵשׁ אַחֲרָיו "עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ לָהּ" (במדבר י"א), "אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה" (מלכים א י"א), פֵּרְשׁוּ בוֹ חַכְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לִבְנוֹת וְלֹא בָנָה, לִמְּדָנוּ שֶׁהַיּוֹ"ד עַל שֵׁם הַמַּחֲשָׁבָה נֶאֶמְרָה, זֶהוּ לְיַשֵּׁב פְּשׁוּטוֹ. אֲבָל מִדְרָשׁוֹ אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִ"לִ "מִכָּאן רֶמֶז לִתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה" וְכֵן בְּכֻלָּן, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל שְׁלֹמֹה, שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּהוּ בִּקֵּשׁ לִבְנוֹת וְלֹא בָנָה. וְאֵין לוֹמַר וּלְיַשֵּׁב לָשׁוֹן הַזֶּה כִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַנִּכְתָּבִים בִּלְשׁוֹן עָתִיד וְהֵן מִיָּד, כְּגוֹן "כָּכָה יַעֲשֶׂה אִיּוֹב" (איוב א'), "עַל פִּי ה' יַחֲנוּ" (במדבר ט'), "וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הֶעָנָן" (שם), לְפִי שֶׁהֵן דָּבָר הַהוֹוֶה תָמִיד וְנוֹפֵל בּוֹ בֵּין לְשׁוֹן עָתִיד וּבֵין לְשׁוֹן עָבָר, אֲבָל זֶה שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אֶלָּא לְשָׁעָה, אֵינִי יָכוֹל לְיַשְּׁבוֹ בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה:
for very exalted is He: Heb. גָאֹה גָאָה, [to be interpreted] according to the Targum [He was exalted over the exalted, and the exaltation is His]. Another explanation: [The] doubling [of the verb] comes to say that He did something impossible for a flesh and blood [person] to do. When he fights with his fellow and overwhelms him, he throws him off the horse, but here, “a horse and its rider He cast into the sea,” [i.e., with the rider still on the horse]. Anything that cannot be done by anyone else is described as exaltation (גֵּאוּת), like “for He has performed an exalted act (גֵּאוּת)” (Isa. 12:5). Similarly, [throughout] the entire song you will find the repetitive pattern, such as: “My strength and my praise are the Eternal, and He was my salvation” (verse 2); “The Lord is a Master of war; the Lord is His Name,” (verse 3); and so on, all of them (in an old Rashi). Another explanation: גָאֹה גָאָה means for He is exalted beyond all songs, [i.e.,] for however I will praise Him, He still has more [praise]. [This is] unlike the manner of a human king, who is praised for something he does not possess. — [from Mechilta]   כִּֽי־גָאֹה גָּאָה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ. (דָּבָר אַחֵר – בָּא הַכֵּפֶל לוֹמַר שֶׁעָשָׂה דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבָשָׂר וָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת; כְּשֶׁהוּא נִלְחָם בַּחֲבֵרוֹ וּמִתְגַּבֵּר עָלָיו, מַפִּילוֹ מִן הַסּוּס, וְכָאן הַסוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם, וְכָל שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי זוּלָתוֹ נוֹפֵל בּוֹ לְשׁוֹן גֵּאוּת, כְּמוֹ "כִּי גֵאוּת עָשָׂה" (ישעיהו י"ב), וְכֵן כָּל הַשִּׁירָה תִּמְצָא כְפוּלָה, עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ וַיְהִי לִי לִישׁוּעָה, ה' אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה ה' שְׁמוֹ, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם). דָּבָר אַחֵר – כי גאה גאה, עַל כָּל הַשִּׁירוֹת וְכָל מַה שֶּׁאֲקַלֵּס בּוֹ, עוֹד יֵשׁ בּוֹ תּוֹסֶפֶת, וְלֹא כְמִדַּת מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁמְּקַלְּסִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֵין בּוֹ:
a horse and its rider: Both bound to one another, and the water lifted them up high and brought them down into the depths, and [still] they did not separate. — [from Mechilta]   סוּס וְרֹֽכְבוֹ: שְׁנֵיהֶם קְשׁוּרִים זֶה בָּזֶה וְהַמַּיִם מַעֲלִין אוֹתָן וְיוֹרְדִין לָעֹמֶק וְאֵינָן נִפְרָדִין (מכילתא):
He cast: Heb. רָמָה, [meaning] He cast, and similarly, “and they were cast (וּרְמִיו) into the burning, fiery furnace” (Dan. 3:21). The aggadic midrash, however, [states as follows]: One verse (verse 1) says: רָמָה בַיָם, [derived from רוּם, meaning “to cast up,”] and one verse (verse 4) says: יָרָה בַיָם [meaning “to cast down”]. [This] teaches us that they [the horse and rider] went up and [then] descended into the deep, [i.e., they were thrown up and down]. [The meaning of יָרָה is here] similar to: “who laid (יָרָה) its cornerstone” (Job 38:6), [which signifies laying the stone] from above, downward. — [from Mechilta, Tanchuma, Beshallach 13]   רָמָה: הִשְׁלִיךְ, וְכֵן "וּרְמִיו לְגוֹא אַתּוּן נוּרָא" (דניאל ג'). וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה: כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר רָמָה, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר יָרָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹלִין לָרוּם וְיוֹרְדִין לַתְּהוֹם, כְּמוֹ "מִי יָרָה אֶבֶן פִּנָּתָהּ" (איוב ל"ח), מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה:
2The Eternal's strength and His vengeance were my salvation; this is my God, and I will make Him a habitation, the God of my father, and I will ascribe to Him exaltation.   בעָזִּ֤י וְזִמְרָת֙ יָ֔הּ וַֽיְהִי־לִ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה זֶ֤ה אֵלִי֙ וְאַנְוֵ֔הוּ אֱלֹהֵ֥י אָבִ֖י וַֽאֲרֹֽמְמֶֽנְהוּ:
The Eternal’s strength and His vengeance were my salvation: Heb. וְזִמְרָתיָ-ה עָזִי. Onkelos renders: My strength and my praise, [thus interpreting] עָזִי like עֻזִי [my strength] with a “shuruk,” and וְזִמְרָת like וְזִמְרָתִי [my song]. But I wonder about the language of the text, for there is nothing like it [the word עָזִי] in Scripture with its vowelization except in three places [i.e., here and in Isa. 12:2 and Ps. 118:14], where it is next to וְזִמְרָת, but [in] all other places, it is vowelized with a “shuruk" [now called a "kubutz"], [e.g., in the phrase] "O Lord, Who are my power (עֻזִי) and my strength” (Jer. 16:19); “[Because of] his strength (עֻזוֹ), I hope for You” (Ps. 59:10). Likewise, any word [noun] consisting of two letters, vowelized with a “melupum,” [i.e., a "cholam,"] when it is lengthened by [the addition of] a third letter, and the second letter is not punctuated with a “sheva” the first [letter] is vowelized with a “shuruk,” e.g., עֹז strength, becomes עֻזִי, my strength, spittle (Job 30:10), רֹק becomes רֹקִי, my spittle (Job 7:19). allotment (Gen. 47:22), חֹק becomes חֹקִי, my allotment (Prov. 30:8). עֹל, yoke (Deut. 28:48), becomes עֻלוֹ, his yoke, “shall be removed…his yoke עֻלוֹ” (Isa. 10:27). כֹּל, all (Gen. 21:12), becomes כֻּלוֹ, all of it, “with officers over them all כֻּלוֹ” (Exod. 14:7). But these three [examples of the phrase], עָזִי וְזִמְרָת, [namely] the one [written] here, the one [written in] Isaiah (12: 2), and the one [written in] Psalms (118:14) [all examples of the word עָזִי are vowelized with a short “kamatz.” Moreover, not one of them [i.e., of these examples] is written וְזִמְרָתִי but וְזִמְרָת, and next to each of them it says וַיְהִי-לִי לִיֹשוּעָה, were my salvation. Therefore, in order to reconcile the language of the text, I say that עָזִי is not like עֻזִי, nor is וְזִמְרָת like וְזִמְרָתִי, but עָזִי is a noun [and the final “yud” is only stylistic], like [the final “yud” in these examples:] “You Who dwell (הַישְׁבִי) in heaven” (Ps. 123:1); “who dwell (שֹׁכְנִי) in the clefts of the rock” (Obad. 1:3); “Who dwells (שֹׁכְנִי) in the thorn bush” (Deut. 33:16). And this is the praise [that Moses and the Israelites sing to God]: The strength and the vengeance of the Eternal--that was my salvation. [In brief, the “yud” at the end of the word is a stylistic suffix, which has no bearing on the meaning.] And the word וְזִמְרָת is connected to the word denoting the Divine Name, like “to the aid of (לְעֶזְרַת) the Lord” (Jud. 5:23); [and like the word בְּעֶבְרַת in] “By the wrath of (בְּעֶבְרַת) the Lord” (Isa. 9:18); [and the word דִבְרַת in:] “concerning the matter of (דִבְרַת)” (Eccl. 3:18). [In brief, the ַת or, ָת denotes the construct state of a feminine noun.] The expression וְזִמְרָת is an expression related to “and your vineyard you shall not prune (לֹא תִזְמֹר)” (Lev. 25:4); “the downfall of (זְמִיר) the tyrants” (Isa. 25:5), an expression denoting mowing down and cutting off. [Thus the phrase means:] The strength and the vengeance of our God was our salvation. Now [since this is the meaning of the phrase,] do not be puzzled about the expression וַיְהִי, [i.e.,] that it does not say הָיָה [without a “vav” since this is the verb following עָזִי וְזִמְרָת and does not begin a clause as the conversive “vav” usually does], for there are verses worded this way, and this is an example: “[against] the walls of the house around [both] the temple and the sanctuary, he made (וַיַּעַשׂ) chambers around [it]” (I Kings 6:5). It should have said עָשָׂה, “chambers around [it]” [instead of וַיַּעַשׂ]. Similarly, in (II) Chron. (10:17): “But the children of Israel who dwelt in the cities of Judah-Rehoboam reigned (וַיִמְלֹךְ) over them.” It should have said: “Rehoboam (מָלַךְ) over them.” [Similarly,] “Because the Lord was unable…He slaughtered them (וַיִשְׁחָטֵם) in the desert” (Num. 14:16). It should have said: שְׁחָטָם. [Similarly,] “But the men whom Moses sent…died (וַיָמוּתוּ)” (Num 14:36, 37). It should have said: מֵתוּ. [Similarly,] “But he who did not pay attention to the word of the Lord left (וַיַעִזֹב)” (Exod. 9:21). It should have said: עָזַב.   עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם "תָּקְפִּי וְתֻשְׁבַּחְתִּי", עָזִּי כְּמוֹ עֻזִּי, וְזִמְרָת כְּמוֹ וְזִמְרָתִי, וַאֲנִי תָּמֵהַּ עַל לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ כָמוֹהוּ בִּנְקֻדָּתוֹ בַּמִּקְרָא אֶלָּא בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ אֵצֶל וְזִמְרָת, וְכָל שְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת נָקוּד שׁוּרֻ"ק, "ה' עֻזִּי וּמָעֻזִּי" (ירמיהו ט"ז), "עֻזּוֹ אֵלֶיךָ אֶשְׁמֹרָה" (תהילים נ"ט). וְכֵן כָּל תֵּבָה בַּת שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת הַנְּקוּדָה מְלָאפוּם כְּשֶׁהִיא מַאֲרֶכֶת בְּאוֹת שְׁלִישִׁית וְאֵין הַשְּׁנִיָּה בַּחֲטָף, הָרִאשׁוֹנָה נְקוּדָה בְּשׁוּרֻק, כְּגוֹן עֹז עֻזִּי, רֹק רֻקִּי, חֹק חֻקִּי, עֹל עֻלּוֹ – "וְסָר מֵעֲלֵהֶם עֻלּוֹ" (ישעיהו י"ד), כֹּל כֻּלּוֹ – "וְשָׁלִשִׁם עַל כֻּלּוֹ" (שמות י"ד), וְאֵלּוּ ג' עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת שֶׁל כָּאן, וְשֶׁל יְשַׁעְיָה, וְשֶׁל תְּהִלִּים, נְקוּדִים בַּחֲטָף קָמָץ, וְעוֹד אֵין בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם כָּתוּב וְזִמְרָתִי אֶלָּא וְזִמְרָת, וְכֻלָּם סָמוּךְ לָהֶם "וַיְהִי לִי לִישׁוּעָה". לְכָךְ אֲנִי אוֹמֵר, לְיַשֵּׁב לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא, שֶׁאֵין עָזִּי כְּמוֹ עֻזִּי וְלֹא וְזִמְרָת כְּמוֹ וְזִמְרָתִי, אֶלָּא עָזִּי שֵׁם דָּבָר הוּא כְּמוֹ "הַיֹּשְׁבִי בַּשָּׁמָיִם" (תהילים קכ"ג), "שֹׁכְנִי בְחַגְוֵי סֶלַע" (עובדיה א'), "שֹׁכְנִי סְנֶה" (דברים ל"ג), וְזֶהוּ הַשֶּׁבַח עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ הוּא הָיָה לִי לִישׁוּעָה. וְזִמְרָת דָּבוּק הוּא לְתֵבַת הַשֵּׁם, כְּמוֹ "לְעֶזְרַת ה'" (שופטים ה'), "בְּעֶבְרַת ה'" (ישעיהו ט'), "עַל דִּבְרַת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם" (קהלת ג'). וּלְשׁוֹן וְזִמְרָת לְשׁוֹן "לֹא תִזְמֹר" (ויקרא כ"ה), "זְמִיר עָרִיצִים" (ישעיהו כ"ה), לְשׁוֹן כִּסּוּחַ וּכְרִיתָה – עֻזּוֹ וְנִקְמָתוֹ שֶׁל אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָיָה לָנוּ לִישׁוּעָה. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל לְשׁוֹן וַיְהִי, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר הָיָה, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָנוּ מִקְרָאוֹת מְדַבְּרִים בְּלָשׁוֹן זֶה, וְזֶה דֻגְמָתוֹ: "אֶת קִירוֹת הַבַּיִת סָבִיב לַהֵיכָל וְלַדְּבִיר וַיַּעַשׂ צְלָעוֹת סָבִיב" (מלכים א ו'), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר עָשָׂה צְלָעוֹת סָבִיב. וְכֵן בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים: "וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּמְלֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְחַבְעָם" (דברי הימים ב' י'), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר מָלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְחַבְעָם. "מִבִּלְתִּי יְכֹלֶת ה' וְגוֹ' וַיִּשְׁחָטֵם" (במדבר י"ד), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר שְׁחָטָם. "וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח מֹשֶׁה וְגוֹ' וַיָּמֻתוּ" (שם) מֵתוּ הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר, "וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׂם לִבּוֹ אֶל דְּבַר ה' וַיַּעֲזֹב" (שמות ט'), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר עָזַב:
this is my God: He revealed Himself in His glory to them [the Israelites], and they pointed at Him with their finger [as denoted by זֶה, this]. By the sea, [even] a maidservant perceived what prophets did not perceive. — [from Mechilta]   זֶה אֵלִי: בִּכְבוֹדוֹ נִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ מַרְאִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶצְבַּע, רָאֲתָה שִׁפְחָה עַל הַיָּם מַה שֶּׁלֹּא רָאוּ נְבִיאִים (מכילתא):
and I will make Him a habitation: Heb. וְאַנְוֵה. Onkelos rendered it as an expression of habitation (נָוֶה) [as in the following phrases]: “a tranquil dwelling (נָוֶה)” (Isa. 33:20); “a sheepfold (נְוֵה)” (Isa. 65:10). Another explanation: וְאַנְוֵהוּ is an expression of beauty (נוּ). [Thus the phrase means] I will tell of His beauty and His praise to those who enter the world, such as: [When Israel is asked:] "How is your beloved more than another beloved…? [Israel will say] My beloved is white and ruddy…" and the entire section [of Song of Songs] (Song of Songs 5:9, 10). — [from Mechilta]   וְאַנְוֵהוּ: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן נָוֶה – "נָוֶה שַׁאֲנָן" (ישעיהו ל"ג), "לִנְוֵה צֹאן" (שם ס"ה). דָּבָר אַחֵר – וְאַנְוֵהוּ לְשׁוֹן נוֹי, אֲסַפֵּר נוֹיוֹ וְשִׁבְחוֹ לְבָאֵי עוֹלָם, כְּגוֹן "מַה דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד וְגוֹ' דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם" (שיר השירים ה'), וְכָל הָעִנְיָן:
the God of my father: is this One, and I will exalt Him.   אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי: הוּא זֶה וארממנהו:
the God of my father: I am not the beginning of the sanctity [i.e., I am not the first to recognize His sanctity], but the sanctity has been established and has remained with me, and His Divinity has been upon me since the days of my forefathers. — [from Mechilta]   אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי: לֹא אֲנִי תְּחִלַּת הַקְּדֻשָּׁה אֶלָּא מֻחְזֶקֶת וְעוֹמֶדֶת לִי הַקְּדֻשָּׁה וֵאלֹהוּתוֹ עָלַי מִימֵי אֲבוֹתַי:
3The Lord is a Master of war; the Lord is His Name.   גיְהֹוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה יְהֹוָ֖ה שְׁמֽוֹ:
The Lord is a Master of war: Heb. אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה, lit., a man of war, [which is inappropriate in reference to the Deity. Therefore,] Rashi renders: Master of war, like “Naomi’s husband (אִישׁ נָעֳמִי)” (Ruth 1:3) and so, every [instance in the Torah of] אִישׁ, husband, and אִישֵׁ, your husband, is rendered: בַּעַל, master. Similarly, “You shall be strong and become a man (לְאִישׁ)” (I Kings 2:2), [meaning] a strong man. —   ה' אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה: בַּעַל מִלְחָמוֹת, כְּמוֹ "אִישׁ נָעֳמִי" (רות א'), וְכָל אִישׁ וְאִישֵׁךְ מְתֻרְגָּמִין בַּעַל, וְכֵן "וְחָזַקְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ לְאִישׁ" (מלכים א ב') – לְגִבּוֹר:
the Lord is His Name: His wars are not [waged] with weapons, but He wages battle with His Name, as David said [to Goliath before fighting him], “[You come to me with spear and javelin] and I come to you with the Name of the Lord of Hosts” (I Sam. 17:45). Another explanation: The Lord י-ה-ו-ה, denoting the Divine Standard of Clemency,] is His Name--Even when He wages war and takes vengeance upon His enemies, He sticks to His behavior of having mercy on His creatures and nourishing all those who enter the world, unlike the behavior of earthly kings. When he [an earthly king] is engaged in war, he turns away from all his [other] affairs and does not have the ability to do both this [i.e., wage war] and that [other things]. — [from Mechilta]   ה' שְׁמֽוֹ: מִלְחֲמוֹתָיו לֹא בִּכְלֵי זַיִן אֶלָּא בִּשְׁמוֹ הוּא נִלְחָם; כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר דָּוִד "וְאָנֹכִי בָא אֵלֶיךָ בְּשֵׁם ה' צְבָאוֹת" (שמואל א י"ז). דָּבָר אַחֵר, ה' שמו – אַף בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא נִלְחָם וְנוֹקֵם מֵאוֹיְבָיו, אוֹחֵז הוּא בְּמִדָּתוֹ לְרַחֵם עַל בְּרוּאָיו וְלָזוּן אֶת כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם; וְלֹא כְמִדַּת מַלְכֵי אֲדָמָה כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹסֵק בְּמִלְחָמָה פּוֹנֶה עַצְמוֹ מִכָּל עֲסָקִים וְאֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת זוֹ וְזוֹ (מכילתא):
4Pharaoh's chariots and his army He cast into the sea, and the elite of his officers sank in the Red Sea.   דמַרְכְּבֹ֥ת פַּרְעֹ֛ה וְחֵיל֖וֹ יָרָ֣ה בַיָּ֑ם וּמִבְחַ֥ר שָֽׁלִשָׁ֖יו טֻבְּע֥וּ בְיַם־סֽוּף:
He cast into the sea: Heb. יָרָה בַיָם. [Onkelos renders:] שְׁדִי שְׁדִי בְיַמָּא is an expression of casting down (יָרָה), as [Scripture] says: “or shall surely be cast down (יָרֹה יִיָָּרֶה)” (Exod. 19:13), which Onkelos renders: יִשְׁתְּדִי אִשְׁתְּדָאָה. The “tav” serves in these [forms] in the hithpa’el form.   יָרָה בַיָּם: "שְׁדִי בְיַמָּא", שְׁדִי לְשׁוֹן יְרִיָּה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "אוֹ יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה" (שמות י"ט) – אוֹ אִשְׁתְּדָאָה יִשְׁתְּדִי, וְהַתָּי"ו מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּאֵלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם יִתְפַּעֵל:
and the elite of: Heb. וּמִבְחַר, a noun, like מֶרְכָּב, riding gear (Lev. 15:9); מִשְׁכָּב, bed (Lev. 15:23); מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ, holy convocation (Exod. 12:16, Lev. 23:3).   וּמִבְחַר: שֵׁם דָּבָר. כְּמוֹ מֶרְכָּב, מִשְׁכָּב, מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ:
sank: Heb. טֻבְּעוּ. The term טְבִיעָה [for sinking] is used [in the Tanach] only [when referring] to a place where there is mud, like “I have sunk (טָבַעְתִּי) in muddy depths” (Ps. 69:3); “and Jeremiah sank (וַיִּטְבַּע) into the mud” (Jer. 38: 6). This informs [us] that the sea became mud, to recompense them [the Egyptians] according to their behavior, [namely] that they enslaved the Israelites with [work that entailed] clay and bricks. — [from Mechilta]   טֻבְּעוּ: אֵין טְבִיעָה אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם טִיט, כְּמוֹ "טָבַעְתִּי בִּיוֵן מְצוּלָה" (תהילים ס"ט), "וַיִּטְבַּע יִרְמְיָהוּ בַּטִּיט" (ירמיהו ל"ח), מְלַמֵּד, שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַיָּם טִיט, לִגְמֹל לָהֶם כְּמִדָּתָם שֶׁשִׁעְבְּדוּ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים (מכילתא):
5The depths covered them; they descended into the depths like a stone.   התְּהֹמֹ֖ת יְכַסְיֻ֑מוּ יָֽרְד֥וּ בִמְצוֹלֹ֖ת כְּמוֹ־אָֽבֶן:
covered them: Heb. יְכַסְיֻמוּ, like יְכַסוּם. The “yud” in the middle of it is superfluous. This is, however, a common biblical style [to add an additional “yud”], like “and your cattle and your flocks will increase (יִרְבְּיֻן)” (Deut. 8:13); “They will be sated (יִרְוְיֻן) from the fat of Your house” (Ps. 36:9). The first “yud,” which denotes the future tense, is to be explained as follows: They sank in the Red Sea, so that the water would return and cover them up. There is no word in Scripture similar to יְכַסְיֻמוּ in its vowelization. It would usually be vowelized יְכַסְיֻמוּ with a “melupum.” [Here too it is obvious that Rashi means a “cholam,” as I explained above (Exod. 14:12).]   יְכַסְיֻמוּ: כְּמוֹ יְכַסּוּם, וְהַיּוֹ"ד הָאֶמְצָעִית יְתֵרָה בוֹ; וְדֶרֶךְ מִקְרָאוֹת בְּכָךְ, כְּמוֹ "וְצֹאנְךָ יִרְבְּיֻן" (דברים ח'), "יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ" (תהלים ל"ו), וְהַיּוֹ"ד רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעָהּ לְשׁוֹן עָתִיד, כָּךְ פָּרְשֵׁהוּ: טֻבְּעוּ בְיַם סוּף כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ הַמַּיִם וִיכַסּוּ אוֹתָן. יְכַסְיֻמוּ אֵין דּוֹמֶה לוֹ בַמִּקְרָא בִּנְקֻדָּתוֹ, וְדַרְכּוֹ לִהְיוֹת נָקוּד יְכַסְיֻמוֹ מְלָאפוּם:
like a stone: Elsewhere (verse 10), it says, “they sank like lead.” Still elsewhere (verse 7), it says, “it devoured them like straw.” [The solution is that] the [most] wicked were [treated] like straw, constantly tossed, rising and falling; the average ones like stone; and the best like lead-[i.e.,] they sank immediately [and thus were spared suffering]. — [from Mechilta]   כְּמוֹ־אָֽבֶן: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר "צָלְלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת", וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר "יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ", הָרְשָׁעִים כַּקַּשׁ, הוֹלְכִים וּמִטָּרְפִין עוֹלִין וְיוֹרְדִין, בֵּינוֹנִים כָּאֶבֶן, וְהַכְּשֵׁרִים כַּעוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁנָּחוּ מִיָּד (מכילתא):
6Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful; Your right hand, O Lord, crushes the foe.   ויְמִֽינְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֔ה נֶאְדָּרִ֖י בַּכֹּ֑חַ יְמִֽינְךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה תִּרְעַ֥ץ אוֹיֵֽב:
Your right hand…Your right hand: twice. When the Israelites perform the will of the Omnipresent, [even] the left hand becomes a right hand. — [Rashi from Mechilta]   יְמִֽינְךָ יְמִֽינְךָ: שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין אֶת רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם הַשְּׂמֹאל נַעֲשֵׂית יָמִין (שם):
Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful: to save Israel, and Your second right hand crushes the foe. It seems to me, however, that that very right hand [also] crushes the foe, unlike a human being, who cannot perform two kinds of work with the same hand. The simple meaning of the verse is: Your right hand, which is strengthened with might--what is its work? Your right hand, O Lord, crushes the foe. There are many verses resembling it [i.e., where parts of the verse are repeated]: “For behold Your enemies, O Lord, for behold Your enemies will perish” (Ps. 92:10); “How long will the wicked, O Lord, how long will the wicked rejoice?” (Ps. 94:3); “The rivers have raised, O Lord, the rivers have raised their voice” (Ps. 93:3); “Not for us, O Lord, not for us” (Ps. 115:1); “I will answer, says the Lord; I will answer the heavens” (Hos. 2:23); “I to the Lord, I shall sing” (Jud. 5:3); “Had it not been for the Lord, etc. Had it not been for the Lord Who was with us when men rose up against us” (Ps. 124:1, 2); “Praise! Praise! Deborah. Praise! Praise! Utter a song” (Jud. 5:12); “A foot shall trample it, the feet of a poor man” (Isa. 26:6); “And He gave their land as an inheritance, an inheritance to Israel His people” (Ps. 135:12).   יְמִֽינְךָ ה' נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ: לְהַצִּיל אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וִימִינְךָ הַשֵּׁנִית תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב. וְלִי נִרְאֶה אוֹתָהּ יָמִין עַצְמָהּ תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב, מַה שֶּׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָדָם – לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁתֵּי מְלָאכוֹת בְּיָד אַחַת; וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא יְמִינְךָ הַנֶּאֱדֶרֶת בַּכֹּחַ מַה מְּלַאכְתָּהּ? יְמִינְךָ ה' תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב; וְכַמָּה מִקְרָאוֹת דֻּגְמָתוֹ, "כִּי הִנֵּה אוֹיְבֶיךָ ה' כִּי הִנֵּה אוֹיְבֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ" (תהלים צ"ב), וְדוֹמֵיהֶם:
is most powerful: Heb. נֶאְדָּרִי The “yud” is superfluous, like “populous (רַבָּתִי עָם) …princess (שָׂרָתִי) among the provinces” (Lam. 1:1); “what was stolen by day” (גְּנֻבְתִי) (Gen. 31:39).   נֶאְדָּרִי: הַיּוֹ"ד יְתֵרָה, כְּמוֹ "רַבָּתִי עָם, שָׂרָתִי בַּמְּדִינוֹת" (איכה א'), "גְּנֻבְתִי יוֹם" (בראשית ל"א):
crushes the foe: Heb. תִּרְעַץ, [which means] it constantly crushes and breaks the foe. Similar to this, “And they crushed (וַיִרְעִצוּ) and broke the children of Israel,” in Jud. (10:8). (Another explanation: Your right hand, which is strengthened with might-it breaks and strikes the foe.)   תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵֽב: תָּמִיד הִיא רוֹעֶצֶת וּמְשַׁבֶּרֶת הָאוֹיֵב; וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ "וַיִּרְעֲצוּ וַיְרוֹצְצוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל", בְּשׁוֹפְטִים (י, ח). (דָּבָר אַחֵר – יְמִינְךָ הַנֶּאֱדֶרֶת בַּכֹּחַ הִיא מְשַׁבֶּרֶת וּמַלְקָה אוֹיֵב):
7And with Your great pride You tear down those who rise up against You; You send forth Your burning wrath; it devours them like straw.   זוּבְרֹ֥ב גְּאֽוֹנְךָ֖ תַּֽהֲרֹ֣ס קָמֶ֑יךָ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ חֲרֹ֣נְךָ֔ יֹֽאכְלֵ֖מוֹ כַּקַּֽשׁ:
And with Your great pride: (If the hand alone crushes the foe, then when it is raised with its great pride, it will [definitely] tear down those who rise up against Him. And if with His great pride alone His foes are torn down, how much more so, when He sends upon them His burning wrath, will it consume them.)   וּבְרֹב גְּאֽוֹנְךָ: זֹאת הַיָּד בִּלְבָד רוֹעֶצֶת הָאוֹיֵב – כְּשֶׁהוּא מְרִימָהּ בְּרֹב גְּאוֹנוֹ אָז יַהֲרֹס קָמָיו – וְאִם בְּרֹב גְּאוֹנוֹ לְבַד אוֹיְבָיו נֶהֱרָסִים קַל וָחֹמֶר כְּשֶׁשִּׁלַּח בָּם חֲרוֹן אַף יֹאכְלֵמוֹ):
You tear down: You always tear down those who rise up against You. And who are those who rise up against Him? These are the ones who rise up against Israel, and so does he [the Psalmist] say, “For behold, Your enemies stir.” And what is that stirring? “Against Your people they plot cunningly” (Ps. 83:3, 4). For this reason, he calls them the enemies of the Omnipresent. — [from Mechilta]   תַּֽהֲרֹס: תָּמִיד אַתָּה הוֹרֵס קָמֶיךָ הַקָּמִים נֶגְדְּךָ, וּמִי הֵם הַקָּמִים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ? אֵלּוּ הַקָּמִים עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "כִּי הִנֵּה אוֹיְבֶיךָ יֶהֱמָיוּן" (תהלים פ"ג), וּמַה הִיא הַהֶמְיָה? "עַל עַמְּךָ יַעֲרִימוּ סוֹד" (שם), וְעַל זֶה קוֹרֵא אוֹתָם אוֹיְבָיו שֶׁל מָקוֹם:
8And with the breath of Your nostrils the waters were heaped up; the running water stood erect like a wall; the depths congealed in the heart of the sea.   חוּבְר֤וּחַ אַפֶּ֨יךָ֙ נֶ֣עֶרְמוּ מַ֔יִם נִצְּב֥וּ כְמוֹ־נֵ֖ד נֹֽזְלִ֑ים קָֽפְא֥וּ תְהֹמֹ֖ת בְּלֶב־יָֽם:
And with the breath of Your nostrils: Breath which comes out of the two nostrils of the nose. Scripture speaks anthropomorphically about the Shechinah, on the model of a mortal king, in order to enable the ears of the people to hear it [to understand God’s anger] as it usually occurs [in humans], so that they should be able to understand the matter. [Namely that] when a person becomes angry, wind comes out of his nostrils. Likewise, “Smoke went up from His nostrils” (Ps. 18:9), and similarly, “and from the wind of His nostrils they will be destroyed” (Job 4:9). And this is what it [Scripture] says: “For the sake of My Name, I defer My anger” (Isa. 48:9) [lit., I lengthen the breath of My nose]. [This means that] when his [a person’s] anger subsides, his breath becomes longer, and when he becomes angry, his breath becomes shorter; [the verse continues:] “and for My praise I restrain My wrath (אֶחֱטָם) for you” (Isa. 48: 9). [I.e.,] I put a ring (חִטָם) into My nostrils in front of the anger and the wind, [so] that they should not come out. “For you” means “for your sake.” [The word] אֶחֱטָם is like [the expression in the Mishnah:] “a dromedary with a nose ring” (בַּחִטָם) in tractate Shabbath (51b). This is how it appears to me. And concerning every [expression of] אַף and חָרוֹן in the Bible [which are expressions of anger] I say this: [The expression] חָרָה אַף, anger was kindled, is like [the word חָרָה in:] “and my bones dried out (חָרָה) from the heat” (Job 30:30); חָרָה is an expression of fire and burning, for the nostrils heat up and burn at the time of anger. חָרוֹן (burning) is from the root חרה (to burn) just as רָצוֹן (will) is from the root רצה (to desire). And likewise, חֵמָה is an expression of heat (חֲמִימוּת). Therefore, it [Scripture] says: “and his anger (וַחִמָתוֹ) burnt within him” (Esther 1:12), and when the anger subsides, we say, “His mind has cooled off (נִתְקָרְרָה דַעְתּוֹ).”   וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ: הַיּוֹצֵא מִשְּׁנֵי נְחִירַיִם שֶׁל אַף. דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב כִּבְיָכוֹל בַּשְּׁכִינָה דֻּגְמַת מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁמִיעַ אֹזֶן הַבְּרִיּוֹת כְּפִי הַהֹוֶה, שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְהָבִין דָּבָר; כְּשֶׁאָדָם כּוֹעֵס יוֹצֵא רוּחַ מִנְּחִירָיו; וְכֵן "עָלָה עָשָׁן בְּאַפּוֹ" (תהלים י"ח), וְכֵן "וּמֵרוּחַ אַפּוֹ יִכְלוּ" (איוב ד'), וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר "לְמַעַן שְׁמִי אַאֲרִיךְ אַפִּי", (ישעיהו מ"ח) – כְּשֶׁזַּעְפּוֹ נָח, נְשִׁימָתוֹ אֲרֻכָּה, וּכְשֶׁהוּא כּוֹעֵס נְשִׁימָתוֹ קְצָרָה, "וּתְהִלָּתִי אֶחֱטָם לָךְ" (שם) – וּלְמַעַן תְּהִלָּתִי אָשִׂים חֹטֶם בְּאַפִּי לִסְתֹּם נְחִירַי בִּפְנֵי הָאַף וְהָרוּחַ שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ, לָךְ – בִּשְׁבִילְךָ, אֶחֱטָם, כְּמוֹ "נְאָקָה בְּחֹטֶם" בְּמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת, כָּךְ נִרְאֶה בְּעֵינַי. וְכָל חֲרוֹן אַף שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא אֲנִי אוֹמֵר כֵּן; חָרָה אַף כְּמוֹ "וְעַצְמִי חָרָה מִנִּי חֹרֶב" (איוב ל'), לְשׁוֹן שְׂרֵפָה וּמוֹקֵד, שֶׁהַנְּחִירַיִם מִתְחַמְּמִים וְנֶחֱרִים בְּעֵת הַקֶּצֶף, וְחָרוֹן מִגִּזְרַת חרה כְּמוֹ רָצוֹן מִגִּזְרַת רצה, וְכֵן חֵמָה לְשׁוֹן חֲמִימוּת, עַל כֵּן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ" (אסתר א'), וּבְנוֹחַ הַחֵמָה אוֹמֵר "נִתְקָרְרָה" דַּעְתּוֹ:
the waters were heaped up: Heb. נֶעֶרְמוּ. Onkelos rendered [this word] as an expression of cunning (עַרְמִימוּת). According to the clarity of Scripture, however, it is an expression related to “a stack (עִרֵמַת) of wheat” (Song of Songs 7:3), and [the phrase that follows:] “the running water stood erect like a wall” proves this.   נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן עַרְמִימוּת, וּלְשׁוֹן צַחוּת הַמִּקְרָא כְּמוֹ "עֲרֵמַת חִטִּים" (שיר השירים ז'), וְנִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ נֵד יוֹכִיחַ:
the waters were heaped up: From the heat of the wind that came out of Your nose, the water dried up, and it became like piles and heaps of grain stacks, which are tall.   נֶעֶרְמוּ: מִמּוֹקֵד רוּחַ שֶׁיָּצָא מֵאַפְּךָ יָבְשׁוּ הַמַּיִם, וְהֵם נַעֲשׂוּ כְּמִין גַּלִּים וּכְרִיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲרֵמָה, שֶׁהֵם גְּבוֹהִים:
like a wall: Heb. כְמוֹ-נֵד, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כְּשׁוּר, like a wall. —   כְמוֹ־נֵד: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "כְּשׁוּר" – כְּחוֹמָה:
wall: Heb. נֵד, an expression of heaping and gathering, like “a heap (נֵד) of harvest on a day of sickness” (Isa. 17:11); “He gathers (כֹּנֵס) as a mound כַּנֵד” (Ps. 33:7). It does not say, “He brings in as a flask כַּנֹּאד,” but כַּנַּד. Now if כַּנַּד were the same as כַּנֹּאד, and כֹּנֵס were an expression of bringing in, it should have said, “He brings in as into a flask כִּבְנֹאד) (מַכְנִיס the waters of the sea.” Rather, כֹּנֵס is an expression of gathering and heaping, and so, “shall stand in one heap (נֵד)” ; “stood in one heap (נֵד).” (Josh. 3:13, 16); and the expression of rising and standing does not apply to flasks, but to walls and heaps. Moreover, we do not find נֹּאד, meaning a flask, vowelized [with any vowel] but with a “melupum,” (meaning a “cholam,” ) like [in the phrases:] “place my tears into Your flask (בְּנֹּאדֶ)” (Ps. 56:9); “the flask of נֹּאד milk” (Jud. 4:19).   נֵד: לְשׁוֹן צִבּוּר וְכִנּוּס, כְּמוֹ "נֵד קָצִיר בְּיוֹם נַחֲלָה" (ישעיהו י״ז:י״א), "כּוֹנֵס כַּנֵּד" (תהילים ל״ג:ז׳), לֹא כָתוּב כּוֹנֵס כַּנֹּאד אֶלָּא כַּנֵּד, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה כנד כְּמוֹ כנאד וְכוֹנֵס לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה, הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב מַכְנִיס כִּבְנֹאד מֵי הַיָּם, אֶלָּא כוֹנֵס לְשׁוֹן אוֹסֵף וְצוֹבֵר הוּא, וְכֵן "קָמוּ נֵד אֶחָד" (יהושע ג׳:י״ג), "וַיַּעַמְדוּ נֵד אֶחָד" (שם), וְאֵין לְשׁוֹן קִימָה וַעֲמִידָה בְּנֹאדוֹת אֶלָּא בְּחוֹמוֹת וְצִבּוּרִים, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ נֹאד נָקוּד אֶלָּא בִּמְלָאפוּם כְּמוֹ "שִׂימָה דִמְעָתִי בְנֹאדֶךָ" (תהילים נ״ו:ט׳), "אֶת נֹאד הֶחָלָב" (שופטים ד׳:י״ט):
congealed: Heb. קָפְאוּ, like “and curdle me (תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי) like cheese” (Job 10:10). [I.e.,] that they [the depths] hardened and became like stones, and the water hurled the Egyptians against the stone with [all its] might and fought with them [the Egyptians] with all kinds of harshness.   קָֽפְאוּ: כְּמוֹ "וְכַגְּבִנָּה תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי" (איוב י׳:י׳), שֶׁהֻקְשׁוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲבָנִים וְהַמַּיִם זוֹרְקִים אֶת הַמִּצְרִיִּים עַל הָאֶבֶן בְּכֹחַ וְנִלְחָמִים בָּם בְּכָל מִינֵי קֹשִׁי:
in the heart of the sea: Heb. בְּלֶב יָם, in the strongest part of the sea. It is customary for the Scriptures to speak in this manner, [for instance:] “until the heart of (לֵב) the heavens” (Deut. 4:11); in the heart of (בְּלֵב) the terebinth" (II Sam. 18:14). [The heart in these examples is] an expression denoting the root and the strength of anything. —   בְּלֶב־יָֽם: בְּחֹזֶק הַיָּם; וְדֶרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָאוֹת לְדַבֵּר כֵּן, "עַד לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם" (דברים ד'), "בְּלֵב הָאֵלָה" (שמואל ב י"ח), לְשׁוֹן עִקָּרוֹ וְתָקְפּוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר:
9[Because] the enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will share the booty; my desire will be filled from them; I will draw my sword, my hand will impoverish them.   טאָמַ֥ר אוֹיֵ֛ב אֶרְדֹּ֥ף אַשִּׂ֖יג אֲחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָ֑ל תִּמְלָאֵ֣מוֹ נַפְשִׁ֔י אָרִ֣יק חַרְבִּ֔י תּֽוֹרִישֵׁ֖מוֹ יָדִֽי:
[Because] the enemy said: to his people, when he enticed them with [his] words, "I will pursue, and I will overtake them, and I will share the plunder with my officers and my servants."   אָמַר אוֹיֵב: לְעַמּוֹ, כְּשֶׁפִּתָּם בִּדְבָרִים, אֶרְדֹּף וְאַשִּׂיגֵם וַאֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל עִם שָׂרַי וַעֲבָדַי:
will be filled from them: Heb. תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ, equivalent to תִּמְלָא מֵהֶם, will be filled from them.   תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ: תִּתְמַּלֵא מֵהֶם:
my desire: Heb. נַפְשִׁי, lit., my soul, my spirit, and my will. Do not be surprised at [one] word speaking for two [words]; i.e., תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ, instead of תִּמְלָא מֵהֶם, because there are many such words [in Tanach like this], e.g., “you have given me (נְתַתָּנִי) dry land” (Jud. 1:15), [which is] like נָתַתָּ לִי “and they could not speak with him (דַּבְּרוּ) peacefully” (Gen. 37:4), [which is] like דַּבֵּר עִמוֹ“my children have left me (יְצָאוּנִי) ” (Jer. 10:20), [which is] like יָצְאוּ מִמֶנִי “I will tell him (אַגִּידֶנּוּ) ” (Job 31:37), [which is] like אַגִיד לוֹ. Here too, תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ is equivalent to תִִִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי מֵהֶם.   נַפְשִׁי: רוּחִי וּרְצוֹנִי. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל תֵּבָה הַמְדַבֶּרֶת בִּשְׁתַּיִם, תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ – תִּמָּלֵא מֵהֶם, יֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה "כִּי אֶרֶץ הַנֶּגֶב נְתַתָּנִי" (שופטים א׳:ט״ו), כְּמוֹ נָתַתָּ לִי, "וְלֹא יָכְלוּ דַּבְּרוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם" (בראשית ל״ז:ד׳), כְּמוֹ דַּבֵּר עִמּוֹ, "בָּנַי יְצָאוּנִי" (ירמיהו י׳:כ׳), כְּמוֹ יָצְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי, "מִסְפַּר צְעָדַי אֲגִידֶנּוּ" (איוב ל״א:ל״ז), כְּמוֹ אַגִּיד לוֹ, אַף כָּאן "תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ" – תִּמָּלֵא נַפְשִׁי מֵהֶם:
I will draw my sword: Heb. חַרְבִּי אָרִיק, lit., I will empty my sword. I will draw, and because one empties the sheath by drawing it [the sword], and it remains empty, an expression of emptying is appropriate, like “And it came to pass that they were emptying (מְרִיקִים) their sacks” (Gen. 42:35); “and they shall empty (יָרִיקוּ) his vessels” (Jer. 48:12). Do not say that the expression of emptiness [in these examples] does not apply to what comes out [of its container] but [instead applies] to the sheath, the sack, or the vessel from which it came out, but not to the sword or the wine, and [thus] to force an interpretation of אָרִיק חַרְבִּי like the language of “and he armed (וַיָרֶק) his trained men” (Gen. 14:14), [claiming that its] meaning [is] "I will arm myself with my sword.” [To this I answer that] we find the expression [of emptying] also applied to that which comes out, e.g., “oil poured forth (תּוּרַק) ” (Song of Songs 1:3); “and he has not been poured (הוּרַק) from one vessel to another vessel” (Jer. 48:11). It is not written: “the vessel was not emptied (הוּרַק)” but “the wine was not poured (הוּרַק) from one vessel to another vessel.” Similarly, “and they will draw (וְהֵרִיקוּ) their swords on the beauty of your wisdom” (Ezek. 28:7), referring to Hiram [the king of Tyre]-[following Onkelos, Jonathan].   אָרִיק חַרְבִּי: אֶשְׁלֹף, וְעַל שֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מֵרִיק אֶת הַתַּעַר בִּשְׁלִיפָתוֹ וְנִשְׁאָר רֵיק, נוֹפֵל בּוֹ לְשׁוֹן הֲרָקָה, כְּמוֹ "מְרִיקִים שַׂקֵּיהֶם" (בראשית מ״ב:ל״ה), "וְכֵלָיו יָרִיקוּ" (ירמיהו מ״ח:י״ב). וְאַל תֹּאמַר אֵין לְשׁוֹן רֵיקוּת נוֹפֵל עַל הַיּוֹצֵא, אֶלָּא עַל הַתִּיק וְעַל הַשַּׂק וְעַל הַכְּלִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנָּה, אֲבָל לֹא עַל הַחֶרֶב וְעַל הַיַּיִן, וְלִדְחֹק וּלְפָרֵשׁ "אָרִיק חַרְבִּי" כִּלְשׁוֹן "וַיָּרֶק אֶת חֲנִיכָיו" (בראשית י״ד:י״ד), אֶזְדַּיֵּן בְּחַרְבִּי, מָצִינוּ הַלָּשׁוֹן מוּסָב אַף עַל הַיּוֹצֵא, "שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק" (שיר השירים א׳:ג׳), "וְלֹא הוּרַק מִכְּלִי אֶל כֶּלִי" (ירמיהו מ״ח:י״א), לֹא הוּרַק הַכְּלִי אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא לֹא הוּרַק הַיַּיִן מִכְּלִי אֶל כְּלִי, מָצִינוּ הַלָּשׁוֹן מוּסָב עַל הַיַּיִן, וְכֵן "וְהֵרִיקוּ חַרְבוֹתָם עַל יְפִי חָכְמָתֶךָ", דְּחִירָם (יחזקאל כ״ח:ז׳):
my hand will impoverish them: Heb. תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ, an expression of poverty (רֵישׁוּת) and destitution, like “The Lord impoverishes (מוֹרִישׁ) and makes rich” (I Sam. 2:7).   תּֽוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ: לְשׁוֹן רֵישׁוּת וְדַלּוּת, כְּמוֹ "מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר" (שמואל א' ב'):
10You blew with Your wind, the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the powerful waters.   ינָשַׁ֥פְתָּ בְרֽוּחֲךָ֖ כִּסָּ֣מוֹ יָ֑ם צָֽלֲלוּ֙ כַּֽעוֹפֶ֔רֶת בְּמַ֖יִם אַדִּירִֽים:
You blew: Heb. נָשַׁפְתָּ, an expression of blowing, and likewise: “and also He blew (נָשַׁף) on them” (Isa. 40:24).   נָשַׁפְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן הֲפָחָה, וְכֵן "וְגַם נָשַׁף בָּהֶם" (ישעיה מ'):
they sank: Heb. צָלִלוּ, [which means] they sank; they went down to the depths, an expression of מְצוּלָה, deep.   צָֽלֲלוּ: שָׁקְעוּ, עָמְקוּ, לְשׁוֹן מְצוּלָה:
like lead: Heb. כַּעוֹפֶרֶת, plomb in French, lead.   כַּֽעוֹפֶרֶת: אֲבָר, פלו"ם בְלַעַז:
11Who is like You among the powerful, O Lord? Who is like You, powerful in the holy place? Too awesome for praises, performing wonders!   יאמִֽי־כָמֹ֤כָה בָּֽאֵלִם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ נוֹרָ֥א תְהִלֹּ֖ת עֹ֥שֵׂה פֶֽלֶא:
among the powerful: Heb. בָּאֵלִם, among the strong, like “and the powerful (אֵילֵי) of the land he took away” (Ezek. 17:13); “my strength איָלוּתִי, hasten to my assistance” (Ps. 22:20).   בָּֽאֵלִם: בַּחֲזָקִים, כְּמוֹ "וְאֶת אֵילֵי הָאָרֶץ לָקָח" (יחזקאל י"ז). "אֱיָלוּתִי לְעֶזְרָתִי חוּשָׁה" (תהלים כ"ב):
Too awesome for praises: [You are] too awesome for [one] to recite Your praises, lest they fall short, as it is written: “Silence is praise to You” (Ps. 65:2).   נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת: יָרְאוּי מִלְּהַגִּיד תְּהִלּוֹתֶיךָ פֶן יִמְעֲטוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב "לְךָ דוּמִיָּה תְהִלָּה" (תהילים ס״ה:ב׳):
12You inclined Your right hand; the earth swallowed them up.   יבנָטִ֨יתָ֙ יְמִ֣ינְךָ֔ תִּבְלָעֵ֖מוֹ אָֽרֶץ:
You inclined Your right hand: When the Holy One, blessed be He, inclines His hand, the wicked perish and fall, because all are placed in His hand, and they fall when He inclines it. Similarly, it [Scripture] says: “and the Lord shall turn His hand, and the helper shall stumble, and the helped one shall fall” (Isa. 31:3). This can be compared to glass vessels placed in a person’s hand. If he inclines his hand a little, they fall and break. — [based on Mechilta]   נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךָ: כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נוֹטֶה יָדוֹ, הָרְשָׁעִים כָּלִים וְנוֹפְלִים, לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל נָתוּן בְּיָדוֹ וְנוֹפְלִים בְּהַטָּיָתָהּ; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וַה' יַטֶּה יָדוֹ וְכָשַׁל עוֹזֵר וְנָפַל עָזֻר" (ישעיהו ל"א), מָשָׁל לִכְלֵי זְכוּכִית הַנְּתוּנִים בְּיַד אָדָם, מַטֶּה יָדוֹ מְעַט וְהֵן נוֹפְלִים וּמִשְׁתַּבְּרִין (מכילתא):
the earth swallowed them up: From here [we deduce] that they merited to be buried as a reward for saying, “The Lord is the righteous One” (Exod. 9:27). — [from Mechilta]   תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָֽרֶץ: מִכָּאן שֶׁזָּכוּ לִקְבוּרָה בִּשְׂכַר שֶׁאָמְרוּ ה' הַצַּדִּיק (מכילתא):
13With Your loving kindness You led the people You redeemed; You led [them] with Your might to Your holy abode.   יגנָחִ֥יתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ֖ עַם־ז֣וּ גּאָ֑לְתָּ נֵהַ֥לְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ֖ אֶל־נְוֵ֥ה קָדְשֶֽׁךָ:
You led: Heb. נֵהַלְתָּ, an expression of leading. Onkelos, however, rendered [it as] an expression of carrying and bearing, but he was not exact in explaining it in accordance with the Hebrew. [I.e., he explained the sense of the verse, but he did not translate the word literally.]   נֵהַלְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן מְנַהֵל, וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן נוֹשֵׂא וְסוֹבֵל, וְלֹא דִקְדֵּק לְפָרֵשׁ אַחַר לְשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית:
14Peoples heard, they trembled; a shudder seized the inhabitants of Philistia.   ידשָֽׁמְע֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים יִרְגָּז֑וּן חִ֣יל אָחַ֔ז יֽשְׁבֵ֖י פְּלָֽשֶׁת:
they trembled: Heb. יִרְגָזוּן, [which means] they tremble.   יִרְגָּזוּן: מִתְרַגְּזִין:
the inhabitants of Philistia: [They trembled] since they slew the children of Ephraim, who hastened the end [of their exile] and went out [of Egypt] forcibly, as is delineated in (I) Chronicles (7:21). And the people of [the town of] Gath slew them [the children of Ephraim]. — [from Mechilta]   יֽשְׁבֵי פְּלָֽשֶׁת: מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָרְגוּ אֶת בְּנֵי אֶפְרַיִם – שֶׁמִּהֲרוּ אֶת הַקֵּץ וְיָצְאוּ בְחָזְקָה כַּמְפֹרָשׁ בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים – וַהֲרָגוּם אַנְשֵׁי גַת (מכילתא):
15Then the chieftains of Edom were startled; [as for] the powerful men of Moab, trembling seized them; all the inhabitants of Canaan melted.   טואָ֤ז נִבְהֲלוּ֙ אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם אֵילֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב יֹֽאחֲזֵ֖מוֹ רָ֑עַד נָמֹ֕גוּ כֹּ֖ל יֽשְׁבֵ֥י כְנָֽעַן:
the chieftains of Edom…the powerful men of Moab: Now they had nothing to fear at all, because they [the Israelites] were not advancing upon them. Rather, [they trembled] because of grief, that they were grieving and suffering because of the glory of Israel.   אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם אֵילֵי מוֹאָב: וַהֲלֹא לֹא הָיָה לָהֶם לִירֹא כְלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עֲלֵיהֶם הוֹלְכִים? אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי אֲנִינוּת שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְאוֹנְנִים וּמִצְטַעֲרִים עַל כְּבוֹדָם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל (ילקוט שמעוני):
melted: Heb. נָמֹגוּ, [as in the phrase] “with raindrops You dissolve it (תְּמֹגְגֶנָּה)” (Ps. 65:11). They [the inhabitants of Canaan] said, “They are coming upon us to annihilate us and possess our land.” -[from Mechilta]   נָמֹגוּ: נָמַסּוּ, כְּמוֹ "בִּרְבִיבִים תְּמוֹגְגֶנָּה" (תהלים ס"ה), אָמְרוּ, עָלֵינוּ הֵם בָּאִים, לְכַלּוֹתֵינוּ וְלִירַשׁ אֶת אַרְצֵנוּ (מכילתא):
16May dread and fright fall upon them; with the arm of Your greatness may they become as still as a stone, until Your people cross over, O Lord, until this nation that You have acquired crosses over.   טזתִּפֹּ֨ל עֲלֵיהֶ֤ם אֵימָ֨תָה֙ וָפַ֔חַד בִּגְדֹ֥ל זְרֽוֹעֲךָ֖ יִדְּמ֣וּ כָּאָ֑בֶן עַד־יַֽעֲבֹ֤ר עַמְּךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה עַד־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר עַם־ז֥וּ קָנִֽיתָ:
May dread…fall upon them: Heb. אֵימָתָה, upon the distant ones. — [from Mechilta]   תִּפֹּל עֲלֵיהֶם אֵימָתָה: עַל הָרְחוֹקִים:
and fright: Heb. וָפַחַד. Upon the nearby ones, as the matter that is stated: “For we have heard how the Lord dried up [the water of the Red Sea for you, etc.]” (Josh. 2:10).[from Mechilta]   וָפַחַד: עַל הַקְּרוֹבִים, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כִּי שָׁמַעְנוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר הוֹבִישׁ וְגוֹ'" (יהושע ב'):
until…cross over, until…crosses over: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders.   עַד־יַֽעֲבֹר עַד־יַֽעֲבֹר: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
You have acquired: Heb. קָנִיתָ. [I.e., whom] You loved more than other nations, similar to an article purchased for a high price, which is dear to the person [who purchased it].   קָנִֽיתָ: חִבַּבְתָּ מִשְּׁאָר אֻמּוֹת, כְּחֵפֶץ הַקָּנוּי בְּדָמִים יְקָרִים שֶׁחָבִיב עַל הָאָדָם:
17You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage, directed toward Your habitation, which You made, O Lord; the sanctuary, O Lord, [which] Your hands founded.   יזתְּבִאֵ֗מוֹ וְתִטָּעֵ֨מוֹ֙ בְּהַ֣ר נַֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֔ מָכ֧וֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ֛ פָּעַ֖לְתָּ יְהֹוָ֑ה מִקְּדָ֕שׁ אֲדֹנָ֖י כּֽוֹנְנ֥וּ יָדֶֽיךָ:
You shall bring them: Moses prophesied that he would not enter the land [of Israel]. Therefore, it does not say: “You shall bring us.” (It appears that it should read “that they would not enter the land, etc.” Indeed, this is the way it is stated in Baba Bathra 119b and in Mechilta: The sons will enter but not the fathers. Although the decree of the spies had not yet been pronounced, he [Moses] prophesied, not knowing what he was prophesying. — [Maharshal])   תְּבִאֵמוֹ: נִתְנַבֵּא מֹשֶׁה שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לָאָרֶץ לְכָךְ לֹא נֶאֱמַר "תְּבִיאֵנוּ" (בבא בתרא קי"ט):
directed toward Your habitation: The Temple below is directly opposite the Temple above, which You made. — [from Mechilta]   מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ: מִקְדָּשׁ שֶׁל מַטָּה מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד כִּסֵּא שֶׁל מַעְלָה אֲשֶׁר פָּעַלְתָּ (מכילתא):
the sanctuary: Heb. מִקְּדָשׁ. The cantillation sign over it is a “zakef gadol,” to separate it from the word ה following it. [The verse thus means:] the sanctuary which Your hands founded, O Lord. The Temple is beloved, since, whereas the world was created with “one hand,” as it is said: “Even My hand laid the foundation of the earth” (Isa. 48:13), the sanctuary [will be built] with “two hands.” When will it be built with "two hands"? At the time when “the Lord will reign to all eternity” [verse 18]. In the future, when the entire ruling power is His. — [from Mechilta and Keth. 5a]   מִקְּדָשׁ ה': הַטַּעַם עָלָיו זָקֵף גָּדוֹל, לְהַפְרִידוֹ מִתֵּבַת הַשֵּׁם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, הַמִּקְדָּשׁ אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ ה'. חָבִיב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁהָעוֹלָם נִבְרָא בְּיָד אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אַף יָדִי יָסְדָה אֶרֶץ" (ישעיהו מ"ח), וּמִקְדָּשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם, וְאֵימָתַי יִבָּנֶה בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם? בִּזְמַן שֶׁ"ה' יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד" – לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא שֶׁכָּל הַמְּלוּכָה שֶׁלּוֹ:
18The Lord will reign to all eternity   יחיְהֹוָ֥ה | יִמְלֹ֖ךְ לְעֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד:
to all eternity: Heb. לְעֹלָם וָעֶד. [This is] an expression of eternity, and the “vav” in it is part of the root. Therefore, it is punctuated with a “pattach.” But in “and I am He Who knows, and [I am] a witness וָעֵד” (Jer. 29:23), in which the “vav” is a prefix, it is punctuated with a “kamatz.”[The punctuation referred to here is the sound of the word, which would be the letter "ayin" not "vov". This is punctuated with a "segol" which is sometimes referred to as the "small pattach". ]   לְעֹלָם וָעֶֽד: לְשׁוֹן עוֹלָמוּת הוּא וְהַוָּי"ו בּוֹ יְסוֹד, לְפִיכָךְ הִיא פְּתוּחָה, אֲבָל "אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹדֵעַ וָעֵד" (ירמיהו כ"ט), שֶׁהַוָּי"ו בּוֹ שִׁמּוּשׁ, קְמוּצָה הִיא:
19When Pharaoh's horses came with his chariots and his horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought the waters of the sea back upon them, and the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea,   יטכִּ֣י בָא֩ ס֨וּס פַּרְעֹ֜ה בְּרִכְבּ֤וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָׁיו֙ בַּיָּ֔ם וַיָּ֧שֶׁב יְהֹוָ֛ה עֲלֵהֶ֖ם אֶת־מֵ֣י הַיָּ֑ם וּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָֽלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
When Pharaoh’s horses came: Heb. כִּי בָא When they came.   כִּי בָא סוּס פַּרְעֹה: כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּא:
20Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron's sister, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women came out after her with timbrels and with dances.   כוַתִּקַּח֩ מִרְיָ֨ם הַנְּבִיאָ֜ה אֲח֧וֹת אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן אֶת־הַתֹּ֖ף בְּיָדָ֑הּ וַתֵּצֶ֤אןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים֙ אַֽחֲרֶ֔יהָ בְּתֻפִּ֖ים וּבִמְחֹלֹֽת:
Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took: When did she prophesy? When she was [known only as] “Aaron’s sister,” before Moses was born, she said, “My mother is destined to bear a son” [who will save Israel], as is found in Sotah 12b, 13a). Another explanation: [It is written] Aaron’s sister since he [Aaron] risked his life for her when she was afflicted with zara’ath; [thus] she is called by his name (Mechilta).   וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה: הֵיכָן נִתְנַבְּאָה? כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, קֹדֶם שֶׁנּוֹלַד מֹשֶׁה, אָמְרָה עֲתִידָה אִמִּי שֶׁתֵּלֵד בֵּן וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסוֹטָה. (דף י"ב). דָּבָר אַחֵר — אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, לְפִי שֶׁמָּסַר נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ כְּשֶׁנִּצְטָרְעָה נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ:
a timbrel: Heb. הַתֹּף, a type of musical instrument.   אֶת־הַתֹּף: כְּלִי שֶׁל מִינֵי זֶמֶר:
with timbrels and with dances: The righteous women of that generation were [so] certain that the Holy One, blessed be He, would perform miracles for them, they took timbrels out of Egypt. — [from Mechilta]   בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹֽת: מֻבְטָחוֹת הָיוּ צַדְקָנִיּוֹת שֶׁבַּדּוֹר שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם נִסִּים וְהוֹצִיאוּ תֻפִּים מִמִּצְרַיִם (מכילתא):
21And Miriam called out to them, Sing to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea   כאוַתַּ֥עַן לָהֶ֖ם מִרְיָ֑ם שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹֽכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם:
And Miriam called out to them: Moses said the Song to the men, and they answered after him, and Miriam said the song to the women [and they too repeated it]. — [from Mechilta]   וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם: מֹשֶׁה אָמַר שִׁירָה לָאֲנָשִׁים – הוּא אוֹמֵר וְהֵם עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו – וּמִרְיָם אָמְרָה שִׁירָה לַנָּשִׁים (סוטה ל'):
22Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out into the desert of Shur; they walked for three days in the desert but did not find water.   כבוַיַּסַּ֨ע משֶׁ֤ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִיַּם־ס֔וּף וַיֵּֽצְא֖וּ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־שׁ֑וּר וַיֵּֽלְכ֧וּ שְׁלֽשֶׁת־יָמִ֛ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְלֹא־מָ֥צְאוּ מָֽיִם:
Moses led Israel away: lit., made Israel journey. He led them away against their will, for the Egyptians had adorned their steeds with ornaments of gold, silver, and precious stones, and the Israelites were finding them in the sea. The plunder at the sea was greater than the plunder in Egypt, as it is said: “We will make you rows of gold with studs of silver” (Song of Songs 1:11). Therefore, he had to lead them against their will. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Beshallach 16, Mechilta, Exod. 12:35, Song Rabbah 1:11]   וַיַּסַּע משֶׁה: הִסִּיעָן בְּעַל כָּרְחָם, שֶׁעִטְּרוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת סוּסֵיהֶם בְּתַכְשִׁיטֵי זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וַאֲבָנִים טוֹבוֹת, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹצְאִין אוֹתָן בַּיָּם – וּגְדוֹלָה הָיְתָה בִזַּת הַיָּם מִבִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף" (שיר השירים א') – לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לְהַסִּיעָן בְּעַל כָּרְחָם:
23They came to Marah, but they could not drink water from Marah because it was bitter; therefore, it was named Marah.   כגוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ מָרָ֔תָה וְלֹ֣א יָֽכְל֗וּ לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת מַ֨יִם֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה כִּ֥י מָרִ֖ים הֵ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָֽרָא־שְׁמָ֖הּ מָרָֽה:
They came to Marah: Heb. מָרָתָה, like לְמָרָָה. The “hey” at the end מָרָתָה is instead of a “lammed” [prefix] at the beginning [of the word], and the “thav” is instead of the “hey” [that is part] of the root in the word מָרָָה. But when a suffix is added, when it is attached to a “hey” that replaces a “lammed,” the “hey” of the root is transformed into a “thav.” Similarly, every “hey” that is part of the root of the word is transformed into a “thav” when a suffix is added, like “I have no wrath (חֵמָה) ” (Isa. 27:4), [becomes] “and his wrath (וַחִמָתוֹ) burnt within him” (Esther 1:12). Note that the “hey” of the root is transformed into a “thav” when it is placed next to the added “vav.” Likewise,"bond servants and handmaids (וְאָמָה) “ (Lev. 25:44), [becomes] and "Here is my handmaid (אִמָתִי) Bilhah” (Gen. 30:3); “a living (חַיָה) soul” (Gen. 2:7), [becomes] “and his living spirit (חַיָתוֹ) causes him to abhor food” (Job 33:20); “between Ramah (הָרָמָה)” (Jud. 4:5), [becomes] “And his return was to Ramah (הָרָמָתָה)” (I Sam. 7:17).   וַיָּבֹאוּ מָרָתָה: כְּמוֹ לְמָרָה, ה"א בְּסוֹף תֵּבָה בִּמְקוֹם למ"ד בִּתְחִלָּתָהּ, וְהַתָּי"ו הִיא בִּמְקוֹם ה"א הַנִּשְׁרֶשֶׁת בְּתֵבַת מָרָה, וּבִסְמִיכָתָהּ, כְּשֶׁהִיא נִדְבֶּקֶת לַהֵ"א שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף בִּמְקוֹם הַלָּמֶ"ד, תֵּהָפֵךְ הַהֵ"א שֶׁל שֹׁרֶשׁ לְתָי"ו; וְכֵן כָּל הֵ"א שֶׁהִיא שֹׁרֶשׁ בַּתֵּבָה תִּתְהַפֵּךְ לְתָי"ו בִּסְמִיכָתָהּ, כְּמוֹ "חֵמָה אֵין לִי" (ישעיהו כ"ז), "וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ" (אסתר א'), הֲרֵי הֵ"א שֶׁל שֹׁרֶשׁ נֶהְפֶּכֶת לְתָי"ו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּסְמֶכֶת אֶל הַוָּי"ו הַנּוֹסֶפֶת, וְכֵן "עֶבֶד וְאָמָה" (ויקרא כ"ה), "הִנֵּה אֲמָתִי בִלְהָה" (בראשית ל'), "לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה" (בראשית ב׳:ז׳), "וְזִהֲמַתּוּ חַיָּתוֹ לָחֶם" (איוב ל"ג), "בֵּין הָרָמָה" (שופטים ד'), "וּתְשֻׁבָתוֹ הָרָמָתָה" (שמואל א ז'):
24The people complained against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?   כדוַיִּלֹּ֧נוּ הָעָ֛ם עַל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹ֖ר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּֽה:
complained: Heb. וַיִלֹנוּ. This is in the niph’al conjugation. [In this case, the niph’al denotes the reflexive, as we see further in Rashi.] Likewise, in the Targum [Onkelos], it is also a niph’al expression: וְאִתְרַעִמוּ. The nature of the term denoting complaint תְּלוּנָה [is that it] reverts to the person [complaining], מִתְלוֹנֵן [complains] or מִתְרוֹעֵם [storms], but one does not say לוֹנֵן or רוֹעֵם [Hebrew]. The Frenchman also says, “Decomplenst sey.” He reverts the statement to himself when he says, “Sey.”   וַיִּלֹּנוּ: לְשׁוֹן נִפְעָל הוּא, וְכֵן הַתַּרְגּוּם לְשׁוֹן נִפְעָל הוּא וְאִתְרַעֲמוּ, וְכֵן דֶּרֶךְ לְשׁוֹן תְּלוּנָה לְהָסֵב הַדִּבּוּר אֶל הָאָדָם – מִתְלוֹנֵן, מִתְרוֹעֵם וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹנֵן, רוֹעֵם, וְכֵן יֹאמַר הַלּוֹעֵז דקומפ"לישנ"ט ש"י בְלַעַז, מֵסֵב הַדִּבּוּר אֵלָיו בְּאָמְרוֹ ש"י:
25So he cried out to the Lord, and the Lord instructed him concerning a piece of wood, which he cast into the water, and the water became sweet. There He gave them a statute and an ordinance, and there He tested them.   כהוַיִּצְעַ֣ק אֶל־יְהֹוָ֗ה וַיּוֹרֵ֤הוּ יְהֹוָה֙ עֵ֔ץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ֙ אֶל־הַמַּ֔יִם וַיִּמְתְּק֖וּ הַמָּ֑יִם שָׁ֣ם שָׂ֥ם ל֛וֹ חֹ֥ק וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וְשָׁ֥ם נִסָּֽהוּ:
There He gave them: In Marah, He gave them some sections of the Torah so that they would busy themselves with them, namely [they were given the laws governing] the Sabbath, the red cow, and laws of jurisprudence. — [from Mechilta and Sanh. 56b]   שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ: בְּמָרָה נָתַן לָהֶם מִקְצָת פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁיִּתְעַסְּקוּ בָהֶם, שַׁבָּת וּפָרָה אֲדֻמָּה וְדִינִין (סנהדרין נ"ו):
and there He tested them: [He tested] the people and saw how stiff-necked they were, that they did not consult Moses with respectful language, “Entreat [God to have] mercy upon us that we should have water to drink,” but they complained. — [from Mechilta]   וְשָׁם נִסָּֽהוּ: לָעָם, וְרָאָה קְשִׁי עָרְפּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלְכוּ בְמֹשֶׁה בְּלָשׁוֹן יָפָה "בַּקֵּשׁ עָלֵינוּ רַחֲמִים שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לָנוּ מַיִם לִשְׁתּוֹת" אֶלָּא נִתְלוֹנְנוּ:
26And He said, If you hearken to the voice of the Lord, your God, and you do what is proper in His eyes, and you listen closely to His commandments and observe all His statutes, all the sicknesses that I have visited upon Egypt I will not visit upon you, for I, the Lord, heal you.   כווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ אִם־שָׁמ֨וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֜ע לְק֣וֹל | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ וְהַיָּשָׁ֤ר בְּעֵינָיו֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ֙ לְמִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֖ כָּל־חֻקָּ֑יו כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲלָ֞ה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֤מְתִּי בְמִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לֹֽא־אָשִׂ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה רֹֽפְאֶֽךָ:
If you hearken: This is the acceptance [of the law] that they should accept upon themselves.   אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע: זוֹ קַבָּלָה שֶׁיְּקַבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם:
and you do: This means the performance [of the commandments].   תַּֽעֲשֶׂה: הִיא עֲשִׂיָּה:
and you listen closely: [This means that] you [should] incline your ears to be meticulous in [fulfilling] them.   וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ: תַּטֶּה אָזְנַיִם לְדַקְדֵּק בָּהֶם:
all His statutes: Things that are only the decree of the King, without any [apparent] rationale, and with which the evil inclination finds fault, [saying,] “What is [the sense of] the prohibition of these [things]? Why were they prohibited?” For example, [the prohibitions of] wearing shatnes [a mixture of wool and linen] and eating pork, and [the ritual of] the red cow and their like. — [based on Yoma 67b]   כָּל־חֻקָּיו: דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן אֶלָּא גְּזֵרַת מֶלֶךְ, בְּלֹא שׁוּם טַעַם, וְיֵצֶר הָרָע מְקַנְטֵר עֲלֵיהֶם: מָה אִסּוּר בְּאֵלּוּ? לָמָּה נֶאֶסְרוּ? כְּגוֹן לְבִישַׁת כִּלְאַיִם וַאֲכִילַת חֲזִיר וּפָרָה אֲדֻמָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם (יומא ס"ז):
I will not visit upon you: And if I do bring [sickness upon you], it is as if it has not been brought, “for I, the Lord, heal you.” This is its midrashic interpretation (see Sanh. 101a, Mechilta). According to its simple meaning, [we explain:] “for I, the Lord, am your Physician” and [I] teach you the Torah and the mitzvoth in order that you be saved from them [illnesses], like this physician who says to a person, “Do not eat things that will cause you to relapse into the grip of illness.” This [warning] refers to listening closely to the commandments, and so [Scripture] says: “It shall be healing for your navel” (Prov. 3:8). — [from Mechilta]   לֹֽא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ: וְאִם אָשִׂים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּלֹא הוּשְׂמָה, כי אני ה' רפאך – זֶהוּ מִדְרָשׁוֹ. וּלְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ כִּי אֲנִי ה' רֹפְאֶךָ וּמְלַמֶּדְךָ תוֹרָה וּמִצְווֹת לְמַעַן תִּנָּצֵל מֵהֶם, כָּרוֹפֵא הַזֶּה הָאוֹמֵר לָאָדָם, אַל תֹּאכַל דָּבָר זֶה פֶּן יְבִיאֲךָ לִידֵי חֹלִי זֶה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "רִפְאוּת תְּהִי לְשָׁרֶּךָ" (משלי ג'):