Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 49

27Benjamin is a wolf, he will prey; in the morning he will devour plunder, and in the evening he will divide the spoil."   כזבִּנְיָמִין֙ זְאֵ֣ב יִטְרָ֔ף בַּבֹּ֖קֶר יֹ֣אכַל עַ֑ד וְלָעֶ֖רֶב יְחַלֵּ֥ק שָׁלָֽל:
Benjamin is a wolf, he will prey: He is a wolf for he will prey. He (Jacob) prophesied that they were destined to be “grabbers”: “and you shall grab for yourselves each man his wife” (Jud. 21:21), in [the episode of] the concubine [who happened to be] in Gibeah (ibid., chs. 19-21); and he prophesied about Saul, that he would be victorious over his enemies all around, as it is said: “And Saul took the kingdom…and he waged war…against Moab, and against the children of Ammon, and against Edom, etc., and wherever he turned, he caused them to tremble” (I Sam. 14:47). - [From Shitah Chadashah and Gen. Rabbah 98:3]   בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב יִטְרָף: זְאֵב הוּא אֲשֶׁר יִטְרָף; נִבָּא עַל שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲתִידִין לִהְיוֹת חַטְפָנִין, וַחֲטַפְתֶּם לָכֶם אִישׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּפִלֶגֶשׁ בְּגִבְעָה (שופטים כ"א), וְנִבָּא עַל שָׁאוּל שֶׁהָיָה נוֹצֵחַ בְּאוֹיְבָיו סָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְשָׁאוּל לָכַד הַמְּלוּכָה וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּמוֹאָב וְגוֹ' וּבֶאֱדוֹם וְגוֹ' וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִפְנֶה יַרְשִׁיעַ (שמואל א י"ד):
in the morning he will devour plunder: Heb. עַד, an expression of plunder and spoil, translated into Aramaic as עִדָאָה. There is another example of its use in Hebrew: “Then plunder and booty (עַד שָׁלָל) were divided” (Isa. 33:23). He (Jacob) is referring to Saul, who arose at the beginning of the “morning (other editions: עַד is the blossoming) and sunrise” of Israel. — [From Esther Rabbah 10:13]   בַּבֹּקֶר יֹאכַל עַד: לְשׁוֹן בִּזָּה וְשָׁלָל, הַמְתֻרְגָּם עֲדָאָה, וְעוֹד יֵשׁ לוֹ דּוֹמֶה בִּלְשׁוֹן עִבְרִית אָז חֻלַּק עַד שָׁלָל (ישעיהו ל"ג), וְעַל שָׁאוּל הוּא אוֹמֵר שֶׁעָמַד בִּתְחִלַּת פְּרִיחָתָן וּזְרִיחָתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
and in the evening he will divide the spoil: Even when the sun will set for Israel through Nebuchadnezzar, who will exile them to Babylon, he (Benjamin) will divide the spoil. Mordecai and Esther, who were of [the tribe of] Benjamin, will divide the spoils of Haman, as it is said: “Behold, the house of Haman I have given to Esther” (Esther 8:7) (Esther Rabbah 10:13). Onkelos, however, rendered it as regarding the “spoils” of the priests, i.e., the holy things of the Temple, [namely the priests’ share of the sacrifices].   וְלָעֶרֶב יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָֽל: אַף מִשֶּׁתִּשְׁקַע שִׁמְשָׁן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל יְדֵי נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, שֶׁיַּגְלֵם לְבָבֶל, יחלק שלל, מָרְדְּכַי וְאֶסְתֵּר שֶׁהֵם מִבִּנְיָמִין יְחַלְּקוּ אֶת שְׁלַל הָמָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הִנֵּה בֵית הָמָן נָתַתִּי לְאֶסְתֵּר. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם עַל שְׁלַל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּקָדְשֵׁי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:
28All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father spoke to them and blessed them; each man, according to his blessing, he blessed them.   כחכָּל־אֵ֛לֶּה שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֑ר וְ֠זֹ֠את אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֨ר לָהֶ֤ם אֲבִיהֶם֙ וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אוֹתָ֔ם אִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר כְּבִרְכָת֖וֹ בֵּרַ֥ךְ אֹתָֽם:
and this is what their father spoke to them and blessed them: Now is it not so that some of them he did not bless, but [in fact] chided? Rather, this is what is intended: And this is what their father spoke to them-what is related in this section. One might think that he did not bless Reuben, Simeon, and Levi. Therefore, Scripture states: and he blessed them, meaning all of them. — [From Pesikta Rabbathi 7]   וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם: וַהֲלֹא יֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרְכָם אֶלָּא קִנְטְרָן? אֶלָּא כָךְ פֵּרוּשׁוֹ: וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם מַה שֶּׁנֶאֱמַר בָּעִנְיָן; יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא בֵרַךְ לִרְאוּבֵן, שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם – כֻּלָּם בְּמַשְׁמָע:
according to his blessing: With the blessing destined to befall each of them.   אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־כְּבִרְכָתוֹ: בְּרָכָה הָעֲתִידָה לָבֹא עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:
he blessed them: Scripture should have said, “each man, according to his blessing, he blessed him.” Why does Scripture say, “he blessed them?” Since he (Jacob) bestowed upon Judah the might of a lion, and upon Benjamin the power to seize like a wolf, and upon Naphtali the fleetness of a gazelle, I might think that he did not include all of them in all the blessings. Therefore, Scripture states:“he blessed them.” - [From Tanchuam Vayechi 16]   בֵּרַךְ אוֹתָם: לֹא הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר אֶלָּא אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כְּבִרְכָתוֹ בֵּרַךְ אוֹתוֹ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בֵּרַךְ אוֹתָם? לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן לִיהוּדָה גְּבוּרַת אֲרִי וּלְבִנְיָמִין חֲטִיפָתוֹ שֶׁל זְאֵב וּלְנַפְתָּלִי קַלּוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַיָּל, יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא כְלָלָן כֻּלָּם בְּכָל הַבְּרָכוֹת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בֵּרַךְ אוֹתָם:
29And he commanded them and said to them, "I will be brought in to my people; bury me with my fathers, in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,   כטוַיְצַ֣ו אוֹתָ֗ם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ אֲנִי֙ נֶֽאֱסָ֣ף אֶל־עַמִּ֔י קִבְר֥וּ אֹתִ֖י אֶל־אֲבֹתָ֑י אֶ֨ל־הַמְּעָרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׂדֵ֖ה עֶפְר֥וֹן הַֽחִתִּֽי:
I will be brought in to my people: Heb. נֶאֱסָף [The term נֶאֱסָף is utilized] because they brought souls into the place where they are concealed. There are instances of אִסִיפָה in Hebrew that mean bringing in, e.g., “but no one brought them (מְאַסֵּף) home” (Jud. 19: 15); “you shall take it (וַאִסַפְתּוֹ) into your house” (Deut. 22:2); [and] “when you bring in (בְּאָסְפְּכֶם) the produce of the land” (Lev. 23:39). It is [the produce] brought into the house because of the rains. [Another instance is:] “When you bring in (בְּאָסְפּךָ‏ְ) your labors” (Exod. 23:16). Likewise, every instance of אִסִיפָה mentioned in connection with death is also an expression of “bringing in.”   נֶֽאֱסָף אֶל־עַמִּי: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין הַנְּפָשׁוֹת אֶל מְקוֹם גְּנִיזָתָן, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲסִיפָה בְּלָשׁוֹן עִבְרִי שֶׁהִיא לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה, כְּגוֹן וְאֵין אִישׁ מְאַסֵּף אוֹתִי הַבָּיְתָה (שופטים י"ט), וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ (דברים כ"ב), בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ (ויקרא כ"ג), הַכְנָסָתָם לַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים, בְּאָסְפְּךָ אֶת מַעֲשֶׂיךָ (שמות כ"ג), וְכָל אֲסִיפָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְמִיתָה אַף הִיא לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה:
with my fathers: Heb. אֶל, lit., to my fathers. [Here it means] with my fathers.   אֶל־אֲבֹתָי: עִם אֲבוֹתַי:
30in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre in the land of Canaan, which field Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite for burial property.   לבַּמְּעָרָ֞ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר בִּשְׂדֵ֧ה הַמַּכְפֵּלָ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מַמְרֵ֖א בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן אֲשֶׁר֩ קָנָ֨ה אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה מֵאֵ֛ת עֶפְרֹ֥ן הַֽחִתִּ֖י לַֽאֲחֻזַּת־קָֽבֶר:
31There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebecca, and there I buried Leah.   לאשָׁ֣מָּה קָֽבְר֞וּ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֗ם וְאֵת֙ שָׂרָ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ שָׁ֚מָּה קָֽבְר֣וּ אֶת־יִצְחָ֔ק וְאֵ֖ת רִבְקָ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ וְשָׁ֥מָּה קָבַ֖רְתִּי אֶת־לֵאָֽה:
32The purchase of the field and the cave therein was from the sons of Heth."   לבמִקְנֵ֧ה הַשָּׂדֶ֛ה וְהַמְּעָרָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ מֵאֵ֥ת בְּנֵי־חֵֽת:
33And Jacob concluded commanding his sons, and he drew his legs [up] into the bed, and expired and was brought in to his people.   לגוַיְכַ֤ל יַֽעֲקֹב֙ לְצַוֹּ֣ת אֶת־בָּנָ֔יו וַיֶּֽאֱסֹ֥ף רַגְלָ֖יו אֶל־הַמִּטָּ֑ה וַיִּגְוַ֖ע וַיֵּאָ֥סֶף אֶל־עַמָּֽיו:
and he drew his legs: Heb. וַיֶאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו, he drew in his legs.   וַיֶּֽאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו: הִכְנִיס רַגְלָיו:
and expired and was brought in: But no mention is made of death in his regard, and our Rabbis of blessed memory said: Our father Jacob did not die. — [From Ta’anith 5b]   וַיִּגְוַע וַיֶּֽאֱסֹף: וּמִיתָה לֹא נֶאֶמְרָה בוֹ, וְאָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ לֹא מֵת:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 50

1Joseph fell on his father's face, and he wept over him and kissed him.   אוַיִּפֹּ֥ל יוֹסֵ֖ף עַל־פְּנֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ עָלָ֖יו וַיִּשַּׁק־לֽוֹ:
2And Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father, and the physicians embalmed Israel.   בוַיְצַ֨ו יוֹסֵ֤ף אֶת־עֲבָדָיו֙ אֶת־הָרֹ֣פְאִ֔ים לַֽחֲנֹ֖ט אֶת־אָבִ֑יו וַיַּֽחַנְט֥וּ הָרֹֽפְאִ֖ים אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
to embalm his father: This involves compounding aromatic spices. — [From Targum Jonathan and Targum Yerushalmi]   לַֽחֲנֹט אֶת־אָבִיו: עִנְיַן מִרְקַחַת בְּשָׂמִים הוּא:
3And forty days were completed for him for so are the days of embalming completed and the Egyptians wept over him for seventy days.   גוַיִּמְלְאוּ־לוֹ֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י הַֽחֲנֻטִ֑ים וַיִּבְכּ֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ מִצְרַ֖יִם שִׁבְעִ֥ים יֽוֹם:
And forty days were completed for him: They completed for him the days of his embalming, when forty days were completed for him.   וַיִּמְלְאוּ־לוֹ: הִשְׁלִימוּ לוֹ יְמֵי חֲנִיטָתוֹ עַד שֶׁמָּלְאוּ לוֹ מ' יוֹם:
and the Egyptians wept over him for seventy days: Forty [days] for embalming and thirty for weeping, because a blessing had come to them when he arrived-the famine ended and the waters of the Nile increased. — [From Bereshith Rabbathi , Targum Jonathan]   וַיִּבְכּוּ אֹתוֹ מִצְרַיִם שִׁבְעִים יוֹם: מ' לַחֲנִיטָה וְל' לִבְכִיָּה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּאָה לָהֶם בְּרָכָה לְרַגְלוֹ, שֶׁכָּלָה הָרָעָב וְהָיוּ מֵי נִילוּס מִתְבָּרְכִין:
4When the days of his weeping had passed, Joseph spoke to Pharaoh's household, saying, "If now I have found favor in your eyes, speak now in Pharaoh's ears, saying,   דוַיַּֽעַבְרוּ֙ יְמֵ֣י בְכִית֔וֹ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶל־בֵּ֥ית פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם דַּבְּרוּ־נָ֕א בְּאָזְנֵ֥י פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
5'My father adjured me, saying, "Behold, I am going to die. In my grave, which I dug for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me." So now, please let me go up and bury my father and return.' "   האָבִ֞י הִשְׁבִּיעַ֣נִי לֵאמֹ֗ר הִנֵּ֣ה אָֽנֹכִי֘ מֵת֒ בְּקִבְרִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר כָּרִ֤יתִי לִי֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן שָׁ֖מָּה תִּקְבְּרֵ֑נִי וְעַתָּ֗ה אֶֽעֱלֶה־נָּ֛א וְאֶקְבְּרָ֥ה אֶת־אָבִ֖י וְאָשֽׁוּבָה:
which I dug for myself: Heb. כָּרִיתִי. According to its simple meaning, it (כָּרִיתִי) is similar to “If a man digs (יִכְרֶה)” (Exod. 21:33) (Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel). Its midrashic interpretation also fits the language [of the text here] [viz., that it is] like קָנִיתִי, I bought. Rabbi Akiva said, “When I went to [some] cities by the sea, they called selling (מְכִירָה) כִּירָה” (Rosh Hashanah 26a). [Similarly, it may have been used for “buying.”] Another midrashic interpretation is that it is a term derived from כְּרִי, a stack, [meaning] that Jacob took all the silver and gold that he had brought from Laban’s house and made it into a stack. He said to Esau, “Take this for your share in the cave” (Tanchuma Buber, Vayishlach 11; Gen. Rabbah 100:5). See Rashi on 46: 6.   אֲשֶׁר כָּרִיתִי לִי: כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ כְּמוֹ כִּי יִכְרֶה אִישׁ. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ עוֹד מִתְיַשֵּׁב עַל הַלָּשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ אֲשֶׁר קָנִיתִי, אָמַר רַבִּי עַקִיבָא כְּשֶׁהָלַכְתִי לִכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם הָיוּ קוֹרִין לִמְכִירָה כִּירָה, וְעוֹד מִדְרָשׁוֹ לְשׁוֹן כְּרִי דָגוּר, שֶׁנָּטַל יַעֲקֹב כָּל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב שֶׁהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לָבָן וְעָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּרִי וְאָמַר לְעֵשָׂו טֹל זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל חֶלְקְךָ בַּמְּעָרָה:
6And Pharaoh said, "Go up and bury your father as he adjured you."   ווַיֹּ֖אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֑ה עֲלֵ֛ה וּקְבֹ֥ר אֶת־אָבִ֖יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁבִּיעֶֽךָ:
as he adjured you: But were it not for the oath, I would not permit you [to go]. He (Pharaoh) was afraid to tell him (Joseph) to transgress the oath, however, lest he say, “If so, I will transgress the oath that I swore to you that I would not reveal that I understand the holy tongue (Hebrew) in addition to seventy languages of the nations of the world, but you do not understand it (Hebrew),” as is found in Tractate Sotah (36b).   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁבִּיעֶֽךָ: וְאִם לֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַשְּׁבוּעָה לֹא הָיִיתִי מַנִּיחֲךָ, אֲבָל יָרֵא לוֹמַר עֲבֹר עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אִם כֵּן אֶעֱבֹר עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּעְתִי לְךָ, שֶׁלֹּא אֲגַלֶּה עַל לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁאֲנִי מַכִּיר עוֹדֵף עַל ע' לָשׁוֹן, וְאַתָּה אֵינְךָ מַכִּיר בּוֹ, כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה:
7So Joseph went up to bury his father, and all Pharaoh's servants, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt went up with him,   זוַיַּ֥עַל יוֹסֵ֖ף לִקְבֹּ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֑יו וַיַּֽעֲל֨וּ אִתּ֜וֹ כָּל־עַבְדֵ֤י פַרְעֹה֙ זִקְנֵ֣י בֵית֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל זִקְנֵ֥י אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרָֽיִם:
8and Joseph's entire household and his brothers and his father's household; only their young children and their flocks and cattle did they leave in the land of Goshen.   חוְכֹל֙ בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֔ף וְאֶחָ֖יו וּבֵ֣ית אָבִ֑יו רַ֗ק טַפָּם֙ וְצֹאנָ֣ם וּבְקָרָ֔ם עָֽזְב֖וּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ גּֽשֶׁן:
9And chariots and horsemen also went up with him, and the camp was very numerous.   טוַיַּ֣עַל עִמּ֔וֹ גַּם־רֶ֖כֶב גַּם־פָּֽרָשִׁ֑ים וַיְהִ֥י הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד:
10And they came to the threshing floor of the thornbushes, which is on the other side of the Jordan, and there they conducted a very great and impressive eulogy, and he made for his father a mourning of seven days.   יוַיָּבֹ֜אוּ עַד־גֹּ֣רֶן הָֽאָטָ֗ד אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיִּ֨סְפְּדוּ־שָׁ֔ם מִסְפֵּ֛ד גָּד֥וֹל וְכָבֵ֖ד מְאֹ֑ד וַיַּ֧עַשׂ לְאָבִ֛יו אֵ֖בֶל שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
the threshing floor of the thornbushes: It was surrounded by thornbushes. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it [that it was called the threshing floor of the thornbushes] to commemorate the event, when all the people of Canaan and the princes of Ishmael came to [fight a] war. When they saw Joseph’s crown hanging on Jacob’s coffin, they all stood up and hung their own crowns on it and surrounded it with crowns, like a threshing floor surrounded by a fence of thorns. — [From Sotah 13a]   גֹּרֶן הָֽאָטָד: מֻקָּף אֲטָדִין הָיָה, וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ (סוטה י"ג), עַל שֵׁם הַמְּאֹרָע, שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן וּנְשְׂיאֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל לַמִּלְחָמָה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ כִתְרוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף תָּלוּי בַּאֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב עָמְדוּ כֻלָּן וְתָלוּ בוֹ כִתְרֵיהֶם וְהִקִּיפוּהוּ כְּתָרִים כְּגֹרֶן הַמֻּקָּף סְיָג שֶׁל קוֹצִים:
11The Canaanite[s], the inhabitant[s] of the land, saw the mourning at the threshing floor of the thornbushes, and they said, "This is an intense mourning for the Egyptians." Therefore, they named it Abel Mizraim (Egypt mourns), which is on the other side of the Jordan.   יאוַיַּ֡רְא יוֹשֵׁב֩ הָאָ֨רֶץ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֜י אֶת־הָאֵ֗בֶל בְּגֹ֨רֶן֙ הָֽאָטָ֔ד וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֵֽבֶל־כָּבֵ֥ד זֶ֖ה לְמִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֞ן קָרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ אָבֵ֣ל מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֥בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּֽן:
12And his sons did to him just as he had commanded them.   יבוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ בָנָ֖יו ל֑וֹ כֵּ֖ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽם:
as he had commanded them: What was it that he had commanded them?- [What the Torah elaborates in the following verse.]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר צִוָּֽם: מַהוּ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּם?
13And his sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and they buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which field Abraham had bought for burial property from Ephron the Hittite before Mamre.   יגוַיִּשְׂא֨וּ אֹת֤וֹ בָנָיו֙ אַ֣רְצָה כְּנַ֔עַן וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ בִּמְעָרַ֖ת שְׂדֵ֣ה הַמַּכְפֵּלָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָנָה֩ אַבְרָהָ֨ם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה לַֽאֲחֻזַּת־קֶ֗בֶר מֵאֵ֛ת עֶפְרֹ֥ן הַֽחִתִּ֖י עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מַמְרֵֽא:
And his sons carried him: But not his grandsons, for so he had commanded them: “Neither shall any Egyptian carry my coffin nor any of your sons, for they are born of the daughters of Canaan, but you [alone].” He designated a position for them [by his coffin], [so that] three [of them would carry] on the east, and so on for [all] four directions. [This was] similar to their arrangement in the traveling of the camp [in the desert] of the groupings [of the tribes as] they were designated here. [He also ordered,] “Levi shall not carry it because he (i.e., his tribe) is destined to carry the Ark. Joseph shall not carry it because he is a king. Manasseh and Ephraim shall carry it instead of them.” That is the meaning of “Each one according to his group with signs” (Num. 2:2), according to the sign that their father gave them to carry his coffin. — [From Tanchuma Bamidbar 12]   וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֹתוֹ בָנָיו: וְלֹא בְנֵי בָנָיו, שֶׁכָּךְ צִוָּם, אַל יִשְׂאוּ מִטָּתִי לֹא אִישׁ מִצְרִי וְלֹא אֶחָד מִבְּנֵיכֶם, שֶׁהֵם מִבְּנוֹת כְּנַעַן, אֶלָּא אַתֶּם, וְקָבַע לָהֶם מָקוֹם ג' לַמִּזְרָח, וְכֵן לְד' רוּחוֹת, וּכְסִדְרָן לְמַסַּע מַחֲנֶה שֶׁל דְּגָלִים נִקְבְעוּ כָאן; לֵוִי לֹא יִשָּׂא, שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לָשֵׂאת אֶת הָאָרוֹן, וְיוֹסֵף לֹא יִשָּׂא, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מֶלֶךְ, מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם יִהְיוּ תַחְתֵּיהֶם, וְזֶהוּ אִישׁ עַל דִּגְלוֹ בְאֹתֹת – בְּאוֹת שֶׁמָּסַר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם לִשָּׂא מִטָּתוֹ:
14And Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.   ידוַיָּ֨שָׁב יוֹסֵ֤ף מִצְרַ֨יְמָה֙ ה֣וּא וְאֶחָ֔יו וְכָל־הָֽעֹלִ֥ים אִתּ֖וֹ לִקְבֹּ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֑יו אַֽחֲרֵ֖י קָבְר֥וֹ אֶת־אָבִֽיו:
he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him: Here, when they returned, [Scripture] places his brothers before the Egyptians who had gone up with him, whereas when they left, [Scripture] places the Egyptians before his brothers, as it is said: “and all Pharaoh’s servants…went up with him” (verse 7), and afterwards, “And Joseph’s entire household and his brothers” (verse 8). But because they (the Egyptians) saw the honor that the kings of Canaan had bestowed, (i.e.,) that they hung their crowns on Jacob’s coffin, they treated them (Joseph’s brothers) with respect. — [From Sotah 13b]   הוּא וְאֶחָיו וְכָל־הָֽעֹלִים אִתּוֹ: בַּחֲזָרָתָן הִקְדִּים אֶחָיו לַמִּצְרִים הָעוֹלִים אִתּוֹ, וּבַהֲלִיכָתָן הִקְדִּים מִצְרַיִם לְאֶחָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּעֲלוּ אִתּוֹ כָּל עַבְדֵי פַרְעֹה וְגוֹ', וְאַחַר כָּךְ כָּל בֵּית יוֹסֵף וְאֶחָיו, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁרָאוּ כָבוֹד שֶׁעָשׂוּ מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן שֶׁתָּלוּ כִתְרֵיהֶם בַאֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב נָהֲגוּ בָהֶם כָּבוֹד:
15Now Joseph's brothers saw that their father had died, and they said, "Perhaps Joseph will hate us and return to us all the evil that we did to him."   טווַיִּרְא֤וּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף֙ כִּי־מֵ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ ל֥וּ יִשְׂטְמֵ֖נוּ יוֹסֵ֑ף וְהָשֵׁ֤ב יָשִׁיב֙ לָ֔נוּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּמַ֖לְנוּ אֹתֽוֹ:
Now Joseph’s brothers saw that their father had died: What does it mean that they saw? They recognized his (Jacob’s) death in Joseph, for they were accustomed to dine at Joseph’s table, and he was friendly toward them out of respect for his father, but as soon as Jacob died, he was no longer friendly toward them. — [From Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel; Tanchuma Buber, Shemoth 2]   וַיִּרְאוּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף כִּי־מֵת אֲבִיהֶם: מַהוּ וַיִּרְאוּ? הִכִּירוּ בְּמִיתָתוֹ אֵצֶל יוֹסֵף, שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים לִסְעֹד עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף וְהָיָה מְקָרְבָן בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד אָבִיו, וּמִשֶּׁמֵּת יַעֲקֹב לֹא קֵרְבָן (בראשית רבה):
Perhaps Joseph will hate us: Heb. לוּ [The word] לוּ has many different meanings. לוּ is used as an expression of request or to denote “if only,” [as in these examples:] “If only (לוּ) it would be as you say” (Gen. 30:34); “If only (לוּ) you would listen to me” (ibid. 23:13); “If only (לוּ) we had been content” (Josh. 7:7); “If only (לוּ) we had died” (Num. 14:2). לוּ sometimes means “if” (אִם) or “perhaps” (אוּלַי) , e.g., “If (לוּ) they had been wise” (Deut. 32:29); “Had (לוּא) you hearkened to My commandments” (Isa. 48: 18); “And even if (וְלוּ) I should weigh on my palms” (II Sam. 18:12). לוּ sometimes serves as an expression of “perhaps,” [as in] “Perhaps (לוּ) will hate us” (Gen. 50:15). And there is no similar use [of this word] in Scriptures. It is [used as] an expression of “perhaps” (אוּלַי), like “Perhaps (אוּלַי) the woman will not follow me” (Gen. 24:39), which denotes “perhaps.” There is also an example of אוּלַי [used as] an expression of a request, e. g., “If only (אוּלַי) the Lord will see [the tears of] my eye” (II Sam. 16:12); “If only (אוּלַי) the Lord will be with me” (Josh. 14:12). This is similar to “If only (לוּ) it would be as you say” (Gen. 30:34). Sometimes אוּלַי is an expression of “if:” “If (אוּלַי) there are fifty righteous men” (Gen. 18:24). - [From Targum Onkelos]   לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ: שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ; לוּ מִתְחַלֵּק לְעִנְיָנִים הַרְבֵּה; יֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה וּלְשׁוֹן הַלְוַאי, כְּגוֹן לוּ יְהִי כִדְבָרֶךָ, לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי, וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ, לוּ מַתְנוּ, וְיֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן אִם וְאוּלַי, כְּגוֹן לוּ חָכְמוּ (דברים ל"ב), לוּ הִקְשַׁבְתָּ לְמִצְוֹתָי (ישעיהו מ"ח), וְלוּ אָנֹכִי שֹׁקֵל עַל כַּפַּי (שמואל ב י"ח); וְיֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא, לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ, וְאֵין לוֹ עוֹד דּוֹמֶה בַמִּקְרָא, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן אוּלַי, כְּמוֹ אֻלַי לֹא תֵלֵךְ הָאִשָּׁה אַחֲרָי, לְשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא הוּא; וְיֵשׁ אוּלַי לְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה, כְּגוֹן אוּלַי יִרְאֶה ה' בְּעֵינִי (שמואל ב ט"ז), אוּלַי ה' אוֹתִי (יהושע י"ד), הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ לוּ יְהִי כִדְבָרֶךָ, וְיֵשׁ אוּלַי לְשׁוֹן אִם, אוּלַי יֵשׁ נ' צַדִּיקִם:
16So they commanded [messengers to go] to Joseph, to say, "Your father commanded [us] before his death, saying,   טזוַיְצַוּ֕וּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף לֵאמֹ֑ר אָבִ֣יךָ צִוָּ֔ה לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹת֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
they commanded [messengers to go] to Joseph: Like “and He commanded them to the children of Israel” (Exod. 6:13). [That is,] he commanded Moses and Aaron to be messengers to the children of Israel. In this case, too, they (the brothers) commanded their messenger to be a messenger to Joseph to say this to him. Whom did they command? Bilhah’s sons who were frequently with him, as it is said: “and he was a lad [and was] with the sons of Bilhah” (Gen. 37:2). - [From Targum Yerushalmi as quoted by Chizkuni]   וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל־יוֹסֵף: כְּמוֹ וַיְצַוֵּם אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל – צִוָּה לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן לִהְיוֹת שְׁלוּחִים אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף זֶה וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל שְׁלוּחָם, לִהְיוֹת שָׁלִיחַ אֶל יוֹסֵף לוֹמַר לוֹ כֵן. וְאֶת מִי צִוּוּ? אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה, שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִין אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוּא נַעַר אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה:
Your father commanded: They altered the facts for the sake of peace. Jacob gave no such command, since he did not suspect Joseph. — [From Yeb. 65b, Tanchuma Toledoth 1].   אָבִיךָ צִוָּה: שִׁנּוּ בַדָּבָר מִפְּנֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם, כִּי לֹא צִוָּה יַעֲקֹב כֵּן, שֶׁלֹּא נֶחֱשַׁד יוֹסֵף בְּעֵינָיו (בראשית רבה, יבמות ס"ה):
17'So shall you say to Joseph, "Please, forgive now your brothers' transgression and their sin, for they did evil to you. Now please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father." ' " Joseph wept when they spoke to him.   יזכֹּה־תֹֽאמְר֣וּ לְיוֹסֵ֗ף אָ֣נָּ֡א שָׂ֣א נָ֠א פֶּ֣שַׁע אַחֶ֤יךָ וְחַטָּאתָם֙ כִּֽי־רָעָ֣ה גְמָל֔וּךָ וְעַתָּה֙ שָׂ֣א נָ֔א לְפֶ֥שַׁע עַבְדֵ֖י אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֑יךָ וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ יוֹסֵ֖ף בְּדַבְּרָ֥ם אֵלָֽיו:
please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father: Although your father is dead, his God is alive, and they are His servants. — [From Tanchuma Buber, Shemoth 2]   שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ: אִם אָבִיךָ מֵת, אֱלֹהָיו קַיָּם, וְהֵם עֲבָדָיו:
18His brothers also went and fell before him, and they said, "Behold, we are your slaves."   יחוַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ גַּם־אֶחָ֔יו וַיִּפְּל֖וּ לְפָנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ הִנֶּ֥נּוּ לְךָ֖ לַֽעֲבָדִֽים:
His brothers also went: in addition to sending messengers.   וַיֵּֽלְכוּ גַּם־אֶחָיו: מוּסָף עַל הַשְּׁלִיחוּת:
19But Joseph said to them, "Don't be afraid, for am I instead of God?   יטוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֛ם יוֹסֵ֖ף אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ כִּ֛י הֲתַ֥חַת אֱלֹהִ֖ים אָֽנִי:
for am I instead of God?: Heb. הִתַחַת. Am I perhaps in His place? [The prefixed “hey” denotes] wonder. If I wanted to harm you, would I be able? Did not all of you plan evil against me? The Holy One, blessed be He, however, designed it for good. So how can I alone harm you?   כִּי הֲתַחַת אֱלֹהִים אָֽנִי: שֶׁמָּא בִּמְקוֹמוֹ אֲנִי? בִּתְמִיהָ, אִם הָיִיתִי רוֹצֶה לְהָרַע לָכֶם, כְּלוּם אֲנִי יָכוֹל? וַהֲלֹא אַתֶּם כֻּלְּכֶם חֲשַׁבְתֶּם עָלַי רָעָה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חֲשָׁבָהּ לְטוֹבָה וְהֵיאַךְ אֲנִי לְבַדִּי יָכוֹל לְהָרַע לָכֶם?
20Indeed, you intended evil against me, [but] God designed it for good, in order to bring about what is at present to keep a great populace alive.   כוְאַתֶּ֕ם חֲשַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָלַ֖י רָעָ֑ה אֱלֹהִים֙ חֲשָׁבָ֣הּ לְטֹבָ֔ה לְמַ֗עַן עֲשׂ֛ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה לְהַֽחֲיֹ֥ת עַם־רָֽב: