ב"ה

Torah Reading for Vayechi

Parshat Vayechi
Shabbat, 18 Tevet, 5784
30 December, 2023
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Complete: (Genesis 47:28 - 50:26; Kings I 2:1-12)
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First Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 47

28And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt for seventeen years, and Jacob's days, the years of his life, were a hundred and forty seven years.   כחוַיְחִ֤י יַֽעֲקֹב֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם שְׁבַ֥ע עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה וַיְהִ֤י יְמֵי־יַֽעֲקֹב֙ שְׁנֵ֣י חַיָּ֔יו שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֔ים וְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָֽה:
And Jacob lived: Why is this section [completely] closed? Because, as soon as our father Jacob passed away, the eyes and the heart of Israel were “closed,” (i.e., it became “dark” for them) because of the misery of the slavery, for they (the Egyptians) commenced to subjugate them. Another explanation: That he (Jacob) attempted to reveal the End [of the exile] to his sons, but it was “closed off” (concealed) from him. [This appears] in Gen. Rabbah (91:1).   וַיְחִי יַֽעֲקֹב: לָמָּה פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ סְתוּמָה? לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּפְטַר יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ נִסְתְּמוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וְלִבָּם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִצָּרַת הַשִּׁעְבּוּד, שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לְשַׁעְבְּדָם; דָּבָר אַחֵר: שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לְגַלּוֹת אֶת הַקֵּץ לְבָנָיו, וְנִסְתַּם מִמֶּנּוּ. בּבְּרֵאשִׁית רַבָּה:
29When the time drew near for Israel to die, he called his son Joseph and said to him, "If I have now found favor in your eyes, now place your hand beneath my thigh, and you shall deal with me with lovingkindness and truth; do not bury me now in Egypt.   כטוַיִּקְרְב֣וּ יְמֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לָמוּת֒ וַיִּקְרָ֣א | לִבְנ֣וֹ לְיוֹסֵ֗ף וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ שִֽׂים־נָ֥א יָֽדְךָ֖ תַּ֣חַת יְרֵכִ֑י וְעָשִׂ֤יתָ עִמָּדִי֙ חֶ֣סֶד וֶֽאֱמֶ֔ת אַל־נָ֥א תִקְבְּרֵ֖נִי בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:
When the time drew near for Israel to die: Everyone of whom it is stated [that his days] drew near to die, did not attain the life span of his forefathers. [Isaac lived 180 years, and Jacob lived only 147 years. In connection with David, the expression of drawing near is mentioned (I Kings 2:1). His father lived 80 years, and he lived 70.]- [from Gen. Rabbah 96:4]   וַיִּקְרְבוּ יְמֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לָמוּת: כָּל מִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמְרָה בּוֹ קְרִיבָה לָמוּת, לֹא הִגִּיעַ לִימֵי אֲבוֹתָיו (יִצְחָק חָיָה ק"פ, וְיַעֲקֹב קמ"ז, בְּדָוִד נֶאֱמַר קְרִיבָה, אָבִיו חָיָה פ' שָׁנִים וְהוּא חָיָה ע'):
he called his son Joseph: The one who had the ability to do it. [from Gen. Rabbah 96:5]   וַיִּקְרָא לִבְנוֹ לְיוֹסֵף: לְמִי שֶׁהָיָה יְכֹלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת:
now place your hand beneath my thigh: And swear. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 39] As explained in the narrative of Abraham and Eliezer (Gen. 24:2), he meant that Joseph should swear by covenant of the circumcision.   שִֽׂים־נָא יָֽדְךָ: וְהִשָּׁבַע:
lovingkindness and truth: Lovingkindness that is done with the dead is true lovingkindness, for one does not expect any payment or reward. — [from Gen. Rabbah 96:5]   חֶסֶד וֶֽאֱמֶת: חֶסֶד שֶׁעוֹשִׂין עִם הַמֵּתִים הוּא חֶסֶד שֶׁל אֱמֶת, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצַפֶּה לְתַשְׁלוּם גְּמוּל:
do not bury me now in Egypt: [Because] its soil is destined to become lice (which will crawl under my body), and because those who die outside the [Holy] Land will not be resurrected except with the pain of rolling through underground passages. [Also] so that the Egyptians will not deify me. — [from Gen. Rabbah 96:5, Keth. 111a]   אַל־נָא תִקְבְּרֵנִי בְּמִצְרָֽיִם: סוֹפָהּ לִהְיוֹת עֲפָרָהּ כִּנִּים, וּמְרַחֲשִׁין תַּחַת גּוּפִי, וְשֶׁאֵין מֵתֵי חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ חַיִּים אֶלָּא בְּצַעַר גִּלְגּוּל מְחִלּוֹת, וְשֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשׂוּנִי מִצְרַיִם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
30I will lie with my forefathers, and you shall carry me out of Egypt, and you shall bury me in their grave." And he said, "I will do as you say."   לוְשָֽׁכַבְתִּי֙ עִם־אֲבֹתַ֔י וּנְשָׂאתַ֨נִי֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וּקְבַרְתַּ֖נִי בִּקְבֻֽרָתָ֑ם וַיֹּאמַ֕ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י אֶעֱשֶׂ֥ה כִדְבָרֶֽךָ:
I will lie with my forefathers: Heb. וְשָׁכַבְתִּי, lit., and I will lie. This “vav” (of וְשָׁכַבְתִּי) is connected to the beginning of the previous verse: “Place now your hand beneath my thigh and swear to me, for I am destined to lie with my forefathers, and you shall carry me out of Egypt.” We cannot say, however, that “I will lie with my forefathers” means: Lay me to rest with my forefathers in the cave, because afterwards it is written: “and you shall carry me out of Egypt, and you shall bury me in their grave.” Moreover, we find everywhere that the expression “lying with one’s forefathers” denotes expiration, not burial, as in “And David lay with his forefathers,” and afterwards, “and he was buried in the city of David” (I Kings 2:10).   וְשָֽׁכַבְתִּי עִם־אבותי: וָי"ו זוֹ מְחֻבָּר לְמַעְלָה לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא – שִׂים נָא יָדְךָ תַּחַת יְרֵכִי וְהִשָּׁבַע לִי – וַאֲנִי סוֹפִי לִשְׁכַּב עִם אֲבוֹתַי, וְאַתָּה תִּשָּׂאֵנִי מִמִּצְרַיִם. וְאֵין לוֹמַר, וְשָׁכַבְתִּי עִם אֲבוֹתַי – הַשְׁכִּיבֵנִי עִם אֲבוֹתַי בַּמְּעָרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו, וּנְשָׂאתַנִי מִמִּצְרַיִם וּקְבַרְתַּנִי בִּקְבֻרָתָם; וְעוֹד, מָצִינוּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם לְשׁוֹן שְׁכִיבָה עִם אֲבוֹתָיו הִיא הַגְּוִיעָה וְלֹא הַקְּבוּרָה, כְּמוֹ: וַיִּשְׁכַּב דָּוִד עִם אֲבֹתָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ וַיִּקָּבֵר בְּעִיר דָּוִד (מלכים א ב'):
31And he said, "Swear to me. " So he swore to him, and Israel prostrated himself on the head of the bed.   לאוַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִשָּֽׁבְעָה֙ לִ֔י וַיִּשָּׁבַ֖ע ל֑וֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הַמִּטָּֽה:
and Israel prostrated himself: [Although the lion is king] when it is the time of the fox, bow down to him. — [from Meg. 16b]   וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל: תַּעֲלָא בְּעִידָּנֵיהּ סְגִיד לֵיהּ:
on the head of the bed: He turned around to the side of the Shechinah (Gen. Rabbah, Vatican ms. no. 60). From here [the Sages] deduced that the Shechinah is at the head of a sick person (Shab. 12b). Another explanation: עַל רֹאשׁ הַמִטָה - [He prostrated himself to God] because his offspring were perfect, insofar as not one of them was wicked, as is evidenced by the fact that Joseph was a king, and furthermore, that [even though] he was captured among the heathens, he remained steadfast in his righteousness. — [from Sifrei Va’ethannan 31, Sifrei Ha’azinu 334]   עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטָּֽה: הָפַךְ עַצְמוֹ לְצַד הַשְּׁכִינָה. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה לְמַעְלָה מֵרַאֲשׁוֹתָיו שֶׁל חוֹלֶה (שבת י"ב, נדרים מ'); דָּבָר אַחֵר עַל רֹאשׁ הַמִּטָּה – עַל שֶׁהָיְתָה מִטָּתוֹ שְׁלֵמָה וְלֹא הָיָה בָהּ רֶשַׁע, שֶׁהֲרֵי יוֹסֵף מֶלֶךְ הוּא, וְעוֹד שֶׁנִּשְׁבָּה לְבֵין הַגּוֹיִם, וַהֲרֵי הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּצִדְקוֹ:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 48

1Now it came to pass after these incidents that [someone] said to Joseph, "Behold, your father is ill." So he took his two sons with him, Manasseh and Ephraim.   אוַיְהִ֗י אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְיוֹסֵ֔ף הִנֵּ֥ה אָבִ֖יךָ חֹלֶ֑ה וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־שְׁנֵ֤י בָנָיו֙ עִמּ֔וֹ אֶת־מְנַשֶּׁ֖ה וְאֶת־אֶפְרָֽיִם:
that [someone] said to Joseph: One of the tellers, and this is an elliptical verse. Some say, however, that Ephraim was accustomed to study with Jacob, and when Jacob became ill in the land of Goshen, Ephraim went to his father to Egypt to tell him.   וַיֹּאמֶר לְיוֹסֵף: אֶחָד מִן הַמַּגִּידִים, וַהֲרֵי זֶה מִקְרָא קָצָר; וְיֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים, אֶפְרַיִם הָיָה רָגִיל לִפְנֵי יַעֲקֹב בְּתַלְמוּד, וּכְשֶׁחָלָה יַעֲקֹב בְּאֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן, הָלַךְ אֶפְרַיִם אֵצֶל אָבִיו לְמִצְרַיִם לְהַגִּיד לוֹ:
so he took his two sons with him: so that Jacob should bless them before his death.   וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁנֵי בָנָיו עִמּוֹ: כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּבָרְכֵם יַעֲקֹב לִפְנֵי מוֹתוֹ:
2And [someone] told Jacob and said, "Behold, your son Joseph is coming to you." And Israel summoned his strength and sat up on the bed.   בוַיַּגֵּ֣ד לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּ֛ה בִּנְךָ֥ יוֹסֵ֖ף בָּ֣א אֵלֶ֑יךָ וַיִּתְחַזֵּק֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב עַל־הַמִּטָּֽה:
And [someone] told: The teller [told] Jacob, but [the text] does not specify who [it was], and many [Scriptural] verses are elliptical.   וַיַּגֵּד: הַמַּגִּיד לְיַעֲקֹב, וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ מִי; וְהַרְבֵּה מִקְרָאוֹת קִצְרֵי לָשׁוֹן:
And Israel summoned his strength: He said, “Although he is my son, he is a king; [therefore,] I will bestow honor upon him” [Midrash Tanchuma Vayechi 6]. From here [we learn] that we must bestow honor upon royalty, as Moses bestowed honor upon royalty, [as it is written, that Moses said to Pharaoh,] “Then all these servants of yours will come down to me” (Exod. 11:8), [rather than “You will come down to me”]. And so Elijah [also bestowed honor upon royalty, as it is written]: “And he girded his loins [and ran before Ahab until coming to Jezreel]” (I Kings 18:46). - [from Mechilta Beshallach Section 13]   וַיִּתְחַזֵּק יִשְׂרָאֵל: אָמַר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בְּנִי, מֶלֶךְ הוּא, אֶחֱלֹק לוֹ כָּבוֹד; מִכָּאן שֶׁחוֹלְקִין כָּבוֹד לַמַּלְכוּת, וְכֵן מֹשֶׁה חָלַק כָּבוֹד לַמַּלְכוּת – וְיָרְדוּ כָל עֲבָדֶיךָ אֵלֶּה אֵלַי (שמות י"א); וְכֵן אֵלִיָּהוּ, וַיְשַׁנֵּס מָתְנָיו וְגוֹ' (מלכים א י"ח):
3And Jacob said to Joseph, "Almighty God appeared to me in Luz, in the land of Canaan, and He blessed me.   גוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף אֵ֥ל שַׁדַּ֛י נִרְאָֽה־אֵלַ֥י בְּל֖וּז בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וַיְבָ֖רֶךְ אֹתִֽי:
4And He said to me, 'Behold, I will make you fruitful and cause you to multiply, and I will make you into a congregation of peoples, and I will give this land to your seed after you for an everlasting inheritance.'   דוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י הִנְנִ֤י מַפְרְךָ֙ וְהִרְבִּיתִ֔ךָ וּנְתַתִּ֖יךָ לִקְהַ֣ל עַמִּ֑ים וְנָ֨תַתִּ֜י אֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ הַזֹּ֛את לְזַרְעֲךָ֥ אַֽחֲרֶ֖יךָ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת עוֹלָֽם:
and I will make you into a congregation of peoples: He announced to me that another congregation of peoples was to be descended from me. Although he said to me, “A nation and a congregation of nations [shall come into existence from you]” (Gen 35:11) [meaning three nations], by “a nation,” He promised me [the birth of] Benjamin. “A congregation of nations” means two in addition to Benjamin, but no other son was born to me. Thus I learned that one of my tribes was destined to be divided [in two]. So now, I am giving you that gift. — [from Pesikta Rabbathi ch. 3]   וּנְתַתִּיךָ לִקְהַל עַמִּים: בִּשְּׂרַנִי שֶׁעֲתִידִים לָצֵאת מִמֶּנִּי עוֹד קָהָל וְעַמִּים, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לִי גּוֹי וּקְהַל גּוֹיִם, גּוֹי אָמַר לִי עַל בִּנְיָמִין; קְהַל גּוֹיִם – הֲרֵי שְׁנַיִם לְבַד מִבִּנְיָמִין, וְשׁוּב לֹא נוֹלַד לִי בֵּן, לִמְּדַנִי שֶׁעָתִיד אֶחָד מִשְּׁבָטַי לְהֵחָלֵק, וְעַתָּה אוֹתָהּ מַתָּנָה אֲנִי נוֹתֵן לְךָ:
5And now, [as for] your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt, until I came to you, to the land of Egypt they are mine. Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine like Reuben and Simeon.   הוְעַתָּ֡ה שְׁנֵֽי־בָנֶ֩יךָ֩ הַנּֽוֹלָדִ֨ים לְךָ֜ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם עַד־בֹּאִ֥י אֵלֶ֛יךָ מִצְרַ֖יְמָה לִי־הֵ֑ם אֶפְרַ֨יִם֙ וּמְנַשֶּׁ֔ה כִּרְאוּבֵ֥ן וְשִׁמְע֖וֹן יִֽהְיוּ־לִֽי:
who were born to you…until I came to you: Before I came to you, i.e., those who were born since you left me [and] I came to you.   הַנּֽוֹלָדִים לְךָ עַד־בֹּאִי אֵלֶיךָ: לִפְנֵי בּוֹאִי אֵלֶיךָ, כְּלוֹמַר, שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ מִשֶּׁפֵּרַשְׁתָּ מִמֶּנִּי עַד שֶׁבָּאתִי אֶצְלְךָ:
they are mine: They are counted with the rest of my sons, to take a share in the land, each one exactly as each [of my other sons]. — [from Baba Bathra 122b-123a]   לִי־הֵם: בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן שְׁאָר בָּנַי הֵם, לִטֹּל חֵלֶק בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ:
6But your children, if you beget [any] after them, shall be yours; by their brothers' names they shall be called in their inheritance.   ווּמֽוֹלַדְתְּךָ֛ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹלַ֥דְתָּ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֖ם לְךָ֣ יִֽהְי֑וּ עַ֣ל שֵׁ֧ם אֲחֵיהֶ֛ם יִקָּֽרְא֖וּ בְּנַֽחֲלָתָֽם:
But your children: If you have any more [children], they will not be counted among my sons, but will be included among the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, and they will not have a [separate] name like [each of] the [other] tribes as regards the inheritance. Now, although the land [of Israel] was divided according to their heads (the population of each tribe), as it is written: “To the large [tribe] you shall increase its inheritance” (Num. 26:54); and each man received an equal share, except for the firstborn. Nevertheless, only these (Ephraim and Manasseh) were called tribes [regarding the ability] [to cast a lot in the land according to the number of names of the tribes and [regarding having] a prince for each tribe, and groups [of tribes in the desert] for this one and for that one]. [Note that the bracketed material does not appear in early editions of Rashi.]   וּמֽוֹלַדְתְּךָ וגו': אִם תּוֹלִיד עוֹד, לֹא יִהְיוּ בְּמִנְיַן בָּנַי, אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְטֵי אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה יִהְיוּ נִכְלָלִים, וְלֹא יְהֵא לָהֶם שֵׁם בַּשְּׁבָטִים לְעִנְיַן הַנַּחֲלָה; וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה הָאָרֶץ לְמִנְיַן גֻּלְגְּלוֹתָם, כְּדִכְתִיב לָרַב תַּרְבֶּה נַחֲלָתוֹ (במדבר כ"ו), וְכָל אִישׁ וְאִישׁ נָטַל בְּשָׁוֶה חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹרוֹת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא נִקְרְאוּ שְׁבָטִים אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ, (לְהַטִּיל גּוֹרַל הָאָרֶץ לְמִנְיַן שְׁמוֹת הַשְּׁבָטִים וְנָשִׂיא לְכָל שֵׁבֶט וָשֵׁבֶט וּדְגָלִים לָזֶה וְלָזֶה):
7As for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died to me in the land of Canaan on the way, when there was still a stretch of land to come to Ephrath, and I buried her there on the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem."   זוַֽאֲנִ֣י | בְּבֹאִ֣י מִפַּדָּ֗ן מֵ֩תָה֩ עָלַ֨י רָחֵ֜ל בְּאֶ֤רֶץ כְּנַ֨עַן֙ בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ בְּע֥וֹד כִּבְרַת־אֶ֖רֶץ לָבֹ֣א אֶפְרָ֑תָה וָֽאֶקְבְּרֶ֤הָ שָּׁם֙ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ אֶפְרָ֔ת הִ֖וא בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם:
As for me, when I came from Padan, etc.: Although I burden you to take me to be buried in the land of Canaan, and I did not do so to your mother, for she died close to Bethlehem. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   וַֽאֲנִי בְּבֹאִי מִפַּדָּן וגו': וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲנִי מַטְרִיחַ עָלֶיךָ לְהוֹלִיכֵנִי לְהִקָּבֵר בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, וְלֹא כָךְ עָשִׂיתִי לְאִמְּךָ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵתָה סָמוּךְ לְבֵית לֶחֶם:
a stretch of land: Heb. כִּבְרַת-אֶרֶץ, a measure of land, which is two thousand cubits, equivalent to the measure of the Sabbath boundary (the distance a person may walk on the Sabbath), according to the statement of Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan. [The preceding material should be considered parenthetic. The following is Jacob’s explanation of why he did not bury Rachel in the cave of Machpelah.] You should not say that the rains prevented me from transporting her and burying her in Hebron, [for] it was the dry season, when the earth is riddled and full of holes like a sieve (כְּבָרָה) .   כִּבְרַת־אֶרֶץ: מִדַּת אֶרֶץ, וְהֵם אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה כְּמִדַּת תְּחוּם שַׁבָּת, כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן – וְלֹא תֹאמַר שֶׁעִכְּבוּ עָלַי גְּשָׁמִים מִלְּהוֹלִיכָהּ וּלְקָבְרָהּ בְּחֶבְרוֹן, עֵת הַגָּרִיד הָיָה, שֶׁהָאָרֶץ חֲלוּלָה וּמְנֻקֶּבֶת כִּכְבָרָה:
and I buried her there: And I did not take her even to Bethlehem to bring her into the Land (i.e., into the inhabited region of the Holy Land- [Sifthei Chachamim]), and I know that you hold it against me; but you should know that I buried her there by divine command, so that she would be of assistance to her children. When Nebuzaradan exiles them (the Israelites), and they pass by there, Rachel will emerge from her grave and weep and beg mercy for them, as it is said: “A voice is heard on high, [lamentation, bitter weeping, Rachel is weeping for her children]” (Jer. 31:14). And the Holy One, blessed be He, answers her, “‘There is reward for your work,’ says the Lord,… ‘and the children shall return to their own border’” (ibid. verses 15, 16) (Pesikta Rabbathi ch. 3). Onkelos, however, renders [כִּבְרַת-אֶרֶץ as] כְּרוּב אַרְעָא, [meaning:] the measure of plowing in a day [Other editions: [a measure of plowing] of land], and I say that they (people in Biblical times) had a measurement called one full furrow, caruede in Old French, [which is] a land measure, plowed land, as we say: “He plows (כָּרִיב) and plows again” (B.M. 107a); “As much as a fox picks up [on its feet] from a plowed field (מִבֵּי כַּרְבָּא)” (Yoma 43b).   אקברה שָּׁם: וְלֹא הוֹלַכְתִּיהָ אֲפִלּוּ לְבֵית לֶחֶם לְהַכְנִיסָהּ לָאָרֶץ, וְיָדַעְתִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּלִבְּךָ עָלַי; אֲבָל דַּע לְךָ שֶׁעַל פִּי הַדִּבּוּר קְבַרְתִּיהָ שָׁם, שֶׁתְּהֵא לְעֶזְרָה לְבָנֶיהָ כְּשֶׁיַּגְלֶה אוֹתָם נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן, וְהָיוּ עוֹבְרִים דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם, יוֹצֵאת רָחֵל עַל קִבְרָהּ וּבוֹכָה וּמְבַקֶּשֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶם רַחֲמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר קוֹל בְּרָמָה נִשְׁמָע וְגוֹ' וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְשִׁיבָהּ יֵשׁ שָׂכָר לִפְעֻלָּתֵךְ נְאֻם ה' וְשָׁבוּ בָנִים לִגְבוּלָם (ירמיהו ל"א). וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם כְּרוּב אַרְעָא – כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר חֲרִישַׁת יוֹם; וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי, שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם קֶצֶב שֶׁהָיוּ קוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ כְּדֵי מַחֲרֵשָׁה אַחַת, קורדיי"א בְּלַעַז, כִּדְאָמְרִינַן כָּרֵיב וְתָנֵי; כְּמָה דְּמַסִּיק תַּעֲלָא מִבֵּי כַּרְבָּא:
8Then Israel saw Joseph's sons, and he said, "Who are these?"   חוַיַּ֥רְא יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מִי־אֵֽלֶּה:
Then Israel saw Joseph’s sons: He attempted to bless them, but the Shechinah withdrew from him because of Jeroboam and Ahab, who were destined to be born from Ephraim, and Jehu and his sons, [who were destined to be born] from Manasseh. — [from Tanchuma Vayechi 6] [Jeroboam the son of Nebat, the first king of the Northern Kingdom, and Ahab the son of Omri were notorious idolaters.]   וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־בְּנֵי יוֹסֵף: בִּקֵּשׁ לְבָרְכָם וְנִסְתַּלְּקָה שְׁכִינָה מִמֶּנּוּ, לְפִי שֶׁעָתִיד יָרָבְעָם וְאַחְאָב לָצֵאת מֵאֶפְרַיִם וְיֵהוּא וּבָנָיו מִמְּנַשֶּׁה:
and he said, “Who are these?”: Where did these come from [meaning: From whom were they born], that they are unworthy of a blessing?- [from Tanchuma Vayechi 6]   וַיֹּאמֶר מִי־אֵֽלֶּה: מֵהֵיכָן יָצְאוּ אֵלּוּ, שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִבְרָכָה:
9Joseph said to his father, "They are my sons, whom God gave me here." So he said, "Now bring them near to me, so that I may bless them."   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹסֵף֙ אֶל־אָבִ֔יו בָּנַ֣י הֵ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־נָֽתַן־לִ֥י אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּזֶ֑ה וַיֹּאמַ֕ר קָֽחֶם־נָ֥א אֵלַ֖י וַֽאֲבָֽרֲכֵֽם:
here: Heb. בָּזֶה, lit., in this, or with this. He (Joseph) showed him (Jacob) the document of betrothal and the kethubah, and Joseph prayed for mercy concerning the matter, and the Holy Spirit [returned and] rested upon him (Jacob). - [from Kallah Rabbathi 3:19]   בָּזֶה: הֶרְאָה לוֹ שְׁטָר אֵרוּסִין וּשְׁטָר כְּתֻבָּה, וּבִקֵּשׁ יוֹסֵף רַחֲמִים עַל הַדָּבָר, וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
So he said, “Now bring them near to me, so that I may bless them.”: This is what Scripture [is referring to when it] states: “And I (the Holy One) trained it into Ephraim; he took them on his arms” (Hosea 11:3). I trained My spirit into Jacob for Ephraim’s sake, and he took them upon his arms. — [from Tanchuma Vayechi 7]   וַיֹּאמֶר קָֽחֶם־נָא אֵלַי וַֽאֲבָֽרֲכֵֽם: זֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל זְרוֹעֹתָיו (הושע י"א) – תִּרְגַּלְתִּי רוּחִי בְּיַעֲקֹב בִּשְׁבִיל אֶפְרַיִם עַד שֶׁלְּקָחָן עַל זְרוֹעוֹתָיו:

Second Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 48

10Now Israel's eyes had become heavy with age, [to the extent that] he could not see. So he drew them near to him, and he kissed them and embraced them.   יוְעֵינֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כָּֽבְד֣וּ מִזֹּ֔קֶן לֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְא֑וֹת וַיַּגֵּ֤שׁ אֹתָם֙ אֵלָ֔יו וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק לָהֶ֖ם וַיְחַבֵּ֥ק לָהֶֽם:
11And Israel said to Joseph, "I had not expected to see [even] your face, and behold, God has shown me your children too."   יאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף רְאֹ֥ה פָנֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א פִלָּ֑לְתִּי וְהִנֵּ֨ה הֶרְאָ֥ה אֹתִ֛י אֱלֹהִ֖ים גַּ֥ם אֶת־זַרְעֶֽךָ:
I had not expected: Heb. לֹא פִלָלְתִּי. I dared not entertain the thought that I would see your face again. פִלָלְתִּי is a word meaning thought, similar to “Bring counsel, deliberate thought (פְלִילָה)” (Isa. 16:3).   לֹא פִלָּלְתִּי: לֹא מְלָאַנִי לִבִּי לַחֲשֹׁב מַחֲשָׁבָה שֶׁאֶרְאֶה פָנֶיךָ עוֹד. פללתי לְשׁוֹן מַחֲשָׁבָה, כְּמוֹ הָבִיאִי עֵצָה עֲשִׂי פְלִילָה (ישעיהו ט"ז):
12And Joseph took them out from upon his [Jacob's] knees, and he prostrated himself to the ground.   יבוַיּוֹצֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֹתָ֖ם מֵעִ֣ם בִּרְכָּ֑יו וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ לְאַפָּ֖יו אָֽרְצָה:
And Joseph took them out from upon his [Jacob’s] knees: After he (Jacob) had kissed them, Joseph took them off his (Jacob’s) knees to sit them down, this one to the right and this one to the left, [to make it easier for his father] to lay his hands upon them and bless them.   וַיּוֹצֵא יוֹסֵף אֹתָם: לְאַחַר שֶׁנְּשָׁקָם הוֹצִיאָם יוֹסֵף מֵעִם בִּרְכָּיו, כְּדֵי לְיַשְּׁבָם זֶה לַיָּמִין וְזֶה לַשְּׂמֹאל לִסְמֹךְ יָדָיו עֲלֵיהֶם וּלְבָרְכָם:
and he prostrated himself to the ground: when he moved backward from before his father.   וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְאַפָּיו: כְּשֶׁחָזַר לַאֲחוֹרָיו מִלִּפְנֵי אָבִיו:
13And Joseph took them both, Ephraim at his right, from Israel's left, and Manasseh at his left, from Israel's right, and he brought [them] near to him.   יגוַיִּקַּ֣ח יוֹסֵף֘ אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם֒ אֶת־אֶפְרַ֤יִם בִּֽימִינוֹ֙ מִשְּׂמֹ֣אל יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶת־מְנַשֶּׁ֥ה בִשְׂמֹאל֖וֹ מִימִ֣ין יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיַּגֵּ֖שׁ אֵלָֽיו:
Ephraim at his right, from Israel’s left: If one comes toward his friend, his right is opposite his friend’s left. Since he (Manasseh) is the firstborn, he should be placed on the right for the blessing. — [from Peskita Rabbathi ch. 3]   אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם בִּֽימִינוֹ מִשְּׂמֹאל יִשְׂרָאֵל: הַבָּא לִקְרַאת חֲבֵרוֹ, יְמִינוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שְׂמֹאל חֲבֵרוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא הַבְּכוֹר, מְיֻמָּן לִבְרָכָה:
14But Israel stretched out his right hand and placed [it] on Ephraim's head, although he was the younger, and his left hand [he placed] on Manasseh's head. He guided his hands deliberately, for Manasseh was the firstborn.   ידוַיִּשְׁלַח֩ יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל אֶת־יְמִינ֜וֹ וַיָּ֨שֶׁת עַל־רֹ֤אשׁ אֶפְרַ֨יִם֙ וְה֣וּא הַצָּעִ֔יר וְאֶת־שְׂמֹאל֖וֹ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה שִׂכֵּל֙ אֶת־יָדָ֔יו כִּ֥י מְנַשֶּׁ֖ה הַבְּכֽוֹר:
He guided his hands deliberately: Heb. שִׂכֵּל. As the Targum renders: אַחְכִּמִינוּן, he put wisdom into them. Deliberately and with wisdom, he guided his hands for that purpose, and with knowledge, for he knew [full well] that Manasseh was the firstborn, but he nevertheless did not place his right hand upon him.   שִׂכֵּל אֶת־יָדָיו: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, אַחְכִּימִינוּן – בְּהַשְׂכֵּל וְחָכְמָה הִשְׂכִּיל אֶת יָדָיו לְכָךְ וּמִדַּעַת, כִּי יוֹדֵעַ הָיָה כִּי מְנַשֶּׁה הַבְּכוֹר וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא שָׁת יְמִינוֹ עָלָיו:
15And he blessed Joseph and said, "God, before Whom my fathers, Abraham and Isaac, walked, God Who sustained me as long as I am alive, until this day,   טווַיְבָ֥רֶךְ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף וַיֹּאמַ֑ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֡ים אֲשֶׁר֩ הִתְהַלְּכ֨וּ אֲבֹתַ֤י לְפָנָיו֙ אַבְרָהָ֣ם וְיִצְחָ֔ק הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ הָֽרֹעֶ֣ה אֹתִ֔י מֵֽעוֹדִ֖י עַד־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
16may the angel who redeemed me from all harm bless the youths, and may they be called by my name and the name of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac, and may they multiply abundantly like fish, in the midst of the land."   טזהַמַּלְאָךְ֩ הַגֹּאֵ֨ל אֹתִ֜י מִכָּל־רָ֗ע יְבָרֵךְ֘ אֶת־הַנְּעָרִים֒ וְיִקָּרֵ֤א בָהֶם֙ שְׁמִ֔י וְשֵׁ֥ם אֲבֹתַ֖י אַבְרָהָ֣ם וְיִצְחָ֑ק וְיִדְגּ֥וּ לָרֹ֖ב בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ:
the angel who redeemed me: The angel who was usually sent to me in my distress, as the matter is stated: “And an angel of God said to me in a dream, ‘Jacob!…I am the God of Bethel’ ” (Gen. 31:11-13). - [after Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   הַמַּלְאָךְ הַגֹּאֵל אֹתִי: מַלְאָךְ הָרָגִיל לְהִשְׁתַּלֵּחַ אֵלַי בְּצָרָתִי; כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים בַּחֲלוֹם יַעֲקֹב וְגוֹ' אָנֹכִי הָאֵל בֵּית אֵל (בראשית ל"א):
bless the youths: Manasseh and Ephraim.   יְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הַנְּעָרִים: מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם:
and may they multiply…like fish: [Just] like fish, which proliferate and multiply, and are unaffected by the evil eye. — [from Onkelos and Gen. Rabbah 97:3]   וְיִדְגּוּ: כַּדָּגִים הַלָּלוּ שֶׁפָּרִים וְרָבִים וְאֵין עַיִן הָרָע שׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּהֶם:

Third Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 48

17And Joseph saw that his father was placing his right hand on Ephraim's head, and it displeased him. So he held up his father's hand to remove it from upon Ephraim's head [to place it] on Manasseh's head.   יזוַיַּ֣רְא יוֹסֵ֗ף כִּֽי־יָשִׁ֨ית אָבִ֧יו יַד־יְמִינ֛וֹ עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ אֶפְרַ֖יִם וַיֵּ֣רַע בְּעֵינָ֑יו וַיִּתְמֹ֣ךְ יַד־אָבִ֗יו לְהָסִ֥יר אֹתָ֛הּ מֵעַ֥ל רֹֽאשׁ־אֶפְרַ֖יִם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ מְנַשֶּֽׁה:
So he held up his father’s hand: He lifted it off his son’s head and held it up with his [own] hand.   וַיִּתְמֹךְ יַד־אָבִיו: הֵרִימָהּ מֵעַל רֹאשׁ בְּנוֹ וּתְמָכָהּ בְּיָדוֹ:
18And Joseph said to his father, "Not so, Father, for this one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head."   יחוַיֹּ֧אמֶר יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶל־אָבִ֖יו לֹא־כֵ֣ן אָבִ֑י כִּי־זֶ֣ה הַבְּכֹ֔ר שִׂ֥ים יְמִֽינְךָ֖ עַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ:
19But his father refused, and he said, "I know, my son, I know; he too will become a people, and he too will be great. But his younger brother will be greater than he, and his children['s fame] will fill the nations."   יטוַיְמָאֵ֣ן אָבִ֗יו וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ יָדַ֤עְתִּי בְנִי֙ יָדַ֔עְתִּי גַּם־ה֥וּא יִֽהְיֶה־לְעָ֖ם וְגַם־ה֣וּא יִגְדָּ֑ל וְאוּלָ֗ם אָחִ֤יו הַקָּטֹן֙ יִגְדַּ֣ל מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְזַרְע֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה מְלֹֽא־הַגּוֹיִֽם:
I know, my son, I know: that he is the firstborn.   יָדַעְתִּי בְנִי יָדַעְתִּי: שֶׁהוּא הַבְּכוֹר:
he too will become a people, etc.: for Gideon is destined to be descended from him. [Gideon] through whom the Holy One, blessed be He, will perform a miracle. — [from Midrash Tanchuma Vayechi 6]   גַּם־הוּא יִֽהְיֶה־לְעָם וְגַם־הוּא יִגְדָּל: שֶׁעָתִיד גִּדְעוֹן לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה נֵס עַל יָדוֹ:
But his younger brother will be greater than he: for Joshua is destined to be descended from him, [and Joshua is] the one who will distribute the inheritances of the land and teach Torah to Israel. — [from Midrash Tanchuma Vayechi 7]   וְאוּלָם אָחִיו הַקָּטֹן יִגְדָּל מִמֶּנּוּ: שֶׁעָתִיד יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁיַּנְחִיל אֶת הָאָרֶץ וִילַמֵּד תּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל:
and his children[’s fame] will fill the nations: The whole world will be filled when his fame and his name are spread when he stops the sun in Gibeon and the moon in the Valley of Ajalon. — [from Abodah Zarah 25a]   וְזַרְעוֹ יִֽהְיֶה־מְלֹֽא־הַגּוֹיִֽם: כָּל הָעוֹלָם יִתְמַלֵּא בְּצֵאת שָׁמְעוֹ וּשְׁמוֹ כְּשֶׁיַּעֲמִיד חַמָּה בְּגִבְעוֹן וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן:
20So he blessed them on that day, saying, "With you, Israel will bless, saying, 'May God make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh,' " and he placed Ephraim before Manasseh.   כוַיְבָ֨רֲכֵ֜ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הַהוּא֘ לֵאמוֹר֒ בְּךָ֗ יְבָרֵ֤ךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְשִֽׂמְךָ֣ אֱלֹהִ֔ים כְּאֶפְרַ֖יִם וְכִמְנַשֶּׁ֑ה וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־אֶפְרַ֖יִם לִפְנֵ֥י מְנַשֶּֽׁה:
With you, Israel will bless: Whoever wishes to bless his sons, will bless them with their blessing (with a blessing related to them), and a man will say to his son, “May God make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh.” - [from Sifrei Nasso 18]   בְּךָ יְבָרֵךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל: הַבָּא לְבָרֵךְ אֶת בָּנָיו יְבָרְכֵם בְּבִרְכָתָם וְיֹאמַר אִישׁ לִבְנוֹ יְשִׂימְךָ אֱלֹהִים כְּאֶפְרַיִם וְכִמְנַשֶּׁה:
and he placed Ephraim: Before Manasseh in his blessing, to give him precedence in the groupings [of the tribes in the desert] and [also] at the dedication of [the Tabernacle by] the [tribal] princes. — [from Gen. Rabbah 97:5]   וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם: בְּבִרְכָתוֹ לִפְנֵי מְנַשֶּׁה, לְהַקְדִּימוֹ בִּדְגָלִים וּבַחֲנֻכַּת הַנְּשִׂיאִים:
21And Israel said to Joseph, "Behold, I am going to die, and God will be with you, and He will return you to the land of your forefathers.   כאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף הִנֵּ֥ה אָֽנֹכִ֖י מֵ֑ת וְהָיָ֤ה אֱלֹהִים֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם וְהֵשִׁ֣יב אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
22And I have given you one portion over your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow."   כבוַֽאֲנִ֞י נָתַ֧תִּי לְךָ֛ שְׁכֶ֥ם אַחַ֖ד עַל־אַחֶ֑יךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר לָקַ֨חְתִּי֙ מִיַּ֣ד הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י בְּחַרְבִּ֖י וּבְקַשְׁתִּֽי:
And I have given you: Since you are taking the trouble to occupy yourself with my burial, I have given you an inheritance where you will be buried. And which is this? This is Shechem, as it is said: “And Joseph’s bones, which the children of Israel had brought up out of Egypt, they buried in Shechem” (Josh. 24:32).   וַֽאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ: לְפִי שֶׁאַתָּה טוֹרֵחַ לְהִתְעַסֵּק בִּקְבוּרָתִי, וְגַם אֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ נַחֲלָה שֶׁתִּקָּבֵר בָּהּ, וְאֵי זוֹ? זוֹ שְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְאֶת עַצְמוֹת יוֹסֵף אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם קָבְרוּ בִשְׁכֶם (יהושע כ"ד):
one portion over your brothers: Heb. אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ שְׁכֶם, the actual [city of] Shechem, which will be for you one share over your brothers. [Accordingly, we render: Shechem, [which is] one [share] over your brothers.]- [from Gen. Rabbah 97:6]   שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל־אַחֶיךָ: שְׁכֶם מַמָּשׁ, הִיא תִּהְיֶה לְךָ חֵלֶק אֶחָד יְתֵרָה עַל אַחֶיךָ:
with my sword and with my bow: When Simeon and Levi slew the men of Shechem, all those [nations] around them (Jacob’s sons) assembled to attack them, and Jacob girded weapons of war against them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 97:6, Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel.] Another explanation: “One portion” refers to the birthright, and indicates that his (Joseph’s) sons should take two shares. שְׁכֶם is a word meaning “a portion,” as the Targum renders. There are many similar instances in Scripture: “For You shall place them as a portion (שְׁכֶם)” (Ps. 21:13), You shall place my enemies before me as portions; “I will divide a portion (שְׁכֶם)” (ibid. 60:8); “…murder on the way, שֶׁכְמָה” (Hos. 6:9), [meaning:] each one his share; “to worship Him of one accord (שְׁכֶם אֶחָד)” (Zeph. 3:9), [meaning: in one group].   בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּֽי: כְּשֶׁהָרְגוּ שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אֶת אַנְשֵׁי שְׁכֶם נִתְכַּנְּסוּ כָּל סְבִיבוֹתֵיהֶם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם, וְחָגַר יַעֲקֹב כְּלֵי מִלְחָמָה כְּנֶגְדָּן; דָּבָר אַחֵר שְׁכֶם אַחַד הוּא הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁיִּטְּלוּ בָנָיו שְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים, וּשְׁכֶם לְשׁוֹן חֵלֶק הוּא, וְהַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ לוֹ דּוֹמִים בַּמִּקְרָא כִּי תְּשִׁיתֵמוֹ שֶׁכֶם (תהילים כ"א) – תָּשִׁית שׂוֹנְאַי לְפָנַי לַחֲלָקִים; אֲחַלְּקָה שְׁכֶם (שם ס'), דֶּרֶךְ יְרַצְּחוּ שֶׁכְמָה (הושע ו') – אִישׁ חֶלְקוֹ; לְעָבְדוֹ שְׁכֶם אֶחָד (צפניה ג'):
which I took from the hand of the Amorite: From the hand of Esau, who behaved like an Amorite (Gen. Rabbah 97:6). Another explanation [of why Esau is called אמֹרִי]: who deceived his father with the sayings (אִמְרֵי) of his mouth.   אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָֽאֱמֹרִי: מִיַּד עֵשָׂו, שֶׁעָשָׂה מַעֲשֵׂה אֱמוֹרִי. דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁהָיָה צָד אָבִיו בְּאִמְרֵי פִיו:
with my sword and with my bow: I.e., his cleverness and his prayer.   בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּֽי: הִיא חָכְמָתוֹ וּתְפִלָּתוֹ:

Fourth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 49

1Jacob called for his sons and said, "Gather and I will tell you what will happen to you at the end of days.   אוַיִּקְרָ֥א יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב אֶל־בָּנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֵאָֽסְפוּ֙ וְאַגִּ֣ידָה לָכֶ֔ם אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָ֥א אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּאַֽחֲרִ֥ית הַיָּמִֽים:
and I will tell you, etc.: He attempted to reveal the End, but the Shechinah withdrew from him. So he began to say other things. — [from Pesachim 56a, Gen. Rabbah 98:2]   וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם: בִּקֵּשׁ לְגַלּוֹת אֶת הַקֵּץ וְנִסְתַּלְּקָה מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁכִינָה וְהִתְחִיל אוֹמֵר דְּבָרִים אַחֵרִים:
2Gather and listen, sons of Jacob, and listen to Israel, your father.   בהִקָּֽבְצ֥וּ וְשִׁמְע֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְשִׁמְע֖וּ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל אֲבִיכֶֽם:
3Reuben, you are my firstborn, my strength and the first of my might. [You should have been] superior in rank and superior in power.   גרְאוּבֵן֙ בְּכֹ֣רִי אַ֔תָּה כֹּחִ֖י וְרֵאשִׁ֣ית אוֹנִ֑י יֶ֥תֶר שְׂאֵ֖ת וְיֶ֥תֶר עָֽז:
and the first of my might: That is, his first drop [of semen], for he had never experienced a nocturnal emission. — [from Yeb. 76a]   וְרֵאשִׁית אוֹנִי: הִיא טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה קֶרִי מִיָּמָיו (בראשית רבה):
my might: Heb. אוֹנִי, my strength, similar to: “I have found power (אוֹן) for myself” (Hos. 12:9); “because of His great might (אוֹנִים)” (Isa. 40:26); “and to him who has no strength (אוֹנִים)” (ibid. 29). - [from Targum Onkelos]   אוֹנִי: כּוֹחִי, כְּמוֹ מָצָאתִי אוֹן לִי (הושע י"ב), מֵרֹב אוֹנִים, וּלְאֵין אוֹנִים (ישעיהו מ'):
superior in rank: Heb. שְׂאֵת יֶתֶר. You were fit to be superior over your brothers with the priesthood, an expression of raising up the hands (נְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַיִם) [to recite the priestly blessing]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 99:6]   יֶתֶר שְׂאֵת: רָאוּי הָיִיתָ לִהְיוֹת יֶתֶר עַל אַחֶיךָ בִכְהֻנָּה, לְשׁוֹן נְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם:
and superior in power: Heb. וְיֶתֶר עָז, [i.e. superior] with kingship, like “And He will grant strength (עֹז) to His king” (I Sam. 2:10) and what caused you to lose all this? - [from Gen. Rabbah 99:6]   וְיֶתֶר עָֽז: בְּמַלְכוּת, כְּמוֹ: וְיִתֶּן עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ (שמואל א ב'), וּמִי גָּרַם לְךָ לְהַפְסִיד כָּל אֵלֶּה?
4[You have] the restlessness of water; [therefore,] you shall not have superiority, for you ascended upon your father's couch; then you profaned [Him Who] ascended upon my bed.   דפַּ֤חַז כַּמַּ֨יִם֙ אַל־תּוֹתַ֔ר כִּ֥י עָלִ֖יתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵ֣י אָבִ֑יךָ אָ֥ז חִלַּ֖לְתָּ יְצוּעִ֥י עָלָֽה:
[You have] the restlessness of water: The restlessness and the haste with which you hastened to display your anger, similar to water which hastens on its course. Therefore-   פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם: הַפַּחַז וְהַבֶּהָלָה אֲשֶׁר מִהַרְתָּ לְהַרְאוֹת כַּעַסְךָ כַּמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ הַמְמַהֲרִים לִמְרוּצָתָם, לְכָךְ
you shall not have superiority: You shall no longer receive all these superior positions that were fit for you. Now what was the restlessness that you exhibited?   אַל־תּוֹתַר: אַל תַּרְבֶּה לִטֹּל כָּל הַיְתֵרוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁהָיוּ רְאוּיוֹת לְךָ, וּמַהוּ הַפַּחַז אֲשֶׁר פָּחַזְתָּ? כי עלית משכבי אביך:
for you ascended upon your father’s couch; then you profaned: that Name that ascended my couch. That is the Shechinah, which was accustomed to going up on my bed. — [from Shab. 55b]   אָז חִלַּלְתָּ: אוֹתוֹ שֶׁעָלָה עַל יְצוּעִי – וְהִיא שְׁכִינָה שֶׁהָיָה דַרְכָּהּ לִהְיוֹת עוֹלָה עַל יְצוּעִי:
the restlessness: Heb. פַּחַז. This is a noun; therefore, it is accented on the first syllable, and the entire word is vowelized with the “pattach.” [I.e., each syllable is vowelized with a “pattach.”] If it were a [verb in] past tense, [meaning: he was restless,] it would be vowelized פָּחַז, half with a “kamatz” and half with a “pattach,” and it would be accented on the latter syllable (פָּחַז).   פַּחַז: שֵׁם דָּבָר הוּא, לְפִיכָךְ טַעֲמוֹ לְמַעְלָה, וְכֻלּוֹ נָקוּד פַּתָּח, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה לְשׁוֹן עָבָר, הָיָה נָקוּד חֶצְיוֹ קָמָץ וְחֶצְיוֹ פַּתָּח וְטַעְמוֹ לְמַטָּה:
my bed: Heb. יְצוּעִי, a term denoting a bed, because it is spread (מַצִּיעִים) with mattresses and sheets. There are many similar occurrences: “If I shall go up on the bed that was spread for me (יְצוּעָי)” (Ps. 132:3); “when I remember You on my couch (יְצוּעָי)” (ibid. 63:7). - [from Targum Onkelos]   יְצוּעִי: לְשׁוֹן מִשְׁכָּב, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁמַּצִּיעִים אוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי לְבָדִין וּסְדִינִין; וְהַרְבֵּה דּוֹמִים לוֹ אִם אֶעֱלֶה עַל עֶרֶשׂ יְצוּעָי (תהילים קל"ב); אִם זְכַרְתִּיךָ עַל יְצוּעָי (שם ס"ג):
5Simeon and Levi are brothers; stolen instruments are their weapons.   השִׁמְע֥וֹן וְלֵוִ֖י אַחִ֑ים כְּלֵ֥י חָמָ֖ס מְכֵרֹֽתֵיהֶֽם:
Simeon and Levi are brothers: [They were] of one [accord in their] plot against Shechem and against Joseph: “So they said one to the other, ‘…So now, let us kill him…’ ” (Gen. 37:19). Who were “they?” If you say [that it was] Reuben or Judah, [that cannot be because] they did not agree to kill him. If you say [that it was] the sons of the maidservants, [that cannot be because] their hatred [toward him] was not [so] unmitigated [that they would want to kill him], for it is stated: “and he was a lad [and was] with the sons of Bilhah” (Gen. 37:2). [It could not have been] Issachar and Zebulun [because they] would not have spoken before their older brothers. [Thus,] by necessity [we must say that] they were Simeon and Levi, whom their father called “brothers.” - [from Gen. Rabbah, Shitah Chadashah]   שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים: בְּעֵצָה אַחַת עַל שְׁכֶם וְעַל יוֹסֵף; וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל אָחִיו, וְעַתָּה לְכוּ וְנַהַרְגֵהוּ, מִי הֵם? אִם תֹּאמַר רְאוּבֵן אוֹ יְהוּדָה, הֲרֵי לֹא הִסְכִּימוּ בַּהֲרִיגָתוֹ; אִם תֹּאמַר בְּנֵי הַשְּׁפָחוֹת, הֲרֵי לֹא הָיְתָה שִׂנְאָתָן שְׁלֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוּא נַעַר אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה וְאֶת בְּנֵי זִלְפָּה וְגוֹ', יִשָּׂשכָר וּזְבוּלֻן לֹא הָיוּ מְדַבְּרִים בִּפְנֵי אֲחֵיהֶם הַגְּדוֹלִים מֵהֶם; עַל כָּרְחֲךָ שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי הֵם שֶׁקְּרָאָם אֲבִיהֶם אַחִים:
stolen instruments: This craft of murder is in their hands wrongfully, [for] it is [part] of Esau’s blessing. It is his craft, and you (Simeon and Levi) have stolen it from him. — [from Tanchuma Vayechi 9]   כְּלֵי חָמָס: אֻמָּנוּת זוֹ שֶׁל רְצִיחָה, חָמָס הוּא בִידֵיהֶם – מִבִּרְכַּת עֵשָׂו הִיא זוֹ, אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁלּוֹ הִיא – וְאַתֶּם חֲמַסְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ:
their weapons: Heb. מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם, a term denoting weapons. In Greek, the word for sword is “machir” (Tanchuma Vayechi 9). Another explanation: מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם means: In the land of their dwelling (מְגוּרָתָם) they conducted themselves with implements of violence, like “Your dwelling place (מְכֹרֹתַיךּ‏ִ) and your birthplace (וּמוֹלְדֹתַיךּ‏ִ)” (Ezek. 16:3). This is Onkelos’s translation. — [from Tanchuma Vayechi 9]   מְכֵרֹֽתֵיהֶֽם: לְשׁוֹן כְּלֵי זַיִן, הַסַּיִף בִּלְשׁוֹן יְוָנִי מכי"ר, תַּנְחוּמָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם – בְּאֶרֶץ מְגוּרָתָם נָהֲגוּ עַצְמָן בִּכְלֵי חָמָס, כְּמוֹ מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ (יחזקאל טז), וְזֶהוּ תַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס:
6Let my soul not enter their counsel; my honor, you shall not join their assembly, for in their wrath they killed a man, and with their will they hamstrung a bull.   ובְּסֹדָם֙ אַל־תָּבֹ֣א נַפְשִׁ֔י בִּקְהָלָ֖ם אַל־תֵּחַ֣ד כְּבֹדִ֑י כִּ֤י בְאַפָּם֙ הָ֣רְגוּ אִ֔ישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָ֖ם עִקְּרוּ־שֽׁוֹר:
Let my soul not enter their counsel: This is the [future] incident of Zimri [that Jacob is referring to], when the tribe of Simeon gathered to bring the Midianitess before Moses, and they said to him, “Is this one forbidden or permitted? If you say she is forbidden, who permitted you to marry Jethro’s daughter?” Let my name not be mentioned in connection with that affair. [Therefore, the Torah depicts Zimri as] “Zimri the son of Salu, the prince of a father’s house of the Simeonites” (Num. 25:14), but [Scripture] did not write, “the son of Jacob.” - [from Sanh. 82a, Gen. Rabbah 99:6]   בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי: זֶה מַעֲשֵׂה זִמְרִי, כְּשֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ שִׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן לְהָבִיא אֶת הַמִּדְיָנִית לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ, זוֹ אֲסוּרָה אוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת? אִם תֹּאמַר אֲסוּרָה, בַּת יִתְרוֹ מִי הִתִּירָהּ לָךְ? – אַל יִזָּכֵר שְׁמִי בַּדָּבָר, זִמְרִי בֶּן סָלוּא נְשִׂיא בֵית אָב לַשִּׁמְעוֹנִי וְלֹא כָּתַב בֶּן יַעֲקֹב:
their assembly: When Korah, who is of the tribe of Levi, assembles the whole congregation against Moses and against Aaron. — [From Tanchuma Vayechi 10]   בִּקְהָלָם: כְּשֶׁיַּקְהִיל קֹרַח, שֶׁהוּא מִשִּׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל לֵוִי, אֶת כָּל הָעֵדָה עַל מֹשֶׁה וְעַל אַהֲרֹן,
my honor, you shall not join: My name shall not join them there, as it is said: “Korah the son of Izhar the son of Kehath the son of Levi” (Num. 16:1), but it does not say, “the son of Jacob.” In (I) Chronicles (7:22), however, when the lineage of the sons of Korach is given regarding the platform, it says,“the son of Korah the son of Izhar the son of Kehath the son of Levi the son of Israel.” - [from Tanchuma Vayechi   אַל־תֵּחַד כבודי: שָׁם, אַל יִתְיַחֵד עִמָּהֶם שְׁמִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר קֹרַח בֶּן יִצְהָר בֶּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי, וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב; אֲבָל בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים, כְּשֶׁנִּתְיַחֲסוּ בְּנֵי קֹרַח עַל הַדּוּכָן, נֶאֱמַר בֶּן קֹרַח בֶּן יִצְהָר בֶּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל (דברי הימים א ו'):
my honor, you shall not join: כָּבוֹד, honor, is a masculine noun. [Therefore,] you must explain [this passage] as if he (Jacob) is speaking to the honor and saying, “You, my honor, shall not join them,” like “You shall not join (תֵחַד) them in burial” (Isa. 14:20). [Since the word (תֵּחַד) includes a prefixed “tav,” it can be either the second person masculine or the third person feminine. Since כָּבוֹד is a masculine noun, the verb must be second person.]   אַל־תֵּחַד כבודי: כָּבוֹד לְשׁוֹן זָכָר הוּא, וְעַל כָּרְחֲךָ אַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ כִּמְדַבֵּר אֶל הַכָּבוֹד וְאוֹמֵר אַתָּה, כְבוֹדִי אַל תִּתְיַחֵד עִמָּהֶם כְּמוֹ לֹא תֵחַד אִתָּם בִּקְבוּרָה (ישעיה י"ד):
for in their wrath they killed a man: These are Hamor and the men of Shechem, and all of them are considered as no more than one man. And so [Scripture] says regarding Gideon, “And you shall smite Midian as one man” (Jud. 6:16), and similarly regarding the Egyptians, “a horse and its rider He cast into the sea” (Exod. 15:1). This is its midrashic interpretation (Gen. Rabbah 99:6), but its simple meaning is that many men are called “a man,” each one individually. In their wrath they (Simeon and Levi) killed every man with whom they were angry. Similarly, “and he learned to attack prey; he devoured men (אָדָם)” (Ezek. 19:3).   כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ: אֵלּוּ חֲמוֹר וְאַנְשֵׁי שְׁכֶם, וְאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כֻּלָּם אֶלָּא כְאִישׁ אֶחָד; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּגִדְעוֹן, וְהִכִּיתָ אֶת מִדְיָן כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד (שופטים ו') וְכֵן בְּמִצְרַיִם סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם, זֶהוּ מִדְרָשׁוֹ. וּפְשׁוּטוֹ, אֲנָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה קוֹרֵא אִישׁ – כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, בְּאַפָּם הָרְגוּ כָל אִישׁ שֶׁכָּעֲסוּ עָלָיו, וְכֵן וַיִּלְמַד לִטְרָף טֶרֶף אָדָם אָכָל (יחזקאל י"ט):
and with their will they hamstrung a bull: They wanted to “uproot” Joseph, who was called “bull,” as it is said: “The firstborn of his bull-he has majesty” (Deut. 33:17). עִקְרוּ means esjareter in Old French, to hamstring, an expression similar to “You shall hamstring their horses” (Josh. 11:6). - [From Targum Yerushalmi]   וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ־שֽׁוֹר: רָצוּ לַעֲקֹר אֶת יוֹסֵף שֶׁנִּקְרָא שׁוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ (דברים ל"ג). עִקְּרוּ אשרי"טיר בְּלַעַז, לְשׁוֹן אֶת סוּסֵיהֶם תְּעַקֵּר (יהושע י"א):
7Cursed be their wrath for it is mighty, and their anger because it is harsh. I will separate them throughout Jacob, and I will scatter them throughout Israel.   זאָר֤וּר אַפָּם֙ כִּ֣י עָ֔ז וְעֶבְרָתָ֖ם כִּ֣י קָשָׁ֑תָה אֲחַלְּקֵ֣ם בְּיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וַֽאֲפִיצֵ֖ם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Cursed be their wrath for it is mighty: Even at the time of castigation, he cursed only their wrath. This is [in agreement with the idea behind] what Balaam said, “What shall I curse, which God did not curse?” (Num. 23:8). - [From Gen. Rabbah 99:6]   אָרוּר אַפָּם כִּי עָז: אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת תּוֹכֵחָה לֹא קִלֵּל אֶלָּא אַפָּם, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר בִּלְעָם מָה אֶקֹּב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל (במדבר כ"ג):
I will separate them throughout Jacob: I will separate them from one another so that Levi will not be numbered among the tribes; hence they are separated. Another explanation: There are no [itinerant] paupers, scribes, or teachers of children except from [the tribe of] Simeon, so that they should be scattered. The tribe of Levi was made to go around to the threshing floors for heave offerings and tithes; thus he caused him to be dispersed in a respectable way. — [From Gen. Rabbah 98:5, 99:6, Shitah Chadashah]   אֲחַלְּקֵם בְּיַֽעֲקֹב: אַפְרִידֵם זֶה מִזֶּה שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא לֵוִי בְּמִנְיַן הַשְּׁבָטִים, וַהֲרֵי הֵם חֲלוּקִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר אֵין לְךָ עֲנִיִּים וְסוֹפְרִים וּמְלַמְּדֵי תִינוֹקוֹת אֶלָּא מִשִּׁמְעוֹן, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נְפוֹצִים, וְשִׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל לֵוִי עֲשָׂאוֹ מְחַזֵּר עַל הַגְּרָנוֹת לַתְּרוּמוֹת וְלַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, נָתַן לוֹ תְּפוּצָתוֹ דֶּרֶךְ כָּבוֹד:
8Judah, [as for] you, your brothers will acknowledge you. Your hand will be at the nape of your enemies, [and] your father's sons will prostrate themselves to you.   חיְהוּדָ֗ה אַתָּה֙ יוֹד֣וּךָ אַחֶ֔יךָ יָֽדְךָ֖ בְּעֹ֣רֶף אֹֽיְבֶ֑יךָ יִשְׁתַּֽחֲו֥וּ לְךָ֖ בְּנֵ֥י אָבִֽיךָ:
Judah, [as for] you, your brothers will acknowledge you: Since he reproved the first ones (Reuben, Simeon, and Levi) with reproach, Judah began retreating backwards [so that he (Jacob) would not reprove him for the deed involving Tamar (Gen. 38:16). So Jacob called him with words of appeasement, “Judah, you are not like them.” - [From Shitah Chadashah]   יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ: לְפִי שֶׁהוֹכִיחַ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בְּקִנְטוּרִים, הִתְחִיל יְהוּדָה נָסוֹג לַאֲחוֹרָיו, (שֶׁלֹּא יוֹכִיחֶנּוּ עַל מַעֲשֵׂה תָמָר) וּקְרָאוֹ יַעֲקֹב בְּדִבְרֵי רִצּוּי, יְהוּדָה לֹא אַתָּה כְמוֹתָם (בראשית רבה):
Your hand will be at the nape of your enemies: In the time of David: “And of my enemies-you have given me the back of their necks” (II Sam. 22:41). - [From Gen. Rabbah 98:9]   יָֽדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹֽיְבֶיךָ: בִּימֵי דָּוִד – וְאֹיְבַי תַּתָּה לִּי עֹרֶף (שמואל ב כ"ב):
your father’s sons: Since they were [born] from many wives, he did not say, “your mother’s sons,” after the manner that Isaac said (Gen. 27:29). - [From Gen. Rabbah 98:6]   בְּנֵי אָבִֽיךָ: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ מִנָּשִׁים הַרְבֵּה, לֹא אָמַר בְּנֵי אִמֶּךָ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָמַר יִצְחָק:
9A cub [and] a grown lion is Judah. From the prey, my son, you withdrew. He crouched, rested like a lion, and like a lion, who will rouse him?   טגּ֤וּר אַרְיֵה֙ יְהוּדָ֔ה מִטֶּ֖רֶף בְּנִ֣י עָלִ֑יתָ כָּרַ֨ע רָבַ֧ץ כְּאַרְיֵ֛ה וּכְלָבִ֖יא מִ֥י יְקִימֶֽנּוּ:
A cub [and] a grown lion is Judah: He prophesied about David, who was at first like a cub: “When Saul was king over us, it was you who led Israel out and brought them in” (II Sam. 5:2), and at the end a lion, when they made him king over them. This is what Onkelos means in his translation by יְהֵא בְּשֵׁירוּיָא שִׁלְטוֹן, [he shall be a ruler] in his beginning.   גּוּר אַרְיֵה: עַל דָּוִד נִתְנַבֵּא – בַּתְּחִלָּה גּוּר בִּהְיוֹת שָׁאוּל מֶלֶךְ עָלֵינוּ אַתָּה הָיִיתָ הַמּוֹצִיא וְהַמֵּבִיא אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל (שמואל ב ה') – וּלְבַסּוֹף אַרְיֵה, כְּשֶׁהִמְלִיכוּהוּ עֲלֵיהֶם, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס שִׁלְטוֹן יְהֵא בְּשֵׁרוּיָא – בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ:
from the prey: From what I suspected of you, (namely) that “Joseph has surely been torn up; a wild beast has devoured him” (Gen. 37: 33). This referred to Judah, who was likened to a lion. - [from Tanchuma Vayigash 9]   מִטֶּרֶף: מִמַּה שֶּׁחֲשַׁדְתִּיךָ בְּטָרֹף טֹרַף יוֹסֵף חַיָּה רָעָה אֲכָלָתְהוּ – וְזֶהוּ יְהוּדָה שֶׁנִּמְשַׁל לְאַרְיֵה –
my son, you withdrew: Heb. עָלִיתָ, you withdrew yourself and said, “What is the gain [if we slay our brother and cover up his blood]?” (Gen. 37:26) (Gen. Rabbah 99:8). Similarly, [Judah withdrew] from killing Tamar, when he confessed, “She is right, [it is] from me…” (Gen. 38: 26) (Aggadath Bereshith 83). Therefore, “he crouched, lay down, etc.” [This was fulfilled] in the time of Solomon, “every man under his vine, etc.” (I Kings 5:5) (Gen. Rabbah 98:7).   בְּנִי עָלִיתָ: סִלַּקְתָּ אֶת עַצְמְךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ מַה בֶּצַע וְגוֹ', וְכֵן בַּהֲרִיגַת תָּמָר שֶׁהוֹדָה, צָדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי, לְפִיכָךְ כרע רבץ וְגוֹ', בִּימֵי שְׁלֹמֹה אִישׁ תַּחַת גַּפְנוֹ וְגוֹ' (מלכים א ה'):
10The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the student of the law from between his feet, until Shiloh comes, and to him will be a gathering of peoples.   ילֹֽא־יָס֥וּר שֵׁ֨בֶט֙ מִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וּמְחֹקֵ֖ק מִבֵּ֣ין רַגְלָ֑יו עַ֚ד כִּֽי־יָבֹ֣א שִׁילֹ֔ה וְל֖וֹ יִקְּהַ֥ת עַמִּֽים:
The scepter shall not depart from Judah: from David and thereafter. These (who bear the scepter after the termination of the kingdom) are the exilarchs (princes) in Babylon, who ruled over the people with a scepter, [and] who were appointed by royal mandate. — [From Sanh. 5a]   לֹֽא־יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִֽיהוּדָה: מִדָּוִד וָאֵילָךְ, אֵלּוּ רָאשֵׁי גָּלֻיּוֹת שֶׁבְּבָבֶל, שֶׁרוֹדִים אֶת הָעָם בַּשֵּׁבֶט שֶׁמְּמֻנִּים עַל פִּי הַמַּלְכוּת (בראשית רבה):
nor the student of the law from between his feet: Students. These are the princes of the land of Israel. — [From Sanh. 5a]   וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו: הַתַּלְמִידִים, אֵלּוּ נְשִׂיאֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל:
until Shiloh comes: [This refers to] the King Messiah, to whom the kingdom belongs (שֶׁלוֹ) , and so did Onkelos render it: [until the Messiah comes, to whom the kingdom belongs]. According to the Midrash Aggadah, [“Shiloh” is a combination of] שַׁי לוֹ, a gift to him, as it is said: “they will bring a gift to him who is to be feared” (Ps. 76:12). - [From Gen. Rabbah ed. Theodore-Albeck p. 1210 ]   עַד כִּֽי־יָבֹא שִׁילֹה: מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ שֶׁהַמְּלוּכָה שֶׁלּוֹ, וְכֵן תִּרְגְּמוֹ אֻנְקְלוֹס. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה שִׁילוֹ – שַׁי לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, יֹבִילוּ שַׁי לַמּוֹרָא (תהילים ע"ו):
and to him will be a gathering of peoples: Heb. יִקְּהַת עַמִּים denoting a gathering of peoples, for the “yud” of (יִקְּהַת) is part of the root [and not a prefix], like “with your brightness (יִפְעָתֶךָ‏ֶ)” (Ezek. 28: 17), and sometimes [the “yud” is] omitted. Many letters are subject to this rule, and they are called defective roots, like the “nun” of נוֹגֵף (smite), נוֹשֵׁךְ (bite), and the “aleph” of “and my speech (אַחְוָתִי) in your ears” (Job 13:17); and [the “aleph”] of “the scream of (אִבְחַת) the sword” (Ezek. 21:20); and [the “aleph”] of “a jug (אָסוּךְ‏) of oil” (II Kings 4:2). This too, is [a noun meaning] a gathering of peoples, [meaning: a number of nations who unite to serve God and join under the banner of the King Messiah] as it is said: “to him shall the nations inquire” (Isa. 11:10). Similar to this is “The eye that mocks the father and despises the mother’s wrinkles (לְיִקְּהַת אֵם)” (Prov. 30:17), [i.e., meaning] the gathering of wrinkles in her face, due to her old age. And in the Talmud [we find]: “were sitting and gathering assemblies וּמַקְהוֹ אַקְהָתָא in the streets of Nehardea” [Pumbeditha] in Tractate Yebamtoh (110b). He (Jacob) could also have said: קְהִיּת עַמִּים [Since the “yud” of יִקְהַת is not a prefix denoting the third person masculine singular, but is a defective root, the form קְהִיּת עַמִּים would be just as appropriate.]- [From Gen. Rabbah 98:9]   וְלוֹ יִקְּהַת עַמִּֽים: אֲסֵפַת הָעַמִּים, שֶׁהַיּוֹ"ד עִקָּר הִיא בַּיְסוֹד, כְּמוֹ יִפְעָתֶךָ (יחזקאל כ"ח), וּפְעָמִים שֶׁנּוֹפֶלֶת מִמֶּנּוּ, וְכַמָּה אוֹתִיּוֹת מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת בְּלָשׁוֹן זֶה, וְהֵם נִקְרָאִים עִקָּר נוֹפֵל; כְּגוֹן נוּ"ן שֶׁל נוֹגֵף וְשֶׁל נוֹשֵׁךְ, וְאָלֶ"ף שֶׁבִּוְאַחֲוָתִי בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם (איוב י"ג), וְשֶׁבְּאִבְחַת חָרֶב (יחזקאל כ"א), וְאָסוּךְ שָׁמֶן (מלכים ב ד'), אַף זֶה יִקְּהַת עַמִּים אֲסֵפַת עַמִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ (ישעיהו י"א). וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ עַיִן תִּלְעַג לְאָב וְתָבֻז לִיקְּהַת אֵם (משלי ל'), לְקִבּוּץ קְמָטִים שֶׁבְּפָנֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי זִקְנָתָהּ; וּבַתַּלְמוּד דְּיָתְבֵי וּמַקְהוּ אַקְהָתָא בְּשׁוּקֵי דִּנְהַרְדְּעָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת יְבָמוֹת; וְיָכוֹל הָיָה לוֹמַר, קְהִיַּת עַמִּים:
11He binds his foal to a vine, and to a tendril [he binds] his young donkey. [He launders] his garment with wine, and with the blood of grapes binds his raiment.   יאאֹֽסְרִ֤י לַגֶּ֨פֶן֙ עִיר֔וֹ (כתיב עירה) וְלַשּֽׂרֵקָ֖ה בְּנִ֣י אֲתֹנ֑וֹ כִּבֵּ֤ס בַּיַּ֨יִן֙ לְבֻשׁ֔וֹ וּבְדַם־עֲנָבִ֖ים סוּתֽוֹ (כתיב סותה) :
He binds his foal to a vine: He prophesied concerning the land of Judah [namely] that wine will flow like a fountain from it. One Judahite man will bind one foal to a vine and load it from one vine, and from one tendril [he will load] one young donkey. — [From Gen. Rabbah 98:9]   אֹֽסְרִי לַגֶּפֶן עירה: נִתְנַבֵּא עַל אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה שֶׁתְּהֵא מוֹשֶׁכֶת יַיִן כְּמַעְיָן; אִישׁ יְהוּדָה יֶאֱסֹר לַגֶּפֶן עַיִר אֶחָד וְיִטְעָנֶנּוּ מִגֶּפֶן אַחַת, וּמִשֹּׂרֵק אֶחָד בֶּן אָתוֹן אֶחָד:
a tendril: A long branch, corjede in Old French, a vine-branch.   שרקה: זְמוֹרָה אֲרֻכָּה, קוריירא בְּלַעַז:
He launders]…with wine: All this is an expression of an abundance of wine. — [From Gen. Rabbah 99:8]   כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן: כָּל זֶה לְשׁוֹן רִבּוּי יַיִן:
his raiment: Heb. סוּתֹה. It is a word denoting a type of garment, and there is none like it in Scripture.   סותה: לְשׁוֹן מִין בֶּגֶד הוּא, וְאֵין לוֹ דִּמְיוֹן בַּמִּקְרָא:
binds: Heb. אֹסְרִי, equivalent to אוֹסֵר, as in the example: “He lifts (מְקִימִי) the pauper up from the dust” (Ps. 113:7) [instead of מֵקִים]; “You, Who dwell (הַישְׁבִי) in heaven” (ibid. 123:1) [instead of הַישֵׁב]. Likewise, “his young donkey” (בְּנִי אִתֹנוֹ) [instead of בֶּן אִתֹנוֹ] follows this pattern. Onkelos, however, translated it [the verse] as referring to the King Messiah [i.e., the King Messiah will bind, etc.]. The vine represents Israel; עִירֹה means Jerusalem [interpreting עִירֹה as “his city,” from עִיר]. The tendril represents Israel, [referred to as such by the prophet:] “Yet I planted you a noble vine stock (שׁוֹרֵק)” (Jer. 2:21).   אֹֽסְרִי: כְּמוֹ אוֹסֵר, דֻּגְמַת מְקִימִי מֵעָפָר דָּל (תהילים קי"ג), הַיֹּשְׁבִי בַּשָּׁמָיִם (שם קכ"ג), וְכֵן בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ כְּעִנְיָן זֶה. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם בְּמֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ: גֶּפֶן – הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל; עִירֹה – זוֹ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; שֹׂרֵקָה – יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאָנֹכִי נְטַעְתִּיךְ שׂוֹרֵק – (ירמיהו ב'):
his young donkey: [is translated by Onkelos as] They shall build his Temple [בְּנִי is derived from בנה, to build. אִתֹנוֹ is] an expression similar to “the entrance gate (שַׁעַר הָאִיתוֹן)” in the Book of Ezekiel (40:15). [The complete Targum reads as follows: He (the Messiah) shall bring Israel around to his city, the people shall build his Temple.] He (Onkelos) further translates it in another manner: the vine refers to the righteous, בְּנִי אִתֹנוֹ refers to those who uphold the Torah by teaching [others], from the idea [expressed by the verse]: “the riders of white donkeys (אֲתֹנֹת)” (Jud. 5:10). [He launders]…with wine, [Onkelos renders:] “Fine purple shall be his (the Messiah’s) garment,” whose color resembles wine. [The complete Targum reads: Fine purple shall be his garment, his raiment fine wool, crimson and colorful clothing.] “And colorful clothing” is expressed by the word סוּתֹה, [a garment] a woman wears to entice [מְסִיתָה] a male to cast his eyes on her. Our Rabbis also explained it in the Talmud as a term denoting the enticement of drunkenness, in Tractate Kethuboth (11b): And if you say about the wine, that it does not intoxicate, the Torah states: סוּתֹה [which means enticement to drunkenness. The Rabbis, however, render the passage as follows: and with the blood of grapes that entices].   בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ: יִבְנוּן הֵיכְלֵהּ, לְשׁוֹן שַׁעַר הָאִיתוֹן בְּסֵפֶר יְחֶזְקֵאל (יחזקאל מ'). וְעוֹד תִּרְגְּמוּ בְּפָנִים אֲחֵרִים: גֶּפֶן אֵלּוּ צַדִּיקִים; בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ – עָבְדֵי אוֹרַיְתָא בְּאוּלְפַן, עַל שֵׁם רֹכְבֵי אֲתֹנוֹת צְחֹרוֹת כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן יְהֵא אַרְגְּוָן טַב שֶׁצִּבּוּעוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְיַיִן, וְצִבְעוֹנִין הוּא לְשׁוֹן סוּתֹה, שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה לוֹבַשְׁתָּן וּמְסִיתָה בָּהֶן אֶת הַזָּכָר לִתֵּן עֵינָיו בָּהּ; וְאַף רַבּוֹתֵינוּ פֵּרְשׁוּ בַתַּלְמוּד לְשׁוֹן הֲסָתַת שִׁכְרוּת בְּמַסֶּכֶת כְּתֻבּוֹת (דף קי"א). וְעַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁמָּא תֹאמַר אֵינוֹ מַרְוֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר סוּתֹה:
12[He is] red eyed from wine and white toothed from milk.   יבחַכְלִילִ֥י עֵינַ֖יִם מִיָּ֑יִן וּלְבֶן־שִׁנַּ֖יִם מֵֽחָלָֽב:
red-eyed from wine: Heb. חַכְלִילִי, an expression of redness, as the Targum renders, and similarly (Prov. 23:29), “Who has bloodshot eyes (עֵינַים חַכְלִלוֹת)?” For it is common for those who drink wine to have red eyes.   חַכְלִילִי: לְשׁוֹן אֹדֶם, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, וְכֵן לְמִי חַכְלִלוּת עֵינָיִם (משלי כ"ג), שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ שׁוֹתֵי יַיִן עֵינֵיהֶם מַאְדִּימִין:
from milk: Due to the abundance of milk, for in his (Judah’s) land there will be good pasture for flocks of sheep. This is the meaning of the verse: He shall be red-eyed from an abundance of wine, and he shall be white-toothed from an abundance of milk. According to the Targum, however, עֵינַיִם denotes mountains because from there one can see far away. [According to the Targum: His mountains shall be red with his vineyards.] The Targum renders it also in another manner, as an expression of fountains (as in Gen. 16:7, 24:16, 29, 30, 42, 43, 45) and the flow of the vats. [The Targum reads further: His vats (נַעִווֹהִי) shall flow with wine.] נַעִווֹהִי means “his vats.” This is Aramaic, [and] in Tractate A.Z. (74b): “Vats (נַעִוָא) are to be purged with boiling water.” [וּלְבֶן שִׁנַּיִם he renders:] יְחַוְרָן בָּקְעָתֵיהּ. He renders שִׁנַּיִם as a term denoting rocky crags. [According to this translation then, Onkelos renders: his rocky crags shall be white.]   מֵֽחָלָֽב: מֵרֹב חָלָב, שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּאַרְצוֹ מִרְעֶה טוֹב לְעֶדְרֵי צֹאן; וְכֵן פֵּרוּשׁ הַמִּקְרָא: אֲדֹם עֵינַיִם יְהֵא מֵרֹב יַיִן וּלְבֶן שִׁנַּיִם יְהֵא מֵרֹב חָלָב. וּלְפִי תַרְגּוּמוֹ עֵינַיִם לְשׁוֹן הָרִים, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם צוֹפִים לְמֵרָחוֹק, וְעוֹד תִּרְגְּמוֹ בְּפָנִים אֲחֵרִים, לְשׁוֹן מַעְיָנוֹת וְקִלּוּחַ הַיְקָבִים, נַעֲווֹהִי – יְקָבִים שֶׁלּוֹ, וְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי הוּא בְּמַסֶּכֶת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה (דף ע"ד), נַעֲוָא אַרְתְּחוֹ יְחַוְּרָן בִּקְעָתֵהּ – תַּרְגּוּם שִׁנַּיִם, לְשׁוֹן שִׁנֵּי הַסְּלָעִים:
13Zebulun will dwell on the coast of the seas; he [will be] at the harbor of the ships, and his boundary will be at Zidon.   יגזְבוּלֻ֕ן לְח֥וֹף יַמִּ֖ים יִשְׁכֹּ֑ן וְהוּא֙ לְח֣וֹף אֳנִיֹּ֔ת וְיַרְכָת֖וֹ עַל־צִידֹֽן:
Zebulun will dwell on the coast of the seas: Heb. חוֹף. His land will be on the seacoast. חוֹף is as the Targum renders: סְפַר, marche in Old French, borderland. He will constantly frequent the harbor of the ships, in the place of the port, where the ships bring merchandise, for Zebulun would engage in commerce and provide food for the tribe of Issachar, and they (the tribe of Issachar) would engage in [the study of] Torah. That is [the meaning of] what Moses said, “Rejoice, O Zebulun, in your going forth, and Issachar, in your tents” (Deut. 33:18) Zebulun would go forth [to engage] in commerce, and Issachar would engage in [the study of] Torah in tents. — [From Tanchuma Vayechi 11]   לְחוֹף יַמִּים: עַל חוֹף יַמִּים תִּהְיֶה אַרְצוֹ (יבמות מ"ה); חוֹף, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ סְפָר, מרק"א בְּלַעַז, וְהוּא יִהְיֶה מָצוּי תָּדִיר עַל חוֹף אֳנִיּוֹת בִּמְקוֹם הַנָּמֵל, שֶׁאֳנִיּוֹת מְבִיאוֹת שָׁם פְּרַקְמַטְיָא, שֶׁהָיָה זְבוּלֻן עוֹסֵק בִּפְרַקְמַטְיָא וּמַמְצִיא מָזוֹן לְשֵׁבֶט יִשָּׂשכָר, וְהֵם עוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה. הוּא שֶׁאָמַר מֹשֶׁה שְׂמַח זְבוּלֻן בְּצֵאתֶךָ וְיִשָּׂשכָר בְּאֹהָלֶיךָ (דברים ל"ג), זְבוּלֻן יוֹצֵא בִּפְרַקְמַטְיָא, וְיִשָּׂשכָר עוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה בְּאֹהָלִים:
and his boundary will be at Zidon: The end of his boundary will be near Zidon. יַרְכָתוֹ means: his end, similar to “and to the end of (וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי) the Tabernacle” (Exod. 26:22). - [From Targum Onkelos]   וְיַרְכָתוֹ עַל־צִידֹֽן: סוֹף גְּבוּלוֹ יְהֵא סָמוּךְ לְצִידֹן יַרְכָתוֹ סוֹפוֹ, כְּמוֹ וּלְיַרְכְּתֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
14Issachar is a strong-boned donkey, lying between the boundaries.   ידיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר חֲמֹ֣ר גָּ֑רֶם רֹבֵ֖ץ בֵּ֥ין הַמִּשְׁפְּתָֽיִם:
Issachar is a strong-boned donkey: Heb. חִמֹר גָרֶם, a bony donkey. He bears the yoke of the Torah, like a strong donkey which is laden with a heavy burden. — [From Gen. Rabbah 99: 9]   יִשָּׂשכָר חֲמֹר גָּרֶם: חֲמוֹר בַּעַל עֲצָמוֹת, סוֹבֵל עֹל תּוֹרָה, כַּחֲמוֹר חָזָק שֶׁמַּטְעִינִין אוֹתוֹ מַשּׂאוֹי כָבֵד:
lying between the boundaries: like a donkey, which travels day and night and does not lodge in a house, but when it lies down to rest, it lies between the boundaries, in the boundaries of the towns where it transports merchandise. — [From Zohar vol. 1, 242a]   רובץ בֵּין הַמִּשְׁפְּתָֽיִם: כַּחֲמוֹר הַמְהַלֵּךְ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה, וְאֵין לוֹ לִינָה בַּבַּיִת, וּכְשֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לָנוּחַ, רוֹבֵץ בֵּין הַתְּחוּמִין, בִּתְחוּמֵי הָעֲיָרוֹת שֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ שָׁם פְּרַקְמַטְיָא:
15He saw a resting place, that it was good, and the land, that it was pleasant, and he bent his shoulder to bear [burdens], and he became an indentured laborer.   טווַיַּ֤רְא מְנֻחָה֙ כִּ֣י ט֔וֹב וְאֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ כִּ֣י נָעֵ֑מָה וַיֵּ֤ט שִׁכְמוֹ֙ לִסְבֹּ֔ל וַיְהִ֖י לְמַס־עֹבֵֽד:
He saw a resting place, that it was good: He saw that his territory was a blessed and good land for producing fruits. — [From Targum Onkelos, Bereshith Rabbathi]   וַיַּרְא מְנֻחָה כִּי טוֹב: רָאָה לְחֶלְקוֹ אֶרֶץ מְבֹרֶכֶת וְטוֹבָה לְהוֹצִיא פֵרוֹת:
and he bent his shoulder to bear [burdens]: [I.e., the yoke of Torah.]- [From Gen. Rabbah 98:12]   וַיֵּט שִׁכְמוֹ לסבול: עֹל תּוֹרָה:
and he became: for all his brothers, the Israelites-   וַיְהִי: לְכָל אֶחָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל:
an indentured laborer: to decide for them instructions of Torah [law] and the sequence of leap years, as it is said: “And of the sons of Issachar, those who had an understanding of the times, to know what Israel should do: their chiefs were two hundred” (I Chron 12:33). He (Issachar) provided two hundred heads of Sanhedrin. “And all their brethren obeyed their word” (ibid. 12:32). - [From Gen. Rabbah 98: 12]   לְמַס־עובד: לִפְסֹק לָהֶם הוֹרָאוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְסִדְרֵי עִבּוּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּמִבְּנֵי יִשָּׂשכָר יוֹדְעֵי בִינָה לַעִתִּים לָדַעַת מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה יִשְׂרָאֵל רָאשֵׁיהֶם מָאתַיִם (דברי הימים א י"ב), מָאתַיִם רָאשֵׁי סַנְהֶדְרָאוֹת הֶעֱמִיד וְכָל אֲחֵיהֶם עַל פִּיהֶם:
and he bent his shoulder: Heb. וַיֵּט, he lowered his shoulder, similar to “And He bent (וַיֵּט) the heavens” (II Sam. 22:10, Ps. 18:10), “Incline your ear (הַטּוּ)” (Ps. 78:1). Onkelos, however, rendered it in a different manner: and he bent his shoulder to bear wars and to conquer regions, for they dwelled on the border; the enemy will be vanquished under him as an indentured laborer.   וַיֵּט שִׁכְמוֹ: הִשְׁפִּיל שִׁכְמוֹ, כְּמוֹ וַיֵּט שָׁמַיִם (שמואל ב כ"ב), הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם (תהילים ע"ח). וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגְּמוֹ בְּפָנִים אֲחֵרִים, ויט שכמו לסבול מִלְחָמוֹת וְלִכְבֹּשׁ מְחוֹזוֹת, שֶׁהֵם יוֹשְׁבִים עַל הַסְּפָר, ויהי הָאוֹיֵב כָּבוּשׁ תַּחְתָּיו למס עובד:
16Dan will avenge his people, like one, the tribes of Israel.   טזדָּ֖ן יָדִ֣ין עַמּ֑וֹ כְּאַחַ֖ד שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Dan will avenge his people: Heb. יָדִין, will avenge his people from the Philistines, like “When the Lord avenges (יָדִין) His people” (Deut. 32:36). - [From Targum Onkelos]   דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ: יִנְקֹם נִקְמַת עַמּוֹ מִפְּלִשְׁתִּים כְּמוֹ כִּי יָדִין ה' עַמּוֹ (דברים ל"ב):
like one, the tribes of Israel: All Israel will be like one with him, and he will avenge them all. Concerning Samson he uttered this prophecy. We can also explain שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּאַחַד [as follows]: like the special one of the tribes, namely David, who came from Judah. — [From Targum Onkelos, Sotah 10a, Gen. Rabbah 99:11]   כְּאַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיוּ כְּאֶחָד עִמּוֹ, וְאֶת כֻּלָּם יָדִין, וְעַל שִׁמְשׁוֹן נִבָּא נְבוּאָה זוֹ; וְעוֹד יֵשׁ לְפָרֵשׁ כאחד שבטי ישראל, כַּמְיֻחָד שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים, הוּא דָּוִד, שֶׁבָּא מִיהוּדָה:
17Dan will be a serpent on the road, a viper on the path, which bites the horse's heels, so its rider falls backwards.   יזיְהִי־דָן֙ נָחָ֣שׁ עֲלֵי־דֶ֔רֶךְ שְׁפִיפֹ֖ן עֲלֵי־אֹ֑רַח הַנּשֵׁךְ֙ עִקְּבֵי־ס֔וּס וַיִּפֹּ֥ל רֹֽכְב֖וֹ אָחֽוֹר:
a viper: Heb. שְׁפִיפֹן. This is a snake, and I say it is given this appellation because it bites, “and you will bite (תְּשׁוּפֶנוּ) his heel” (Gen. 3:15).   שְׁפִיפֹן: הוּא נָחָשׁ; וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁקָּרוּי כֵּן עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהוּא נוֹשֵׁף, כְּמוֹ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב (בראשית ג'):
which bites the horse’s heels: So is the habit of a snake. He (Jacob) compares him (Dan) to a snake, which bites a horse’s heels, and [causes] its rider to fall backwards, although it does not touch him. We find something similar in [the story of] Samson: “And Samson grasped the two pillars of the center, etc.” (Jud. 16:29), and those on the roof died. Onkelos renders [נָחָשׁ] as כְּחִיוֵי חוּרְמָן, the name of a species of snake whose bite has no antidote, and that is the צִפְעֹנִי (adder). It is called חוּרְמָן because it destroys (חֵרֶם) everything. [Onkelos renders] וּכְפִתְנָא, and like a viper, like פֶּתֶן (Isa. 11:8, Ps. 58:5) [and he renders] יִכְמוֹן, [as] he will lie in wait.   הַנּשֵׁךְ עִקְּבֵי־סוּס: כָּךְ דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל נָחָשׁ, וְדִמָּהוּ לְנָחָשׁ הַנּוֹשֵׁךְ עִקְּבֵי סוּס, ויפל רכבו אחור – שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע בּוֹ. וְדֻגְמָתוֹ מָצִינוּ בְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן: וַיִּלְפֹּת שִׁמְשׁוֹן אֶת שְׁנֵי עַמּוּדֵי הַתָּוֶךְ וְגוֹמֵר (שופטים ט"ז) – וְשֶׁעַל הַגַּג מֵתוּ; וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם כְּחִוֵּי חוּרְמָן, שֵׁם מִין נָחָשׁ, שֶׁאֵין רְפוּאָה לִנְשִׁיכָתוֹ, וְהוּא צִפְעוֹנִי, וְקָרוּי חוּרְמָן עַל שֵׁם שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַכֹּל חֵרֶם; וּכְפִיתְנָא – כְּמוֹ פֶתֶן, יִכְמוֹן – יֶאֱרֹב:
18For Your salvation, I hope, O Lord!   יחלִֽישׁוּעָֽתְךָ֖ קִוִּ֥יתִי יְהֹוָֽה:
For Your salvation, I hope, O Lord!: He (Jacob) prophesied that the Philistines would gouge out his (Samson’s) eyes, and he (Samson) would ultimately say, “O Lord God, remember me now and strengthen me now only this once, etc.” (Jud. 16:28). - [From Num. Rabbah 14:9]   לִֽישׁוּעָֽתְךָ קִוִּיתִי ה': נִתְנַבֵּא שֶׁיְּנַקְּרוּ פְּלִשְׁתִּים אֶת עֵינָיו, וְסוֹפוֹ לוֹמַר זָכְרֵנִי נָא וְחַזְּקֵנִי נָא אַךְ הַפַּעַם וְגוֹ' (שופטים ט"ז):

Fifth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 49

19[As for] Gad, a troop will troop forth from him, and it will troop back in its tracks.   יטגָּ֖ד גְּד֣וּד יְגוּדֶ֑נּוּ וְה֖וּא יָגֻ֥ד עָקֵֽב:
[As for] Gad, a troop will troop forth from him: Heb. גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנוּ. All [these words] are expressions of a troop (גְּדוּד) as Menachem (Machbereth Menachem p. 52) classified it. If you ask [why] there is no [expression of] גְּדוּד without two “daleths,” we answer that [indeed] the noun גְּדוּד requires two “daleths,” for that is the rule of a word with a root of two letters [in this case גד], to double the final letter, but its root [remains] only two letters. Similarly, [Scripture] says:“Like a wandering (לָנוּד) sparrow” (Prov. 26:2), which is a derivative of [the same root as] “And I was sated with restlessness (נְדוּדִים)” (Job 7:4); “there he fell down dead (שָׁדוּד)” [lit., robbed] (Jud. 5:27), which is a derivative of [the same root as]“that ravages (יָשׁוּד) at noon” (Ps. 91:6). Also, יָגֻד, יְגוּדֶנּוּ, and גְּדוּד are from the same root. When the root is used in the יִפְעַל form (the future tense of the קַל conjugation), it (the final letter) is not doubled, like יָגוּד, יָנוּד, יָרוּם, יָשׁוּד, יָשׁוּב, but when it is reflexive (מִתְפַּעֵל) or causative (מַפְעִיל), it is doubled, like יִתְגוֹדֵד, יִתְרוֹמֵם, יִתְבּוֹלֵל, יִתְעוֹדֵד, or causative (מַפְעִיל), [like] “He strengthens (יְעוֹדֵד) the orphan and the widow” (ibid. 146:9); “to bring Jacob back (לְשׁוֹבֵב) to Him” (Isa. 49:5); “restorer (מְשׁוֹבֵב) of the paths” (ibid. 58:12). Also, יְגוּדֶּנוּ stated here is not an expression meaning that others will cause him to do, [because then the “daleth” would be doubled,] but it is like יָגוּד הֵימֶנּוּ, will troop forth from him, similar to “my children have left me (יְצָאוּנִי),” (Jer. 10:20), [which is equivalent to] יָצְאוּ מִמֶנִי, they went forth from me. [Hence, this form is not the causative, but the simple conjugation, which does not require the doubling of the final letter.] גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנוּ [means]: troops will troop forth from him-they will cross the Jordan with their brothers to war, every armed man, until the land is conquered.   גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנּוּ: כֻּלָּם לְשׁוֹן גְּדוּד הֵם, וְכָךְ חִבְּרוֹ מְנַחֵם; וְאִם תֹּאמַר, אֵין גְּדוּד בְּלֹא שְׁנֵי דַּלְתִי"ן, יֵשׁ לוֹמַר גְּדוּד שֵׁם דָּבָר צָרִיךְ שְׁנֵי דַּלְתִי"ן, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ תֵּבָה בַּת שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת לִכְפֹּל בְּסוֹפָהּ, וְאֵין יְסוֹדָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת, וְכֵן אָמַר כַּצִּפּוֹר לָנוּד (משלי כ"ו), מִגִּזְרַת שָׂבַעְתִּי נְדֻדִים (איוב ז'), שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד (שופטים ה'), מִגִּזְרַת יָשׁוּד צָהֳרָיִם (תהלים צ"א), אַף יָגֻד, יְגוּדֶנּוּ וּגְדוּד מִגִּזְרָה אַחַת הֵם; וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְדַבֵּר בִּלְשׁון יִפְעֹל אֵינוֹ כָפוּל, כְּמוֹ יָגוּד, יָנוּד, יָרוּם, יָשׁוּד, יָשׁוּב, וּכְשֶׁהוּא מִתְפַּעֵל אוֹ מַפְעִיל אֲחֵרִים הוּא כָפוּל, כְּמוֹ יִתְגּוֹדֵד, יִתְרוֹמֵם, יִתְבּוֹלֵל, יִתְעוֹדֵד; וּבִלְשׁוֹן מַפְעִיל, יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה יְעוֹדֵד (תהילים קמ"ו), לְשׁוֹבֵב יַעֲקֹב אֵלָיו (ישעיה מ"ט), מְשֹׁבֵב נְתִיבוֹת (שם נ"ח), יְגוּדֶנּוּ הָאָמוּר כָּאן אֵינוֹ לְשׁוֹן שֶׁיִּפְעֲלוּהוּ אֲחֵרִים, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ יָגוּד הֵימֶנּוּ, כְּמוֹ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי (ירמיהו י') – יָצְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי. גד גדוד יגודנו, גְּדוּדִים יָגוֹדּוּ הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ הַיַּרְדֵּן עִם אֲחֵיהֶם לַמִּלְחָמָה כָּל חָלוּץ עַד שֶׁנִּכְבְּשָׁה הָאָרֶץ:
and it will troop back in its tracks: All his troops will return in their tracks to the territory that they took on the other side of the Jordan, and no one will be missing from them. — [From Targum Yerushalmi]   וְהוּא יגוד עָקֵֽב: כָּל גְּדוּדָיו יָשׁוּבוּ עַל עֲקֵבָם לְנַחֲלָתָם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן, וְלֹא יִפָּקֵד מֵהֶם אִישׁ:
in its tracks: Heb. עָקֵב. In their way and in their paths upon which they went they will return, equivalent to “and your steps (וְעִקְבוֹתֶיךָ‏) were not known” (Ps. 77:20), and similarly, “in the footsteps of (בְּעִקְבֵי) the flocks” (Song of Songs 1:8); in French, traces, [meaning] tracks or footsteps.   עָקֵֽב: בְּדַרְכָּן וּבִמְסִלּוֹתָם שֶׁהָלְכוּ, יָשׁוּבוּ, כְּמוֹ וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נֹדָעוּ (תהילים ע"ז), וְכֵן בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן (שיר א'), בִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז טרצי"אם:
20From Asher will come rich food, and he will yield regal delicacies.   כמֵֽאָשֵׁ֖ר שְׁמֵנָ֣ה לַחְמ֑וֹ וְה֥וּא יִתֵּ֖ן מַֽעֲדַנֵּי־מֶֽלֶךְ:
From Asher will come rich food: The food from Asher’s territory will be rich, for there will be many olive trees in his territory, so that oil will flow like a fountain. And thus did Moses bless him, “and dip his foot in oil” (Deut. 33:24), as we learned in Menachoth (85b): The people of Laodicea once needed oil. [So they appointed themselves a Gentile messenger (according to Rashi, or a Gentile official, according to Rashi ms. and Rabbenu Gershom, ad loc.). They said to him, “Go and bring us oil worth a million (coins).” The messenger went to Jerusalem, where they told him, “Go to Tyre.” So the messenger went to Tyre, where they told him, “Go to Giscala (a town in the territory of Asher).” The messenger went to Giscala, where they told him, “Go to so-and-so, to that field.” He went to the field and he found a man breaking up the earth around his olive trees. The messenger asked him, “Do you have a million (coins) worth of oil?” The man replied, “Yes, but wait for me until I finish my work.” The messenger waited. After the man finished working, he cast his tools over his shoulder and went on his way, removing the stones from the path as he walked. The messenger thought to himself, “Has this man really a million (coins) worth of oil? I think the Jews have played a trick on me.” As soon as the man arrived at his town, his maidservant brought him a kettle of hot water, and the man washed his hands and feet with it. She then brought him a golden cup full of oil, and he dipped his hands and feet in it, to fulfill what is stated: “and dip his foot in oil.” After they had dined, the man measured out for the messenger oil (worth) a million (coins). He asked the messenger, “Don’t you need more?” “Yes,” the messenger replied, “but I have no money.” The man said, “If you want to buy, buy, and I will come with you and collect the money for it.” The man then measured out additional oil for one hundred eighty thousand (coins). It was said that the messenger hired all the horses, mules, camels, and donkeys that he could find in the land of Israel. As soon as the messenger arrived in his home town, the townspeople came out to praise him. He said to them, “Don’t praise me! Praise this man who measured out for me oil for a million (coins), and I still owe him a hundred eighty thousand (coins).” This illustrates the verse: “There is one who feigns riches but has nothing; one who feigns poverty but has great wealth” (Prov. 13:7).]   מֵֽאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ: מַאֲכָל הַבָּא מֵחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל אָשֵׁר יְהֵא שָׁמֵן, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ זֵיתִים מְרֻבִּים בְּחֶלְקוֹ וְהוּא מוֹשֵׁךְ שֶׁמֶן כְּמַעְיָן; וְכֵן בֵּרְכוֹ מֹשֶׁה וְטֹבֵל בַּשֶּׁמֶן רַגְלוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בִמְנָחוֹת (דף פ"ה) פַּעַם אַחַת הֻצְרְכוּ אַנְשֵׁי לוּדְקִיָּא לְשֶׁמֶן וְכוּ':
21Naphtali is a swift gazelle; [he is one] who utters beautiful words.   כאנַפְתָּלִ֖י אַיָּלָ֣ה שְׁלֻחָ֑ה הַנֹּתֵ֖ן אִמְרֵי־שָֽׁפֶר:
a swift gazelle: This is the valley of Gennesar, which ripens its fruits swiftly, like the gazelle, which runs swiftly. אַיָלָה שְׁלֻחָה means a gazelle that runs swiftly. — [from Gen. Rabbah 99:12]   אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה: זוֹ בִקְעַת גִּינוֹסַר שֶׁהִיא קַלָּה לְבַשֵּׁל פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ כְּאַיָּלָה זוֹ שֶׁהִיא קַלָּה לָרוּץ. אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה – אַיָּלָה מְשֻׁלַּחַת לָרוּץ:
[he is one] who utters beautiful words: As the Targum renders. [See below.] Another explanation: A swift gazelle: He (Jacob) prophesied concerning the war with Sisera: “and take with you ten thousand men of the men of Naphtali, etc.” (Jud. 4:6), and they went there with alacrity. And so it is stated there with an expression of dispatching, “into the valley they rushed forth with their feet” (ibid. 5:15).   הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי־שָֽׁפֶר: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר עַל מִלְחֶמֶת סִיסְרָא נִתְנַבֵּא – וְלָקַחְתָּ עִמְּךָ עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי וְגוֹ' (שופטים ד'), וְהָלְכוּ שָׁם בִּזְרִיזוּת, וְכֵן נֶאֱמַר שָׁם לְשׁוֹן שִׁלּוּחַ בָּעֵמֶק שֻׁלַּח בְּרַגְלָיו:
[he is one] who utters beautiful words: Through them, Deborah and Barak sang a song (Gen. Rabbah 98:17). Our Rabbis [of the Talmud], however, interpreted it (the entire verse) as an allusion to the day of Jacob’s burial, when Esau contested [the ownership of] the cave, in Tractate Sotah (13a). [As soon as Jacob’s sons reached the Cave of Machpelah, Esau came and stopped them. He said to them, “Mamre, Kiriath-arba, which is Hebron” (Gen. 35:27); Rabbi Isaac said that the name Kiriath-arba alludes to the four couples interred there: Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, and Jacob and Leah. Jacob buried Leah in his place, and the remaining one Esau said was his. Jacob’s sons said to Esau, “You sold it.” He replied, “Although I sold my birthright, did I sell my rights as an ordinary son?” They answered, “Yes, for it is written: ‘in my grave, which I bought (כָּרִיתִי) for myself’” (Gen. 50:5). Rabbi Johanan said in the name of Rabbi Simeon the son of Jehozadak, כִּירָה means nothing but sale (מְכִירָה), for in the coastal cities, sale is known as כִּירָה. Esau replied, “Give me the deed.” They said to him, “The deed is in Egypt.” [One asked another,] “Who should go (to get it) ?” [He replied,] “Let Naphtali go because he is as fleet-footed as a gazelle, as it is written: ‘Naphtali is a swift gazelle, [he is one] who utters beautiful words (אִמְרֵי שָׁפֶר).’” Do not read אִמְרֵי שָׁפֶר, but אִמְרֵי סֵפֶר, words of a scroll.] [I. e., it was Naphtali who brought the deed to the cave to prove that Jacob had purchased Esau’s burial right there.] The Targum renders: יִתְרְמֵי עַדְבֵהּ, his lot will fall [in a good land], and he will give thanks for his territory with beautiful words and praise.   הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי־שָֽׁפֶר: עַל יָדָם שָׁרוּ דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק שִׁירָה. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דְּרָשׁוּהוּ עַל יוֹם קְבוּרַת יַעֲקֹב כְּשֶׁעִרְעֵר עֵשָׂו עַל הַמְּעָרָה, בְּמַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה (דף י"ג); וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ יִתְרְמֵי עַדְבֵהּ – יִפֹּל חֶבְלוֹ, וְהוּא יוֹדֶה עַל חֶלְקוֹ אֲמָרִים נָאִים וְשֶׁבַח:
22A charming son is Joseph, a son charming to the eye; [of the] women, [each one] strode along to see him.   כבבֵּ֤ן פֹּרָת֙ יוֹסֵ֔ף בֵּ֥ן פֹּרָ֖ת עֲלֵי־עָ֑יִן בָּנ֕וֹת צָֽעֲדָ֖ה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר:
A charming son is Joseph: Heb. בֵּן פֹּרָת, a charming son. This is an Aramaism, similar to [the word used in the expression] “Let us express our favor (אַפִּרְיוֹן) to Rabbi Simeon,” [found] at the end of Baba Mezia (119a).   בֵּן פֹּרָת: בֶּן חֵן, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, אַפִּרְיָן נַמְטְיֵהּ לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, בְּסוֹף בָּבָא מְצִיעָא (דף קי"ט):
a son charming to the eye: His charm attracts the eye that beholds him.   בֵּן פֹּרָת עֲלֵי־עָיִן: חִנּוֹ נָטוּי עַל הָעַיִן הָרוֹאָה אוֹתוֹ:
of the] women, [each one] strode along to see him: Heb. עִלֵי שׁוּר. The women of Egypt strode out on the wall to gaze upon his beauty. Of the women, each one strode to a place from which she could catch a glimpse of him. עִלֵי שׁוּר, for the purpose of looking at him, similar to “I behold him (אֲשׁוּרֶנוּ), but not near” (Num. 24:17). There are many midrashic interpretations, but this is the closest to the literal sense of the verse. (Another explanation: This is how it should read, because according to the first interpretation, שׁוּר means“a wall.”)]   בנת צָֽעֲדָה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר: בְּנוֹת מִצְרַיִם הָיוּ צוֹעֲדוֹת (עַל הַחוֹמָה) לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּיָפְיוֹ, בָּנוֹת הַרְבֵּה, צָעֲדָה כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁתּוּכַל לִרְאוֹתוֹ מִשָּׁם: עלי שור: עַל רְאִיָּתוֹ, כְּמוֹ אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב (במדבר כ"ד), וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר יֵשׁ רַבִּים, וְזֶה נוֹטֶה לְיִשּׁוּב הַמִּקְרָא:
charming-: Heb. פֹּרָת. The “tav” in it is [added merely] to enhance the language, similar to “because of (עַל דִּבְרַת) the children of men” (Ecc. 3:18). (lit., concerning the matter of)   פֹּרָת: תָּי"ו שֶׁבּוֹ הוּא תִּקּוּן הַלָּשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ עַל דִּבְרַת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם (קהלת ג'):
see him: שׁוּר is the equivalent of לָשׁוּר, to see. [Thus the meaning of] עִלֵי שׁוּר [is] in order to see. Onkelos, however, renders בָּנוֹת צָעִדָה עִלֵי שׁוּר: Two tribes will emerge from his children. They will [each] receive a share and an inheritance. [Scripture] writes בָּנוֹת, alluding to the daughters of Manasseh, [i.e.,] the daughters of Zelophehad, who received a share [of the land] on both sides of the Jordan. בֵּן פֹרת יוֹסֵף [is rendered] my son, who will multiply, is Joseph פֹּרָת is an expression of procreation פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה). There are midrashic interpretations that fit the language [of the verse, as follows]: When Esau came toward Jacob, all the other mothers went out ahead of their children to prostrate themselves. Concerning Rachel, however, it is written: “and afterwards, Joseph and Rachel drew near and prostrated themselves” (Gen. 33: 7), [denoting that Joseph preceded Rachel]. Joseph said, “This scoundrel has a haughty eye. Perhaps he will take a fancy to my mother.” So he went ahead of her, stretching his height to conceal her. His father was referring to this when he blessed him בֵּן פֹּרָת, a son who grew, [meaning] you raised yourself over Esau’s eye. Therefore, you have attained greatness — [From Gen. Rabbah 78:10]. [Of the] women, [each one] strode along to see him, to gaze at you when you went forth through Egypt (Gen. Rabbah 98:18). They [the Rabbis] interpreted it (עִלֵי שׁוּר) further as referring to the idea that the evil eye should have no influence over his descendants. Also, when he (Jacob) blessed Manasseh and Ephraim, he blessed them [that they should be] like fish, over which the evil eye has no influence. — [From Ber. 20a]   שֽׁוּר: כְּמוֹ לָשׁוּר עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר בִּשְׁבִיל לָשׁוּר, וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס, בָּנוֹת צָעֲדָה עֲלֵי שׁוּר תְּרֵין שִׁבְטִין יִפְּקוּן מִבְּנוֹהִי וְכוּ' וְכָתַב בָּנוֹת עַל שֵׁם בְּנוֹת מְנַשֶּׁה, בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד, שֶׁנָּטְלוּ חֵלֶק בִּשְׁנֵי עֶבְרֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן, בְּרִי דְּיִסְגֵּי יוֹסֵף, פֹּרָת לְשׁוֹן פִּרְיָה וּרְבִיָּה; וְיֵשׁ מִקְרָא אַחֵר בּוֹ הַמִּתְיַשְּׁבִים עַל הַלָּשׁוֹן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא עֵשָׂו לִקְרַאת יַעֲקֹב, בְּכֻלָּן קָדְמוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת לָלֶכֶת לִפְנֵי בְּנֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת, וּבְרָחֵל כְּתִיב נִגַּשׁ יוֹסֵף וְרָחֵל וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ, אָמַר יוֹסֵף רָשָׁע הַזֶּה עֵינוֹ רָמָה, שֶׁמָּא יִתֵּן עֵינָיו בְּאִמִּי, יָצָא לְפָנֶיהָ וְשִׁרְבֵּב קוֹמָתוֹ לְכַסּוֹתָהּ, וְהוּא שֶׁבֵּרְכוֹ אָבִיו בֵּן פֹּרָת – הִגְדַּלְתָּ עַצְמְךָ יוֹסֵף עֲלֵי עַיִן שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, לְפִיכָךְ זָכִיתָ לִגְדֻלָּה בָּנוֹת צָֽעֲדָה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּךָ בְּצֵאתְךָ עַל מִצְרַיִם, וְעוֹד דְּרָשׁוּהוּ לְעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁלֹט בְּזַרְעוֹ עַיִן הָרָע; וְאַף כְּשֶׁבֵּרֵךְ מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם בֵּרְכָם כַּדָּגִים, שֶׁאֵין עַיִן הָרָע שׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּהֶם:
23They heaped bitterness upon him and became quarrelsome; yea, archers despised him.   כגוַיְמָֽרֲרֻ֖הוּ וָרֹ֑בּוּ וַיִּשְׂטְמֻ֖הוּ בַּֽעֲלֵ֥י חִצִּֽים:
They heaped bitterness upon him and became quarrelsome: Heb. וַיְמָרִרֻהוּ. His brothers heaped bitterness upon him (Joseph), [and] Potiphar and his wife heaped bitterness upon him by having him imprisoned. [This is] an expression similar to “And they embittered (וַיְמָרְרוּ) their lives” (Exod. 1:14). - [From Gen. Rabbah 98:19]   וַיְמָֽרֲרֻהוּ וָרֹבּוּ: וַיְמָרְרוּהוּ אֶחָיו, וַיְמָרְרוּהוּ פּוֹטִיפַר וְאִשְׁתּוֹ, לְאָסְרוֹ; לְשׁוֹן וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת חַיֵּיהֶם:
and became quarrelsome: Heb. וָרֹבּוּ. His brothers became his antagonists, (lit., men of quarrel). This verb form (וָרֹבּוּ) is not a form of פָּעִלוּ, [the simple active קַל conjugation], for if it were, it should have been vowelized like רָבוּ in “They are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel quarreled (רָבוּ), etc.” (Num. 20:13). Even if it (וָרֹבּוּ) denotes the shooting of (רְבִית) arrows, it would be vowelized the same way. It is [therefore] only a form of פֹּעִלוּ, the passive form, as in “The heavens were devastated (שֹׁמּוּ)” (Jer. 2:12), which is [equivalent to] הוּשַׁמּוּ Likewise, “They are taken away (רוֹמוּ) in a second” (Job 24:24), is an expression like הוּרְמוּ, except that the expressions of הוּשַׁמּוּ and הוּרְמוּ mean [to be devastated and taken away] by others, whereas the expressions שֹׁמּוּ, רוֹמוּ, [and] רֹבּוּ denote actions caused by themselves: they devastate themselves, they were taken away by themselves, they became quarrelsome. Similarly, “The island dwellers have been silenced (דֹמּוּ)” (Isa. 23:2) is like נָדַמּוּ Onkelos also renders וְנַקְמוֹהִי, and they took revenge from him.   וָרֹבּוּ: נַעֲשׂוּ לוֹ אֶחָיו אַנְשֵׁי רִיב. וְאֵין הַלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה לְשׁוֹן פָּעֲלוּ, שֶׁאִם כֵּן הָיָה לוֹ לִנָּקֵד "וָרָבוּ", כְּמוֹ הֵמָּה מֵי מְרִיבָה אֲשֶׁר רָבוּ וְגוֹ' (במדבר כ'), וְאַף אִם לְשׁוֹן רְבִיַּת חִצִּים הוּא כָּךְ הָיָה לוֹ לִנָּקֵד; אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן פּוֹעֲלוּ, כְּמוֹ שֹׁמּוּ שָׁמַיִם (ירמיהו ב'), שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הוּשַׁמּוּ; וְכֵן רוֹמּוּ מְּעַט, שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הוּרְמוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּשׁוֹן הוּרְמוּ וְהוּשַׁמּוּ עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, וּלְשׁוֹן שֹׁמּוּ, רֹמּוּ, רֹבּוּ מֵאֵלֵיהֶם הוּא – מְשׁוֹמְמִים אֶת עַצְמָם, נִתְרוֹמְמוּ מֵעַצְמָם, נַעֲשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי רִיב, וְכֵן דֹּמּוּ יֹשְׁבֵי אִי, כְּמוֹ נִדְמוּ, וְכֵן תִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס, וְנַקְמוֹהִי:
archers: Heb. בַּעִלֵי חִצִּים, [called this because their] tongues were like arrows (חִצִּים) (Gen. Rabbah 98:19). The Targum, however, renders it as מָרֵי פַלְגּוּתָא, an expression similar to “And the half (הַמֶּחֱצָה) was” (Num. 31:36), [meaning] those who were fit to share the inheritance with him, [viz., his brothers]. [I.e., Onkelos interprets בַּעִלֵי חִצִּים as those who should take half.]   בַּֽעֲלֵי חִצִּֽים: שֶׁלְּשׁוֹנָם כַּחֵץ, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ לְשׁוֹן וַתְּהִי הַמֶּחֱצָה, אוֹתָן שֶׁהָיוּ רְאוּיִים לַחֲלֹק עִמּוֹ נַחֲלָה:
24But his bow was strongly established, and his arms were gilded from the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob; from there he sustained the rock of Israel,   כדוַתֵּ֤שֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן֙ קַשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיָּפֹ֖זּוּ זְרֹעֵ֣י יָדָ֑יו מִידֵי֙ אֲבִ֣יר יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מִשָּׁ֥ם רֹעֶ֖ה אֶ֥בֶן יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
But his bow was strongly established: It became strongly established. His bow, his strength.   וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ: נִתְיַשְּׁבָה בְּחֹזֶק קַשְׁתּוֹ חָזְקוֹ:
and his arms were gilded: Heb. וַיָּפֹזּוּ. This refers to the placing of the signet ring on his (Joseph’s) hand, an expression similar to “glittering gold (זָהָב מוּפָז)” (I Kings 10:18). This [elevation] came to him from the hands of the Holy One, blessed be He, who is the Mighty One of Jacob. From there he (Joseph) was elevated to be the sustainer of the rock of Israel, the mainstay of Israel, [Be’er Yizchak] an expression of “the initial stone (הָאֶבֶן הָרֹאשָׁה)” (Zech. 4:7), [which is] an expression of royalty. [Jacob, the Patriarch, was considered a royal personality.] Onkelos, too, rendered it in this way, [i.e., that וַיָּפֹזוּ is derived from פָּז, fine gold]. He rendered וַתֵּשֶׁב as וְתָבַת בְּהוֹן נְבִיאוּתֵיהּ, [meaning] his prophecy returned [and was fulfilled] upon them [thus rendering וַתֵּשֶׁב as “returning” rather than as “being established.” This refers to] the dreams he dreamed about them, עַל דְקַייֵם אוֹרַיְתָא בְּסִתְרָא, because he observed the Torah in secret. This is an addendum, and is not derived from the Hebrew of the verse. וְשַׁוִּי בְּתוּקְפָּא רוּחִצָנֵיהּ, and he placed his trust in the Mighty One. [This is] the Aramaic translation of וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ, and this is how the language of the Targum follows the Hebrew: His prophecy returned because the might of the Holy One, blessed be He, was his bow and his trust. עַל דְּרָעוֹהִי בְּכֵן יִתְרְמָא דְּהַב therefore, “his arms were gilded (וַיָּפֹזוּ),” an expression of “fine gold (פָּז).”   וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו: זוֹ הִיא נְתִינַת טַבַּעַת עַל יָדוֹ, לְשׁוֹן זָהָב מוּפָז, זֹאת הָיְתָה לוֹ מִידֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא אֲבִיר יַעֲקֹב, וּמִשָּׁם עָלָה לִהְיוֹת רֹעֶה אֶבֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל – עִקָּרָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְשׁוֹן הָאֶבֶן הָרֹאשָׁה, לְשׁוֹן מַלְכוּת; וְאֻנְקְלוֹס אַף הוּא כָךְ תִּרְגְּמוֹ ותשב – וְתָבַת בְּהוֹן נְבִיאוּתֵהּ, הַחֲלוֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר חָלַם לָהֶם – עַל דְּקַיֵּם אוֹרַיְתָא בְּסִתְרָא, תּוֹסֶפֶת הוּא, וְלֹא מִלָּשׁוֹן עִבְרִי שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא, – וְשַׁוִּי תוּקְפָא רוֹחֲצָנֵהּ תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ, וְכָךְ לְשׁוֹן הַתַּרְגּוּם עַל הָעִבְרִי: וַתֵּשֶׁב נְבוּאָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵיתָנוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיְתָה לוֹ לְקֶשֶׁת וּלְמִבְטָח, בְּכֵן יִתְרְמָא דְּהַב עַל דְּרָעוֹהִי – לְכָךְ וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו, לְשׁוֹן פָּז:
the rock of Israel: A contraction of אָב וּבֵן, father and son, [which Onkelos renders as אַבְהָן וּבְנִין], fathers and sons.   אֶבֶן יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: לְשׁוֹן נוֹטָרִיקוֹן אָב וּבֵן, אֲבָהָן וּבְנִין – יַעֲקֹב וּבָנָיו:
and his arms were gilded: Like "and they were spread", since his seed came from between the fingers of his hands.   וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו: כְּמוֹ וַיָּפוֹצוּ, שֶׁיָּצָא הַזֶּרַע מִבֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹת יָדָיו:
the Mighty of Jacob: מִידֵי אֲבִיר יַעִקֹב [According to this interpretation, this phrase is rendered: by the hand of the might of Jacob. He was able to overcome his temptation] because his father’s image appeared to him, etc., as related in Sotah (36b). See above on 39:11. The end of the verse is explained as follows: ישְׂרָאֵל מִשָּׁם רֹעֶה אֶבֶן -from there he merited to be the shepherd of Israel and to have a stone among the stones of the tribes of Israel [on the breastplate of the High Priest.] [Now Rashi returns to verse 26. He wishes to clarify Targum Onkelos, which renders the verse as follows: Your father’s blessings shall be added to the blessings that my fathers blessed me, which the greats of old [the righteous] desired for themselves.] Onkelos, however, renders תַּאִוַת גִבְעֹת עוֹלָם as an expression of desire and longing, and גִבְעֹת, hills, as an expression of “the pillars of the earth” (I Sam. 2:8), (meaning the righteous, in whose merit the world exists). (These are the blessings) his mother longed for and forced him to accept.   מִידֵי אֲבִיר יַֽעֲקֹב: שֶׁנִרְאֲתָה לוֹ דְמוּת דְּיוֹקְנוֹ שֶׁל אָבִיו וְכוּ', כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסוֹטָה (דף ל"ו, ב'):
25from the God of your father, and He will help you, and with the Almighty, and He will bless you [with] the blessings of the heavens above, the blessings of the deep, lying below, the blessings of father and mother.   כהמֵאֵ֨ל אָבִ֜יךָ וְיַעְזְרֶ֗ךָּ וְאֵ֤ת שַׁדַּי֙ וִֽיבָ֣רֲכֶ֔ךָּ בִּרְכֹ֤ת שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ מֵעָ֔ל בִּרְכֹ֥ת תְּה֖וֹם רֹבֶ֣צֶת תָּ֑חַת בִּרְכֹ֥ת שָׁדַ֖יִם וָרָֽחַם:
from the God of your father: This befell you, and He will help you.   מֵאֵל אָבִיךָ: הָיְתָה לְךָ זֹאת וְהוּא יַעְזְרֶךָּ:
and with the Almighty: And your heart was with the Holy One, blessed be He, when you did not heed your mistress’s orders, and [because of this] He shall bless you.   וְאֵת שַׁדַּי: וְעִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיָה לִבְּךָ כְּשֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַעְתָ לְדִבְרֵי אֲדוֹנָתְךָ, וְהוּא יְבָרְכֶךָּ:
the blessings of father and mother: Heb. בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָחַם [Onkelos renders:] בִּרְכָתָא דְאַבָּא וּדְאִמָּא, blessings of father and mother. That is to say that the ones who beget the children and the ones who bear the children will be blessed. The males will impregnate with a drop of semen that is fit for conception, and the females will not lose what is in their womb and miscarry their fetuses.   בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָֽחַם: בִּרְכָתָא דְּאַבָּא וּדְאִמָּא, כְּלוֹמַר, יִתְבָּרְכוּ הַמּוֹלִידִים וְהַיּוֹלְדוֹת, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַזְּכָרִים מַזְרִיעִין טִפָּה הָרְאוּיָה לְהֵרָיוֹן, וְהַנְּקֵבוֹת לֹא יְשַׁכְּלוּ אֶת רֶחֶם שֶׁלָּהֶן לְהַפִּיל עֻבָּרֵיהֶן:
father: Heb. שָׁדַיִם. [How does שָׁדַיִם come to mean father?] “He shall be cast down (יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה)” (Exod. 19:13) is translated by the Targum as אִשְׁתְּדָאָה יִשְׁתְּדֵי Here too, [שָׁדַיִם means the father] because semen shoots (יוֹרֶה) like an arrow.   שָׁדַיִם: יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה מְתַּרְגְּמִינַן אִשְׁתְּדָאָה יִשְׁתְּדִי, אַף שָׁדַיִם כָּאן עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהַזֶּרַע יוֹרֶה כַּחֵץ:
26The blessings of your father surpassed the blessings of my parents, the ends of the everlasting hills. May they come to Joseph's head and to the crown (of the head) of the one who was separated from his brothers.   כובִּרְכֹ֣ת אָבִ֗יךָ גָּֽבְרוּ֙ עַל־בִּרְכֹ֣ת הוֹרַ֔י עַד־תַּֽאֲוַ֖ת גִּבְעֹ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם תִּֽהְיֶ֨יןָ֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ יוֹסֵ֔ף וּלְקָדְקֹ֖ד נְזִ֥יר אֶחָֽיו:
The blessings of your father surpassed, etc: The blessings the Holy One, blessed be He, have blessed me, surpassed the blessings He had blessed my parents. — [From Bereshith Rabbathi]   בִּרְכֹת אָבִיךָ גָּֽבְרוּ וגו': הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁבֵּרְכַנִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא גָּבְרוּ וְהָלְכוּ עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁבֵּרַךְ אֶת הוֹרַי:
to the ends of the everlasting hills: Because my blessings extended until the ends of the boundaries of the everlasting hills, for He gave me a limitless blessing, without boundaries, reaching the four corners of the earth, as it is said: “and you shall spread out westward and eastward, etc.” (Gen. 28:14), which He did not say to our father Abraham or to Isaac. To Abraham He said, “Please raise your eyes and see…For all the land that you see I will give to you” (Gen. 13:14), and He showed him only the Land of Israel. To Isaac He said, “for to you and to your seed will I give all these lands, and I will establish the oath [that I swore to Abraham, your father]” (Gen. 26:3). This is what Isaiah said, “and I will provide you with the heritage of Jacob, your father” (Isa. 58:14), but he did not say, “the heritage of Abraham.” - [From Shab. 118a]   עַד־תַּֽאֲוַת גִּבְעֹת עוֹלָם: לְפִי שֶׁהַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁלִּי גָּבְרוּ עַד סוֹף גְּבוּלֵי גִּבְעוֹת עוֹלָם, שֶׁנָּתַן לִי בְּרָכָה פְרוּצָה בְּלִי מְצָרִים, מַגַּעַת עַד אַרְבַּע קְצוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְגוֹ', מַה שֶּׁלֹּא אָמַר לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ וּלְיִצְחָק; לְאַבְרָהָם אָמַר שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה צָפוֹנָה וְגוֹ' כִּי אֶת כָּל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה רֹאֶה לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה, וְלֹא הֶרְאָהוּ אֶלָּא אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד; לְיִצְחָק אָמַר לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת כָּל הָאֲרָצֹת הָאֵל וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת הַשְּׁבֻעָה וְגוֹ', וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר יְשַׁעְיָה (ישעיהו נ"ח) וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ, וְלֹא אָמַר נַחֲלַת אַבְרָהָם:
the ends: Heb. תַּאִוַת, asasomalz in Old French, the ends, bounds. Menachem ben Saruk classified it exactly the same way (Machbereth Menachem p. 183).   תַּֽאֲוַת: אשׁמו"לץ בְּלַעַז, כָּךְ חִבְּרוֹ מְנַחֵם בֶּן סָרוּק. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם תַּאֲוַת עוֹלָם לְשׁוֹן תַּאֲוָה וְחֶמְדָה, וְגִבְעוֹת לְשׁוֹן מְצֻקֵי אֶרֶץ שֶׁחִמְּדַתָּן אִמּוֹ וְהִזְקִיקַתּוּ לְקַבְּלָם:
my parents: Heb. הוֹרַי, an expression of conception (הֵרָיוֹן), [meaning] that they caused me to be conceived (הוֹרוּנִי) in my mother’s womb, similar to “A man has impregnated (הֹרָה)” (Job 3:2).   הוֹרַי: לְשׁוֹן הֵרָיוֹן, שֶׁהוֹרוּנִי בִּמְעֵי אִמִּי, כְּמוֹ הֹרָה גָבֶר (איוב ג'):
to the ends: Heb. עַד תַּאִוַת, until the ends, like “And you shall demarcate (הִתְאַוִּיתֶם) as your eastern border” (Num. 34:10); [and] “you shall draw a line (תְּתָאוּ) extending to the road leading to Hamath” (ibid. 34:8).   עַד־תַּֽאֲוַת: עַד קְצוֹת, כְּמוֹ וְהִתְאַוִּיתֶם לָכֶם לִגְבוּל קֵדְמָה (במדבר ל"ד), תְּתָאוּ לְבֹא חֲמָת (שם):
May they come: All of them to Joseph’s head- [From Targum Onkelos]   תִּֽהְיֶיןָ: כֻּלָּם לְרֹאשׁ יוֹסֵף:
the one who was separated from his brothers: Heb. נְזִיר אֶחָיו [Onkelos renders:] דַאִחוֹהִי פְּרִישָׁא, who was separated from his brothers, similar to “and they shall separate (וַינָּזְרוּ) from the holy things of the children of Israel” (Lev. 22:2); [and] “they drew (נָזֹרוּ) backwards” (Isa. 1:4). - [From Sifra Emor 4:1] [Returning to verse 24, Rashi continues:] Our Rabbis, however, interpreted “But his bow was strongly established” as referring to his (Joseph’s) overcoming his temptation with his master’s wife. He calls it a bow because semen shoots like an arrow. — [From Sotah 36b] וַיָּפֹזוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו [וַיָּפֹזוּ is] equivalent to וַיָפֹצוּ, scattered, that the semen came out from between his fingers. — [From Sotah 36b]   נְזִיר אֶחָֽיו: פְּרִישָׁא דַּאֲחוֹהִי, שֶׁנִּבְדַּל מֵאֶחָיו, כְּמוֹ וְיִנָּזְרוּ מִקָּדְשֵׁי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (ויקרא כ"ב), נָזֹרוּ אָחוֹר (ישעיהו א') וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ עַל כְּבִישַׁת יִצְרוֹ בְּאֵשֶׁת אֲדֹנָיו, וְקוֹרְאוֹ קֶשֶׁת, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהַזֶּרַע יוֹרֶה כַּחֵץ::

Sixth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 49

27Benjamin is a wolf, he will prey; in the morning he will devour plunder, and in the evening he will divide the spoil."   כזבִּנְיָמִין֙ זְאֵ֣ב יִטְרָ֔ף בַּבֹּ֖קֶר יֹ֣אכַל עַ֑ד וְלָעֶ֖רֶב יְחַלֵּ֥ק שָׁלָֽל:
Benjamin is a wolf, he will prey: He is a wolf for he will prey. He (Jacob) prophesied that they were destined to be “grabbers”: “and you shall grab for yourselves each man his wife” (Jud. 21:21), in [the episode of] the concubine [who happened to be] in Gibeah (ibid., chs. 19-21); and he prophesied about Saul, that he would be victorious over his enemies all around, as it is said: “And Saul took the kingdom…and he waged war…against Moab, and against the children of Ammon, and against Edom, etc., and wherever he turned, he caused them to tremble” (I Sam. 14:47). - [From Shitah Chadashah and Gen. Rabbah 98:3]   בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב יִטְרָף: זְאֵב הוּא אֲשֶׁר יִטְרָף; נִבָּא עַל שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲתִידִין לִהְיוֹת חַטְפָנִין, וַחֲטַפְתֶּם לָכֶם אִישׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּפִלֶגֶשׁ בְּגִבְעָה (שופטים כ"א), וְנִבָּא עַל שָׁאוּל שֶׁהָיָה נוֹצֵחַ בְּאוֹיְבָיו סָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְשָׁאוּל לָכַד הַמְּלוּכָה וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּמוֹאָב וְגוֹ' וּבֶאֱדוֹם וְגוֹ' וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִפְנֶה יַרְשִׁיעַ (שמואל א י"ד):
in the morning he will devour plunder: Heb. עַד, an expression of plunder and spoil, translated into Aramaic as עִדָאָה. There is another example of its use in Hebrew: “Then plunder and booty (עַד שָׁלָל) were divided” (Isa. 33:23). He (Jacob) is referring to Saul, who arose at the beginning of the “morning (other editions: עַד is the blossoming) and sunrise” of Israel. — [From Esther Rabbah 10:13]   בַּבֹּקֶר יֹאכַל עַד: לְשׁוֹן בִּזָּה וְשָׁלָל, הַמְתֻרְגָּם עֲדָאָה, וְעוֹד יֵשׁ לוֹ דּוֹמֶה בִּלְשׁוֹן עִבְרִית אָז חֻלַּק עַד שָׁלָל (ישעיהו ל"ג), וְעַל שָׁאוּל הוּא אוֹמֵר שֶׁעָמַד בִּתְחִלַּת פְּרִיחָתָן וּזְרִיחָתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
and in the evening he will divide the spoil: Even when the sun will set for Israel through Nebuchadnezzar, who will exile them to Babylon, he (Benjamin) will divide the spoil. Mordecai and Esther, who were of [the tribe of] Benjamin, will divide the spoils of Haman, as it is said: “Behold, the house of Haman I have given to Esther” (Esther 8:7) (Esther Rabbah 10:13). Onkelos, however, rendered it as regarding the “spoils” of the priests, i.e., the holy things of the Temple, [namely the priests’ share of the sacrifices].   וְלָעֶרֶב יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָֽל: אַף מִשֶּׁתִּשְׁקַע שִׁמְשָׁן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל יְדֵי נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, שֶׁיַּגְלֵם לְבָבֶל, יחלק שלל, מָרְדְּכַי וְאֶסְתֵּר שֶׁהֵם מִבִּנְיָמִין יְחַלְּקוּ אֶת שְׁלַל הָמָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הִנֵּה בֵית הָמָן נָתַתִּי לְאֶסְתֵּר. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם עַל שְׁלַל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּקָדְשֵׁי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:
28All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father spoke to them and blessed them; each man, according to his blessing, he blessed them.   כחכָּל־אֵ֛לֶּה שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֑ר וְ֠זֹ֠את אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֨ר לָהֶ֤ם אֲבִיהֶם֙ וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אוֹתָ֔ם אִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר כְּבִרְכָת֖וֹ בֵּרַ֥ךְ אֹתָֽם:
and this is what their father spoke to them and blessed them: Now is it not so that some of them he did not bless, but [in fact] chided? Rather, this is what is intended: And this is what their father spoke to them-what is related in this section. One might think that he did not bless Reuben, Simeon, and Levi. Therefore, Scripture states: and he blessed them, meaning all of them. — [From Pesikta Rabbathi 7]   וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם: וַהֲלֹא יֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרְכָם אֶלָּא קִנְטְרָן? אֶלָּא כָךְ פֵּרוּשׁוֹ: וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם מַה שֶּׁנֶאֱמַר בָּעִנְיָן; יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא בֵרַךְ לִרְאוּבֵן, שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם – כֻּלָּם בְּמַשְׁמָע:
according to his blessing: With the blessing destined to befall each of them.   אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־כְּבִרְכָתוֹ: בְּרָכָה הָעֲתִידָה לָבֹא עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:
he blessed them: Scripture should have said, “each man, according to his blessing, he blessed him.” Why does Scripture say, “he blessed them?” Since he (Jacob) bestowed upon Judah the might of a lion, and upon Benjamin the power to seize like a wolf, and upon Naphtali the fleetness of a gazelle, I might think that he did not include all of them in all the blessings. Therefore, Scripture states:“he blessed them.” - [From Tanchuam Vayechi 16]   בֵּרַךְ אוֹתָם: לֹא הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר אֶלָּא אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כְּבִרְכָתוֹ בֵּרַךְ אוֹתוֹ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בֵּרַךְ אוֹתָם? לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן לִיהוּדָה גְּבוּרַת אֲרִי וּלְבִנְיָמִין חֲטִיפָתוֹ שֶׁל זְאֵב וּלְנַפְתָּלִי קַלּוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַיָּל, יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא כְלָלָן כֻּלָּם בְּכָל הַבְּרָכוֹת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בֵּרַךְ אוֹתָם:
29And he commanded them and said to them, "I will be brought in to my people; bury me with my fathers, in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,   כטוַיְצַ֣ו אוֹתָ֗ם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ אֲנִי֙ נֶֽאֱסָ֣ף אֶל־עַמִּ֔י קִבְר֥וּ אֹתִ֖י אֶל־אֲבֹתָ֑י אֶ֨ל־הַמְּעָרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׂדֵ֖ה עֶפְר֥וֹן הַֽחִתִּֽי:
I will be brought in to my people: Heb. נֶאֱסָף [The term נֶאֱסָף is utilized] because they brought souls into the place where they are concealed. There are instances of אִסִיפָה in Hebrew that mean bringing in, e.g., “but no one brought them (מְאַסֵּף) home” (Jud. 19: 15); “you shall take it (וַאִסַפְתּוֹ) into your house” (Deut. 22:2); [and] “when you bring in (בְּאָסְפְּכֶם) the produce of the land” (Lev. 23:39). It is [the produce] brought into the house because of the rains. [Another instance is:] “When you bring in (בְּאָסְפּךָ‏ְ) your labors” (Exod. 23:16). Likewise, every instance of אִסִיפָה mentioned in connection with death is also an expression of “bringing in.”   נֶֽאֱסָף אֶל־עַמִּי: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין הַנְּפָשׁוֹת אֶל מְקוֹם גְּנִיזָתָן, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲסִיפָה בְּלָשׁוֹן עִבְרִי שֶׁהִיא לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה, כְּגוֹן וְאֵין אִישׁ מְאַסֵּף אוֹתִי הַבָּיְתָה (שופטים י"ט), וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ (דברים כ"ב), בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ (ויקרא כ"ג), הַכְנָסָתָם לַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים, בְּאָסְפְּךָ אֶת מַעֲשֶׂיךָ (שמות כ"ג), וְכָל אֲסִיפָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְמִיתָה אַף הִיא לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה:
with my fathers: Heb. אֶל, lit., to my fathers. [Here it means] with my fathers.   אֶל־אֲבֹתָי: עִם אֲבוֹתַי:
30in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre in the land of Canaan, which field Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite for burial property.   לבַּמְּעָרָ֞ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר בִּשְׂדֵ֧ה הַמַּכְפֵּלָ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מַמְרֵ֖א בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן אֲשֶׁר֩ קָנָ֨ה אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה מֵאֵ֛ת עֶפְרֹ֥ן הַֽחִתִּ֖י לַֽאֲחֻזַּת־קָֽבֶר:
31There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebecca, and there I buried Leah.   לאשָׁ֣מָּה קָֽבְר֞וּ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֗ם וְאֵת֙ שָׂרָ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ שָׁ֚מָּה קָֽבְר֣וּ אֶת־יִצְחָ֔ק וְאֵ֖ת רִבְקָ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ וְשָׁ֥מָּה קָבַ֖רְתִּי אֶת־לֵאָֽה:
32The purchase of the field and the cave therein was from the sons of Heth."   לבמִקְנֵ֧ה הַשָּׂדֶ֛ה וְהַמְּעָרָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ מֵאֵ֥ת בְּנֵי־חֵֽת:
33And Jacob concluded commanding his sons, and he drew his legs [up] into the bed, and expired and was brought in to his people.   לגוַיְכַ֤ל יַֽעֲקֹב֙ לְצַוֹּ֣ת אֶת־בָּנָ֔יו וַיֶּֽאֱסֹ֥ף רַגְלָ֖יו אֶל־הַמִּטָּ֑ה וַיִּגְוַ֖ע וַיֵּאָ֥סֶף אֶל־עַמָּֽיו:
and he drew his legs: Heb. וַיֶאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו, he drew in his legs.   וַיֶּֽאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו: הִכְנִיס רַגְלָיו:
and expired and was brought in: But no mention is made of death in his regard, and our Rabbis of blessed memory said: Our father Jacob did not die. — [From Ta’anith 5b]   וַיִּגְוַע וַיֶּֽאֱסֹף: וּמִיתָה לֹא נֶאֶמְרָה בוֹ, וְאָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ לֹא מֵת:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 50

1Joseph fell on his father's face, and he wept over him and kissed him.   אוַיִּפֹּ֥ל יוֹסֵ֖ף עַל־פְּנֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ עָלָ֖יו וַיִּשַּׁק־לֽוֹ:
2And Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father, and the physicians embalmed Israel.   בוַיְצַ֨ו יוֹסֵ֤ף אֶת־עֲבָדָיו֙ אֶת־הָרֹ֣פְאִ֔ים לַֽחֲנֹ֖ט אֶת־אָבִ֑יו וַיַּֽחַנְט֥וּ הָרֹֽפְאִ֖ים אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
to embalm his father: This involves compounding aromatic spices. — [From Targum Jonathan and Targum Yerushalmi]   לַֽחֲנֹט אֶת־אָבִיו: עִנְיַן מִרְקַחַת בְּשָׂמִים הוּא:
3And forty days were completed for him for so are the days of embalming completed and the Egyptians wept over him for seventy days.   גוַיִּמְלְאוּ־לוֹ֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י הַֽחֲנֻטִ֑ים וַיִּבְכּ֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ מִצְרַ֖יִם שִׁבְעִ֥ים יֽוֹם:
And forty days were completed for him: They completed for him the days of his embalming, when forty days were completed for him.   וַיִּמְלְאוּ־לוֹ: הִשְׁלִימוּ לוֹ יְמֵי חֲנִיטָתוֹ עַד שֶׁמָּלְאוּ לוֹ מ' יוֹם:
and the Egyptians wept over him for seventy days: Forty [days] for embalming and thirty for weeping, because a blessing had come to them when he arrived-the famine ended and the waters of the Nile increased. — [From Bereshith Rabbathi , Targum Jonathan]   וַיִּבְכּוּ אֹתוֹ מִצְרַיִם שִׁבְעִים יוֹם: מ' לַחֲנִיטָה וְל' לִבְכִיָּה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּאָה לָהֶם בְּרָכָה לְרַגְלוֹ, שֶׁכָּלָה הָרָעָב וְהָיוּ מֵי נִילוּס מִתְבָּרְכִין:
4When the days of his weeping had passed, Joseph spoke to Pharaoh's household, saying, "If now I have found favor in your eyes, speak now in Pharaoh's ears, saying,   דוַיַּֽעַבְרוּ֙ יְמֵ֣י בְכִית֔וֹ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶל־בֵּ֥ית פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם דַּבְּרוּ־נָ֕א בְּאָזְנֵ֥י פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
5'My father adjured me, saying, "Behold, I am going to die. In my grave, which I dug for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me." So now, please let me go up and bury my father and return.' "   האָבִ֞י הִשְׁבִּיעַ֣נִי לֵאמֹ֗ר הִנֵּ֣ה אָֽנֹכִי֘ מֵת֒ בְּקִבְרִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר כָּרִ֤יתִי לִי֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן שָׁ֖מָּה תִּקְבְּרֵ֑נִי וְעַתָּ֗ה אֶֽעֱלֶה־נָּ֛א וְאֶקְבְּרָ֥ה אֶת־אָבִ֖י וְאָשֽׁוּבָה:
which I dug for myself: Heb. כָּרִיתִי. According to its simple meaning, it (כָּרִיתִי) is similar to “If a man digs (יִכְרֶה)” (Exod. 21:33) (Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel). Its midrashic interpretation also fits the language [of the text here] [viz., that it is] like קָנִיתִי, I bought. Rabbi Akiva said, “When I went to [some] cities by the sea, they called selling (מְכִירָה) כִּירָה” (Rosh Hashanah 26a). [Similarly, it may have been used for “buying.”] Another midrashic interpretation is that it is a term derived from כְּרִי, a stack, [meaning] that Jacob took all the silver and gold that he had brought from Laban’s house and made it into a stack. He said to Esau, “Take this for your share in the cave” (Tanchuma Buber, Vayishlach 11; Gen. Rabbah 100:5). See Rashi on 46: 6.   אֲשֶׁר כָּרִיתִי לִי: כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ כְּמוֹ כִּי יִכְרֶה אִישׁ. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ עוֹד מִתְיַשֵּׁב עַל הַלָּשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ אֲשֶׁר קָנִיתִי, אָמַר רַבִּי עַקִיבָא כְּשֶׁהָלַכְתִי לִכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם הָיוּ קוֹרִין לִמְכִירָה כִּירָה, וְעוֹד מִדְרָשׁוֹ לְשׁוֹן כְּרִי דָגוּר, שֶׁנָּטַל יַעֲקֹב כָּל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב שֶׁהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לָבָן וְעָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּרִי וְאָמַר לְעֵשָׂו טֹל זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל חֶלְקְךָ בַּמְּעָרָה:
6And Pharaoh said, "Go up and bury your father as he adjured you."   ווַיֹּ֖אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֑ה עֲלֵ֛ה וּקְבֹ֥ר אֶת־אָבִ֖יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁבִּיעֶֽךָ:
as he adjured you: But were it not for the oath, I would not permit you [to go]. He (Pharaoh) was afraid to tell him (Joseph) to transgress the oath, however, lest he say, “If so, I will transgress the oath that I swore to you that I would not reveal that I understand the holy tongue (Hebrew) in addition to seventy languages of the nations of the world, but you do not understand it (Hebrew),” as is found in Tractate Sotah (36b).   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁבִּיעֶֽךָ: וְאִם לֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַשְּׁבוּעָה לֹא הָיִיתִי מַנִּיחֲךָ, אֲבָל יָרֵא לוֹמַר עֲבֹר עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אִם כֵּן אֶעֱבֹר עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּעְתִי לְךָ, שֶׁלֹּא אֲגַלֶּה עַל לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁאֲנִי מַכִּיר עוֹדֵף עַל ע' לָשׁוֹן, וְאַתָּה אֵינְךָ מַכִּיר בּוֹ, כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה:
7So Joseph went up to bury his father, and all Pharaoh's servants, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt went up with him,   זוַיַּ֥עַל יוֹסֵ֖ף לִקְבֹּ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֑יו וַיַּֽעֲל֨וּ אִתּ֜וֹ כָּל־עַבְדֵ֤י פַרְעֹה֙ זִקְנֵ֣י בֵית֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל זִקְנֵ֥י אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרָֽיִם:
8and Joseph's entire household and his brothers and his father's household; only their young children and their flocks and cattle did they leave in the land of Goshen.   חוְכֹל֙ בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֔ף וְאֶחָ֖יו וּבֵ֣ית אָבִ֑יו רַ֗ק טַפָּם֙ וְצֹאנָ֣ם וּבְקָרָ֔ם עָֽזְב֖וּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ גּֽשֶׁן:
9And chariots and horsemen also went up with him, and the camp was very numerous.   טוַיַּ֣עַל עִמּ֔וֹ גַּם־רֶ֖כֶב גַּם־פָּֽרָשִׁ֑ים וַיְהִ֥י הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד:
10And they came to the threshing floor of the thornbushes, which is on the other side of the Jordan, and there they conducted a very great and impressive eulogy, and he made for his father a mourning of seven days.   יוַיָּבֹ֜אוּ עַד־גֹּ֣רֶן הָֽאָטָ֗ד אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיִּ֨סְפְּדוּ־שָׁ֔ם מִסְפֵּ֛ד גָּד֥וֹל וְכָבֵ֖ד מְאֹ֑ד וַיַּ֧עַשׂ לְאָבִ֛יו אֵ֖בֶל שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
the threshing floor of the thornbushes: It was surrounded by thornbushes. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it [that it was called the threshing floor of the thornbushes] to commemorate the event, when all the people of Canaan and the princes of Ishmael came to [fight a] war. When they saw Joseph’s crown hanging on Jacob’s coffin, they all stood up and hung their own crowns on it and surrounded it with crowns, like a threshing floor surrounded by a fence of thorns. — [From Sotah 13a]   גֹּרֶן הָֽאָטָד: מֻקָּף אֲטָדִין הָיָה, וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ (סוטה י"ג), עַל שֵׁם הַמְּאֹרָע, שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן וּנְשְׂיאֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל לַמִּלְחָמָה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ כִתְרוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף תָּלוּי בַּאֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב עָמְדוּ כֻלָּן וְתָלוּ בוֹ כִתְרֵיהֶם וְהִקִּיפוּהוּ כְּתָרִים כְּגֹרֶן הַמֻּקָּף סְיָג שֶׁל קוֹצִים:
11The Canaanite[s], the inhabitant[s] of the land, saw the mourning at the threshing floor of the thornbushes, and they said, "This is an intense mourning for the Egyptians." Therefore, they named it Abel Mizraim (Egypt mourns), which is on the other side of the Jordan.   יאוַיַּ֡רְא יוֹשֵׁב֩ הָאָ֨רֶץ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֜י אֶת־הָאֵ֗בֶל בְּגֹ֨רֶן֙ הָֽאָטָ֔ד וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֵֽבֶל־כָּבֵ֥ד זֶ֖ה לְמִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֞ן קָרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ אָבֵ֣ל מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֥בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּֽן:
12And his sons did to him just as he had commanded them.   יבוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ בָנָ֖יו ל֑וֹ כֵּ֖ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽם:
as he had commanded them: What was it that he had commanded them?- [What the Torah elaborates in the following verse.]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר צִוָּֽם: מַהוּ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּם?
13And his sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and they buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which field Abraham had bought for burial property from Ephron the Hittite before Mamre.   יגוַיִּשְׂא֨וּ אֹת֤וֹ בָנָיו֙ אַ֣רְצָה כְּנַ֔עַן וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ בִּמְעָרַ֖ת שְׂדֵ֣ה הַמַּכְפֵּלָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָנָה֩ אַבְרָהָ֨ם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה לַֽאֲחֻזַּת־קֶ֗בֶר מֵאֵ֛ת עֶפְרֹ֥ן הַֽחִתִּ֖י עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מַמְרֵֽא:
And his sons carried him: But not his grandsons, for so he had commanded them: “Neither shall any Egyptian carry my coffin nor any of your sons, for they are born of the daughters of Canaan, but you [alone].” He designated a position for them [by his coffin], [so that] three [of them would carry] on the east, and so on for [all] four directions. [This was] similar to their arrangement in the traveling of the camp [in the desert] of the groupings [of the tribes as] they were designated here. [He also ordered,] “Levi shall not carry it because he (i.e., his tribe) is destined to carry the Ark. Joseph shall not carry it because he is a king. Manasseh and Ephraim shall carry it instead of them.” That is the meaning of “Each one according to his group with signs” (Num. 2:2), according to the sign that their father gave them to carry his coffin. — [From Tanchuma Bamidbar 12]   וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֹתוֹ בָנָיו: וְלֹא בְנֵי בָנָיו, שֶׁכָּךְ צִוָּם, אַל יִשְׂאוּ מִטָּתִי לֹא אִישׁ מִצְרִי וְלֹא אֶחָד מִבְּנֵיכֶם, שֶׁהֵם מִבְּנוֹת כְּנַעַן, אֶלָּא אַתֶּם, וְקָבַע לָהֶם מָקוֹם ג' לַמִּזְרָח, וְכֵן לְד' רוּחוֹת, וּכְסִדְרָן לְמַסַּע מַחֲנֶה שֶׁל דְּגָלִים נִקְבְעוּ כָאן; לֵוִי לֹא יִשָּׂא, שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לָשֵׂאת אֶת הָאָרוֹן, וְיוֹסֵף לֹא יִשָּׂא, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מֶלֶךְ, מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם יִהְיוּ תַחְתֵּיהֶם, וְזֶהוּ אִישׁ עַל דִּגְלוֹ בְאֹתֹת – בְּאוֹת שֶׁמָּסַר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם לִשָּׂא מִטָּתוֹ:
14And Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.   ידוַיָּ֨שָׁב יוֹסֵ֤ף מִצְרַ֨יְמָה֙ ה֣וּא וְאֶחָ֔יו וְכָל־הָֽעֹלִ֥ים אִתּ֖וֹ לִקְבֹּ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֑יו אַֽחֲרֵ֖י קָבְר֥וֹ אֶת־אָבִֽיו:
he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him: Here, when they returned, [Scripture] places his brothers before the Egyptians who had gone up with him, whereas when they left, [Scripture] places the Egyptians before his brothers, as it is said: “and all Pharaoh’s servants…went up with him” (verse 7), and afterwards, “And Joseph’s entire household and his brothers” (verse 8). But because they (the Egyptians) saw the honor that the kings of Canaan had bestowed, (i.e.,) that they hung their crowns on Jacob’s coffin, they treated them (Joseph’s brothers) with respect. — [From Sotah 13b]   הוּא וְאֶחָיו וְכָל־הָֽעֹלִים אִתּוֹ: בַּחֲזָרָתָן הִקְדִּים אֶחָיו לַמִּצְרִים הָעוֹלִים אִתּוֹ, וּבַהֲלִיכָתָן הִקְדִּים מִצְרַיִם לְאֶחָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּעֲלוּ אִתּוֹ כָּל עַבְדֵי פַרְעֹה וְגוֹ', וְאַחַר כָּךְ כָּל בֵּית יוֹסֵף וְאֶחָיו, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁרָאוּ כָבוֹד שֶׁעָשׂוּ מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן שֶׁתָּלוּ כִתְרֵיהֶם בַאֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב נָהֲגוּ בָהֶם כָּבוֹד:
15Now Joseph's brothers saw that their father had died, and they said, "Perhaps Joseph will hate us and return to us all the evil that we did to him."   טווַיִּרְא֤וּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף֙ כִּי־מֵ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ ל֥וּ יִשְׂטְמֵ֖נוּ יוֹסֵ֑ף וְהָשֵׁ֤ב יָשִׁיב֙ לָ֔נוּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּמַ֖לְנוּ אֹתֽוֹ:
Now Joseph’s brothers saw that their father had died: What does it mean that they saw? They recognized his (Jacob’s) death in Joseph, for they were accustomed to dine at Joseph’s table, and he was friendly toward them out of respect for his father, but as soon as Jacob died, he was no longer friendly toward them. — [From Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel; Tanchuma Buber, Shemoth 2]   וַיִּרְאוּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף כִּי־מֵת אֲבִיהֶם: מַהוּ וַיִּרְאוּ? הִכִּירוּ בְּמִיתָתוֹ אֵצֶל יוֹסֵף, שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים לִסְעֹד עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף וְהָיָה מְקָרְבָן בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד אָבִיו, וּמִשֶּׁמֵּת יַעֲקֹב לֹא קֵרְבָן (בראשית רבה):
Perhaps Joseph will hate us: Heb. לוּ [The word] לוּ has many different meanings. לוּ is used as an expression of request or to denote “if only,” [as in these examples:] “If only (לוּ) it would be as you say” (Gen. 30:34); “If only (לוּ) you would listen to me” (ibid. 23:13); “If only (לוּ) we had been content” (Josh. 7:7); “If only (לוּ) we had died” (Num. 14:2). לוּ sometimes means “if” (אִם) or “perhaps” (אוּלַי) , e.g., “If (לוּ) they had been wise” (Deut. 32:29); “Had (לוּא) you hearkened to My commandments” (Isa. 48: 18); “And even if (וְלוּ) I should weigh on my palms” (II Sam. 18:12). לוּ sometimes serves as an expression of “perhaps,” [as in] “Perhaps (לוּ) will hate us” (Gen. 50:15). And there is no similar use [of this word] in Scriptures. It is [used as] an expression of “perhaps” (אוּלַי), like “Perhaps (אוּלַי) the woman will not follow me” (Gen. 24:39), which denotes “perhaps.” There is also an example of אוּלַי [used as] an expression of a request, e. g., “If only (אוּלַי) the Lord will see [the tears of] my eye” (II Sam. 16:12); “If only (אוּלַי) the Lord will be with me” (Josh. 14:12). This is similar to “If only (לוּ) it would be as you say” (Gen. 30:34). Sometimes אוּלַי is an expression of “if:” “If (אוּלַי) there are fifty righteous men” (Gen. 18:24). - [From Targum Onkelos]   לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ: שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ; לוּ מִתְחַלֵּק לְעִנְיָנִים הַרְבֵּה; יֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה וּלְשׁוֹן הַלְוַאי, כְּגוֹן לוּ יְהִי כִדְבָרֶךָ, לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי, וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ, לוּ מַתְנוּ, וְיֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן אִם וְאוּלַי, כְּגוֹן לוּ חָכְמוּ (דברים ל"ב), לוּ הִקְשַׁבְתָּ לְמִצְוֹתָי (ישעיהו מ"ח), וְלוּ אָנֹכִי שֹׁקֵל עַל כַּפַּי (שמואל ב י"ח); וְיֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא, לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ, וְאֵין לוֹ עוֹד דּוֹמֶה בַמִּקְרָא, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן אוּלַי, כְּמוֹ אֻלַי לֹא תֵלֵךְ הָאִשָּׁה אַחֲרָי, לְשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא הוּא; וְיֵשׁ אוּלַי לְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה, כְּגוֹן אוּלַי יִרְאֶה ה' בְּעֵינִי (שמואל ב ט"ז), אוּלַי ה' אוֹתִי (יהושע י"ד), הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ לוּ יְהִי כִדְבָרֶךָ, וְיֵשׁ אוּלַי לְשׁוֹן אִם, אוּלַי יֵשׁ נ' צַדִּיקִם:
16So they commanded [messengers to go] to Joseph, to say, "Your father commanded [us] before his death, saying,   טזוַיְצַוּ֕וּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף לֵאמֹ֑ר אָבִ֣יךָ צִוָּ֔ה לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹת֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
they commanded [messengers to go] to Joseph: Like “and He commanded them to the children of Israel” (Exod. 6:13). [That is,] he commanded Moses and Aaron to be messengers to the children of Israel. In this case, too, they (the brothers) commanded their messenger to be a messenger to Joseph to say this to him. Whom did they command? Bilhah’s sons who were frequently with him, as it is said: “and he was a lad [and was] with the sons of Bilhah” (Gen. 37:2). - [From Targum Yerushalmi as quoted by Chizkuni]   וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל־יוֹסֵף: כְּמוֹ וַיְצַוֵּם אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל – צִוָּה לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן לִהְיוֹת שְׁלוּחִים אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף זֶה וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל שְׁלוּחָם, לִהְיוֹת שָׁלִיחַ אֶל יוֹסֵף לוֹמַר לוֹ כֵן. וְאֶת מִי צִוּוּ? אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה, שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִין אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוּא נַעַר אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה:
Your father commanded: They altered the facts for the sake of peace. Jacob gave no such command, since he did not suspect Joseph. — [From Yeb. 65b, Tanchuma Toledoth 1].   אָבִיךָ צִוָּה: שִׁנּוּ בַדָּבָר מִפְּנֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם, כִּי לֹא צִוָּה יַעֲקֹב כֵּן, שֶׁלֹּא נֶחֱשַׁד יוֹסֵף בְּעֵינָיו (בראשית רבה, יבמות ס"ה):
17'So shall you say to Joseph, "Please, forgive now your brothers' transgression and their sin, for they did evil to you. Now please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father." ' " Joseph wept when they spoke to him.   יזכֹּה־תֹֽאמְר֣וּ לְיוֹסֵ֗ף אָ֣נָּ֡א שָׂ֣א נָ֠א פֶּ֣שַׁע אַחֶ֤יךָ וְחַטָּאתָם֙ כִּֽי־רָעָ֣ה גְמָל֔וּךָ וְעַתָּה֙ שָׂ֣א נָ֔א לְפֶ֥שַׁע עַבְדֵ֖י אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֑יךָ וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ יוֹסֵ֖ף בְּדַבְּרָ֥ם אֵלָֽיו:
please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father: Although your father is dead, his God is alive, and they are His servants. — [From Tanchuma Buber, Shemoth 2]   שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ: אִם אָבִיךָ מֵת, אֱלֹהָיו קַיָּם, וְהֵם עֲבָדָיו:
18His brothers also went and fell before him, and they said, "Behold, we are your slaves."   יחוַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ גַּם־אֶחָ֔יו וַיִּפְּל֖וּ לְפָנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ הִנֶּ֥נּוּ לְךָ֖ לַֽעֲבָדִֽים:
His brothers also went: in addition to sending messengers.   וַיֵּֽלְכוּ גַּם־אֶחָיו: מוּסָף עַל הַשְּׁלִיחוּת:
19But Joseph said to them, "Don't be afraid, for am I instead of God?   יטוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֛ם יוֹסֵ֖ף אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ כִּ֛י הֲתַ֥חַת אֱלֹהִ֖ים אָֽנִי:
for am I instead of God?: Heb. הִתַחַת. Am I perhaps in His place? [The prefixed “hey” denotes] wonder. If I wanted to harm you, would I be able? Did not all of you plan evil against me? The Holy One, blessed be He, however, designed it for good. So how can I alone harm you?   כִּי הֲתַחַת אֱלֹהִים אָֽנִי: שֶׁמָּא בִּמְקוֹמוֹ אֲנִי? בִּתְמִיהָ, אִם הָיִיתִי רוֹצֶה לְהָרַע לָכֶם, כְּלוּם אֲנִי יָכוֹל? וַהֲלֹא אַתֶּם כֻּלְּכֶם חֲשַׁבְתֶּם עָלַי רָעָה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חֲשָׁבָהּ לְטוֹבָה וְהֵיאַךְ אֲנִי לְבַדִּי יָכוֹל לְהָרַע לָכֶם?
20Indeed, you intended evil against me, [but] God designed it for good, in order to bring about what is at present to keep a great populace alive.   כוְאַתֶּ֕ם חֲשַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָלַ֖י רָעָ֑ה אֱלֹהִים֙ חֲשָׁבָ֣הּ לְטֹבָ֔ה לְמַ֗עַן עֲשׂ֛ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה לְהַֽחֲיֹ֥ת עַם־רָֽב:

Seventh Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 50

21So now do not fear. I will sustain you and your small children." And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts.   כאוְעַתָּה֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אוּ אָֽנֹכִ֛י אֲכַלְכֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם וְאֶת־טַפְּכֶ֑ם וַיְנַחֵ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לִבָּֽם:
and spoke to their hearts: Convincing words. Before you came down here, they (the Egyptians) were spreading rumors about me that I was a slave. Through you, it became known that I am a free man. Now if I kill you, what will people say? “He (Joseph) saw a group of young men and glorified himself through them by saying, ‘They are my brothers’ and at the end he killed them. Is there such a thing as a brother who kills his brothers” (Gen. Rabbah 100:9)? Another explanation: If ten candles could not extinguish one candle, [how can one candle extinguish ten candles?] (Meg. 16b).   וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־לִבָּֽם: דְּבָרִים הַמִּתְקַבְּלִים עַל הַלֵּב – עַד שֶׁלֹּא יְרַדְתֶּם לְכָאן הָיוּ מְרַנְּנִים עָלַי שֶׁאֲנִי עֶבֶד, עַל יְדֵיכֶם נוֹדַע שֶׁאֲנִי בֶן חֹרִין, וְאִם אֲנִי הוֹרֵג אֶתְכֶם, מָה הַבְּרִיוֹת אוֹמְרוֹת? כַּת שֶׁל בַּחוּרִים רָאָה וְנִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ בָּהֶם וְאָמַר אַחַי הֵם, וּלְבַסּוֹף הָרַג אוֹתָם; יֵשׁ לְךָ אָח שֶׁהוֹרֵג אֶת אֶחָיו? דָּבָר אַחֵר, עֲשָׂרָה נֵרוֹת לֹא יָכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת נֵר אֶ' וְכוּ':
22So Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he and his father's household, and Joseph lived a hundred and ten years.   כבוַיֵּ֤שֶׁב יוֹסֵף֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם ה֖וּא וּבֵ֣ית אָבִ֑יו וַיְחִ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים:
23Joseph saw children of a third generation [born] to Ephraim; also the sons of Machir the son of Manasseh were born on Joseph's knees.   כגוַיַּ֤רְא יוֹסֵף֙ לְאֶפְרַ֔יִם בְּנֵ֖י שִׁלֵּשִׁ֑ים גַּ֗ם בְּנֵ֤י מָכִיר֙ בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה יֻלְּד֖וּ עַל־בִּרְכֵּ֥י יוֹסֵֽף:
on Joseph’s knees: As the Targum renders: [were born and Joseph raised them, i.e.,] he raised them between his knees.   עַל־בִּרְכֵּי יוֹסֵף: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ גִּדְּלָן בֵּין בִּרְכָּיו:
24Joseph said to his brothers, "I am going to die; God will surely remember you and take you up out of this land to the land that He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."   כדוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹסֵף֙ אֶל־אֶחָ֔יו אָֽנֹכִ֖י מֵ֑ת וֵֽאלֹהִ֞ים פָּקֹ֧ד יִפְקֹ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֗ם וְהֶֽעֱלָ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֛ע לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
25And Joseph adjured the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely remember you, and you shall take up my bones out of here."   כהוַיַּשְׁבַּ֣ע יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר פָּקֹ֨ד יִפְקֹ֤ד אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהַֽעֲלִתֶ֥ם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַ֖י מִזֶּֽה:
26And Joseph died at the age of one hundred ten years, and they embalmed him and he was placed into the coffin in Egypt.   כווַיָּ֣מָת יוֹסֵ֔ף בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִ֑ים וַיַּֽחַנְט֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וַיִּ֥ישֶׂם בָּֽאָר֖וֹן בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:

Maftir Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 50

23Joseph saw children of a third generation [born] to Ephraim; also the sons of Machir the son of Manasseh were born on Joseph's knees.   כגוַיַּ֤רְא יוֹסֵף֙ לְאֶפְרַ֔יִם בְּנֵ֖י שִׁלֵּשִׁ֑ים גַּ֗ם בְּנֵ֤י מָכִיר֙ בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה יֻלְּד֖וּ עַל־בִּרְכֵּ֥י יוֹסֵֽף:
on Joseph’s knees: As the Targum renders: [were born and Joseph raised them, i.e.,] he raised them between his knees.   עַל־בִּרְכֵּי יוֹסֵף: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ גִּדְּלָן בֵּין בִּרְכָּיו:
24Joseph said to his brothers, "I am going to die; God will surely remember you and take you up out of this land to the land that He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."   כדוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹסֵף֙ אֶל־אֶחָ֔יו אָֽנֹכִ֖י מֵ֑ת וֵֽאלֹהִ֞ים פָּקֹ֧ד יִפְקֹ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֗ם וְהֶֽעֱלָ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֛ע לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
25And Joseph adjured the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely remember you, and you shall take up my bones out of here."   כהוַיַּשְׁבַּ֣ע יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר פָּקֹ֨ד יִפְקֹ֤ד אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהַֽעֲלִתֶ֥ם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַ֖י מִזֶּֽה:
26And Joseph died at the age of one hundred ten years, and they embalmed him and he was placed into the coffin in Egypt.   כווַיָּ֣מָת יוֹסֵ֔ף בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִ֑ים וַיַּֽחַנְט֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וַיִּ֥ישֶׂם בָּֽאָר֖וֹן בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:

Haftarah

Melachim I (I Kings) Chapter 2

1And the days of David drew near that he should die; and he charged Solomon, his son, saying:   אוַיִּקְרְב֥וּ יְמֵֽי־דָוִ֖ד לָמ֑וּת וַיְצַ֛ו אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֥ה בְנ֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
2"I go the way of all the earth; you shall be strong, therefore, and show yourself a man;   באָנֹכִ֣י הֹלֵ֔ךְ בְּדֶ֖רֶךְ כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְחָזַקְתָּ֖ וְהָיִ֥יתָֽ לְאִֽישׁ:
3And keep the charge of the Lord your God to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His judgments, and His testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that you may prosper in all that you do, and wherever you turn;   גוְשָׁמַרְתָּ֞ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֣רֶת | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לָלֶ֚כֶת בִּדְרָכָיו֙ לִשְׁמֹ֨ר חֻקֹּתָ֚יו מִצְו‍ֹתָיו֙ וּמִשְׁפָּטָ֣יו וְעֵדְו‍ֹתָ֔יו כַּכָּת֖וּב בְּתוֹרַ֣ת משֶׁ֑ה לְמַ֣עַן תַּשְׂכִּ֗יל אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעֲשֶֹ֔ה וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּפְנֶ֖ה שָֽׁם:
4That the Lord may continue His word which He spoke concerning me, saying, 'If your children take heed to their way, to walk before Me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail you,' said He, 'a man on the throne of Israel.'   דלְמַעַן֩ יָקִ֨ים יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶת־דְּבָר֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֣ר עָלַי֘ לֵאמֹר֒ אִם־יִשְׁמְר֨וּ בָנֶ֜יךָ אֶת־דַּרְכָּ֗ם לָלֶ֚כֶת לְפָנַי֙ בֶּאֱמֶ֔ת בְּכָל־לְבָבָ֖ם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁ֑ם לֵאמֹ֕ר לֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֚ת לְךָ֙ אִ֔ישׁ מֵעַ֖ל כִּסֵּ֥א יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
5Moreover, you also know what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me, (and) what he did to the two captains of the hosts of Israel, to Abner the son of Ner, and to Amasa the son of Jether, whom he slew, and shed the blood of war in peace and put the blood of war upon his girdle (that was) about his loins, and in his shoes that (were) on his feet.   הוְגַ֣ם אַתָּ֣ה יָדַ֡עְתָּ אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁר־עָ֨שָׂה לִ֜י יוֹאָ֣ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָֹ֣ה לִשְׁנֵֽי־שָׂרֵ֣י צִבְא֣וֹת יִ֠שְׂרָאֵל לְאַבְנֵ֨ר בֶּן־נֵ֜ר וְלַעֲמָשָֹ֚א בֶן־יֶ֙תֶר֙ וַיַּ֣הַרְגֵ֔ם וַיָּ֥שֶׂם דְּמֵֽי־מִלְחָמָ֖ה בְּשָׁלֹ֑ם וַיִּתֵּ֞ן דְּמֵ֣י מִלְחָמָ֗ה בַּחֲגֹֽרָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּמָתְנָ֔יו וּֽבְנַעֲל֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּרַגְלָֽיו:
You also know what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me: by showing them the letter which David had sent through Uriah.   אֶת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִי: שֶׁהֶרְאָה הַסֵּפֶר שֶׁשָּׁלַח דָּוִד בְּיַד אוּרִיָּה. (במדרש רבי תנחומא שם)
And shed the blood of war in peace: Since they were at peace with him, they were not on guard against him.   דְּמֵי מִלְחָמָה בְּשָׁלֹם: שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם שָׁלוֹם עִמּוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ נִשְׁמָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ.
And he put the blood of war upon his girdle that was about his loins: He had girded his sword, attached to his loins, not in the customary manner of those girding swords, and he went out to meet Amasa. He turned the opening downward so that it should easily fall out of the sheath to the ground as it says (Samuel II 20:8) “and he went out towards Amasa and it fell out.” As soon as it fell, Joab [nonchalantly] retrieved it, and held it ready in his hand. Amasa presumed he retrieved it solely to pick it up from the ground, and was not alert to guard himself against an attack from the sword which was in Joab’s hand.   בַּחֲגֹרָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּמָתְנָיו: שֶׁחָגַר חַרְבּוֹ מְצֻמֶּדֶת עַל מָתְנָיו, שֶׁלֹּא כְּדֶרֶךְ הַחוֹגְרִים, בְּצֵאתוֹ לִקְרַאת עֲמָשָׂא, וּפִיהָ לְמַטָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּפֹּל, כְּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהוּא יָצָא וַתִּפֹּל, וּכְשֶׁנָּפְלָה וּנְטָלָהּ, כְּסָבוּר עֲמָשָׂא שֶׁלֹּא נְטָלָהּ אֶלָּא לְהַגְבִּיהָהּ מִן הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא נִשְׁמַר מֵהַחֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד יוֹאָב.
and in his shoes that (were) on his feet:   וּבְנַעֲלוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּרַגְלָיו: אֶת אַבְנֵר הָרַג בְּעָרְמָה, שֶׁשְּׁאָלוֹ גִּדֶּמֶת הֵיאָךְ חוֹלֶצֶת, כְּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיַּטֵּהוּ יוֹאָב אֶל תּוֹךְ הַשַּׁעַר לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ 'בַשֶּׁלִי', לְשׁוֹן 'שַׁל' נְעָלֶיךָ.
6And you shall do according to your wisdom, and do not let his hoary head go down to the grave in peace.   ווְעָשִֹ֖יתָ כְּחָכְמָתֶ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־תוֹרֵ֧ד שֵׂיבָת֛וֹ בְּשָׁלֹ֖ם שְׁאֹֽל:
And do not let his hoary head go down to the grave in peace: Do not let him die a natural death [since this will minimize his worldly punishment] and cause him to fall into purgatory for torturous purification.   וְלֹא תוֹרֵד שֵׂיבָתוֹ בְּשָׁלֹם שְׁאֹל: אַל תַּנִּיחֵהוּ לָמוּת מִיתַת עַצְמוֹ וְלִפֹּל בְּגֵיהִנֹּם.
7But show kindness to the children of Barzillai the Gileadite, and let them be of those that eat at your table, for so did they befriend me when I fled from Absalom your brother.   זוְלִבְנֵ֨י בַרְזִלַּ֚י הַגִּלְעָדִי֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־חֶ֔סֶד וְהָי֖וּ בְּאֹכְלֵ֣י שֻׁלְחָנֶ֑ךָ כִּי־כֵן֙ קָרְב֣וּ אֵלַ֔י בְּבָרְחִ֕י מִפְּנֵ֖י אַבְשָׁל֥וֹם אָחִֽיךָ:
8And, behold, there is with you Shimei the son of Gera the Benjamite of Bahurim, who cursed me with a grievous curse on the day when I went to Mahanaim, and he came down to meet me at the Jordan, and I swore to him by the Lord, saying, 'I will not put you to death with the sword.'   חוְהִנֵּ֣ה עִ֠מְּךָ שִֽׁמְעִ֨י בֶן־גֵּרָ֥א בֶן־הַיְמִינִי֘ מִבַּחֻרִים֒ וְה֚וּא קִֽלְלַ֙נִי֙ קְלָלָ֣ה נִמְרֶ֔צֶת בְּי֖וֹם לֶכְתִּ֣י מַחֲנָ֑יִם וְהֽוּא־יָרַ֚ד לִקְרָאתִי֙ הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וָאֶשָּׁ֨בַֽע ל֚וֹ בַֽיהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִם־אֲמִֽיתְךָ֖ בֶּחָֽרֶב:
Who cursed me with a grievous curse: [Others maintain] נִמְרֶצֶת means clear and unquestionable as (we find) in (Job 16:3): “what will bring clarity to you (ימריצך),” and (Job 6:25): “how clear (נמרצו) are right words,” the same as נִמְלְצוּ a derivation of the word מְלִיצָה, an interpretation or clarification.   קְלָלָה נִמְרֶצֶת: מְפֹרֶשֶׁת, כְּמוֹ: מַה יַּמְרִיצְךָ; (שם ו כה): וּמַה נִּמְרְצוּ, כְּמוֹ מַה נִּמְלְצוּ.
9And now hold him not guiltless, for you are a wise man, and you will surely know what you ought to do to him, and you shall bring his hoary head down to the grave with blood."   טוְעַתָּה֙ אַל־תְּנַקֵּ֔הוּ כִּ֛י אִ֥ישׁ חָכָ֖ם אָ֑תָּה וְיָֽדַעְתָּ֙ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֔וֹ וְהוֹרַדְתָּ֧ אֶת־שֵׂיבָת֛וֹ בְּדָ֖ם שְׁאֽוֹל:
For you are a wise man: Turn your attention to find for him an iniquity justifying a death penalty in another matter.   כִּי אִישׁ חָכָם אָתָּה: תֵּן לִבְּךָ לִמְצֹא לוֹ עֲוֹן מָוֶת בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְזֶהוּ: וְיָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה לּוֹ.
10And David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David.   יוַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב דָּוִ֖ד עִם־אֲבֹתָ֑יו וַיִּקָּבֵ֖ר בְּעִ֥יר דָּוִֽד:
11And the days that David reigned over Israel (were) forty years, seven years he reigned in Hebron, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years.   יאוְהַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר מָלַ֚ךְ דָּוִד֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַרְבָּעִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה בְּחֶבְר֚וֹן מָלַךְ֙ שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֔ים וּבִירוּשָׁלַ֣םִ מָלַ֔ךְ שְׁלשִׁ֥ים וְשָׁל֖שׁ שָׁנִֽים:
12And Solomon sat upon the throne of David his father, and his kingdom was firmly established.   יבוּשְׁלֹמֹ֕ה יָשַׁ֕ב עַל־כִּסֵּ֖א דָּוִ֣ד אָבִ֑יו וַתִּכֹּ֥ן מַלְכֻת֖וֹ מְאֹֽד:
And his kingdom was firmly established: He was also master and ruler of all heavenly creatures and beings.   וַתִּכֹּן מַלְכֻתוֹ מְאֹד: אַף עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים.
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