Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 33

6And the maidservants and their children drew near and prostrated themselves.   ווַתִּגַּ֧שְׁןָ הַשְּׁפָח֛וֹת הֵ֥נָּה וְיַלְדֵיהֶ֖ן וַתִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶֽיןָ:
7And Leah and her children drew near and prostrated themselves, and after [them], Joseph and Rachel drew near and prostrated themselves.   זוַתִּגַּ֧שׁ גַּם־לֵאָ֛ה וִֽילָדֶ֖יהָ וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲו֑וּ וְאַחַ֗ר נִגַּ֥שׁ יוֹסֵ֛ף וְרָחֵ֖ל וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ:
Joseph and Rachel drew near: In all cases, the mothers drew near before the sons, but in Rachel’s case, Joseph preceded her. He said, “My mother has a pretty figure. Perhaps that scoundrel will set his eyes on her. I will stand in front of her and prevent him from gazing upon her.” Because of this deed, Joseph merited the blessing (below 49:22), “over the eye” [meaning that he stood up in front of Esau’s eyes]. — [from Pesikta Rabbathi , ch. 12; Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   נִגַּשׁ יוֹסֵף וְרָחֵל: בְּכֻלָּן הָאִמָּהוֹת נִגָּשׁוֹת לִפְנֵי הַבָּנִים, אֲבָל בְּרָחֵל יוֹסֵף נִגַּשׁ לְפָנֶיהָ, אָמַר אִמִּי יְפַת תֹּאַר, שֶׁמָּא יִתְלֶה בָהּ עֵינָיו אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע, אֶעֱמֹד כְּנֶגְדָהּ וַאֲעַכְּבֶנּוּ מִלְּהִסְתַּכֵּל בָּהּ; מִכָּאן זָכָה יוֹסֵף לְבִרְכַּת עֲלֵי עַיִן:
8And he said, "What is to you [the purpose of] all this camp that I have met?" And he said, "To find favor in my master's eyes."   חוַיֹּ֕אמֶר מִ֥י לְךָ֛ כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֥ה הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר פָּגָ֑שְׁתִּי וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לִמְצֹא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי:
What is to you [the purpose of] all this camp: Who is all this camp that I have met, which is yours? That is to say, why is it yours? The simple meaning of the verse is [that Esau asked] about those who brought the gift. Its midrashic interpretation is that he (Esau) encountered groups of angels, who were shoving him and his men and asking them, “To whom do you belong?” and they responded, “We belong to Esau.” They (the angels) said [to one another], “Hit [them], hit [them]!” These [men of Esau] would say, “Leave them alone! He is Isaac’s son.” But [the angels] would pay this no heed. [Esau’s men then retorted,] “He is Abraham’s grandson.” But they (the angels) would pay this no heed. [Esau’s men again retorted,] “He is Jacob’s brother.” [The angels] then said to them, “If so, he is one of ours.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 78: 11]   מִי לְךָ כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶה: מִי כָּל הַמַּחֲנֶה אֲשֶׁר פָּגַשְׁתִּי, שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלְּךָ? כְּלוֹמַר לָמָּה הוּא לְךָ? פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא עַל מוֹלִיכֵי הַמִּנְחָה, וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ כִּתּוֹת שֶׁל מַלְאָכִים פָּגַע, שֶׁהָיוּ דּוֹחֲפִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת אֲנָשָׁיו וְאוֹמְרִים לָהֶם שֶׁל מִי אַתֶּם? וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים הַכּוּ, הַכּוּ, וְאֵלּוּ אוֹמְרִים הַנִּיחוּ, בְּנוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק הוּא, וְלֹא הָיוּ מַשְׁגִּיחִים עָלָיו; בֶּן בְּנוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם הוּא, וְלֹא הָיוּ מַשְׁגִּיחִין; אָחִיו שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הוּא, אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם אִם כֵּן, מִשֶּׁלָּנוּ אַתֶּם:
9But Esau said, "I have plenty, my brother; let what you have remain yours."   טוַיֹּ֥אמֶר עֵשָׂ֖ו יֶשׁ־לִ֣י רָ֑ב אָחִ֕י יְהִ֥י לְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁר־לָֽךְ:
let what you have remain yours: Here he acknowledged his (Jacob’s) right to the blessings (Gen. Rabbah 78:11).   יְהִי לְךָ אֲשֶׁר־לָֽךְ: כָּאן הוֹדָה לוֹ עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת (בראשית רבה):
10Thereupon Jacob said, "Please no! If indeed I have found favor in your eyes, then you shall take my gift from my hand, because I have seen your face, which is like seeing the face of an angel, and you have accepted me.   יוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב אַל־נָא֙ אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ֥ מִנְחָתִ֖י מִיָּדִ֑י כִּ֣י עַל־כֵּ֞ן רָאִ֣יתִי פָנֶ֗יךָ כִּרְאֹ֛ת פְּנֵ֥י אֱלֹהִ֖ים וַתִּרְצֵֽנִי:
Please no!: Please do not say this to me. [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   אַל־נָא: אַל נָא תֹאמַר לִי כֵּן:
If indeed I have found favor…shall take my gift from my hand, because I have seen your face, etc.: It is worthy and proper for you to accept my gift, because I have seen your face, and to me this is tantamount to seeing the face of the angel, for I saw your prince [guardian angel], and furthermore [you should take my gift], because you have consented to forgive my offense. Why did he (Jacob) mention that he saw the angel? In order that he [should] fear him and say, “He saw angels and was saved. From now on, I will not be able to prevail against him.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 75:10]   אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ מִנְחָתִי מִיָּדִי כִּי עַל־כֵּן רָאִיתִי פָנֶיךָ וגו': כִּי כְּדַאי וְהָגוּן לְךָ שֶׁתְּקַבֵּל מִנְחָתִי עַל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי פָנֶיךָ, וְהֵן חֲשׁוּבִין לִי כִּרְאִיַּת פְּנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ, שֶׁרָאִיתִי שַׂר שֶׁלְּךָ, וְעוֹד עַל שֶׁנִּתְרַצֵּיתָ לִמְחֹל עַל סֻרְחָנִי. וְלָמָּה הִזְכִּיר לוֹ רְאִיַּת הַמַּלְאָךְ? כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְיָרֵא הֵימֶנּוּ וְיֹאמַר רָאָה מַלְאָכִים וְנִצַּל, אֵינִי יָכוֹל לוֹ מֵעַתָּה:
and you have accepted me: You have become reconciled with me. Likewise, every [instance of] רָצוֹן in Scripture is an expression of appeasement, apayement in Old French, e.g., “for it will not be for an appeasement (לְרָצוֹן) for you” (Lev. 22:20), for the purpose of the sacrifices is to conciliate and to propitiate. Similarly, “The lips of a righteous man know רָצוֹן. They know how to placate and appease (לְרַצוֹת)” (Prov. 10:32). [from Targum Onkelos]   וַתִּרְצֵֽנִי: נִתְפַּיַּסְתָּ לִי, וְכֵן כָּל רָצוֹן שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא לְשׁוֹן פִּיּוּס, אפייצימנ"טו בְּלַעַז, כִּי לֹא לְרָצוֹן יִהְיֶה לָכֶם (ויקרא כ"ב) – הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת בָּאוֹת לְפַיֵּס וּלְרַצּוֹת, וְכֵן שִׂפְתֵי צַדִּיק יֵדְעוּן רָצוֹן (משלי י') – יוֹדְעִים לְפַיֵּס וּלְרַצּוֹת:
11Now take my gift, which has been brought to you, for God has favored me [with it], and [because] I have everything." He prevailed upon him, and he took [it].   יאקַח־נָ֤א אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֻבָ֣את לָ֔ךְ כִּֽי־חַנַּ֥נִי אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְכִ֣י יֶשׁ־לִי־כֹ֑ל וַיִּפְצַר־בּ֖וֹ וַיִּקָּֽח:
my gift: Heb. בָּרְכָתִי. This gift, which is given for an audience and after an interval [of not seeing a person], is intended only as a greeting, as is every [instance of] בְּרָכָה for an audience. It is similar to: “And Jacob blessed (וַיְבָרךְ‏ֶ) Pharaoh” (Gen. 47:7); “Make peace (בְרָכָה) with me” (II Kings 18:31), mentioned in connection with Sennacherib, and, “to greet him and to bless him וּלְבָרְכוֹ” (II Sam. 8:10), mentioned in connection with Toi, king of Hamath. All are expressions of greeting, called in Old French saluder. This, too, viz. בִּרְכָתִי means mon salud, my greeting.   בִּרְכָתִי: מִנְחָתִי, מִנְחָה זוֹ הַבָּאָה עַל רְאִיַּת פָּנִים וְלִפְרָקִים אֵינָה בָאָה אֶלָּא לִשְׁאֵלַת שָׁלוֹם, וְכָל בְּרָכָה שֶׁהִיא לִרְאִיַּת פָּנִים – כְּגוֹן וַיְבָרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב אֶת פַּרְעֹה (בראשית מ״ז:ז׳), עֲשׂוּ אִתִּי בְרָכָה דְּסַנְחֵרִיב (מלכים ב י"ח), וְכֵן לִשְׁאָל לוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם וּלְבָרְכוֹ דְּתֹעִי מֶלֶךְ חֲמָת (שמואל ב ח') – כֻּלָּם לְשׁוֹן בִּרְכַּת שָׁלוֹם הֵן, שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלַעַז שלו"איר, אַף זוֹ בִּרְכָתִי מו"ן שלו"ד:
which has been brought to you: You had no trouble with it, but I have toiled to bring it until it came into your hand. — [from Gen. Rabbah 78:12]   אֲשֶׁר הֻבָאת לָךְ: לֹא טָרַחְתָּ בָּהּ וַאֲנִי יָגַעְתִּי לְהַגִּיעָהּ עַד שֶׁבָּאָה לְיָדְךָ (בראשית רבה):
has favored me: Heb. חַנַנִי. The first “nun” has a “dagesh,” because it serves instead of two “nuns”. It should have been חִנָנַנִי since there is no instance of the root חנן without two “nuns.” The third one is a suffix, similar to “He [did not] make me (עָשָׂנִי)” (Isa. 29:16), “has given me (זְבָדַנִי)” (above 30:20).   חַנַּנִי: נוּ"ן רִאשׁוֹנָה מֻדְגֶּשֶׁת, לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בִּמְקוֹם שְׁתֵּי נוּנִי"ן, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר חֲנָנַנִי, שֶׁאֵין חָנֹן בְּלֹא שְׁתֵּי נוּנִי"ן, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית לְשִׁמּוּשׁ, כְּמוֹ עָשַׂנִי, זְבָדַנִי:
I have everything: All my necessities. Esau, however, spoke haughtily, “I have plenty,” [meaning] much more than I need. — [from Tanchuma Vayishlach 3]   יֶשׁ־לִי־כֹל: כָּל סִפּוּקִי; וְעֵשָׂו דִּבֵּר בִּלְשׁוֹן גַּאֲוָה יֶשׁ לִי רָב, יוֹתֵר וְיוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי צָרְכִּי:
12Thereupon, he said, "Travel and we will go, and I will go alongside you."   יבוַיֹּ֖אמֶר נִסְעָ֣ה וְנֵלֵ֑כָה וְאֵֽלְכָ֖ה לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ:
Travel: Heb. נִסְעָה, similar to: “hear (שְׁמָעָה), forgive (סְלָחָה)” (Dan. 9:19), like שְׁמַע, סְלַח. Here, too, נִסְעָה is like נְסַע, and the “nun” is part of the radical. Therefore, Onkelos renders: טוּל וּנְהךְ‏ַ. Esau said to Jacob, “[You] travel from here and we will go.”   נִסְעָה: כְּמוֹ שִׁמְעָה, סִלְחָה, שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ שְׁמַע, סְלַח, אַף כָּאן נִסְעָה כְּמוֹ נְסַע, וְהַנּוּ"ן יְסוֹד בַּתֵּבָה, וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס טוּל וּנְהָךְ, עֵשָׂו אָמַר לְיַעֲקֹב נְסַע מִכָּאן וְנֵלֵךְ:
and I will go alongside you: Even with you. I will do you a favor and I will lengthen my traveling time to go as slowly as you require. That is the meaning of “alongside you,” even with you.   וְאֵֽלְכָה לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ: בְּשָׁוֶה לְךָ; טוֹבָה זוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂה לְךָ, שֶׁאַאֲרִיךְ יְמֵי מַהֲלַכְתִּי, לָלֶכֶת לְאַט כַּאֲשֶׁר אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, וְזֶהוּ לְנֶגְדֶּךָ – בְּשָׁוֶה לְךָ:
13And he said to him, "My master knows that the children are tender, and the flocks and the cattle, which are raising their young, depend upon me, and if they overdrive them one day, all the flocks will die.   יגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו אֲדֹנִ֤י יֹדֵ֨עַ֙ כִּֽי־הַיְלָדִ֣ים רַכִּ֔ים וְהַצֹּ֥אן וְהַבָּקָ֖ר עָל֣וֹת עָלָ֑י וּדְפָקוּם֙ י֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד וָמֵ֖תוּ כָּל־הַצֹּֽאן:
which are raising their young, depend upon me: The sheep and cattle, which are raising their young, depend on me to lead them slowly.   עָלוֹת עָלָי: הַצֹּאן וְהַבָּקָר, שֶׁהֵן עָלוֹת, מֻטָּלוֹת עָלַי לְנַהֲלָן לְאַט:
which are raising their young: Heb. עָלוֹת raising their young (עוֹלָלֵיהֶן), an expression of “infant (עוֹלֵל) and suckling” (Lam. 2:11), “a youth (עוּל יָמִים)” (Isa. 65:20), “and two nursing (עָלוֹת) cows” (I Sam 6:7), and in French, enfantes, rearing, suckling.   עָלוֹת: מְגַדְּלוֹת עוֹלְלֵיהֶן, לְשׁוֹן עוֹלֵל וְיוֹנֵק (איכה ב'), עוּל יָמִים (ישעיהו ס"ה), וּשְׁתֵּי פָרוֹת עָלוֹת (שמואל א ו') וּבְלַעַז אנפנטיי"ש:
and if they overdrive them one day: to tire them on the road by running, all the flocks will die.   וּדְפָקוּם יוֹם אֶחָד: לְיַגְּעָם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בִּמְרוּצָה ומתו כל הצאן:
and if they overdrive them: Heb. וּדְפָקוּם, lit., and if they knock them, like “Hark! My beloved is knocking (דוֹפֵק)” (Song 5:2), knocking at the door.   וּדְפָקוּם: כְּמוֹ קוֹל דּוֹדִי דּוֹפֵק (שיר השירים), נוֹקֵשׁ בַּדֶּלֶת:
14Now, let my master go ahead before his servant, and I will move [at] my own slow pace, according to the pace of the work that is before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my master, to Seir."   ידיַֽעֲבָר־נָ֥א אֲדֹנִ֖י לִפְנֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲנִ֞י אֶתְנַֽהֲלָ֣ה לְאִטִּ֗י לְרֶ֨גֶל הַמְּלָאכָ֤ה אֲשֶׁר־לְפָנַי֙ וּלְרֶ֣גֶל הַיְלָדִ֔ים עַ֛ד אֲשֶׁר־אָבֹ֥א אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֖י שֵׂעִֽירָה:
Now, let my master go ahead: Please, do not lengthen the days of your traveling. Go ahead according to your speed, even if you will distance yourself [from me].   יַֽעֲבָר־נָא אֲדֹנִי: אַל נָא תַאֲרִיךְ יְמֵי הֲלִיכָתְךָ, עֲבֹר כְּפִי דַּרְכְּךָ וְאַף אִם תִּתְרַחֵק:
and I will move: Heb. אֶתְנַהִלָה, [like] אֶתְנַהֵל, the “hey” is superfluous, like “I will descend (אֵרְדָה)” (above 18:21), “I shall hear (אֶשְׁמְעָה)” (Ps. 85:9).   אֶתְנַֽהֲלָה: אֶתְנַהֵל, הֵ"א יְתֵירָה, כְּמוֹ אֵרְדָה, אֶשְׁמְעָה:
my own slow pace: Heb. לְאִטִי, my slow pace, a term denoting gentleness, [like] “that flow gently (לְאַט)” (Isa. 8:6), “Deal gently (לְאַט) with the lad for my sake” (II Sam. 18:5). [In the word] לְאִטִי, the “lammed” is a radical, [meaning] my slow pace, and it is not a prefix. I will move [at] my own slow pace.   לְאִטִּי: לְאַט שֶׁלִּי, לְשׁוֹן נַחַת, הַהוֹלְכִים לְאַט, לְאַט לִי לַנַּעַר (שמואל ב י"ח). לְאִטִּי הַלָּמֶ"ד מִן הַיְסוֹד, וְאֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת – אֶתְנַהֵל נַחַת שֶׁלִּי:
according to…the work: According to the need made by the pace of the feet of the work [cattle] that I am obliged to lead.   לְרֶגֶל הַמְּלָאכָה: לְפִי צֹרֶךְ הֲלִיכַת רַגְלֵי הַמְּלָאכָה הַמֻּטֶּלֶת עָלַי לְהוֹלִיךְ:
and according to the pace of the children: Heb. וּלְרֶגֶל, according to their feet, how [fast] they can walk.   וּלְרֶגֶל הַיְלָדִים: לְפִי רַגְלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֵם יְכוֹלִים לֵילֵךְ:
until I come to my master, to Seir: He told him of a longer journey, although he intended to go only as far as Succoth. He said [to himself], “If he intends to harm me, he will wait until I come to him,” but he did not go [to Seir]. (Gen. Rabbah 78:14) So when will he go? In the days of the Messiah, as it is said (Obadiah 1:21): “And saviors shall ascend Mt. Zion to judge the mountain of Esau.” There are [also] many midrashic interpretations to this section.   עַד אֲשֶׁר־אָבֹא אֶל־אֲדֹנִי שֵׂעִֽירָה: הִרְחִיב לוֹ הַדֶּרֶךְ, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לָלֶכֶת אֶלָּא עַד סֻכּוֹת; אָמַר אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לִי רָעָה, יַמְתִּין עַד בּוֹאִי אֶצְלוֹ, וְהוּא לֹא הָלַךְ; וְאֵימָתַי יֵלֵךְ? בִּימֵי הַמָּשִׁיחַ (בראשית רבה), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו (עובדיה א'); וּמִדְרְשֵׁי אַגָדָה יֵשׁ לְפָרָשָׁה זוֹ רַבִּים:
15Thereupon Esau said, "Let me leave with you some of the people who are with me." But he said, "Why [do] that? May I find favor in my master's eyes."   טווַיֹּ֣אמֶר עֵשָׂ֔ו אַצִּֽיגָה־נָּ֣א עִמְּךָ֔ מִן־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתִּ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לָ֣מָּה זֶּ֔ה אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי:
But he said, “Why [do] that…”: [Why] should you do me a favor that I do not need?   וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה: תַעֲשֶׂה לִי טוֹבָה זוֹ שֶׁאֵינִי צָרִיךְ לָהּ:
May I find favor in my master’s eyes: And now you shall not pay me any reward.   אֶמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנִֽי: וְלֹא תְשַׁלֵּם לִי עַתָּה שׁוּם גְּמוּל:
16So Esau returned on that day on his way to Seir.   טזוַיָּ֩שָׁב֩ בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֥וּא עֵשָׂ֛ו לְדַרְכּ֖וֹ שֵׂעִֽירָה:
Esau returned on…his way: (Gen. Rabbah 78:15) Esau alone, the four hundred men slipped away one by one. Where did the Holy One, blessed be He, recompense them? In the days of David, as it is said: “[and none of them escaped] except four hundred young men who rode on the camels” (I Sam. 30:17).   וַיָּשָׁב בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא עֵשָׂו לְדַרְכּוֹ: עֵשָׂו לְבַדּוֹ, וְד' מֵאוֹת אִישׁ שֶׁהָלְכוּ עִמּוֹ נִשְׁמְטוּ מֵאֶצְלוֹ אֶחָד אֶחָד, וְהֵיכָן פָּרַע לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא? בִּימֵי דָוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כִּי אִם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ נַעַר אֲשֶׁר רָכְבוּ עַל הַגְּמַלִּים (שמואל א ל') (בראשית רבה):
17And Jacob traveled to Succoth and built himself a house, and for his cattle he made booths; therefore he named the place Succoth.   יזוְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ נָסַ֣ע סֻכֹּ֔תָה וַיִּ֥בֶן ל֖וֹ בָּ֑יִת וּלְמִקְנֵ֨הוּ֙ עָשָׂ֣ה סֻכֹּ֔ת עַל־כֵּ֛ן קָרָ֥א שֵֽׁם־הַמָּק֖וֹם סֻכּֽוֹת:
and built himself a house: He stayed there eighteen months: summer, winter, and summer. “Succoth” denotes summer. “A house” denotes winter, and [again] “succoth” denotes summer. — [from Gen. Rabbah 78:16]   וַיִּבֶן לוֹ בָּיִת: שָׁהָה שָׁם י"ח חֹדֶשׁ, קַיִץ וְחֹרֶף וְקַיִץ (מגילה י"ז), סֻכּוֹת – קַיִץ; בַּיִת – חֹרֶף, סֻכּוֹת – קַיִץ:
18And Jacob came safely [to] the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan aram, and he encamped before the city.   יחוַיָּבֹא֩ יַֽעֲקֹ֨ב שָׁלֵ֜ם עִ֣יר שְׁכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן בְּבֹא֖וֹ מִפַּדַּ֣ן אֲרָ֑ם וַיִּ֖חַן אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י הָעִֽיר:
And Jacob came safely: Heb. שָׁלֵם, lit., whole, unimpaired in his body, for he was cured of his limp and whole with his money. He did not lose anything because of that entire gift that he had given Esau. [He was also] whole with his Torah, for he had not forgotten [any of] his studies in Laban’s house. — [from Gen. Rabbah 79:5, Shab. 33b]   שָׁלֵם: שָׁלֵם בְּגוּפוֹ, שֶׁנִּתְרַפֵּא מִצָּלַעְתּוֹ; שָׁלֵם בְּמָמוֹנוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא חָסַר כְּלוּם מִכָּל אוֹתוֹ דּוֹרוֹן; שָׁלֵם בְּתוֹרָתוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא שָׁכַח תַּלְמוּדוֹ בְּבֵית לָבָן (שבת ל"ג):
the city of Shechem: Heb. עִיר, [meaning] the city of Shechem, like לְעִיר, to the city, and similar to this, “until they came to Bethlehem (בֵּית לֶחֶם)” (Ruth 1:19).   עִיר שְׁכֶם: כְּמוֹ לְעִיר, וְכָמוֹהוּ עַד בּוֹאָנָה בֵּית לָחֶם (רות א'):
when he came from Padan-aram: Like a person who says to his companion, “So-and-so came out from between the teeth of lions and returned safely.” Here too, he came whole from Padan-aram, from Laban and from Esau, who had come to attack him on the way.   בְּבֹאוֹ מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם: כְּאָדָם הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ יָצָא פְּלוֹנִי מִבֵּין שִׁנֵּי אֲרָיוֹת וּבָא שָׁלֵם, אַף כָּאן וַיָּבֹא שָׁלֵם מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם, מִלָּבָן וּמֵעֵשָׂו שֶׁנִזְדַּוְּגוּ לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ:
19And he bought the part of the field where he had pitched his tent from the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for a hundred kesitas.   יטוַיִּ֜קֶן אֶת־חֶלְקַ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָֽטָה־שָׁם֙ אָהֳל֔וֹ מִיַּ֥ד בְּנֵֽי־חֲמ֖וֹר אֲבִ֣י שְׁכֶ֑ם בְּמֵאָ֖ה קְשִׂיטָֽה:
kesitas: [This is a coin known as] a ma’ah. Rabbi Akiva said, “When I traveled to the cities by the sea, they called a ma’ah, kesita.” (The Targum renders it חוּרְפָן, good, acceptable everywhere, like [above 23:16] “accepted by the merchant”). [from Rosh Hashanah 26a]   קְשִׂיטָֽה: מָעָה. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא כְּשֶׁהָלַכְתִּי לִכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם הָיוּ קוֹרִין לְמָעָה קְשִׂיטָה (וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ חוּרְפָן – טוֹבִים, חֲרִיפִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם, כְּגוֹן עוֹבֵר לַסּוֹחֵר):
20There he erected an altar, and he named it "God is the God of Israel."   כוַיַּצֶּב־שָׁ֖ם מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּ֨קְרָא־ל֔וֹ אֵ֖ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and he named it, “God is the God of Israel.”: Not that the altar is called “the God of Israel,” but since the Holy One, blessed be He, had been with him and saved him, he named the altar because of the miracle, in-order that the praise of G-d be mentioned when it was called by its name. That is to say: He Who is God that is the Holy One, blessed be He-He is God to me, whose name is Israel. We find something similar in connection with Moses: “and he named it Hashem Nissi” (Exod. 17:15). Not that the altar was called Hashem, but because of the miracle he named the altar thus, to mention the praise of the Holy One, blessed be He: “The Lord is my miracle.” Our Rabbis (Meg. 18a) interpreted it to mean that the Holy One, blessed be He, called Jacob God [rendering: and the God of Israel called him God]. The words of Torah are “like a hammer that shatters a rock” (Jer. 23:29). They divide into many meanings, but I have come to establish the simple meaning of the verse.   וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ אֵל אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עִמּוֹ וְהִצִּילוֹ קָרָא שֵׁם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל שֵׁם הַנֵּס, לִהְיוֹת שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם נִזְכָּר בִּקְרִיאַת הַשֵּׁם, כְּלוֹמַר מִי שֶׁהוּא אֵל, הוּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא לֵאלֹהִים לִי, שֶׁשְּׁמִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן מָצִינוּ בְּמֹשֶׁה וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ ה' נִסִּי (שמות י"ז), לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי ה', אֶלָּא עַל שֵׁם הַנֵּס קָרָא שֵׁם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְהַזְכִּיר שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, ה' הוּא נִסִּי. וְרַבּוֹתֵנוּ דָּרְשׁוּ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קְרָאוֹ לְיַעֲקֹב אֵל (מגילה י"ח); וְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּפַטִּישׁ יְפֹצֵץ סָלַע (ע' שבת פ"ח) – מִתְחַלְּקִים לְכַמָּה טְעָמִים, וַאֲנִי לְיַשֵּׁב פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא בָּאתִי: