Genesis Chapter 34

1Dinah, the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to look about among the daughters of the land.   אוַתֵּצֵ֤א דִינָה֙ בַּת־לֵאָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָֽלְדָ֖ה לְיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב לִרְא֖וֹת בִּבְנ֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ:
the daughter of Leah: And not the daughter of Jacob? However, because of her going out she was called the daughter of Leah, since she (Leah) too was in the habit of going out, as it is said: “and Leah came forth toward him” (above 30:16). [from Tanchuma Vayishlach 7] (And concerning her, they devise the proverb: Like mother like daughter.) - [Gen. Rabbah 80:1]   בת לאה: ולא בת יעקב, אלא על שם יציאתה נקראת בת לאה, שאף היא יצאנית היתה, שנאמר (ל טז) ותצא לאה לקראתו (ועליה משלו המשל (יחזקאל טז מד) כאמה כבתה):
2And Shechem the son of Hamor, the Hivvite, the prince of the land, saw her, and he took her, lay with her, and violated her.   בוַיַּ֨רְא אֹתָ֜הּ שְׁכֶ֧ם בֶּן־חֲמ֛וֹר הַֽחִוִּ֖י נְשִׂ֣יא הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּקַּ֥ח אֹתָ֛הּ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב אֹתָ֖הּ וַיְעַנֶּֽהָ:
lay with her: in a natural way. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:5]   וישכב אתה: כדרכה:
and violated her: Heb. וַיְעַנֶהָ, lit., and afflicted her. [I.e. he was intimate with her] in an unnatural way. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80: 5]   ויענה: שלא כדרכה:
3And his soul cleaved to Dinah the daughter of Jacob; he loved the girl and spoke to the girl's heart.   גוַתִּדְבַּ֣ק נַפְשׁ֔וֹ בְּדִינָ֖ה בַּת־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וַיֶּֽאֱהַב֙ אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָה֔ (כתיב הנער) וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לֵ֥ב הַנַּֽעֲרָֽה (כתיב הנער) :
and spoke to the girl’s heart: [I.e. he spoke] seductive words,“Look how much money your father squandered for a small parcel of land. I will marry you, and you will acquire the city and all its fields.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 80:7]   על לב הנערה: דברים המתיישבין על הלב, ראי אביך בחלקת שדה קטנה כמה ממון בזבז, אני אשיאך ותקנה העיר וכל שדותיה: 
4And Shechem spoke to his father Hamor saying, "Take this girl for me as a wife."   דוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁכֶ֔ם אֶל־חֲמ֥וֹר אָבִ֖יו לֵאמֹ֑ר קַח־לִ֛י אֶת־הַיַּלְדָּ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לְאִשָּֽׁה:
5Jacob had heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah, but his sons were with his livestock in the field, and Jacob kept silent until they came [home].   הוְיַֽעֲקֹ֣ב שָׁמַ֗ע כִּ֤י טִמֵּא֙ אֶת־דִּינָ֣ה בִתּ֔וֹ וּבָנָ֛יו הָי֥וּ אֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וְהֶֽחֱרִ֥שׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב עַד־בֹּאָֽם:
6And Hamor, the father of Shechem, went out to Jacob to speak with him.   ווַיֵּצֵ֛א חֲמ֥וֹר אֲבִֽי־שְׁכֶ֖ם אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב לְדַבֵּ֖ר אִתּֽוֹ:
7And Jacob's sons had come from the field when they heard, and the men were grieved, and they burned fiercely, because he had committed a scandalous act in Israel, to lie with a daughter of Jacob, and such ought not to be done.   זוּבְנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב בָּ֤אוּ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה֙ כְּשָׁמְעָ֔ם וַיִּתְעַצְּבוּ֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיִּ֥חַר לָהֶ֖ם מְאֹ֑ד כִּ֣י נְבָלָ֞ה עָשָׂ֣ה בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־בַּת־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְכֵ֖ן לֹ֥א יֵֽעָשֶֽׂה:
and such ought not to be done-: to violate virgins, for the nations (the general population) had refrained from illicit relationships because of the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:7]   וכן לא יעשה: לענות את הבתולות, שהאומות גדרו עצמן מן העריות על ידי המבול:
8And Hamor spoke with them, saying, "My son Shechem his soul has a liking for your daughter. Please give her to him for a wife.   חוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר חֲמ֖וֹר אִתָּ֣ם לֵאמֹ֑ר שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנִ֗י חָֽשְׁקָ֤ה נַפְשׁוֹ֙ בְּבִתְּכֶ֔ם תְּנ֨וּ נָ֥א אֹתָ֛הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
has a liking: He desires.   חשקה: חפצה: 
9And intermarry with us; you shall give us your daughters, and you shall take our daughters for yourselves.   טוְהִתְחַתְּנ֖וּ אֹתָ֑נוּ בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ תִּתְּנוּ־לָ֔נוּ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֖ינוּ תִּקְח֥וּ לָכֶֽם:
10And you shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you; remain, do business there and settle there."   יוְאִתָּ֖נוּ תֵּשֵׁ֑בוּ וְהָאָ֨רֶץ֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם שְׁבוּ֙ וּסְחָר֔וּהָ וְהֵאָֽחֲז֖וּ בָּֽהּ:
11And Shechem said to her father and to her brothers, "May I find favor in your eyes. Whatever you tell me I will give.   יאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁכֶם֙ אֶל־אָבִ֣יהָ וְאֶל־אַחֶ֔יהָ אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵֽינֵיכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲשֶׁ֧ר תֹּאמְר֛וּ אֵלַ֖י אֶתֵּֽן:
12Impose upon me a large marriage settlement and gifts, and I will give as [much as] you ask of me, but give me the girl for a wife."   יבהַרְבּ֨וּ עָלַ֤י מְאֹד֙ מֹ֣הַר וּמַתָּ֔ן וְאֶ֨תְּנָ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תֹּֽאמְר֖וּ אֵלָ֑י וּתְנוּ־לִ֥י אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָ֖ (כתיב הנער) לְאִשָּֽׁה:
marriage settlement: Kethubah- [from Mechilta Mishpatim, Nezikin 17]   מהר: כתובה:
13Thereupon, Jacob's sons answered Shechem and his father Hamor with cunning, and they spoke, because [after all] he had defiled their sister Dinah.   יגוַיַּֽעֲנ֨וּ בְנֵי־יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶת־שְׁכֶ֨ם וְאֶת־חֲמ֥וֹר אָבִ֛יו בְּמִרְמָ֖ה וַיְדַבֵּ֑רוּ אֲשֶׁ֣ר טִמֵּ֔א אֵ֖ת דִּינָ֥ה אֲחֹתָֽם:
with cunning: Heb. בְּמִרְמָה, with cunning. — [from Targum Onkelos]   במרמה: בחכמה:
because [after all] he had defiled: Scripture states that this was not trickery because [after all] he had defiled their sister Dinah. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:8]   אשר טמא: הכתוב אומר שלא היתה רמיה, שהרי טמא את דינה אחותם:
14And they said to them, "We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin, for that is a disgrace to us.   ידוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם לֹ֤א נוּכַל֙ לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה לָתֵת֙ אֶת־אֲחֹתֵ֔נוּ לְאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־ל֣וֹ עָרְלָ֑ה כִּֽי־חֶרְפָּ֥ה הִ֖וא לָֽנוּ:
for that is a disgrace to us: To us, it is a defect. If someone wishes to insult another person, he says, “You are uncircumcised,” or“[You are] the son of an uncircumcised person.” Wherever חֶרְפָּה is mentioned, it is an [expression of] insult.   חרפה הוא: שמץ פסול הוא אצלנו, הבא לחרף חבירו הוא אומר לו ערל אתה, או בן ערל. חרפה בכל מקום גדוף:
15But with this, however, we will consent to you, if you will be like us, that every male will be circumcised.   טואַךְ־בְּזֹ֖את נֵא֣וֹת לָכֶ֑ם אִ֚ם תִּֽהְי֣וּ כָמֹ֔נוּ לְהִמֹּ֥ל לָכֶ֖ם כָּל־זָכָֽר:
we will consent to you: Heb. נֵאוֹת. We will consent to you, an expression like (וַיֵאֹתוּ הַכֹּהִנִים) ,“And (the priests) consented,” (in connection with Jehoiada) (II Kings 12:9).   נאות לכם: נתרצה לכם, לשון (מ"ב יב ט) ויאותו:
will be circumcised: Heb. לְהִמֹל, lit., to be circumcised. This is not in the active voice but in the passive.   להמול: להיות נמול, אינו לשון לפעול אלא לשון להפעל:
16Then we will give you our daughters, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we will dwell with you and become one people.   טזוְנָתַ֤נּוּ אֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֨ינוּ֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶת־בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם נִקַּח־לָ֑נוּ וְיָשַׁ֣בְנוּ אִתְּכֶ֔ם וְהָיִ֖ינוּ לְעַ֥ם אֶחָֽד:
Then we will give: Heb. וְנָתַנוּ. The second “nun” is punctuated with a “dagesh,” because it serves instead of two“nuns,” [like] וְנָתַנְנוּ.   ונתנו: נו"ן שניה מודגשת, לפי שהיא משמשת במקום שתי נוני"ן ונתננו:
and we will take your daughters for ourselves: You find in the stipulation that Hamor suggested to Jacob, and in the reply of Jacob’s sons to Hamor, that they [Hamor and Shechem] attached importance to Jacob’s sons, [allowing them] to take whomever of the daughters of Shechem they would choose for themselves, and their daughters they would give to them [the people of Shechem], as they (the sons of Jacob) wished, for it is written: “Then we will give you our daughters,” as we wish, “and we will take your daughters for ourselves,” however we wish. But, when Hamor and his son Shechem spoke to their townsmen, they reversed the matter, [and said (verse 21),]“We will take their daughters for ourselves as wives, and our daughters we will give them,” in order to appease them (the townsmen), that they would consent to be circumcised.   ואת בנותיכם נקח לנו: אתה מוצא בתנאי שאמר חמור ליעקב ובתשובת בני יעקב לחמור שתלו החשיבות בבני יעקב, ליקח בנות שכם את שיבחרו להם ובנותיהם יתנו להם לפי דעתם, דכתיב ונתנו את בנותינו, לפי דעתינו, ואת בנותיכם נקח לנו, ככל אשר נחפוץ. וכשדברו חמור ושכם בנו אל יושבי עירם הפכו הדברים (פסוק כא) את בנותם נקח לנו לנשים ואת בנותינו נתן להם, כדי לרצותם שיאותו להמול:   
17But if you do not listen to us to be circumcised, we will take our daughter and go."   יזוְאִם־לֹ֧א תִשְׁמְע֛וּ אֵלֵ֖ינוּ לְהִמּ֑וֹל וְלָקַ֥חְנוּ אֶת־בִּתֵּ֖נוּ וְהָלָֽכְנוּ:
18Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem, the son of Hamor.   יחוַיִּֽיטְב֥וּ דִבְרֵיהֶ֖ם בְּעֵינֵ֣י חֲמ֑וֹר וּבְעֵינֵ֖י שְׁכֶ֥ם בֶּן־חֲמֽוֹר:
19And the young man did not delay to do the thing because he desired Jacob's daughter, and he was the most honored in all his father's household.   יטוְלֹֽא־אֵחַ֤ר הַנַּ֨עַר֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת הַדָּבָ֔ר כִּ֥י חָפֵ֖ץ בְּבַת־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְה֣וּא נִכְבָּ֔ד מִכֹּ֖ל בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיו:
20And Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city, and they spoke to the people of their city, saying,   כוַיָּבֹ֥א חֲמ֛וֹר וּשְׁכֶ֥ם בְּנ֖וֹ אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר עִירָ֑ם וַיְדַבְּר֛וּ אֶל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י עִירָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
21"These men are peaceful with us, and they will dwell in the land and do business there, and the land behold it is spacious enough for them. We will take their daughters for ourselves as wives, and we will give them our daughters.   כאהָֽאֲנָשִׁ֨ים הָאֵ֜לֶּה שְׁלֵמִ֧ים הֵ֣ם אִתָּ֗נוּ וְיֵֽשְׁב֤וּ בָאָ֨רֶץ֙ וְיִסְחֲר֣וּ אֹתָ֔הּ וְהָאָ֛רֶץ הִנֵּ֥ה רַֽחֲבַת־יָדַ֖יִם לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם אֶת־בְּנֹתָם֙ נִקַּח־לָ֣נוּ לְנָשִׁ֔ים וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֖ינוּ נִתֵּ֥ן לָהֶֽם:
These men are peaceful with us: Heb. שְׁלֵמִים. With peace and sincerity.   שלמים: בשלום ובלב שלם:
and the land-behold it is spacious enough: [The metaphor is that of] a person whose hand is wide and generous. That is to say: You will not lose anything [if they trade here]. Plenty of merchandise comes here, and there is no one to purchase it.   והארץ הנה רחבת ידים: כאדם שידו רחבה וותרנית, כלומר לא תפסידו כלום, פרקמטיא הרבה באה לכאן ואין לה קונים:
22However, [only] with this [condition] will the men consent to dwell with us, to become one people, by every male among us being circumcised, just as they are circumcised.   כבאַךְ־בְּ֠זֹ֠את יֵאֹ֨תוּ לָ֤נוּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אִתָּ֔נוּ לִֽהְי֖וֹת לְעַ֣ם אֶחָ֑ד בְּהִמּ֥וֹל לָ֨נוּ֙ כָּל־זָכָ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר הֵ֥ם נִמֹּלִֽים:
by…being circumcised: Heb. בְּהִמוֹל, by being circumcised.   בהמול: בהיות נמול:
23Then shall not their cattle, their property, and all their beasts be ours? But let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us."   כגמִקְנֵהֶ֤ם וְקִנְיָנָם֙ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתָּ֔ם הֲל֥וֹא לָ֖נוּ הֵ֑ם אַ֚ךְ נֵא֣וֹתָה לָהֶ֔ם וְיֵֽשְׁב֖וּ אִתָּֽנוּ:
But let us consent to them: regarding this matter, and thereby, they will dwell with us.   אך נאותה להם: לדבר זה, ועל ידי כן ישבו אתנו:
24And all those coming out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and his son Shechem, and every male, all who went out of the gate of his city, became circumcised.   כדוַיִּשְׁמְע֤וּ אֶל־חֲמוֹר֙ וְאֶל־שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנ֔וֹ כָּל־יֹֽצְאֵ֖י שַׁ֣עַר עִיר֑וֹ וַיִּמֹּ֨לוּ֙ כָּל־זָכָ֔ר כָּל־יֹֽצְאֵ֖י שַׁ֥עַר עִירֽוֹ:
25Now it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that Jacob's two sons, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, each took his sword, and they came upon the city with confidence, and they slew every male.   כהוַיְהִי֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֜י בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֣ם כֹּֽאֲבִ֗ים וַיִּקְח֣וּ שְׁנֵֽי־בְנֵֽי־יַֽ֠עֲקֹ֠ב שִׁמְע֨וֹן וְלֵוִ֜י אֲחֵ֤י דִינָה֙ אִ֣ישׁ חַרְבּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ עַל־הָעִ֖יר בֶּ֑טַח וַיַּֽהַרְג֖וּ כָּל־זָכָֽר:
Jacob’s two sons: They were his sons, but nevertheless, Simeon and Levi conducted themselves like other people, who were not his sons, for they did not take counsel with him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:10]   שני בני יעקב: בניו היו, ואף על פי כן נהגו עצמן שמעון ולוי, כשאר אנשים שאינם בניו, שלא נטלו עצה הימנו:
Dinah’s brothers: Since they risked their lives for her, they were called her brothers. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:10]   אחי דינה: לפי שמסרו עצמן עליה נקראו אחיה:
with confidence: Because they (the townsmen) were in pain. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 80:10) says: They were confident in the strength of the elder (Jacob).   בטח: שהיו כואבים. ומדרש אגדה בטוחים היו על כחו של זקן:
26And Hamor and his son Shechem they slew with the edge of the sword, and they took Dinah out of Shechem's house and left.   כווְאֶת־חֲמוֹר֙ וְאֶת־שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנ֔וֹ הָֽרְג֖וּ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב וַיִּקְח֧וּ אֶת־דִּינָ֛ה מִבֵּ֥ית שְׁכֶ֖ם וַיֵּצֵֽאוּ:
27Jacob's sons came upon the slain and plundered the city that had defiled their sister.   כזבְּנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב בָּ֚אוּ עַל־הַ֣חֲלָלִ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖זּוּ הָעִ֑יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר טִמְּא֖וּ אֲחוֹתָֽם:
upon the slain: to strip the slain. [from Targum Onkelos]   על החללים: לפשט את החללים:
28Their flocks and their cattle and their donkeys, and whatever was in the city and whatever was in the field they took.   כחאֶת־צֹאנָ֥ם וְאֶת־בְּקָרָ֖ם וְאֶת־חֲמֹֽרֵיהֶ֑ם וְאֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִ֛יר וְאֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֖ה לָקָֽחוּ:
29And all their wealth and all their infants and their wives they captured and plundered, and all that was in the house.   כטוְאֶת־כָּל־חֵילָ֤ם וְאֶת־כָּל־טַפָּם֙ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁיהֶ֔ם שָׁב֖וּ וַיָּבֹ֑זּוּ וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּבָּֽיִת:
And all their wealth: Heb. חֵילָם, their money, and similarly;“amassed this wealth (הַחַיִל) for me” (Deut. 8:17);“and Israel amasses wealth (חָיִל)” (Num. 24: 18);“and leave over their possessions (חֵילָם) to others” (Ps. 49:11).   חילם: ממונם וכן (דברים ח יז) עשה לי את החיל הזה, (במדבר כד יח) וישראל עושה חיל, (תהלים מט יא) ועזבו לאחרים חילם:
they captured: Heb. שָׁבוּ, a term denoting captivity. Therefore, the accent is on the latter syllable. — [from Targum Onkelos]   שבו: לשון שביה [לפיכך טעמו מלרע]:
30Thereupon, Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, "You have troubled me, to discredit me among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and among the Perizzites, and I am few in number, and they will gather against me, and I and my household will be destroyed."   לוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶל־שִׁמְע֣וֹן וְאֶל־לֵוִי֘ עֲכַרְתֶּ֣ם אֹתִי֒ לְהַבְאִישֵׁ֨נִי֙ בְּישֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֔רֶץ בַּכְּנַֽעֲנִ֖י וּבַפְּרִזִּ֑י וַֽאֲנִי֙ מְתֵ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר וְנֶֽאֶסְפ֤וּ עָלַי֙ וְהִכּ֔וּנִי וְנִשְׁמַדְתִּ֖י אֲנִ֥י וּבֵיתִֽי:
You have troubled me: Heb. עִכַרְתֶּם, an expression denoting murky water [meaning that] now my mind is not clear [without worry]. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 80: 12) [explains]: The barrel was clear, but you have made it murky. (I.e., I saw our way clear to co-exist with the Canaanites, but now you have spoiled the possibility to do so.) The Canaanites had a tradition that they would fall into the hands of Jacob’s sons, but they said [that this would only happen],“Until you are fruitful and inherit the land” (Exod. 23:30). Therefore, they have been silent.   עכרתם: לשון מים עכורים, אין דעתי צלולה עכשיו. ואגדה צלולה היתה החבית ועכרתם אותה, מסורת היתה ביד כנענים שיפלו ביד בני יעקב, אלא שהיו אומרים (שמות כג ל) עד אשר תפרה ונחלת את הארץ, לפיכך היו שותקין:
few in number: few men.   מתי מספר: אנשים מועטים:
31And they said, "Shall he make our sister like a harlot?"   לאוַֽיֹּאמְר֑וּ הַֽכְזוֹנָ֕ה יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־אֲחוֹתֵֽנוּ:
like a harlot: Abandoned- [from Gen. Rabbah 80:12]   הכזונה: הפקר:
our sister: [Onkelos renders] יָת לַאֲחָתָנָא, our sister.   את אחותנו: ית אחתנא:

Genesis Chapter 35

1And God said to Jacob, "Arise and go up to Beth el and abide there, and make there an altar to the God Who appeared to you when you fled from your brother Esau."   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב ק֛וּם עֲלֵ֥ה בֵֽית־אֵ֖ל וְשֶׁב־שָׁ֑ם וַֽעֲשֵׂה־שָׁ֣ם מִזְבֵּ֔חַ לָאֵל֙ הַנִּרְאֶ֣ה אֵלֶ֔יךָ בְּבָ֨רְחֲךָ֔ מִפְּנֵ֖י עֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִֽיךָ:
Arise and go up: (Tanchuma Vayishlach 8) Since you tarried on the way, you were punished, and this trouble with your daughter has befallen you.   קום עלה: לפי שאחרת בדרך נענשת ובא לך זאת מבתך:
2Thereupon Jacob said to his household and to all those who were with him, "Remove the deities of the foreign nations, which are in your midst, purify yourselves and change your clothes.   בוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וְאֶ֖ל כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ הָסִ֜רוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַנֵּכָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּתֹֽכְכֶ֔ם וְהִטַּֽהֲר֔וּ וְהַֽחֲלִ֖יפוּ שִׂמְלֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
the foreign nations: That you have in your possession from the spoils of Shechem. — from Zohar, vol. 1, 173a]   הנכר: שיש בידכם משלל של שכם:
purify yourselves: from idolatry.   והטהרו: מעבודה זרה:
and change your clothes: Perhaps you have the clothing of idols in your possession. — [from Gen. Rabbah 81:3]   והחליפו שמלותיכם: שמא יש בידכם כסות של עבודה זרה:
3And we will arise and go up to Beth el, and I will make an altar to the God Who answered me on the day of my distress, and was with me on the way that I went."   גוְנָק֥וּמָה וְנַֽעֲלֶ֖ה בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־שָּׁ֣ם מִזְבֵּ֗חַ לָאֵ֞ל הָֽעֹנֶ֤ה אֹתִי֙ בְּי֣וֹם צָֽרָתִ֔י וַֽיְהִי֙ עִמָּדִ֔י בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽכְתִּי:
4And they gave Jacob all the deities of the nations that were in their possession and the earrings that were in their ears, and Jacob hid them under the terebinth that was near Shechem.   דוַיִּתְּנ֣וּ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב אֵ֣ת כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַנֵּכָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיָדָ֔ם וְאֶת־הַנְּזָמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּאָזְנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּטְמֹ֤ן אֹתָם֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב תַּ֥חַת הָֽאֵלָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִם־שְׁכֶֽם:
under the terebinth: Heb. אֵלָה, a species of tree that bears no fruit.   האלה: מין אילן סרק:
near Shechem: Heb. עִם-שְׁכֶם, lit., with Shechem, [meaning] next to Shechem. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   עם שכם: אצל שכם:
5Then they traveled, and the fear of God was upon the cities that were around them, so that they did not pursue Jacob's sons.   הוַיִּסָּ֑עוּ וַיְהִ֣י | חִתַּ֣ת אֱלֹהִ֗ים עַל־הֶֽעָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיב֣וֹתֵיהֶ֔ם וְלֹ֣א רָֽדְפ֔וּ אַֽחֲרֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
and the fear: terror.   חתת: פחד:
6And Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan that is Beth el he and all the people who were with him.   ווַיָּבֹ֨א יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב ל֗וּזָה אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן הִ֖וא בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל ה֖וּא וְכָל־הָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־עִמּֽוֹ:
7He built there an altar, and he called the place El Beth el, for there God had been revealed to him when he fled from before his brother Esau.   זוַיִּ֤בֶן שָׁם֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ וַיִּקְרָא֙ לַמָּק֔וֹם אֵ֖ל בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל כִּ֣י שָׁ֗ם נִגְל֤וּ אֵלָיו֙ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים בְּבָרְח֖וֹ מִפְּנֵ֥י אָחִֽיו:
El Beth-el: Heb. בֵּית-אֵל אֵל, The Holy One, blessed be He, is in Beth-el (בְּבֵית-אֵל) the manifestation of His presence is in Beth-el. Some words lack the prefix “beth,” [meaning “in,”] like“Behold, he is in the house of (בֵּית) Machir, the son of Ammiel” (II Sam. 9:4), [Which is equivalent to] מָכִיר בְּבֵית [Also,]“in your father’s house (בֵּית אָבִי‏),” [equivalent to] בְּבֵית אָבִי‏ [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   אל בית אל: הקב"ה בבית אל גילוי שכינתו בבית אל. יש תיבה חסרה בי"ת המשמשת בראשה, כמו (ש"ב ט ד) הנה הוא בית מכיר בן עמיאל, כמו בבית מכיר, (להלן לח יא) בית אביך כמו בבית אביך:
had been revealed to him: Heb. נִגְלוּ, the plural form. In many places, the noun referring to godliness or mastership appears in the plural form, like“Joseph’s master (אִדוֹנֵי יוֹסֵף)” (Gen. 39:20),“if its owner (בְּעָלָיו) is with him” (Exod. 22:14), and it does not say בַּעִלוֹ. Likewise, אֱלָהוּת (godliness), an expression of judgment and lordship, is mentioned in the plural form, but none of the other names [of the Deity] are found in the plural form. — [from Sanh. 38b]   נגלו אליו הא-להים: במקומות הרבה יש שם אלהות ואדנות בלשון רבים, כמו (להלן לט כ) א-דני יוסף, (שמות כב יד) אם בעליו עמו, ולא נאמר בעלו, וכן אלהות שהוא לשון שופט ומרות נזכר בלשון רבים, אבל אחד מכל שאר השמות לא תמצא בלשון רבים:
8And Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, died, and she was buried beneath Beth el, beneath the plain; so he named it Allon Bachuth.   חוַתָּ֤מָת דְּבֹרָה֙ מֵינֶ֣קֶת רִבְקָ֔ה וַתִּקָּבֵ֛ר מִתַּ֥חַת לְבֵֽית־אֵ֖ל תַּ֣חַת הָֽאַלּ֑וֹן וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ אַלּ֥וֹן בָּכֽוּת:
And Deborah…died: What connection does Deborah have with Jacob’s household? However, since Rebecca said to Jacob, “and I will send and take you from there” (above 27:45), [it was] Deborah [whom] she sent to him, to Padan-aram [to instruct him] to leave from there, and she died on the way. I learned this from the words of Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi, p. 113]   ותמת דבורה: מה ענין דבורה בבית יעקב, אלא לפי שאמרה רבקה ליעקב (כז מה) ושלחתי ולקחתיך משם, שלחה דבורה אצלו לפדן ארם לצאת משם, ומתה בדרך. מדברי רבי משה הדרשן למדתיה:
beneath Beth-el: The city was situated on a mountain, and she was buried at the foot of the mountain.   מתחת לבית אל: העיר יושבת בהר ונקברה ברגלי ההר:
beneath the plain: [Onkelos renders:] at the bottom of the plain, for there was a plain above, on the incline of the mountain, and the grave was below, and the plain of Beth-el was called Allon. The Aggadah [tells us that] he was informed there of another mourning, for he was told about his mother, who died (Gen. Rabbah 81:5), and Allon in Greek means“another.” For the following reason, the day of her death was concealed, viz. so that people should not curse the womb whence Esau had emerged. Therefore, neither did Scripture publicize it.   תחת האלון: בשפולי מישרא, שהיה מישור מלמעלה בשפוע ההר והקבורה מלמטה, ומישור של בית אל היו קורין לו אלון. ואגדה נתבשר שם באבל שני, שהוגד לו על אמו שמתה. ואלון בלשון יוני אחר. ולפי שהעלימו את יום מותה, שלא יקללו הבריות הכרס שיצא ממנו עשו, אף הכתוב לא פרסמו:
9And God appeared again to Jacob when he came from Padan aram, and He blessed him.   טוַיֵּרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹב֙ ע֔וֹד בְּבֹא֖וֹ מִפַּדַּ֣ן אֲרָ֑ם וַיְבָ֖רֶךְ אֹתֽוֹ:
again: The second time in this place: once when he went away and once when he returned.   עוד: פעם שני במקום הזה, אחד בלכתו ואחד בשובו:
and He blessed him: [with] the blessing of [the consolation bestowed upon] mourners. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:3]   ויברך אתו: ברכת אבלים:
10God said to him, "Your name is Jacob. Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name." And He named him Israel.   יוַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים שִׁמְךָ֣ יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵא֩ שִׁמְךָ֨ ע֜וֹד יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב כִּ֤י אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה שְׁמֶ֔ךָ וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Your name shall no longer be called Jacob: Heb. יַעִקֹב, an expression of a man who comes with stealth and guile (עָקְבָה), but [יִשְׂרָאֵל], a term denoting a prince (שַׂר) and a chief. — [from Zohar vol. 1, 1712, vol. 3, 45a, and Chullin 92a]   לא יקרא שמך עוד יעקב: לשון אדם הבא במארב ועקבה אלא לשון שר ונגיד:
11And God said to him, "I am the Almighty God; be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a multitude of nations shall come into existence from you, and kings shall come forth from your loins.   יאוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ ל֨וֹ אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֲנִ֨י אֵ֤ל שַׁדַּי֙ פְּרֵ֣ה וּרְבֵ֔ה גּ֛וֹי וּקְהַ֥ל גּוֹיִ֖ם יִֽהְיֶ֣ה מִמֶּ֑ךָּ וּמְלָכִ֖ים מֵֽחֲלָצֶ֥יךָ יֵצֵֽאוּ:
I am the Almighty God: Heb. שַׁדַּי. For I have the power (כְּדַי) to bless, because the blessings are Mine.   אני אל שדי: שאני כדאי לברך, שהברכות שלי:
be fruitful and multiply: [God bestowed this blessing upon Jacob] because Benjamin was not yet born, although (Rachel) was already pregnant with him.   פרה ורבה: על שם שעדיין לא נולד בנימין ואף על פי שכבר נתעברה ממנו:
a nation-: Benjamin. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:4]   גוי: בנימין:
nations: Manasseh and Ephraim, who were destined to emanate from Joseph, and [were counted] in the number of the tribes. — [from Gen. Rabbah loc. cit.]   גוים: מנשה ואפרים שעתידים לצאת מיוסף, והם במנין השבטים:
and kings: Saul and Ishbosheth, who were of the tribe of Benjamin, who had not yet been born. (Abner interpreted this verse [in this sense] when he crowned Ishbosheth, and the tribes too interpreted it [in this sense] and became friendly again with Benjamin, as it is written: “No man from us shall give his daughter to Benjamin for a wife” (Jud. 21:1)-they retracted this and said,“Were he (Benjamin) not to be counted among the tribes, the Holy One, blessed be He, would not have said to Jacob, ‘and kings shall come forth from your loins.’”) [Old Rashi manuscript from Tanchuma Buber Vayishlach 29]   ומלכים: שאול ואיש בשת שהיו משבט בנימין, שעדיין לא נולד. (ופסוק זה דרשו אבנר כשהמליך איש בושת, ואף השבטים דרשוהו וקרבו בנימין, דכתיב (שופטים כא א) איש ממנו לא יתן את בתו לבנימין לאשה, וחזרו ואמרו אלמלא היה עולה מן השבטים לא היה הקב"ה אומר ליעקב ומלכים מחלציך יצאו:
a nation and a multitude of nations: This means that his children are destined to be like [the foreign] nations, according to the number of the nations, who are the seventy nations. Likewise, the entire Sanhedrin is [composed of] seventy [members. When Jacob and his household migrated to Egypt, they numbered seventy, as it is stated in Gen. 46:27]. Another explanation: This means that his sons are destined to offer up sacrifices at the time of the prohibition of the high places, just as the gentile nations [did] in the days of Elijah. — [Old Rashi manuscript from Gen. Rabbah 82:5]   גוי וקהל גוים: שגוים עתידים בניו להעשות כמנין הגוים שהם שבעים אומות, וכן כל הסנהדרין שבעים. דבר אחר שעתידים בניו להקריב איסור במות כגוים בימי אליהו):