Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 35

12And the land that I gave to Abraham and to Isaac, I will give to you and to your seed after you will I give the land."   יבוְאֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֛תִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם וּלְיִצְחָ֖ק לְךָ֣ אֶתְּנֶ֑נָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֥ אַֽחֲרֶ֖יךָ אֶתֵּ֥ן אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
13And God went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him.   יגוַיַּ֥עַל מֵֽעָלָ֖יו אֱלֹהִ֑ים בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ:
in the place where He had spoken with him: I do not know what this teaches us.   בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אִתּוֹ: אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה מְּלַמְּדֵנוּ:
14Now Jacob had erected a monument in the place where He had spoken with him, a stone monument, and he poured a libation upon it, and [then] he poured oil upon it.   ידוַיַּצֵּ֨ב יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב מַצֵּבָ֗ה בַּמָּק֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ מַצֶּ֣בֶת אָ֑בֶן וַיַּסֵּ֤ךְ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ נֶ֔סֶךְ וַיִּצֹ֥ק עָלֶ֖יהָ שָֽׁמֶן:
15Jacob named the place where God had spoken with him Beth el.   טווַיִּקְרָ֨א יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבֶּ֨ר אִתּ֥וֹ שָׁ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בֵּֽית־אֵֽל:
16And they journeyed from Beth el, and there was still some distance to come to Ephrath, and Rachel gave birth, and her labor was difficult.   טזוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית אֵ֔ל וַֽיְהִי־ע֥וֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָ֖רֶץ לָב֣וֹא אֶפְרָ֑תָה וַתֵּ֥לֶד רָחֵ֖ל וַתְּקַ֥שׁ בְּלִדְתָּֽהּ:
some distance: Heb. הָאָרֶץ כִּבְרַת. Menachem (Machbereth Menachem p. 102) explained [כִּבְרַת] as an expression of כַּבָּיר, meaning “much” -in this case, a long distance. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 82:7) explains it as: during the time [when] the ground is riddled like a sieve, when plowed fields are common, when the winter has passed, and the heat has not yet come. This, however, is not the simple meaning of the verse, for we find concerning Na’aman, “and he went some distance (כִּבְרַת אָרֶץ) from him” (II Kings 5:19). I therefore believe that it is the name of a land measure, like the distance of a parasang or more. Just as you say [in measuring an area], “yokes of a vineyard (צִמְדֵי כֶּרֶם)” (Isa. 5:10),“ a plot of land (חֶלְקַת הַשָׂדֶה)” (above 33: 19), so with a man’s journey (land approximately the journey of a mil), one calls the measure כִּבְרַת אָרֶץ.   כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ: מְנַחֵם פֵּרֵשׁ לְשׁוֹן כַּבִּיר, רִבּוּי, מַהֲלָךְ רַב. וְאַגָּדָה, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָאָרֶץ חֲלוּלָה וּמְנֻקֶּבֶת כִּכְבָרָה (בראשית רבה), שֶׁהַנִּיר מָצוּי, הַסְּתָו עָבַר וְהַשָּׁרָב עֲדַיִן לֹא בָא (שם ז), וְאֵין זֶה פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּנַעֲמָן מָצִינוּ וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאִתּוֹ כִּבְרַת אָרֶץ (מלכים ב ה'). וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם מִדַּת קַרְקַע, כְּמוֹ מַהֲלַךְ פַּרְסָה אוֹ יוֹתֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר צֶמֶד כֶּרֶם (ישעיהו ה'), חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה (בראשית ל"ג), כָּךְ בְּמַהֲלַךְ אָדָם נוֹתֵן שֵׁם מִדָּה כִּבְרַת אֶרֶץ:
17It came to pass when she had such difficulty giving birth, that the midwife said to her, "Do not be afraid, for this one, too, is a son for you."   יזוַיְהִ֥י בְהַקְשֹׁתָ֖הּ בְּלִדְתָּ֑הּ וַתֹּ֨אמֶר לָ֤הּ הַֽמְיַלֶּ֨דֶת֙ אַל־תִּ֣ירְאִ֔י כִּֽי־גַם־זֶ֥ה לָ֖ךְ בֵּֽן:
for this one, too, is: Added to Joseph for you. Our Sages interpreted [גַם as intimating that] with each tribe a twin sister was born, and with Benjamin, an extra twin sister was born. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:8]   כִּֽי־גַם־זֶה: נוֹסַף לְךָ עַל יוֹסֵף; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ: עִם כָּל שֵׁבֶט נוֹלְדָה תְּאוֹמָה, וְעִם בִּנְיָמִין נוֹלְדָה תְאוֹמָה יְתֵרָה:
18And it came to pass, when her soul departed for she died that she named him Ben oni, but his father called him Benjamin.   יחוַיְהִ֞י בְּצֵ֤את נַפְשָׁהּ֙ כִּ֣י מֵ֔תָה וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בֶּן־אוֹנִ֑י וְאָבִ֖יו קָֽרָא־ל֥וֹ בִנְיָמִֽין:
Ben-oni: The son of my pain.   בֶּן־אוֹנִי: בֶּן צַעֲרִי:
Benjamin: It seems to me that since he was the only one who was born in the land of Canaan, which is in the South for a person [who is] coming from [the direction of] Aram-naharaim, as it is said: “in the South, in the land of Canaan” (Num. 33: 40); “continually traveling southward” (Gen. 12:9).   בִנְיָמִֽין: נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לְבַדּוֹ נוֹלַד בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן שֶׁהוּא בַּנֶּגֶב כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא מֵאֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּנֶּגֶב בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן (במדבר ל"ג), הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ הַנֶּגְבָּה (בראשית י"ב):
Benjamin: The son of the South, an expression of “North and South (וְיָמִין) You created them” (Ps. 89:13). For this reason, it is [written here] plene, [with a “yud” after the “mem”]. (Another explanation: Benjamin means “the son of days” (בֶּן יָמִים), because he was born in his (Jacob’s) old age, and it is spelled with a “nun” like“at the end of the days (הַיָמִין)” (Dan. 12:13).   בִנְיָמִֽין: בֶּן יָמִין, לְשׁוֹן צָפוֹן וְיָמִין אַתָּה בְרָאתָם (תהילים פ"ט), לְפִיכָךְ הוּא מָלֵא: (דָבָר אַחֵר: בִּנְיָמִין, בֶּן יָמִים, שֶׁנוֹלַד לְעֵת זִקְנָתוֹ, וְנִכְתֵּב בְּנוּ"ן, כּמוֹ: "לְקֵץ הַיָמִין" (דניאל יב):)
19So Rachel died, and she was buried on the road to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem.   יטוַתָּ֖מָת רָחֵ֑ל וַתִּקָּבֵר֙ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ אֶפְרָ֔תָה הִ֖וא בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם:
20And Jacob erected a monument on her grave; that is the tombstone of Rachel until this day.   כוַיַּצֵּ֧ב יַֽעֲקֹ֛ב מַצֵּבָ֖ה עַל־קְבֻֽרָתָ֑הּ הִ֛וא מַצֶּ֥בֶת קְבֻֽרַת־רָחֵ֖ל עַד־הַיּֽוֹם:
21Israel journeyed, and he pitched his tent at some distance past the Tower of Eder.   כאוַיִּסַּ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֣ט אָֽהֳלֹ֔ה מֵהָ֖לְאָה לְמִגְדַּל־עֵֽדֶר:
22And it came to pass when Israel sojourned in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father's concubine, and Israel heard [of it], and so, the sons of Jacob were twelve.   כבוַיְהִ֗י בִּשְׁכֹּ֤ן יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַהִ֔וא וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ רְאוּבֵ֔ן וַיִּשְׁכַּ֕ב֙ אֶת־בִּלְהָ֖ה֙ פִּילֶ֣גֶשׁ אָבִ֑֔יו וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵֽ֑ל פ וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ בְנֵי־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב שְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָֽׂר:
when Israel sojourned in that land: Before he came to Hebron, to Isaac, all these [incidents] befell him.   בִּשְׁכֹּן יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָרֶץ ההיא: עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָא לְחֶבְרוֹן אֵצֶל יִצְחָק אֵרְעוּהוּ כָל אֵלֶּה:
and lay: Since he (Reuben) disarranged his (Jacob’s) bed, Scripture considers it as if he had lain with her. Now why did he disarrange and profane his bed? [It was] because when Rachel died, Jacob took his bed, which had been regularly placed in Rachel’s tent and not in the other tents, and moved it into Bilhah’s tent. Reuben came and protested his mother’s humiliation. He said,“If my mother’s sister was a rival to my mother, should my mother’s sister’s handmaid [now also] be a rival to my mother?” For this reason, he disarranged it. — [from Shab. 55b]   וַיִּשְׁכַּב: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁבִּלְבֵּל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ שְׁכָבָהּ; וְלָמָּה בִלְבֵּל וְחִלֵּל יְצוּעָיו? שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֵּתָה רָחֵל נָטַל יַעֲקֹב מִטָּתוֹ, שֶׁהָיְתָה נְתוּנָה תָּדִיר בְּאֹהֶל רָחֵל וְלֹא בִּשְׁאָר אֹהָלִים, וּנְתָנָהּ בְּאֹהֶל בִּלְהָה; בָּא רְאוּבֵן וְתָבַע עֶלְבּוֹן אִמּוֹ, אָמַר אִם אֲחוֹת אִמִּי הָיְתָה צָרָה לְאִמִּי, שִׁפְחַת אֲחוֹת אִמִּי תְּהֵא צָרָה לְאִמִּי? לְכָךְ בִּלְבֵּל (שבת נ"ה):
and so, the sons of Jacob were twelve: [Scripture] commences with the previous topic (i.e. the birth of Benjamin). When Benjamin was born, the marriage bed (i.e. the destined number of sons) was completed, and from then on, it was proper that they be counted, and [so] it (Scripture) counted them. Our Sages, however, interpreted that these words are intended to teach us that all of them (Jacob’s sons) were equal, and all of them were righteous, for Reuben had not sinned. — [from Shab. 55b]   וַיִּֽהְיוּ בְנֵי־יַֽעֲקֹב שְׁנֵים עָשָֽׂר: מַתְחִיל לְעִנְיָן רִאשׁוֹן, מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד בִּנְיָמִין נִשְׁלְמָה הַמִּטָּה וּמֵעַתָּה רְאוּיִים לְהִמָּנוֹת, וּמְנָאָן; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ, לְלַמְּדֵנוּ בָא, שֶׁכֻּלָּן שָׁוִין וְכֻלָּן צַדִּיקִים, שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא רְאוּבֵן:
23The sons of Leah [were] Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.   כגבְּנֵ֣י לֵאָ֔ה בְּכ֥וֹר יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב רְאוּבֵ֑ן וְשִׁמְעוֹן֙ וְלֵוִ֣י וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר וּזְבֻלֽוּן:
Jacob’s firstborn: Even at the time of [Reuben’s] error, [Scripture] calls him the firstborn [with all its honors]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:11]   בְּכוֹר יַֽעֲקֹב: אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַקַּלְקָלָה קְרָאוֹ בְּכוֹר:
Jacob’s firstborn: Firstborn in regard to inheritance, firstborn to perform the service, firstborn regarding the counting (when the names of the tribes were enumerated, he was always counted first.) The birthright was given to Joseph only in respect to the tribes, in that he founded two tribes (Ephraim and Manasseh).   בְּכוֹר יַֽעֲקֹב: בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה, בְּכוֹר לָעֲבוֹדָה, בְּכוֹר לְמִנְיָן, וְלֹא נִתְּנָה בְכוֹרָה לְיוֹסֵף אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן הַשְּׁבָטִים – שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לִשְׁנֵי שְׁבָטִים:
24The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin.   כדבְּנֵ֣י רָחֵ֔ל יוֹסֵ֖ף וּבִנְיָמִֽן:
25The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maidservant: Dan and Naphtali.   כהוּבְנֵ֤י בִלְהָה֙ שִׁפְחַ֣ת רָחֵ֔ל דָּ֖ן וְנַפְתָּלִֽי:
26The sons of Zilpah, Leah's maidservant: Gad and Asher. These are Jacob's sons who were born to him in Padan aram.   כווּבְנֵ֥י זִלְפָּ֛ה שִׁפְחַ֥ת לֵאָ֖ה גָּ֣ד וְאָשֵׁ֑ר אֵ֚לֶּה בְּנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֻלַּד־ל֖וֹ בְּפַדַּ֥ן אֲרָֽם:
27And Jacob came to his father Isaac, to Mamre, Kiriath arba, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac dwelt.   כזוַיָּבֹ֤א יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֔יו מַמְרֵ֖א קִרְיַ֣ת הָֽאַרְבַּ֑ע הִ֣וא חֶבְר֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־גָּֽר־שָׁ֥ם אַבְרָהָ֖ם וְיִצְחָֽק:
Mamre: The name of the plain.   מַמְרֵא: שֵׁם הַמִּישׁוֹר:
Kiriath-arba: The name of the city. [Therefore,] מַמְרֵא קִרְיַת הָאַרְבָּע means “the plain of Kiriath-arba.” If you say that it should have been written: מַמְרֵא הַקִרְיַת אַרְבָּע, [the answer is that] this is biblical style. In every case of a compound name such as this (קִרְיַת הָאַרְבָּע), and such as בֵּית-לֶחֶם, אִבִי עֶזֶר, בֵּית-אֵל, when a “hey” needs to be added, it is prefixed to the second word: “the Bethlehemite (בֵּיתהַלַחְמִי)” (I Sam. 16:1); “in Ophrah of the Abiezrites (אַבִי הָעֶזְרִי)” (Jud. 6:24); “Hiel the Bethelite (בֵּית-הָאֱלִי) built” (I Kings 16:34).   קִרְיַת הָֽאַרְבַּע: שֵׁם הָעִיר מַמְרֵא קִרְיַת הָֽאַרְבַּע אֶל מִישׁוֹר שֶׁל קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע. וְאִם תֹּאמַר הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתּוֹב מַמְרֵא הַקִּרְיַת אַרְבַּע? כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָא בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ כָּפוּל, כְּגוֹן זֶה, וּכְגוֹן בֵּית לֶחֶם, אֲבִי עֶזֶר, בֵּית אֵל, אִם הֻצְרַךְ לְהַטִּיל בּוֹ הֵ"א, נוֹתְנָהּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַתֵּבָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה – בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי (שמואל א ט"ז), בְּעָפְרָת אֲבִי הָעֶזְרִי (שופטים ו'), בָּנָה חִיאֵל בֵּית הָאֱלִי (מלכים א ט"ז):
28The days of Isaac were a hundred and eighty years.   כחוַיִּֽהְי֖וּ יְמֵ֣י יִצְחָ֑ק מְאַ֥ת שָׁנָ֖ה וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה:
29And Isaac expired and died and was gathered in to his peoples, old and sated with days, and his sons, Esau and Jacob, buried him.   כטוַיִּגְוַ֨ע יִצְחָ֤ק וַיָּ֨מָת֙ וַיֵּאָ֣סֶף אֶל־עַמָּ֔יו זָקֵ֖ן וּשְׂבַ֣ע יָמִ֑ים וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ עֵשָׂ֥ו וְיַֽעֲקֹ֖ב בָּנָֽיו:
And Isaac expired: There is no order of earlier and later events (chronological order) in the [narrative of] Torah. The selling of Joseph [actually] preceded Isaac’s demise by 12 years, for when Jacob was born, Isaac was 60 years old, and Isaac died in Jacob’s 120th year, for it is stated: “and Isaac was sixty years old” (Gen. 25:26)-if you subtract 60 from 180 [Isaac’s age at his death], you have 120 left. Joseph was 17 years old when he was sold, and that year was Jacob’s 108th year. How so? He was blessed at the age of 63 [as Rashi explains Gen. 28: 9], for 14 years he hid in the academy of Eber, totaling 77. He worked 14 years for a wife, and at the end of the 14 years, Joseph was born, as it is said: “Now it came to pass when Rachel had borne Joseph, etc.” (Gen. 30:25). The total is 91. [Add to this] the 17 [years] until Joseph was sold, and it totals 108. (Moreover, it is explicit that from when Joseph was sold until Jacob came to Egypt, 22 years had passed, as it is said: “And Joseph was thirty years old, etc.” (Gen. 41:46), and the seven years of plenty and two years of [the] famine [had elapsed before Jacob’s arrival.] This totals 22. And it is written: “The days of the years of my sojournings are one hundred thirty years” (Gen. 47:9). [Since Jacob arrived in Egypt at age 130, 22 years after Joseph had been sold,] it follows that Jacob was 108 when he (Joseph) was sold.) [from Seder Olam, ch. 2]   וַיִּגְוַע יִצְחָק: אֵין מֻקְדָּם וּמְאֻחָר בַּתּוֹרָה; מְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף קָדְמָה לְמִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק י"ב שָׁנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד יַעֲקֹב הָיָה יִצְחָק בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיִצְחָק בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְגוֹ', וְיִצְחָק מֵת בִּשְׁנַת ק"כ לְיַעֲקֹב – אִם תּוֹצִיא שִׁשִּׁים מִמֵּאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה נִשְׁאֲרוּ ק"כ – וְיוֹסֵף נִמְכַּר בֶּן י"ז שָׁנָה, וְאוֹתָהּ שָׁנָה שְׁנַת מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנֶה לְיַעֲקֹב, כֵּיצַד? בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים וְשָׁלוֹשׁ נִתְבָּרֵךְ, אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה נִטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים וְשֶׁבַע, וְאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה עָבַד בְּאִשָּׁה, וּבְסוֹף אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה נוֹלַד יוֹסֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה רָחֵל אֶת יוֹסֵף וְגוֹ', הֲרֵי תִּשְׁעִים וְאַחַת, וְי"ז עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִמְכַּר יוֹסֵף, הֲרֵי מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנֶה (עוֹד מְפֹרָשׁ מִן הַמִּקְרָא מִשֶּׁנִּמְכַּר יוֹסֵף עַד שֶׁבָּא יַעֲקֹב מִצְרַיִמָה כ"ב שָׁנָה שֶׁנֶּ', וְיוֹסֵף בֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְגוֹ', וְז' שָׁנִים שָׂבָע וּשְׁנָתַיִם רָעָב, הֲרֵי כ"ב, וּכְתִיב יְמֵי שְׁנֵי מְגוּרַי שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה, נִמְצָא יַעֲקֹב בִּמְכִירָתוֹ ק"ח):

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 36

1And these are the generations of Esau, that is, Edom.   אוְאֵ֛לֶּה תֹּֽלְד֥וֹת עֵשָׂ֖ו ה֥וּא אֱדֽוֹם:
2Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite; and Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon the Hivvite;   בעֵשָׂ֛ו לָקַ֥ח אֶת־נָשָׁ֖יו מִבְּנ֣וֹת כְּנָ֑עַן אֶת־עָדָ֗ה בַּת־אֵילוֹן֙ הַֽחִתִּ֔י וְאֶת־אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ בַּת־עֲנָ֔ה בַּת־צִבְע֖וֹן הַֽחִוִּֽי:
Adah daughter of Elon: This is [actually] Basemath the daughter of Elon (mentioned above 26:34). She was called Basemath because she burnt incense (בְּשָׂמִים) to idols.   עָדָה בַּת־אֵילוֹן: הִיא בָּשְׂמַת בַּת אֵילוֹן, וְנִקְרֵאת בָּשְׂמַת עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיְתָה מְקַטֶּרֶת בְּשָׂמִים לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
Oholibamah: She is [identical to] Judith (mentioned above 26:34). He (Esau) nicknamed her Judith (יְהוּדִית) to imply that she denied the validity of idolatry, so that he might deceive his father.   אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה: הִיא יְהוּדִית, וְהוּא כִנָּה שְׁמָהּ יְהוּדִית לוֹמַר שֶׁהִיא כּוֹפֶרֶת בְּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה כְּדֵי לְהַטְעוֹת אֶת אָבִיו:
daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon: If she was the daughter of Anah, she could not have been the daughter of Zibeon: Anah was the son of Zibeon, as it is said: “And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah” (below verse 24). [This] teaches [us] that Zibeon was intimate with his daughter-in-law, the wife of Anah, and Oholibamah emerged from between them both [i.e., from Zibeon and Anah]. Scripture teaches us that they were all mamzerim (illegitimate), products of adultery and incest. — [from Tanchuma Vayeshev 1]   בַּת־עֲנָה בַּת־צִבְעוֹן: אִם בַּת עֲנָה לֹא בַּת צִבְעוֹן? עֲנָה בְּנוֹ שֶׁל צִבְעוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאֵלֶּה בְנֵי צִבְעוֹן וְאַיָּה וַעֲנָה? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבָּא צִבְעוֹן עַל כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת עֲנָה, וְיָצְאָה אָהֳלִיבָמָה מִבֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם, וְהוֹדִיעֲךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁכֻּלָּן בְּנֵי מַמְזֵרוּת הָיוּ:
3also Basemath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.   גוְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַ֥ת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל אֲח֥וֹת נְבָיֽוֹת:
Basemath, daughter of Ishmael: Elsewhere [Scripture] calls her Mahalath (above 28:9). I found in the Aggadah of the midrash on the Book of Samuel (ch. 17): There are three people whose iniquities are forgiven (מוֹחֲלִים): One who converts to Judaism, one who is promoted to a high position, and one who marries. The proof [of the last one] is derived from here (28:9). For this reason she was called Mahalath (מָחֲלַת), because his (Esau’s) sins were forgiven (נְמְחֲלוּ).   בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל: וּלְהַלָּן קוֹרֵא לָהּ מָחֲלַת? מָצִינוּ בְּאַגָּדַת מִדְרַשׁ סֵפֶר שְׁמוּאֵל ג' מוֹחֲלִים לָהֶן עֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן, גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר, וְהָעוֹלֶה לִגְדֻלָּה, וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה. וְלָמַד הַטַּעַם מִכָּאן – לְכָךְ נִקְרֵאת מָחֲלַת, שֶׁנִּמְחֲלוּ עֲוֹנוֹתָיו:
sister of Nebaioth: Since he (Nebaioth) gave her hand in marriage after Ishmael died, she was referred to by his name. — [from Meg. 17a]   אֲחוֹת נְבָיֽוֹת: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהוּא הִשִּׂיאָהּ לוֹ מִשֶּׁמֵּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ:
4Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau and Basemath bore Reuel.   דוַתֵּ֧לֶד עָדָ֛ה לְעֵשָׂ֖ו אֶת־אֱלִיפָ֑ז וּבָ֣שְׂמַ֔ת יָלְדָ֖ה אֶת־רְעוּאֵֽל:
5Oholibamah bore Jeush and Jalam and Korah; these are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.   הוְאָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ יָֽלְדָ֔ה אֶת־יְע֥וּשׁ (כתיב את־יעיש) וְאֶת־יַעְלָ֖ם וְאֶת־קֹ֑רַח אֵ֚לֶּה בְּנֵ֣י עֵשָׂ֔ו אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֻלְּדוּ־ל֖וֹ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
Oholibamah bore…and Korah: This Korah was illegitimate. He was the son of Eliphaz, who had been intimate with his father’s wife, Oholibamah, the wife of Esau. This is evidenced by the fact that he [Korah] is [also] listed among the chieftains of Eliphaz at the end of this chapter. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:12]   וְאָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה יָֽלְדָה וגו': קֹרַח זֶה מַמְזֵר הָיָה, וּבֶן אֱלִיפַז הָיָה, שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו, אֶל אָהֳלִיבָמָה אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מָנוּי עִם אַלּוּפֵי אֱלִיפַז בְּסוֹף הָעִנְיָן (בראשית רבה):
6And Esau took his wives, his sons, and his daughters and all the people of his household, and his cattle and all his animals and all his property that he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and he went to a[nother] land, because of his brother Jacob.   ווַיִּקַּ֣ח עֵשָׂ֡ו אֶת־נָ֠שָׁ֠יו וְאֶת־בָּנָ֣יו וְאֶת־בְּנֹתָיו֘ וְאֶת־כָּל־נַפְשׁ֣וֹת בֵּיתוֹ֒ וְאֶת־מִקְנֵ֣הוּ וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּהֶמְתּ֗וֹ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־קִנְיָנ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר רָכַ֖שׁ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֶל־אֶ֔רֶץ מִפְּנֵ֖י יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב אָחִֽיו:
and he went to a[nother] land: to dwell wherever he would find.   וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֶרֶץ: לָגוּר בַּאֲשֶׁר יִמְצָא:
7For their possessions were too numerous for them to dwell together, and the land of their sojournings could not support them because of their livestock.   זכִּֽי־הָיָ֧ה רְכוּשָׁ֛ם רָ֖ב מִשֶּׁ֣בֶת יַחְדָּ֑ו וְלֹ֨א יָֽכְלָ֜ה אֶ֤רֶץ מְגֽוּרֵיהֶם֙ לָשֵׂ֣את אֹתָ֔ם מִפְּנֵ֖י מִקְנֵיהֶֽם:
and the land of their sojournings could not: provide [sufficient] pasture for their animals. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 82:13), however, explains “because of his brother Jacob,” [as follows:] Because of the note of obligation of the decree: “that your seed will be strangers” (Gen. 15: 13), which was put upon the descendants of Isaac. He (Esau) said, “I will get out of here. I have neither a share in the gift-for the land has been given to him-nor in the payment of the debt.” [He left] also on account of the shame that [he felt because] he had sold his birthright. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:13]   וְלֹא יָֽכְלָה אֶרֶץ מְגֽוּרֵיהֶם: לְהַסְפִּיק מִרְעֶה לַבְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם (ב"ר). וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה מִפְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב אָחִיו מִפְּנֵי שְׁטַר חוֹב שֶׁל גְּזֵרַת "כִּי גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ" הַמֻּטָּל עַל זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק, אָמַר אֵלֵךְ לִי מִכָּאן, אֵין לִי חֵלֶק לֹא בַּמַּתָּנָה, שֶׁנִּתְּנָה לוֹ הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת, וְלֹא בְּפִרְעוֹן הַשְּׁטָר, וּמִפְּנֵי הַבּוּשָׁה שֶׁמָּכַר בְּכוֹרָתוֹ:
8So Esau dwelt on Mount Seir Esau, that is Edom.   חוַיֵּ֤שֶׁב עֵשָׂו֙ בְּהַ֣ר שֵׂעִ֔יר עֵשָׂ֖ו ה֥וּא אֱדֽוֹם:
9And these are the generations of Esau the progenitor of Edom, on Mount Seir.   טוְאֵ֛לֶּה תֹּֽלְד֥וֹת עֵשָׂ֖ו אֲבִ֣י אֱד֑וֹם בְּהַ֖ר שֵׂעִֽיר:
And these are: the generations that his sons begot after he went to Seir.   וְאֵלֶּה: הַתּוֹלָדוֹת שֶׁהוֹלִידוּ בָנָיו עַכְשָׁו מִשֶּׁהָלַךְ לְשֵׂעִיר:
10These are the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz, son of Adah, the wife of Esau, Reuel, son of Basemath, the wife of Esau.   יאֵ֖לֶּה שְׁמ֣וֹת בְּנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֑ו אֱלִיפַ֗ז בֶּן־עָדָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת עֵשָׂ֔ו רְעוּאֵ֕ל בֶּן־בָּשְׂמַ֖ת אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
11The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gaatam, and Kenaz.   יאוַיִּֽהְי֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י אֱלִיפָ֑ז תֵּימָ֣ן אוֹמָ֔ר צְפ֥וֹ וְגַעְתָּ֖ם וּקְנַֽז:
12And Timna was a concubine to Eliphaz, son of Esau, and she bore to Eliphaz, Amalek. These are the sons of Adah, the wife of Esau.   יבוְתִמְנַ֣ע | הָֽיְתָ֣ה פִילֶ֗גֶשׁ לֶֽאֱלִיפַז֙ בֶּן־עֵשָׂ֔ו וַתֵּ֥לֶד לֶאֱלִיפַ֖ז אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק אֵ֕לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י עָדָ֖ה אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
And Timna was a concubine: [This passage is here] to proclaim the greatness of Abraham-how much [people] longed to attach themselves to his descendants. This Timna was a daughter of chieftains, as it is said: “and the sister of Lotan was Timna” (below verse 22). Lotan was one of the chieftains of the inhabitants of Seir, from the Horites, who had dwelt there before. She said, “I may not be worthy of marrying you, but if only I could be [your] concubine” (Gen. Rabbah 82:14). In (I) Chronicles (1:36) [the Chronicler] enumerates her among the children of Eliphaz [here she is counted as the daughter of Seir the Horite, and the concubine of Eliphaz]. This teaches [us] that he (Eliphaz) was intimate with the wife of Seir, and Timna emerged from between them (Seir’s wife and Eliphaz), and when she grew up, she became his (Eliphaz’s) concubine. That is the meaning of “and the sister of Lotan was Timna.” [Scripture] did not count her with the sons of Seir, because she was his (Lotan’s) sister through his mother but not through his father. — [from Tanchuma Vayeshev 1]   וְתִמְנַע הָֽיְתָה פִילֶגֶשׁ: לְהוֹדִיעַ גְּדֻלָּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם, כַּמָּה הָיוּ תְאֵבִים לִדַּבֵּק בְּזַרְעוֹ. תִּמְנַע זוֹ בַּת אַלּוּפִים הָיְתָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַאֲחוֹת לוֹטָן תִּמְנָע, וְלוֹטָן מֵאַלּוּפֵי יוֹשְׁבֵי שֵׂעִיר הָיָה מִן הַחוֹרִים שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בָהּ לְפָנִים, אָמְרָה אֵינִי זוֹכָה לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְךָ, הַלְוַאי וְאֶהְיֶה פִּילֶגֶשׁ. וּבְדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים מוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּבָנָיו שֶׁל אֱלִיפַז, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל שֵׂעִיר וְיָצְאָה תִּמְנָע מִבֵּינֵיהֶם, וּכְשֶׁגָּדְלָה נַעֲשֵׂית פִּילַגְשׁוֹ, וְזֶהוּ וַאֲחוֹת לוֹטָן תִּמְנָע, וְלֹא מְנָאָהּ עִם בְּנֵי שֵׂעִיר שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲחוֹתוֹ מִן הָאֵם וְלֹא מִן הָאָב:
13And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These are the sons of Basemath, the wife of Esau.   יגוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ בְּנֵ֣י רְעוּאֵ֔ל נַ֥חַת וָזֶ֖רַח שַׁמָּ֣ה וּמִזָּ֑ה אֵ֣לֶּה הָי֔וּ בְּנֵ֥י בָשְׂמַ֖ת אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
14And these are the sons of Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, the wife of Esau; she bore to Esau: Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah.   ידוְאֵ֣לֶּה הָי֗וּ בְּנֵ֨י אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֧ה בַת־עֲנָ֛ה בַּת־צִבְע֖וֹן אֵ֣שֶׁת עֵשָׂ֑ו וַתֵּ֣לֶד לְעֵשָׂ֔ו אֶת־יְע֥וּשׁ (כתיב את־יעיש) וְאֶת־יַעְלָ֖ם וְאֶת־קֹֽרַח:
15These became the chieftains of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz, Esau's firstborn: Chief Teman, Chief Omar, Chief Zepho, Chief Kenaz,   טואֵ֖לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֑ו בְּנֵ֤י אֱלִיפַז֙ בְּכ֣וֹר עֵשָׂ֔ו אַלּ֤וּף תֵּימָן֙ אַלּ֣וּף אוֹמָ֔ר אַלּ֥וּף צְפ֖וֹ אַלּ֥וּף קְנַֽז:
These became the chieftains of the sons of Esau: The heads of the clans.   אֵלֶּה אַלּוּפֵי בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂו: רָאשֵׁי מִשְׁפָּחוֹת:
16Chief Korah, Chief Gaatam, Chief Amalek. These are the chieftains of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah.   טזאַלּ֥וּף קֹ֛רַח אַלּ֥וּף גַּעְתָּ֖ם אַלּ֣וּף עֲמָלֵ֑ק אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֤י אֱלִיפַז֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֱד֔וֹם אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י עָדָֽה:
17And these are the sons of Reuel the son of Esau: Chief Nahath, Chief Zerah, Chief Shammah, and Chief Mizzah. These are the chieftains of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Basemath, the wife of Esau.   יזוְאֵ֗לֶּה בְּנֵ֤י רְעוּאֵל֙ בֶּן־עֵשָׂ֔ו אַלּ֥וּף נַ֨חַת֙ אַלּ֣וּף זֶ֔רַח אַלּ֥וּף שַׁמָּ֖ה אַלּ֣וּף מִזָּ֑ה אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֤י רְעוּאֵל֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֱד֔וֹם אֵ֕לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י בָֽשְׂמַ֖ת אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
18And these are the sons of Oholibamah, the wife of Esau: Chief Jeush, Chief Jaalam, Chief Korah. These are the chieftains of Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, the wife of Esau.   יחוְאֵ֗לֶּה בְּנֵ֤י אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת עֵשָׂ֔ו אַלּ֥וּף יְע֛וּשׁ אַלּ֥וּף יַעְלָ֖ם אַלּ֣וּף קֹ֑רַח אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֞י אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֛ה בַּת־עֲנָ֖ה אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
19These are the sons of Esau and these are their chieftains, he is Edom.   יטאֵ֧לֶּה בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֛ו וְאֵ֥לֶּה אַלּֽוּפֵיהֶ֖ם ה֥וּא אֱדֽוֹם: