Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 49

19[As for] Gad, a troop will troop forth from him, and it will troop back in its tracks.   יטגָּ֖ד גְּד֣וּד יְגוּדֶ֑נּוּ וְה֖וּא יָגֻ֥ד עָקֵֽב:
[As for] Gad, a troop will troop forth from him: Heb. גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנוּ. All [these words] are expressions of a troop (גְּדוּד) as Menachem (Machbereth Menachem p. 52) classified it. If you ask [why] there is no [expression of] גְּדוּד without two “daleths,” we answer that [indeed] the noun גְּדוּד requires two “daleths,” for that is the rule of a word with a root of two letters [in this case גד], to double the final letter, but its root [remains] only two letters. Similarly, [Scripture] says:“Like a wandering (לָנוּד) sparrow” (Prov. 26:2), which is a derivative of [the same root as] “And I was sated with restlessness (נְדוּדִים)” (Job 7:4); “there he fell down dead (שָׁדוּד)” [lit., robbed] (Jud. 5:27), which is a derivative of [the same root as]“that ravages (יָשׁוּד) at noon” (Ps. 91:6). Also, יָגֻד, יְגוּדֶנּוּ, and גְּדוּד are from the same root. When the root is used in the יִפְעַל form (the future tense of the קַל conjugation), it (the final letter) is not doubled, like יָגוּד, יָנוּד, יָרוּם, יָשׁוּד, יָשׁוּב, but when it is reflexive (מִתְפַּעֵל) or causative (מַפְעִיל), it is doubled, like יִתְגוֹדֵד, יִתְרוֹמֵם, יִתְבּוֹלֵל, יִתְעוֹדֵד, or causative (מַפְעִיל), [like] “He strengthens (יְעוֹדֵד) the orphan and the widow” (ibid. 146:9); “to bring Jacob back (לְשׁוֹבֵב) to Him” (Isa. 49:5); “restorer (מְשׁוֹבֵב) of the paths” (ibid. 58:12). Also, יְגוּדֶּנוּ stated here is not an expression meaning that others will cause him to do, [because then the “daleth” would be doubled,] but it is like יָגוּד הֵימֶנּוּ, will troop forth from him, similar to “my children have left me (יְצָאוּנִי),” (Jer. 10:20), [which is equivalent to] יָצְאוּ מִמֶנִי, they went forth from me. [Hence, this form is not the causative, but the simple conjugation, which does not require the doubling of the final letter.] גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנוּ [means]: troops will troop forth from him-they will cross the Jordan with their brothers to war, every armed man, until the land is conquered.   גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנּוּ: כֻּלָּם לְשׁוֹן גְּדוּד הֵם, וְכָךְ חִבְּרוֹ מְנַחֵם; וְאִם תֹּאמַר, אֵין גְּדוּד בְּלֹא שְׁנֵי דַּלְתִי"ן, יֵשׁ לוֹמַר גְּדוּד שֵׁם דָּבָר צָרִיךְ שְׁנֵי דַּלְתִי"ן, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ תֵּבָה בַּת שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת לִכְפֹּל בְּסוֹפָהּ, וְאֵין יְסוֹדָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת, וְכֵן אָמַר כַּצִּפּוֹר לָנוּד (משלי כ"ו), מִגִּזְרַת שָׂבַעְתִּי נְדֻדִים (איוב ז'), שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד (שופטים ה'), מִגִּזְרַת יָשׁוּד צָהֳרָיִם (תהלים צ"א), אַף יָגֻד, יְגוּדֶנּוּ וּגְדוּד מִגִּזְרָה אַחַת הֵם; וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְדַבֵּר בִּלְשׁון יִפְעֹל אֵינוֹ כָפוּל, כְּמוֹ יָגוּד, יָנוּד, יָרוּם, יָשׁוּד, יָשׁוּב, וּכְשֶׁהוּא מִתְפַּעֵל אוֹ מַפְעִיל אֲחֵרִים הוּא כָפוּל, כְּמוֹ יִתְגּוֹדֵד, יִתְרוֹמֵם, יִתְבּוֹלֵל, יִתְעוֹדֵד; וּבִלְשׁוֹן מַפְעִיל, יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה יְעוֹדֵד (תהילים קמ"ו), לְשׁוֹבֵב יַעֲקֹב אֵלָיו (ישעיה מ"ט), מְשֹׁבֵב נְתִיבוֹת (שם נ"ח), יְגוּדֶנּוּ הָאָמוּר כָּאן אֵינוֹ לְשׁוֹן שֶׁיִּפְעֲלוּהוּ אֲחֵרִים, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ יָגוּד הֵימֶנּוּ, כְּמוֹ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי (ירמיהו י') – יָצְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי. גד גדוד יגודנו, גְּדוּדִים יָגוֹדּוּ הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ הַיַּרְדֵּן עִם אֲחֵיהֶם לַמִּלְחָמָה כָּל חָלוּץ עַד שֶׁנִּכְבְּשָׁה הָאָרֶץ:
and it will troop back in its tracks: All his troops will return in their tracks to the territory that they took on the other side of the Jordan, and no one will be missing from them. — [From Targum Yerushalmi]   וְהוּא יגוד עָקֵֽב: כָּל גְּדוּדָיו יָשׁוּבוּ עַל עֲקֵבָם לְנַחֲלָתָם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן, וְלֹא יִפָּקֵד מֵהֶם אִישׁ:
in its tracks: Heb. עָקֵב. In their way and in their paths upon which they went they will return, equivalent to “and your steps (וְעִקְבוֹתֶיךָ‏) were not known” (Ps. 77:20), and similarly, “in the footsteps of (בְּעִקְבֵי) the flocks” (Song of Songs 1:8); in French, traces, [meaning] tracks or footsteps.   עָקֵֽב: בְּדַרְכָּן וּבִמְסִלּוֹתָם שֶׁהָלְכוּ, יָשׁוּבוּ, כְּמוֹ וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נֹדָעוּ (תהילים ע"ז), וְכֵן בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן (שיר א'), בִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז טרצי"אם:
20From Asher will come rich food, and he will yield regal delicacies.   כמֵֽאָשֵׁ֖ר שְׁמֵנָ֣ה לַחְמ֑וֹ וְה֥וּא יִתֵּ֖ן מַֽעֲדַנֵּי־מֶֽלֶךְ:
From Asher will come rich food: The food from Asher’s territory will be rich, for there will be many olive trees in his territory, so that oil will flow like a fountain. And thus did Moses bless him, “and dip his foot in oil” (Deut. 33:24), as we learned in Menachoth (85b): The people of Laodicea once needed oil. [So they appointed themselves a Gentile messenger (according to Rashi, or a Gentile official, according to Rashi ms. and Rabbenu Gershom, ad loc.). They said to him, “Go and bring us oil worth a million (coins).” The messenger went to Jerusalem, where they told him, “Go to Tyre.” So the messenger went to Tyre, where they told him, “Go to Giscala (a town in the territory of Asher).” The messenger went to Giscala, where they told him, “Go to so-and-so, to that field.” He went to the field and he found a man breaking up the earth around his olive trees. The messenger asked him, “Do you have a million (coins) worth of oil?” The man replied, “Yes, but wait for me until I finish my work.” The messenger waited. After the man finished working, he cast his tools over his shoulder and went on his way, removing the stones from the path as he walked. The messenger thought to himself, “Has this man really a million (coins) worth of oil? I think the Jews have played a trick on me.” As soon as the man arrived at his town, his maidservant brought him a kettle of hot water, and the man washed his hands and feet with it. She then brought him a golden cup full of oil, and he dipped his hands and feet in it, to fulfill what is stated: “and dip his foot in oil.” After they had dined, the man measured out for the messenger oil (worth) a million (coins). He asked the messenger, “Don’t you need more?” “Yes,” the messenger replied, “but I have no money.” The man said, “If you want to buy, buy, and I will come with you and collect the money for it.” The man then measured out additional oil for one hundred eighty thousand (coins). It was said that the messenger hired all the horses, mules, camels, and donkeys that he could find in the land of Israel. As soon as the messenger arrived in his home town, the townspeople came out to praise him. He said to them, “Don’t praise me! Praise this man who measured out for me oil for a million (coins), and I still owe him a hundred eighty thousand (coins).” This illustrates the verse: “There is one who feigns riches but has nothing; one who feigns poverty but has great wealth” (Prov. 13:7).]   מֵֽאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ: מַאֲכָל הַבָּא מֵחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל אָשֵׁר יְהֵא שָׁמֵן, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ זֵיתִים מְרֻבִּים בְּחֶלְקוֹ וְהוּא מוֹשֵׁךְ שֶׁמֶן כְּמַעְיָן; וְכֵן בֵּרְכוֹ מֹשֶׁה וְטֹבֵל בַּשֶּׁמֶן רַגְלוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בִמְנָחוֹת (דף פ"ה) פַּעַם אַחַת הֻצְרְכוּ אַנְשֵׁי לוּדְקִיָּא לְשֶׁמֶן וְכוּ':
21Naphtali is a swift gazelle; [he is one] who utters beautiful words.   כאנַפְתָּלִ֖י אַיָּלָ֣ה שְׁלֻחָ֑ה הַנֹּתֵ֖ן אִמְרֵי־שָֽׁפֶר:
a swift gazelle: This is the valley of Gennesar, which ripens its fruits swiftly, like the gazelle, which runs swiftly. אַיָלָה שְׁלֻחָה means a gazelle that runs swiftly. — [from Gen. Rabbah 99:12]   אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה: זוֹ בִקְעַת גִּינוֹסַר שֶׁהִיא קַלָּה לְבַשֵּׁל פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ כְּאַיָּלָה זוֹ שֶׁהִיא קַלָּה לָרוּץ. אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה – אַיָּלָה מְשֻׁלַּחַת לָרוּץ:
[he is one] who utters beautiful words: As the Targum renders. [See below.] Another explanation: A swift gazelle: He (Jacob) prophesied concerning the war with Sisera: “and take with you ten thousand men of the men of Naphtali, etc.” (Jud. 4:6), and they went there with alacrity. And so it is stated there with an expression of dispatching, “into the valley they rushed forth with their feet” (ibid. 5:15).   הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי־שָֽׁפֶר: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר עַל מִלְחֶמֶת סִיסְרָא נִתְנַבֵּא – וְלָקַחְתָּ עִמְּךָ עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי וְגוֹ' (שופטים ד'), וְהָלְכוּ שָׁם בִּזְרִיזוּת, וְכֵן נֶאֱמַר שָׁם לְשׁוֹן שִׁלּוּחַ בָּעֵמֶק שֻׁלַּח בְּרַגְלָיו:
[he is one] who utters beautiful words: Through them, Deborah and Barak sang a song (Gen. Rabbah 98:17). Our Rabbis [of the Talmud], however, interpreted it (the entire verse) as an allusion to the day of Jacob’s burial, when Esau contested [the ownership of] the cave, in Tractate Sotah (13a). [As soon as Jacob’s sons reached the Cave of Machpelah, Esau came and stopped them. He said to them, “Mamre, Kiriath-arba, which is Hebron” (Gen. 35:27); Rabbi Isaac said that the name Kiriath-arba alludes to the four couples interred there: Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, and Jacob and Leah. Jacob buried Leah in his place, and the remaining one Esau said was his. Jacob’s sons said to Esau, “You sold it.” He replied, “Although I sold my birthright, did I sell my rights as an ordinary son?” They answered, “Yes, for it is written: ‘in my grave, which I bought (כָּרִיתִי) for myself’” (Gen. 50:5). Rabbi Johanan said in the name of Rabbi Simeon the son of Jehozadak, כִּירָה means nothing but sale (מְכִירָה), for in the coastal cities, sale is known as כִּירָה. Esau replied, “Give me the deed.” They said to him, “The deed is in Egypt.” [One asked another,] “Who should go (to get it) ?” [He replied,] “Let Naphtali go because he is as fleet-footed as a gazelle, as it is written: ‘Naphtali is a swift gazelle, [he is one] who utters beautiful words (אִמְרֵי שָׁפֶר).’” Do not read אִמְרֵי שָׁפֶר, but אִמְרֵי סֵפֶר, words of a scroll.] [I. e., it was Naphtali who brought the deed to the cave to prove that Jacob had purchased Esau’s burial right there.] The Targum renders: יִתְרְמֵי עַדְבֵהּ, his lot will fall [in a good land], and he will give thanks for his territory with beautiful words and praise.   הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי־שָֽׁפֶר: עַל יָדָם שָׁרוּ דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק שִׁירָה. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דְּרָשׁוּהוּ עַל יוֹם קְבוּרַת יַעֲקֹב כְּשֶׁעִרְעֵר עֵשָׂו עַל הַמְּעָרָה, בְּמַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה (דף י"ג); וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ יִתְרְמֵי עַדְבֵהּ – יִפֹּל חֶבְלוֹ, וְהוּא יוֹדֶה עַל חֶלְקוֹ אֲמָרִים נָאִים וְשֶׁבַח:
22A charming son is Joseph, a son charming to the eye; [of the] women, [each one] strode along to see him.   כבבֵּ֤ן פֹּרָת֙ יוֹסֵ֔ף בֵּ֥ן פֹּרָ֖ת עֲלֵי־עָ֑יִן בָּנ֕וֹת צָֽעֲדָ֖ה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר:
A charming son is Joseph: Heb. בֵּן פֹּרָת, a charming son. This is an Aramaism, similar to [the word used in the expression] “Let us express our favor (אַפִּרְיוֹן) to Rabbi Simeon,” [found] at the end of Baba Mezia (119a).   בֵּן פֹּרָת: בֶּן חֵן, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, אַפִּרְיָן נַמְטְיֵהּ לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, בְּסוֹף בָּבָא מְצִיעָא (דף קי"ט):
a son charming to the eye: His charm attracts the eye that beholds him.   בֵּן פֹּרָת עֲלֵי־עָיִן: חִנּוֹ נָטוּי עַל הָעַיִן הָרוֹאָה אוֹתוֹ:
of the] women, [each one] strode along to see him: Heb. עִלֵי שׁוּר. The women of Egypt strode out on the wall to gaze upon his beauty. Of the women, each one strode to a place from which she could catch a glimpse of him. עִלֵי שׁוּר, for the purpose of looking at him, similar to “I behold him (אֲשׁוּרֶנוּ), but not near” (Num. 24:17). There are many midrashic interpretations, but this is the closest to the literal sense of the verse. (Another explanation: This is how it should read, because according to the first interpretation, שׁוּר means“a wall.”)]   בנת צָֽעֲדָה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר: בְּנוֹת מִצְרַיִם הָיוּ צוֹעֲדוֹת (עַל הַחוֹמָה) לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּיָפְיוֹ, בָּנוֹת הַרְבֵּה, צָעֲדָה כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁתּוּכַל לִרְאוֹתוֹ מִשָּׁם: עלי שור: עַל רְאִיָּתוֹ, כְּמוֹ אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב (במדבר כ"ד), וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר יֵשׁ רַבִּים, וְזֶה נוֹטֶה לְיִשּׁוּב הַמִּקְרָא:
charming-: Heb. פֹּרָת. The “tav” in it is [added merely] to enhance the language, similar to “because of (עַל דִּבְרַת) the children of men” (Ecc. 3:18). (lit., concerning the matter of)   פֹּרָת: תָּי"ו שֶׁבּוֹ הוּא תִּקּוּן הַלָּשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ עַל דִּבְרַת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם (קהלת ג'):
see him: שׁוּר is the equivalent of לָשׁוּר, to see. [Thus the meaning of] עִלֵי שׁוּר [is] in order to see. Onkelos, however, renders בָּנוֹת צָעִדָה עִלֵי שׁוּר: Two tribes will emerge from his children. They will [each] receive a share and an inheritance. [Scripture] writes בָּנוֹת, alluding to the daughters of Manasseh, [i.e.,] the daughters of Zelophehad, who received a share [of the land] on both sides of the Jordan. בֵּן פֹרת יוֹסֵף [is rendered] my son, who will multiply, is Joseph פֹּרָת is an expression of procreation פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה). There are midrashic interpretations that fit the language [of the verse, as follows]: When Esau came toward Jacob, all the other mothers went out ahead of their children to prostrate themselves. Concerning Rachel, however, it is written: “and afterwards, Joseph and Rachel drew near and prostrated themselves” (Gen. 33: 7), [denoting that Joseph preceded Rachel]. Joseph said, “This scoundrel has a haughty eye. Perhaps he will take a fancy to my mother.” So he went ahead of her, stretching his height to conceal her. His father was referring to this when he blessed him בֵּן פֹּרָת, a son who grew, [meaning] you raised yourself over Esau’s eye. Therefore, you have attained greatness — [From Gen. Rabbah 78:10]. [Of the] women, [each one] strode along to see him, to gaze at you when you went forth through Egypt (Gen. Rabbah 98:18). They [the Rabbis] interpreted it (עִלֵי שׁוּר) further as referring to the idea that the evil eye should have no influence over his descendants. Also, when he (Jacob) blessed Manasseh and Ephraim, he blessed them [that they should be] like fish, over which the evil eye has no influence. — [From Ber. 20a]   שֽׁוּר: כְּמוֹ לָשׁוּר עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר בִּשְׁבִיל לָשׁוּר, וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס, בָּנוֹת צָעֲדָה עֲלֵי שׁוּר תְּרֵין שִׁבְטִין יִפְּקוּן מִבְּנוֹהִי וְכוּ' וְכָתַב בָּנוֹת עַל שֵׁם בְּנוֹת מְנַשֶּׁה, בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד, שֶׁנָּטְלוּ חֵלֶק בִּשְׁנֵי עֶבְרֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן, בְּרִי דְּיִסְגֵּי יוֹסֵף, פֹּרָת לְשׁוֹן פִּרְיָה וּרְבִיָּה; וְיֵשׁ מִקְרָא אַחֵר בּוֹ הַמִּתְיַשְּׁבִים עַל הַלָּשׁוֹן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא עֵשָׂו לִקְרַאת יַעֲקֹב, בְּכֻלָּן קָדְמוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת לָלֶכֶת לִפְנֵי בְּנֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת, וּבְרָחֵל כְּתִיב נִגַּשׁ יוֹסֵף וְרָחֵל וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ, אָמַר יוֹסֵף רָשָׁע הַזֶּה עֵינוֹ רָמָה, שֶׁמָּא יִתֵּן עֵינָיו בְּאִמִּי, יָצָא לְפָנֶיהָ וְשִׁרְבֵּב קוֹמָתוֹ לְכַסּוֹתָהּ, וְהוּא שֶׁבֵּרְכוֹ אָבִיו בֵּן פֹּרָת – הִגְדַּלְתָּ עַצְמְךָ יוֹסֵף עֲלֵי עַיִן שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, לְפִיכָךְ זָכִיתָ לִגְדֻלָּה בָּנוֹת צָֽעֲדָה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּךָ בְּצֵאתְךָ עַל מִצְרַיִם, וְעוֹד דְּרָשׁוּהוּ לְעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁלֹט בְּזַרְעוֹ עַיִן הָרָע; וְאַף כְּשֶׁבֵּרֵךְ מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם בֵּרְכָם כַּדָּגִים, שֶׁאֵין עַיִן הָרָע שׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּהֶם:
23They heaped bitterness upon him and became quarrelsome; yea, archers despised him.   כגוַיְמָֽרֲרֻ֖הוּ וָרֹ֑בּוּ וַיִּשְׂטְמֻ֖הוּ בַּֽעֲלֵ֥י חִצִּֽים:
They heaped bitterness upon him and became quarrelsome: Heb. וַיְמָרִרֻהוּ. His brothers heaped bitterness upon him (Joseph), [and] Potiphar and his wife heaped bitterness upon him by having him imprisoned. [This is] an expression similar to “And they embittered (וַיְמָרְרוּ) their lives” (Exod. 1:14). - [From Gen. Rabbah 98:19]   וַיְמָֽרֲרֻהוּ וָרֹבּוּ: וַיְמָרְרוּהוּ אֶחָיו, וַיְמָרְרוּהוּ פּוֹטִיפַר וְאִשְׁתּוֹ, לְאָסְרוֹ; לְשׁוֹן וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת חַיֵּיהֶם:
and became quarrelsome: Heb. וָרֹבּוּ. His brothers became his antagonists, (lit., men of quarrel). This verb form (וָרֹבּוּ) is not a form of פָּעִלוּ, [the simple active קַל conjugation], for if it were, it should have been vowelized like רָבוּ in “They are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel quarreled (רָבוּ), etc.” (Num. 20:13). Even if it (וָרֹבּוּ) denotes the shooting of (רְבִית) arrows, it would be vowelized the same way. It is [therefore] only a form of פֹּעִלוּ, the passive form, as in “The heavens were devastated (שֹׁמּוּ)” (Jer. 2:12), which is [equivalent to] הוּשַׁמּוּ Likewise, “They are taken away (רוֹמוּ) in a second” (Job 24:24), is an expression like הוּרְמוּ, except that the expressions of הוּשַׁמּוּ and הוּרְמוּ mean [to be devastated and taken away] by others, whereas the expressions שֹׁמּוּ, רוֹמוּ, [and] רֹבּוּ denote actions caused by themselves: they devastate themselves, they were taken away by themselves, they became quarrelsome. Similarly, “The island dwellers have been silenced (דֹמּוּ)” (Isa. 23:2) is like נָדַמּוּ Onkelos also renders וְנַקְמוֹהִי, and they took revenge from him.   וָרֹבּוּ: נַעֲשׂוּ לוֹ אֶחָיו אַנְשֵׁי רִיב. וְאֵין הַלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה לְשׁוֹן פָּעֲלוּ, שֶׁאִם כֵּן הָיָה לוֹ לִנָּקֵד "וָרָבוּ", כְּמוֹ הֵמָּה מֵי מְרִיבָה אֲשֶׁר רָבוּ וְגוֹ' (במדבר כ'), וְאַף אִם לְשׁוֹן רְבִיַּת חִצִּים הוּא כָּךְ הָיָה לוֹ לִנָּקֵד; אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן פּוֹעֲלוּ, כְּמוֹ שֹׁמּוּ שָׁמַיִם (ירמיהו ב'), שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הוּשַׁמּוּ; וְכֵן רוֹמּוּ מְּעַט, שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הוּרְמוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּשׁוֹן הוּרְמוּ וְהוּשַׁמּוּ עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, וּלְשׁוֹן שֹׁמּוּ, רֹמּוּ, רֹבּוּ מֵאֵלֵיהֶם הוּא – מְשׁוֹמְמִים אֶת עַצְמָם, נִתְרוֹמְמוּ מֵעַצְמָם, נַעֲשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי רִיב, וְכֵן דֹּמּוּ יֹשְׁבֵי אִי, כְּמוֹ נִדְמוּ, וְכֵן תִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס, וְנַקְמוֹהִי:
archers: Heb. בַּעִלֵי חִצִּים, [called this because their] tongues were like arrows (חִצִּים) (Gen. Rabbah 98:19). The Targum, however, renders it as מָרֵי פַלְגּוּתָא, an expression similar to “And the half (הַמֶּחֱצָה) was” (Num. 31:36), [meaning] those who were fit to share the inheritance with him, [viz., his brothers]. [I.e., Onkelos interprets בַּעִלֵי חִצִּים as those who should take half.]   בַּֽעֲלֵי חִצִּֽים: שֶׁלְּשׁוֹנָם כַּחֵץ, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ לְשׁוֹן וַתְּהִי הַמֶּחֱצָה, אוֹתָן שֶׁהָיוּ רְאוּיִים לַחֲלֹק עִמּוֹ נַחֲלָה:
24But his bow was strongly established, and his arms were gilded from the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob; from there he sustained the rock of Israel,   כדוַתֵּ֤שֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן֙ קַשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיָּפֹ֖זּוּ זְרֹעֵ֣י יָדָ֑יו מִידֵי֙ אֲבִ֣יר יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מִשָּׁ֥ם רֹעֶ֖ה אֶ֥בֶן יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
But his bow was strongly established: It became strongly established. His bow, his strength.   וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ: נִתְיַשְּׁבָה בְּחֹזֶק קַשְׁתּוֹ חָזְקוֹ:
and his arms were gilded: Heb. וַיָּפֹזּוּ. This refers to the placing of the signet ring on his (Joseph’s) hand, an expression similar to “glittering gold (זָהָב מוּפָז)” (I Kings 10:18). This [elevation] came to him from the hands of the Holy One, blessed be He, who is the Mighty One of Jacob. From there he (Joseph) was elevated to be the sustainer of the rock of Israel, the mainstay of Israel, [Be’er Yizchak] an expression of “the initial stone (הָאֶבֶן הָרֹאשָׁה)” (Zech. 4:7), [which is] an expression of royalty. [Jacob, the Patriarch, was considered a royal personality.] Onkelos, too, rendered it in this way, [i.e., that וַיָּפֹזוּ is derived from פָּז, fine gold]. He rendered וַתֵּשֶׁב as וְתָבַת בְּהוֹן נְבִיאוּתֵיהּ, [meaning] his prophecy returned [and was fulfilled] upon them [thus rendering וַתֵּשֶׁב as “returning” rather than as “being established.” This refers to] the dreams he dreamed about them, עַל דְקַייֵם אוֹרַיְתָא בְּסִתְרָא, because he observed the Torah in secret. This is an addendum, and is not derived from the Hebrew of the verse. וְשַׁוִּי בְּתוּקְפָּא רוּחִצָנֵיהּ, and he placed his trust in the Mighty One. [This is] the Aramaic translation of וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ, and this is how the language of the Targum follows the Hebrew: His prophecy returned because the might of the Holy One, blessed be He, was his bow and his trust. עַל דְּרָעוֹהִי בְּכֵן יִתְרְמָא דְּהַב therefore, “his arms were gilded (וַיָּפֹזוּ),” an expression of “fine gold (פָּז).”   וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו: זוֹ הִיא נְתִינַת טַבַּעַת עַל יָדוֹ, לְשׁוֹן זָהָב מוּפָז, זֹאת הָיְתָה לוֹ מִידֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא אֲבִיר יַעֲקֹב, וּמִשָּׁם עָלָה לִהְיוֹת רֹעֶה אֶבֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל – עִקָּרָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְשׁוֹן הָאֶבֶן הָרֹאשָׁה, לְשׁוֹן מַלְכוּת; וְאֻנְקְלוֹס אַף הוּא כָךְ תִּרְגְּמוֹ ותשב – וְתָבַת בְּהוֹן נְבִיאוּתֵהּ, הַחֲלוֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר חָלַם לָהֶם – עַל דְּקַיֵּם אוֹרַיְתָא בְּסִתְרָא, תּוֹסֶפֶת הוּא, וְלֹא מִלָּשׁוֹן עִבְרִי שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא, – וְשַׁוִּי תוּקְפָא רוֹחֲצָנֵהּ תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ, וְכָךְ לְשׁוֹן הַתַּרְגּוּם עַל הָעִבְרִי: וַתֵּשֶׁב נְבוּאָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵיתָנוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיְתָה לוֹ לְקֶשֶׁת וּלְמִבְטָח, בְּכֵן יִתְרְמָא דְּהַב עַל דְּרָעוֹהִי – לְכָךְ וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו, לְשׁוֹן פָּז:
the rock of Israel: A contraction of אָב וּבֵן, father and son, [which Onkelos renders as אַבְהָן וּבְנִין], fathers and sons.   אֶבֶן יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: לְשׁוֹן נוֹטָרִיקוֹן אָב וּבֵן, אֲבָהָן וּבְנִין – יַעֲקֹב וּבָנָיו:
and his arms were gilded: Like "and they were spread", since his seed came from between the fingers of his hands.   וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו: כְּמוֹ וַיָּפוֹצוּ, שֶׁיָּצָא הַזֶּרַע מִבֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹת יָדָיו:
the Mighty of Jacob: מִידֵי אֲבִיר יַעִקֹב [According to this interpretation, this phrase is rendered: by the hand of the might of Jacob. He was able to overcome his temptation] because his father’s image appeared to him, etc., as related in Sotah (36b). See above on 39:11. The end of the verse is explained as follows: ישְׂרָאֵל מִשָּׁם רֹעֶה אֶבֶן -from there he merited to be the shepherd of Israel and to have a stone among the stones of the tribes of Israel [on the breastplate of the High Priest.] [Now Rashi returns to verse 26. He wishes to clarify Targum Onkelos, which renders the verse as follows: Your father’s blessings shall be added to the blessings that my fathers blessed me, which the greats of old [the righteous] desired for themselves.] Onkelos, however, renders תַּאִוַת גִבְעֹת עוֹלָם as an expression of desire and longing, and גִבְעֹת, hills, as an expression of “the pillars of the earth” (I Sam. 2:8), (meaning the righteous, in whose merit the world exists). (These are the blessings) his mother longed for and forced him to accept.   מִידֵי אֲבִיר יַֽעֲקֹב: שֶׁנִרְאֲתָה לוֹ דְמוּת דְּיוֹקְנוֹ שֶׁל אָבִיו וְכוּ', כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסוֹטָה (דף ל"ו, ב'):
25from the God of your father, and He will help you, and with the Almighty, and He will bless you [with] the blessings of the heavens above, the blessings of the deep, lying below, the blessings of father and mother.   כהמֵאֵ֨ל אָבִ֜יךָ וְיַעְזְרֶ֗ךָּ וְאֵ֤ת שַׁדַּי֙ וִֽיבָ֣רֲכֶ֔ךָּ בִּרְכֹ֤ת שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ מֵעָ֔ל בִּרְכֹ֥ת תְּה֖וֹם רֹבֶ֣צֶת תָּ֑חַת בִּרְכֹ֥ת שָׁדַ֖יִם וָרָֽחַם:
from the God of your father: This befell you, and He will help you.   מֵאֵל אָבִיךָ: הָיְתָה לְךָ זֹאת וְהוּא יַעְזְרֶךָּ:
and with the Almighty: And your heart was with the Holy One, blessed be He, when you did not heed your mistress’s orders, and [because of this] He shall bless you.   וְאֵת שַׁדַּי: וְעִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיָה לִבְּךָ כְּשֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַעְתָ לְדִבְרֵי אֲדוֹנָתְךָ, וְהוּא יְבָרְכֶךָּ:
the blessings of father and mother: Heb. בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָחַם [Onkelos renders:] בִּרְכָתָא דְאַבָּא וּדְאִמָּא, blessings of father and mother. That is to say that the ones who beget the children and the ones who bear the children will be blessed. The males will impregnate with a drop of semen that is fit for conception, and the females will not lose what is in their womb and miscarry their fetuses.   בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָֽחַם: בִּרְכָתָא דְּאַבָּא וּדְאִמָּא, כְּלוֹמַר, יִתְבָּרְכוּ הַמּוֹלִידִים וְהַיּוֹלְדוֹת, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַזְּכָרִים מַזְרִיעִין טִפָּה הָרְאוּיָה לְהֵרָיוֹן, וְהַנְּקֵבוֹת לֹא יְשַׁכְּלוּ אֶת רֶחֶם שֶׁלָּהֶן לְהַפִּיל עֻבָּרֵיהֶן:
father: Heb. שָׁדַיִם. [How does שָׁדַיִם come to mean father?] “He shall be cast down (יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה)” (Exod. 19:13) is translated by the Targum as אִשְׁתְּדָאָה יִשְׁתְּדֵי Here too, [שָׁדַיִם means the father] because semen shoots (יוֹרֶה) like an arrow.   שָׁדַיִם: יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה מְתַּרְגְּמִינַן אִשְׁתְּדָאָה יִשְׁתְּדִי, אַף שָׁדַיִם כָּאן עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהַזֶּרַע יוֹרֶה כַּחֵץ:
26The blessings of your father surpassed the blessings of my parents, the ends of the everlasting hills. May they come to Joseph's head and to the crown (of the head) of the one who was separated from his brothers.   כובִּרְכֹ֣ת אָבִ֗יךָ גָּֽבְרוּ֙ עַל־בִּרְכֹ֣ת הוֹרַ֔י עַד־תַּֽאֲוַ֖ת גִּבְעֹ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם תִּֽהְיֶ֨יןָ֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ יוֹסֵ֔ף וּלְקָדְקֹ֖ד נְזִ֥יר אֶחָֽיו:
The blessings of your father surpassed, etc: The blessings the Holy One, blessed be He, have blessed me, surpassed the blessings He had blessed my parents. — [From Bereshith Rabbathi]   בִּרְכֹת אָבִיךָ גָּֽבְרוּ וגו': הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁבֵּרְכַנִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא גָּבְרוּ וְהָלְכוּ עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁבֵּרַךְ אֶת הוֹרַי:
to the ends of the everlasting hills: Because my blessings extended until the ends of the boundaries of the everlasting hills, for He gave me a limitless blessing, without boundaries, reaching the four corners of the earth, as it is said: “and you shall spread out westward and eastward, etc.” (Gen. 28:14), which He did not say to our father Abraham or to Isaac. To Abraham He said, “Please raise your eyes and see…For all the land that you see I will give to you” (Gen. 13:14), and He showed him only the Land of Israel. To Isaac He said, “for to you and to your seed will I give all these lands, and I will establish the oath [that I swore to Abraham, your father]” (Gen. 26:3). This is what Isaiah said, “and I will provide you with the heritage of Jacob, your father” (Isa. 58:14), but he did not say, “the heritage of Abraham.” - [From Shab. 118a]   עַד־תַּֽאֲוַת גִּבְעֹת עוֹלָם: לְפִי שֶׁהַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁלִּי גָּבְרוּ עַד סוֹף גְּבוּלֵי גִּבְעוֹת עוֹלָם, שֶׁנָּתַן לִי בְּרָכָה פְרוּצָה בְּלִי מְצָרִים, מַגַּעַת עַד אַרְבַּע קְצוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְגוֹ', מַה שֶּׁלֹּא אָמַר לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ וּלְיִצְחָק; לְאַבְרָהָם אָמַר שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה צָפוֹנָה וְגוֹ' כִּי אֶת כָּל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה רֹאֶה לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה, וְלֹא הֶרְאָהוּ אֶלָּא אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד; לְיִצְחָק אָמַר לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת כָּל הָאֲרָצֹת הָאֵל וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת הַשְּׁבֻעָה וְגוֹ', וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר יְשַׁעְיָה (ישעיהו נ"ח) וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ, וְלֹא אָמַר נַחֲלַת אַבְרָהָם:
the ends: Heb. תַּאִוַת, asasomalz in Old French, the ends, bounds. Menachem ben Saruk classified it exactly the same way (Machbereth Menachem p. 183).   תַּֽאֲוַת: אשׁמו"לץ בְּלַעַז, כָּךְ חִבְּרוֹ מְנַחֵם בֶּן סָרוּק. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם תַּאֲוַת עוֹלָם לְשׁוֹן תַּאֲוָה וְחֶמְדָה, וְגִבְעוֹת לְשׁוֹן מְצֻקֵי אֶרֶץ שֶׁחִמְּדַתָּן אִמּוֹ וְהִזְקִיקַתּוּ לְקַבְּלָם:
my parents: Heb. הוֹרַי, an expression of conception (הֵרָיוֹן), [meaning] that they caused me to be conceived (הוֹרוּנִי) in my mother’s womb, similar to “A man has impregnated (הֹרָה)” (Job 3:2).   הוֹרַי: לְשׁוֹן הֵרָיוֹן, שֶׁהוֹרוּנִי בִּמְעֵי אִמִּי, כְּמוֹ הֹרָה גָבֶר (איוב ג'):
to the ends: Heb. עַד תַּאִוַת, until the ends, like “And you shall demarcate (הִתְאַוִּיתֶם) as your eastern border” (Num. 34:10); [and] “you shall draw a line (תְּתָאוּ) extending to the road leading to Hamath” (ibid. 34:8).   עַד־תַּֽאֲוַת: עַד קְצוֹת, כְּמוֹ וְהִתְאַוִּיתֶם לָכֶם לִגְבוּל קֵדְמָה (במדבר ל"ד), תְּתָאוּ לְבֹא חֲמָת (שם):
May they come: All of them to Joseph’s head- [From Targum Onkelos]   תִּֽהְיֶיןָ: כֻּלָּם לְרֹאשׁ יוֹסֵף:
the one who was separated from his brothers: Heb. נְזִיר אֶחָיו [Onkelos renders:] דַאִחוֹהִי פְּרִישָׁא, who was separated from his brothers, similar to “and they shall separate (וַינָּזְרוּ) from the holy things of the children of Israel” (Lev. 22:2); [and] “they drew (נָזֹרוּ) backwards” (Isa. 1:4). - [From Sifra Emor 4:1] [Returning to verse 24, Rashi continues:] Our Rabbis, however, interpreted “But his bow was strongly established” as referring to his (Joseph’s) overcoming his temptation with his master’s wife. He calls it a bow because semen shoots like an arrow. — [From Sotah 36b] וַיָּפֹזוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו [וַיָּפֹזוּ is] equivalent to וַיָפֹצוּ, scattered, that the semen came out from between his fingers. — [From Sotah 36b]   נְזִיר אֶחָֽיו: פְּרִישָׁא דַּאֲחוֹהִי, שֶׁנִּבְדַּל מֵאֶחָיו, כְּמוֹ וְיִנָּזְרוּ מִקָּדְשֵׁי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (ויקרא כ"ב), נָזֹרוּ אָחוֹר (ישעיהו א') וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ עַל כְּבִישַׁת יִצְרוֹ בְּאֵשֶׁת אֲדֹנָיו, וְקוֹרְאוֹ קֶשֶׁת, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהַזֶּרַע יוֹרֶה כַּחֵץ::