ב"ה

Torah Reading for Toldot

Parshat Toldot
Shabbat, 29 Cheshvan, 5785
30 November, 2024
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Complete: (Genesis 25:19 - 28:9; Samuel I 20:18-42)
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First Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 25

19And these are the generations of Isaac the son of Abraham; Abraham begot Isaac.   יטוְאֵ֛לֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹ֥ת יִצְחָ֖ק בֶּן־אַבְרָהָ֑ם אַבְרָהָ֖ם הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יִצְחָֽק:
And these are the generations of Isaac the son of Abraham: [תּוֹלְדוֹת refers to] Jacob and Esau mentioned in this section.   וְאֵלֶּה תולדות יִצְחָק: יַעֲקֹב וְעֵשָׂו הָאֲמוּרִים בַּפָּרָשָׁה:
Abraham begot Isaac: (Only after the Holy One, blessed be He, named him Abraham, did he beget Isaac. Another explanation:) Since Scripture wrote: “Isaac the son of Abraham,” it had to say: “Abraham begot Isaac,” because the scorners of the generation were saying that Sarah had conceived from Abimelech, for she had lived with Abraham for many years and had not conceived from him. What did the Holy One, blessed be He, do? He shaped the features of Isaac’s face to resemble Abraham’s, and everyone attested that Abraham had begotten Isaac. This is the meaning of what is written here: “Isaac, the son of Abraham,” because here is proof that “Abraham begot Isaac.” - [From Midrash Tanchuma, Toledoth 1]   אַבְרָהָם הוֹלִיד אֶת־יִצְחָק: עַל יְדֵי שֶׁכָּתַב הַכָּתוּב יִצְחָק בֶּן אַבְרָהָם הֻזְקַק לוֹמַר אַבְרָהָם הוֹלִיד אֶת יִצְחָק; לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ לֵיצָנֵי הַדּוֹר אוֹמְרִים מֵאֲבִימֶלֶךְ נִתְעַבְּרָה שָׂרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כַּמָּה שָׁנִים שָׁהֲתָה עִם אַבְרָהָם וְלֹא נִתְעַבְּרָה הֵימֶנּוּ; מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא? צָר קְלַסְתֵּר פָּנָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק דּוֹמֶה לְאַבְרָהָם, וְהֵעִידוּ הַכֹּל אַבְרָהָם הוֹלִיד אֶת יִצְחָק, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב כָּאן יִצְחָק בֶּן אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי עֵדוּת יֵשׁ שֶׁאַבְרָהָם הוֹלִיד אֶת יִצְחָק:
20And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebecca the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Padan Aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to himself for a wife.   כוַיְהִ֤י יִצְחָק֙ בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה בְּקַחְתּ֣וֹ אֶת־רִבְקָ֗ה בַּת־בְּתוּאֵל֙ הָֽאֲרַמִּ֔י מִפַּדַּ֖ן אֲרָ֑ם אֲח֛וֹת לָבָ֥ן הָֽאֲרַמִּ֖י ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
forty years old: For when Abraham came from Mount Moriah, he was informed that Rebecca had been born. Isaac was then thirty-seven years old, for at that time Sarah died, and from the time that Isaac was born until the “Binding” [of Isaac], when Sarah died, were thirty-seven years, for she was ninety years old when Isaac was born, and one hundred and twenty-seven when she died, as it is stated (above 23:1): “The life of Sarah was [a hundred and twenty seven years.”] This makes Isaac thirty-seven years old, and at that time, Rebecca was born. He waited for her until she would be fit for marital relations-three years-and then married her. — [From Gen. Rabbah 57:1;   בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה: שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁבָּא אַבְרָהָם מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה נִתְבַּשֵּׂר שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה רִבְקָה, וְיִצְחָק הָיָה בֶּן ל"ז שָׁנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בּוֹ בַּפֶּרֶק מֵתָה שָׂרָה, וּמִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יִצְחָק עַד הָעֲקֵדָה שֶׁמֵּתָה שָׂרָה, ל"ז שָׁנָה הָיוּ – כִּי בַּת צ' הָיְתָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד יִצְחָק, וּבַת קכ"ז כְּשֶׁמֵּתָה – שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה וְגוֹ' הֲרֵי לְיִצְחָק ל"ז שָׁנִים, וּבוֹ בַפֶּרֶק נוֹלְדָה רִבְקָה; הִמְתִּין לָהּ עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא רְאוּיָה לְבִיאָה ג' שָׁנִים וּנְשָׂאָהּ:
the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Padan-Aram, the sister of Laban: Was it not already written that she was the daughter of Bethuel and the sister of Laban and from Padan-Aram? But this is to tell her praise, that she was the daughter of a wicked man and the sister of a wicked man and her place was [inhabited by] wicked people, but she did not learn from their deeds. [From Gen. Rabbah 63:4]   בַּת־בְּתוּאֵל מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם אֲחוֹת לָבָן: וְכִי עֲדַיִן לֹא נִכְתַּב שֶׁהִיא בַּת בְּתוּאֵל וַאֲחוֹת לָבָן וּמִפַּדַּן אֲרָם? אֶלָּא לְהַגִּיד שִׁבְחָהּ, שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּת רָשָׁע וַאֲחוֹת רָשָׁע וּמְקוֹמָהּ אַנְשֵׁי רֶשַׁע וְלֹא לָמְדָה מִמַּעֲשֵׂיהֶם:
of Padan-Aram: Because there were two Arams, Aram-naharaim and Aram-zobah, it is called Padan [meaning“pair”], an expression of a pair of oxen, which in Aramaic is פַּדַּן תּוֹרִין. Others interpret “Padan-aram” as “the field of Aram,” because in Arabic, a field is called “fadan.”   מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁשְּׁנֵי אֲרָם הָיוּ, אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם וַאֲרַם צוֹבָה, קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ פַּדָּן, לְשׁוֹן צֶמֶד בָּקָר, תַּרְגּוּם פַּדָּן תּוֹרִין; וְיֵשׁ פּוֹתְרִין פַּדַּן אֲרָם כְּמוֹ שְׂדֵה אֲרָם, שֶׁבִּלְשׁוֹן יִשְׁמָעֵאל קוֹרִין לְשָׂדֶה פַדַּן:
21And Isaac prayed to the Lord opposite his wife because she was barren, and the Lord accepted his prayer, and Rebecca his wife conceived.   כאוַיֶּעְתַּ֨ר יִצְחָ֤ק לַֽיהֹוָה֙ לְנֹ֣כַח אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י עֲקָרָ֖ה הִ֑וא וַיֵּעָ֤תֶר לוֹ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וַתַּ֖הַר רִבְקָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ:
prayed: Heb. וַיֶעְתַּר. He prayed much and entreated [God] with prayer.   וַיֶּעְתַּר: הִרְבָּה וְהִפְצִיר בִּתְפִלָּה:
accepted his prayer: Heb. וַיֵעָתֶר. He (God) allowed Himself to be entreated and placated and swayed by him. I say that every expression of עתר is an expression of entreaty and increase, and similarly (Ezek. 8:11): “and a thick (וַעִתַר) cloud of incense,” [meaning] the immensity of the ascent of smoke, and so (ibid. 35:13): “And you have multiplied (וְהַעְתַּרְתֶּם) your words against Me,” and so, (Prov. 27:6): “whereas the kisses of an enemy are burdensome (וְכַעְתָּרוֹת) .” They seem to be many and are burdensome, accroissement in Old French, excessive.   וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ: נִתְפַּצֵּר וְנִתְפַּיֵּס וְנִתְפַּתָּה לוֹ. וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי, כָּל לְשׁוֹן עֶתֶר לְשׁוֹן הַפְצָרָה וְרִבּוּי הוּא, וְכֵן וַעֲתַר עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת (יחז' ח') – מַרְבִּית עֲלִיַּת הֶעָשָׁן, וְכֵן וְהַעְתַּרְתֶּם עָלַי דִּבְרֵיכֶם (שם ל"ה), וְכֵן וְנַעְתָּרוֹת נְשִׁיקוֹת שׂוֹנֵא (משלי כ"ז) – דּוֹמוֹת לִמְרֻבּוֹת וְהִנָּם לְמַשָּׂא; אנקרי"שרא בלע"ז:
opposite his wife: This one (Isaac) was standing in this corner and praying, and that one (Rebecca) was standing in that corner and praying.   לְנֹכַח אִשְׁתּוֹ: זֶה עוֹמֵד בְּזָוִית זוֹ וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת בְּזָוִית זוֹ וּמִתְפַּלֶּלֶת:
accepted his prayer: But not hers, for the prayer of a righteous man, the son of a righteous man, does not compare to the prayer of a righteous man, the son of a wicked man. Therefore, [He accepted] his prayer and not hers. — [Yev. 64a]   וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ: לוֹ וְלֹא לָהּ, שֶׁאֵין דּוֹמָה תְפִלַּת צַדִּיק בֶּן צַדִּיק לִתְפִלַּת צַדִּיק בֶּן רָשָׁע, לְפִיכָךְ לוֹ וְלֹא לָהּ (יבמות ס"ד):
22And the children struggled within her, and she said, "If [it be] so, why am I [like] this?" And she went to inquire of the Lord.   כבוַיִּתְרֹֽצֲצ֤וּ הַבָּנִים֙ בְּקִרְבָּ֔הּ וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אִם־כֵּ֔ן לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה אָנֹ֑כִי וַתֵּ֖לֶךְ לִדְר֥שׁ אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
struggled: Perforce, this verse calls for a Midrashic interpretation, for it does not explain what this struggling was all about, and [Scripture] wrote, “If it be so, why am I [like] this?” Our Rabbis (Gen. Rabbah 63:6) interpreted it [the word וַיִתְרוֹצִצוּ] as an expression of running (רוֹצָה). When she passed by the entrances of [the] Torah [academies] of Shem and Eber, Jacob would run and struggle to come out; when she passed the entrance of [a temple of] idolatry, Esau would run and struggle to come out. Another explanation: They were struggling with each other and quarreling about the inheritance of the two worlds (Mid. Avkir).   ויתרוצצו: עַל כָּרְחָךְ הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה אוֹמֵר דָּרְשֵׁנִי, שֶׁסָּתַם מַה הִיא רְצִיצָה זוֹ וְכָתַב אִם כֵּן לָמָּה זֶּה אָנֹכִי? רַבּוֹתֵינוּ דְּרָשׁוּהוּ לְשׁוֹן רִיצָה; כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה עוֹבֶרֶת עַל פִּתְחֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁל שֵׁם וָעֵבֶר יַעֲקֹב רָץ וּמְפַרְכֵּס לָצֵאת, עוֹבֶרֶת עַל פֶּתַח עֲבוֹדַת אֱלִילִים, עֵשָׂו מְפַרְכֵּס לָצֵאת. דָּבָר אַחֵר מִתְרוֹצְצִים זֶה עִם זֶה וּמְרִיבִים בְּנַחֲלַת שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת.
If [it be] so: that the pain of pregnancy is so great.   וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־כֵּן: גָּדוֹל צַעַר הָעִבּוּר.
why am I [like] this?: [Why did I] desire and pray to conceive?- [From Gen. Rabbah 63:6]   לָמָּה זֶּה אָנֹכִי: מִתְאַוָּה וּמִתְפַּלֶּלֶת עַל הֵרָיוֹן:
And she went to inquire: to the academy of Shem. — [Aggadath Bereishith, ch. 73, Targum Jonathan and Yerushalmi]   וַתֵּלֶךְ לדרוש: לְבֵית מִדְרָשׁוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם:
to inquire of the Lord: that He should tell her what would happen to her in the end.   לדרוש אֶת־ה': שֶׁיַּגִּיד לָהּ מַה תְּהֵא בְּסוֹפָהּ:
23And the Lord said to her, "Two nations are in your womb, and two kingdoms will separate from your innards, and one kingdom will become mightier than the other kingdom, and the elder will serve the younger.   כגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה לָ֗הּ שְׁנֵ֤י גוֹיִם֙ (כתיב גיים) בְּבִטְנֵ֔ךְ וּשְׁנֵ֣י לְאֻמִּ֔ים מִמֵּעַ֖יִךְ יִפָּרֵ֑דוּ וּלְאֹם֙ מִלְאֹ֣ם יֶֽאֱמָ֔ץ וְרַ֖ב יַֽעֲבֹ֥ד צָעִֽיר:
And the Lord said to her: through a messenger. Shem was told through Divine inspiration, and he told it to her. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:7]   וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לָהּ: עַל יְדֵי שָׁלִיחַ; לְשֵׁם נֶאֱמַר בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְהוּא אָמַר לָהּ (בראשית רבה):
Two nations are in your womb: [The word גוֹיִם] is written גֵייִם [which is pronounced] like גֵאִים (exalted persons). These were Antoninus and Rabbi [Judah the Prince], from whose tables neither radishes nor lettuce were lacking either in the summer or in the winter. — [From Avodah Zarah 11a]   שְׁנֵי גוים בְּבִטְנֵךְ: גיים כְּתִיב; אֵלּוּ אַנְטוֹנִינוּס וְרַבִּי, שֶׁלֹּא פָסְקוּ מֵעַל שֻׁלְחָנָם לֹא צְנוֹן וְלֹא חֲזֶרֶת לֹא בִימוֹת הַחַמָּה וְלֹא בִימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים (עבודה זרה י"א):
and two kingdoms: לְאֹם always means a kingdom. — [From Avodah Zarah 2b]   וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים: אֵין לְאֹם אֶלָּא מַלְכוּת:
will separate from your innards: From the womb they are separated, this one to his wickedness, and this one to his innocence.   מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ: מִן הַמֵּעַיִם הֵם נִפְרָדִים זֶה לְרִשְׁעוֹ וְזֶה לְתֻמּוֹ:
will become mightier than the other kingdom: They will not be equal in greatness; when one rises, the other will fall, and so [Scripture] states (Ezek. 26:2): “I shall become full from the destroyed city.” Tyre became full [gained power] only from the destruction of Jerusalem. — [From Meg. 6a, Pes. 42b]   מִלְאֹם יֶֽאֱמָץ: לֹא יִשְׁווּ בִּגְדֻלָּה, כְּשֶׁזֶּה קָם זֶה נוֹפֵל, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר אִמָּלְאָה הָחֳרָבָה (יחזקאל כ"ו), לֹא נִתְמַלְּאָה צוֹר אֶלָּא מֵחֻרְבָּנָהּ שֶׁל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם:
24And her days to give birth were completed, and behold, there were twins in her womb.   כדוַיִּמְלְא֥וּ יָמֶ֖יהָ לָלֶ֑דֶת וְהִנֵּ֥ה תוֹמִ֖ם בְּבִטְנָֽהּ:
And her days…were completed: But regarding Tamar it is written (below 38:27): “And it came about at the time of her travail,” because her term [of pregnancy] was not filled, for she gave birth to them after seven months. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:8, 85:13]   וַיִּמְלְאוּ יָמֶיהָ: אֲבָל בְּתָמָר כְּתִיב וַיְהִי בְּעֵת לִדְתָּהּ (בראשית ל״ח:כ״ז), שֶׁלֹּא מָלְאוּ יָמֶיהָ, כִּי לְז' חֳדָשִׁים יְלָדָתַם:
there were twins in her womb: [תוֹמִם is spelled] defectively [missing an “aleph” and “yud”], but concerning Tamar, it is written תְּאוֹמִים, with the plene spelling, [with an “aleph” and “yud”] because they (Perez and Zerah) were both righteous, but here, one was righteous and one was wicked. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:8]   וְהִנֵּה תוֹמִם: חָסֵר, וּבְתָמָר תְּאוֹמִים מָלֵא, לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם צַדִּיקִים; אֲבָל כָּאן אֶחָד צַדִּיק וְאֶחָד רָשָׁע:
25And the first one emerged ruddy; he was completely like a coat of hair, and they named him Esau.   כהוַיֵּצֵ֤א הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ אַדְמוֹנִ֔י כֻּלּ֖וֹ כְּאַדֶּ֣רֶת שֵׂעָ֑ר וַיִּקְרְא֥וּ שְׁמ֖וֹ עֵשָֽׂו:
ruddy: That is a sign that he will be a person who sheds blood (Gen. Rabbah 63:8).   אַדְמוֹנִי: סִימָן הוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים (בראשית רבה):
he was completely like a coat of hair: full of hair like a woolen cloak, which is full of hair, flochede in Old French.   כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַדֶּרֶת שֵׂעָר: מָלֵא שֵׂעָר כְּטַלִּית שֶׁל צֶמֶר הַמְלֵאָה שֵׂעָר, פלוקי"דא בלע"ז:
and they named him Esau: They all called him this because he was complete (עָשׂוּי) [lit., made,] and fully developed with hair, like one many years old.   וַיִּקְרְאוּ שְׁמוֹ עֵשָֽׂו: הַכֹּל קָרְאוּ לוֹ כֵן, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִגְמָר בִּשְׂעָרוֹ כְבֶן שָׁנִים הַרְבֵּה:
26And afterwards, his brother emerged, and his hand was grasping Esau's heel, and he named him Jacob. Now Isaac was sixty years old when she gave birth to them.   כווְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֞ן יָצָ֣א אָחִ֗יו וְיָד֤וֹ אֹחֶ֨זֶת֙ בַּֽעֲקֵ֣ב עֵשָׂ֔ו וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְיִצְחָ֛ק בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה בְּלֶ֥דֶת אֹתָֽם:
And afterwards, his brother emerged, etc.: I heard a Midrash Aggadah that interprets it (the verse) according to its simple meaning: He (Jacob) held onto him lawfully, to restrain him. Jacob was formed from the first drop and Esau from the second. Go forth and learn from a tube that has a narrow opening. Insert two stones into it, one after the other. The one that entered first will emerge last, and the one that entered last will emerge first. The result is that Esau, who was formed last, emerged first, and Jacob, who was formed first emerged last, and Jacob came to restrain him so that he (Jacob) should be the first to be born as he was the first to be formed, and he would open her womb and take the birthright by law. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:8]   וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵן יָצָא אָחִיו וגו': שָׁמַעְתִּי מִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה הַדּוֹרְשׁוֹ לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ, בְּדִין הָיָה אוֹחֵז בּוֹ לְעַכְּבוֹ, יַעֲקֹב נוֹצַר מִטִּפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה וְעֵשָׂו מִן הַשְּׁנִיָּה; צֵא וּלְמַד מִשְּׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁפִּיהָ קְצָרָה, תֵּן לָהּ שְׁתֵּי אֲבָנִים זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ – הַנִּכְנֶסֶת רִאשׁוֹנָה תֵּצֵא אַחֲרוֹנָה וְהַנִּכְנֶסֶת אַחֲרוֹנָה תֵּצֵא רִאשׁוֹנָה; נִמְצָא עֵשָׂו הַנּוֹצָר בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה יָצָא רִאשׁוֹן וְיַעֲקֹב שֶׁנּוֹצַר רִאשׁוֹנָה יָצָא אַחֲרוֹן, וְיַעֲקֹב בָּא לְעַכְּבוֹ, שֶׁיְּהֵא רִאשׁוֹן לְלֵדָה כְּרִאשׁוֹן לִיצִירָה, וְיִפְטֹר אֶת רַחְמָהּ וְיִטֹּל אֶת הַבְּכוֹרָה מִן הַדִּין:
Esau’s heel: [This is] a sign that this one (Esau) will not manage to complete his reign until this one rises up and takes it from him. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:9]   בַּֽעֲקֵב עֵשָׂו: סִימָן שֶׁאֵין זֶה מַסְפִּיק לִגְמֹר מַלְכוּתוֹ עַד שֶׁזֶּה עוֹמֵד וְנוֹטְלָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ:
and he named him Jacob: The Holy One, blessed be He [gave him this name]. (He said, “You named your firstborn [i.e. this refers to those who named Esau (verse 25)]. I too will name My firstborn.” This is what is written: “and He named him Jacob”) (Mid. Tanchuma Shemoth 4). Another explanation: His father called him Jacob (יַעִקֹב) because of the holding of the heel (הֶעָקֵב). (Yerushalmi Ber. 1:6)   וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ יַֽעֲקֹב: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא; דָּבָר אַחֵר אָבִיו קָרָא לוֹ יַעֲקֹב עַל שֵׁם אֲחִיזַת הֶעָקֵב:
sixty years old: Ten years since he had married her until she became thirteen years old and able to conceive, and the [following] ten years he looked forward and waited for her, as his father had done for Sarah. Since she did not conceive, he knew that she was barren, and he prayed for her, but he did not wish to take a maidservant [as Abraham had done] because he had been hallowed on Mount Moriah to be a perfect burnt offering. — [From Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 32]   בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה: י' שָׁנִים מִשֶּׁנְּשָׂאָהּ עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בַּת י"ג שָׁנָה וּרְאוּיָה לְהֵרָיוֹן, וְי' שָׁנִים הַלָּלוּ צָפָה וְהִִמְתִּין לָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה אָבִיו לְשָׂרָה; כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַבְּרָה, יָדַע שֶׁהִיא עֲקָרָה, וְהִתְפַּלֵּל עָלֶיהָ (יבמות ס"ד), וְשִׁפְחָה לֹא רָצָה לִשָּׂא, לְפִי שֶׁנִּתְקַדֵּשׁ בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה לִהְיוֹת עוֹלָה תְמִימָה:
27And the youths grew up, and Esau was a man who understood hunting, a man of the field, whereas Jacob was an innocent man, dwelling in tents.   כזוַיִּגְדְּלוּ֙ הַנְּעָרִ֔ים וַיְהִ֣י עֵשָׂ֗ו אִ֛ישׁ יֹדֵ֥עַ צַ֖יִד אִ֣ישׁ שָׂדֶ֑ה וְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ אִ֣ישׁ תָּ֔ם ישֵׁ֖ב אֹֽהָלִֽים:
And the youths grew up, and Esau was: As long as they were small, they were not recognizable through their deeds, and no one scrutinized them to determine their characters. As soon as they became thirteen years old, this one parted to the houses of study, and that one parted to idol worship. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:10; Tanchuma, Ki Theze 4]   וַיִּגְדְּלוּ … וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו: כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ קְטַנִּים, לֹא הָיוּ נִכָּרִים בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם, וְאֵין אָדָם מְדַקְדֵּק בָּהֶם מַה טִּיבָם; כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, זֶה פֵּרֵשׁ לְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת וְזֶה פֵּרֵשׁ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
who understood hunting: [He knew how] to trap and to deceive his father with his mouth and ask him, “Father, how do we tithe salt and straw?” His father thereby thought that he was scrupulous in his observance of the commandments (Tanchuma, Toledoth 8).   יֹדֵעַ צַיִד: לָצוּד וּלְרַמּוֹת אֶת אָבִיו בְּפִיו וְשׁוֹאֲלוֹ אַבָּא, הַאֵיךְ מְעַשְּׂרִין אֶת הַמֶּלַח וְאֶת הַתֶּבֶן? כַּסָּבוּר אָבִיו שֶׁהוּא מְדַקְדֵּק בְּמִצְוֹת (תנחומא):
a man of the field: As its apparent meaning: an idler who hunts beasts and birds with his bow. — [From Targum Jonathan]   אִישׁ שָׂדֶה: כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, אָדָם בָּטֵל וְצוֹדֶה בְקַשְׁתּוֹ חַיּוֹת וְעוֹפוֹת:
an innocent man: He was not an expert in all these [matters]. Like his heart, so was his mouth. A person who is not astute at deceiving is called תָּם, innocent.   תָּם: אֵינוֹ בָקִי בְכָל אֵלֶּה, כְּלִבּוֹ כֵּן פִּיו, מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרִיף לְרַמּוֹת קָרוּי תָּם:
dwelling in tents: the tent of Shem and the tent of Eber. — [From Gen. Rabbah 63:10]   ישֵׁב אֹֽהָלִֽים: אָהֳלוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם וְאָהֳלוֹ שֶׁל עֵבֶר:
28And Isaac loved Esau because [his] game was in his mouth, but Rebecca loved Jacob.   כחוַיֶּֽאֱהַ֥ב יִצְחָ֛ק אֶת־עֵשָׂ֖ו כִּי־צַ֣יִד בְּפִ֑יו וְרִבְקָ֖ה אֹהֶ֥בֶת אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
in his mouth: As the Targum renders: into Isaac’s mouth. The Midrashic interpretation is: with Esau’s mouth, for he would entrap him and deceive him with his words. — [From Tanchuma, Toledoth 8]   בְּפִיו: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ בְּפִיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ בְּפִיו שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, שֶׁהָיָה צָד אוֹתוֹ וּמְרַמֵּהוּ בִדְבָרָיו:
29Now Jacob cooked a pottage, and Esau came from the field, and he was faint.   כטוַיָּ֥זֶד יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב נָזִ֑יד וַיָּבֹ֥א עֵשָׂ֛ו מִן־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה וְה֥וּא עָיֵֽף:
cooked: Heb. וַיָּזֶד, an expression of cooking, as the Targum renders.   וַיָּזֶד: לְשׁוֹן בִּשּׁוּל, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
and he was faint: Heb. עָיֵף (Gen. Rabbah 63: 12) from committing murder, as it is said (Jer. 4:31): “for my soul is faint (עָיְפָה) before the murderers.”   וְהוּא עָיֵֽף: בִּרְצִיחָה, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא כִּי עָיְפָה נַפְשִׁי לְהֹרְגִים (ירמיהו ד') (בראשית רבה):
30And Esau said to Jacob, "Pour into [me] some of this red, red [pottage], for I am faint"; he was therefore named Edom.   לוַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵשָׂ֜ו אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב הַלְעִיטֵ֤נִי נָא֙ מִן־הָֽאָדֹ֤ם הָֽאָדֹם֙ הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֥י עָיֵ֖ף אָנֹ֑כִי עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָֽרָא־שְׁמ֖וֹ אֱדֽוֹם:
Pour into [me]: I will open my mouth, and [you] pour very much into it, as we learned (Shab. 155b): “We may not stuff a camel, etc. [on the Sabbath] but we may put food into its mouth (מַלְעִטִין) .” - [From Gen. Rabbah 63:12]   הַלְעִיטֵנִי: אֶפְתַּח פִּי וּשְׁפֹךְ הַרְבֵּה לְתוֹכָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ אֵין אוֹבְסִין אֶת הַגָּמָל אֲבָל מַלְעִיטִין אוֹתוֹ:
some of this red, red [pottage]: red lentils. And on that day, Abraham died, lest he see Esau, his grandson, falling into bad ways, for that would not be the “good old age” that the Holy One, blessed be He, had promised him. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, shortened his life by five years, for Isaac lived one hundred and eighty years, and this one (Abraham) [lived] one hundred and seventy-five years, and Jacob cooked lentils to feed the mourner (Isaac). But why lentils? Because they are [round as] a wheel, for mourning is like a wheel revolving in the world. (Also, just as lentils have no mouth [no crack], as other beans have, so does the mourner have no mouth, for he is prohibited from speaking. It is therefore the custom to feed the mourner eggs at the beginning of his meal, since they are round, and have no mouth. So too does a mourner have no mouth, as is discussed in Mo’ed Katan (21b): “A mourner, for the entire first three days, may not respond to anyone’s greeting, and may surely not initiate a greeting. From the third day to the seventh, he may respond, but may not greet, etc.” [This is found] in an old [edition of] Rashi.)- [From Gen. Rabbah 63:12, B.B. 16b]   מִן־הָֽאָדֹם הָֽאָדֹם: עֲדָשִׁים אֲדֻמּוֹת, וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מֵת אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאֶה אֶת עֵשָׂו בֶּן בְּנוֹ יוֹצֵא לְתַרְבּוּת רָעָה, וְאֵין זוֹ שֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה שֶׁהִבְטִיחוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא; לְפִיכָךְ קִצֵּר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא ה' שָׁנִים מִשְּׁנוֹתָיו, שֶׁיִּצְחָק חַי ק"פ שָׁנָה וְזֶה קע"ה, וּבִשֵּׁל יַעֲקֹב עֲדָשִׁים לְהַבְרוֹת אֶת הָאָבֵל. וְלָמָּה עֲדָשִׁים? שֶׁדּוֹמוֹת לְגַלְגַּל, שֶׁהָאֲבֵלוּת גַּלְגַּל הַחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם (וְעוֹד מָה עֲדָשִׁים אֵין לָהֶם פֶּה, כָּךְ הָאָבֵל אֵין לוֹ פֶה, שֶׁאָסוּר לְדַבֵּר, וּלְפִיכָךְ הַמִּנְהָג לְהַבְרוֹת הָאָבֵל בִּתְחִלַּת מַאֲכָלוֹ בֵּיצִים, שֶׁהֵם עֲגֻלִּים וְאֵין לָהֶם פֶּה, כָּךְ אָבֵל אֵין לוֹ פֶה, כִּדְאָמְרִינַן בְּמוֹעֵד קָטָן (מועד קטן כא:) אָבֵל כָּל שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אֵינוֹ מֵשִׁיב שָׁלוֹם לְכָל אָדָם וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹאֵל בַּתְּחִלָּה, מִג' וְעַד ז' מֵשִׁיב וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹאֵל וְכוּ'; בְּרַשִׁ"י יָשָׁן):
31And Jacob said, "Sell me as of this day your birthright."   לאוַיֹּ֖אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב מִכְרָ֥ה כַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־בְּכֹרָֽתְךָ֖ לִֽי:
Sell me as of this day: As the Targum renders: כְּיוֹם דִילְהֵן, “like this day;” just as this day is clear, so sell it to me with a clear sale.   מִכְרָה כַיּוֹם: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ כְּיוֹם דִּלְהֵן, כַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוּא בָרוּר, כָךְ מְכֹר לִי מְכִירָה בְרוּרָה:
your birthright: Since the [sacrificial] service was performed by the firstborn, Jacob said, “This wicked man does not deserve to sacrifice to the Holy One, blessed be He.” - [From Gen. Rabbah 63:13]   בְּכֹרָֽתְךָ: לְפִי שֶׁהָעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת, אָמַר יַעֲקֹב אֵין רָשָׁע זֶה כְדַאי שֶׁיַּקְרִיב לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:
32Esau replied, "Behold, I am going to die; so why do I need this birthright?"   לבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר עֵשָׂ֔ו הִנֵּ֛ה אָֽנֹכִ֥י הוֹלֵ֖ךְ לָמ֑וּת וְלָֽמָּה־זֶּ֥ה לִ֖י בְּכֹרָֽה:
Esau replied, “Behold, I am going to die”: (The birthright is something unstable, for the [sacrificial] service will not always be the function of the firstborn, for the tribe of Levi will take it. Furthermore,) said Esau [to Jacob], “What is the nature of this service?” He replied, “There are many prohibitions and punishments and death penalties involved with it, as we learned (Sanh. 83a): ‘These are the ones who are liable to death: Those [performing the Temple service] who have imbibed wine and those who have not cut their hair.’” He (Esau) said, “Behold, I am going to die because of it (i.e., the birthright); if so, why should I want it?”   הִנֵּה אָֽנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת: (מִתְנוֹדֶדֶת וְהוֹלֶכֶת הִיא הַבְּכוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא כָל עֵת הָעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת, כִּי שֵׁבֶט לֵוִי יִטֹּל אוֹתָהּ, וְעוֹד) אָמַר עֵשָׂו: מַה טִּיבָהּ שֶׁל עֲבוֹדָה זוֹ? אָמַר לוֹ: כַּמָּה אַזְהָרוֹת וָעֳנָשִׁין וּמִיתוֹת תְּלוּיִין בָּהּ כְּאוֹתָהּ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ, אֵלּוּ הֵן שֶׁבְּמִיתָה: שְׁתוּיֵי יַיִן וּפְרוּעֵי רֹאשׁ; אָמַר: אֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת עַל יָדָהּ, אִם כֵּן מַה חֵפֶץ לִי בָהּ?
33And Jacob said, "Swear to me as of this day"; so he swore to him, and he sold his birthright to Jacob.   לגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב הִשָּׁ֤בְעָה לִּי֙ כַּיּ֔וֹם וַיִּשָּׁבַ֖ע ל֑וֹ וַיִּמְכֹּ֥ר אֶת־בְּכֹֽרָת֖וֹ לְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
34And Jacob gave Esau bread and a pottage of lentils, and he ate and drank and arose and left, and Esau despised the birthright.   לדוְיַֽעֲקֹ֞ב נָתַ֣ן לְעֵשָׂ֗ו לֶ֚חֶם וּנְזִ֣יד עֲדָשִׁ֔ים וַיֹּ֣אכַל וַיֵּ֔שְׁתְּ וַיָּ֖קָם וַיֵּלַ֑ךְ וַיִּ֥בֶז עֵשָׂ֖ו אֶת־הַבְּכֹרָֽה:
and Esau despised: Scripture attests to his wickedness, that he despised the service of the Omnipresent.   וַיִּבֶז עֵשָׂו: הֵעִיד הַכָּתוּב עַל רִשְׁעוֹ שֶׁבִּזָּה עֲבוֹדָתוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 26

1And there was a famine in the land, aside from the first famine that had been in the days of Abraham, and Isaac went to Abimelech the king of the Philistines, to Gerar.   אוַיְהִ֤י רָעָב֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ מִלְּבַד֙ הָֽרָעָ֣ב הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה בִּימֵ֣י אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיֵּ֧לֶךְ יִצְחָ֛ק אֶל־אֲבִימֶ֥לֶךְ מֶֽלֶךְ־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים גְּרָֽרָה:
2And the Lord appeared to him, and said, "Do not go down to Egypt; dwell in the land that I will tell you.   בוַיֵּרָ֤א אֵלָיו֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אַל־תֵּרֵ֣ד מִצְרָ֑יְמָה שְׁכֹ֣ן בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֹמַ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ:
Do not go down to Egypt: For he had in mind to go down to Egypt as his father had gone down in the days of the famine. He [God] said to him, “Do not go down to Egypt.” You are [as] a perfect burnt offering, and being outside the Holy Land is not fitting for you. [Tanchuma Buber, Toledoth 6; Gen. Rabbah 64:3]   אַל־תֵּרֵד מִצְרָיְמָה: שֶׁהָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ לָרֶדֶת מִצְרַיְמָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיָּרַד אָבִיו בִּימֵי הָרָעָב; אָמַר לוֹ: אַל תֵּרֵד מִצְרָיְמָה, שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹלָה תְמִימָה, וְאֵין חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ כְּדַאי לְךָ:
3Sojourn in this land, and I will be with you, and I will bless you, for to you and to your seed will I give all these lands, and I will establish the oath that I swore to Abraham, your father.   גגּ֚וּר בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את וְאֶֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמְּךָ֖ וַֽאֲבָֽרֲכֶ֑ךָּ כִּֽי־לְךָ֣ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֗ אֶתֵּן֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָֽאֲרָצֹ֣ת הָאֵ֔ל וַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִי֙ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖עְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם אָבִֽיךָ:
these: הָאֵל is equivalent to הָאֵלה   הָאֵל: כְּמוֹ הָאֵלֶּה:
4And I will multiply your seed like the stars of the heavens, and I will give your seed all these lands, and all the nations of the earth will bless themselves by your seed,   דוְהִרְבֵּיתִ֤י אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ כְּכֽוֹכְבֵ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנָתַתִּ֣י לְזַרְעֲךָ֔ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הָֽאֲרָצֹ֖ת הָאֵ֑ל וְהִתְבָּֽרֲכ֣וּ בְזַרְעֲךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ:
And they will bless themselves by your seed: A man tells his son, "May your children be like the children of Yitzchak". And the same in all of Scripture. And the following is the archetype of all (48:20): Through you shall Israel bless, saying, may [G-d] see you as Ephraim and Manasseh. We also found with regards to the curse, (Numbers 5:27), "And the woman shall be a curse" whereby one who curses his enemy says "may you be like that particular woman". Similarly (Isaiah 65:15), "May you leave your name as an oath to my chosen" whereby one who takes an oath says "May I be like that particular person if I did such and such and such".   וְהִתְבָּֽרֲכוּ בְזַרְעֲךָ: אָדָם אוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ יְהֵא זַרְעֲךָ כְּזַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק, וְכֵן בְּכָל הַמִּקְרָא, וְזֶה אָב לְכֻלָּן בְּךָ יְבָרֵךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר יְשִׂמְךָ וְגוֹ' (בראשית מ״ח:כ׳); וְאַף לְעִנְיַן הַקְּלָלָה מָצִינוּ כֵן וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה (במדבר ה'), שֶׁהַמְקַלֵּל שׂוֹנְאוֹ אוֹמֵר תְּהֵא כִּפְלוֹנִית, וְכֵן וְהִנַּחְתֶּם שִׁמְכֶם לִשְׁבוּעָה לִבְחִירַי (ישעיהו ס"ה), שֶׁהַנִּשְׁבָּע אוֹמֵר אֱהֵא כִפְלוֹנִי אִם עָשִׂיתִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ:
5Because Abraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My instructions."   העֵ֕קֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֥ע אַבְרָהָ֖ם בְּקֹלִ֑י וַיִּשְׁמֹר֙ מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֔י מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י חֻקּוֹתַ֥י וְתֽוֹרֹתָֽי:
Because Abraham hearkened to My voice: when I tested him.   שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בקולי: כְּשֶׁנִּסִּיתִי אוֹתוֹ:
and kept My charge: [Referring to] decrees to distance [himself] from transgressing the warnings in the Torah, e.g. secondary prohibitions to prevent incest from occurring, and the Rabbinic decrees to safeguard the prohibitions of the Sabbath.   וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי: גְּזֵרוֹת לְהַרְחָקָה עַל הָאַזְהָרוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, כְּגוֹן שְׁנִיּוֹת לָעֲרָיוֹת וּשְׁבוּת לַשַּׁבָּת (יבמות כ"א):
My commandments: [Referring to] things, which, had they not been written, would have been fit to be commanded, e.g. [prohibitions against] robbery and bloodshed.   מצותי: דְּבָרִים שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא נִכְתְּבוּ רְאוּיִן הֵם לְהִצְטַוּוֹת, כְּגוֹן גֶּזֶל וּשְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים:
My statutes: [Referring to] things that the evil inclination and the nations of the world argue against, e.g. [the prohibitions against] eating pork and wearing garments of wool and linen for which no reason [is given], but [which are] the decree of the King and His statutes over His subjects.   חֻקּוֹתַי: דְּבָרִים שֶׁיֵּצֶר הָרָע וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מְשִׁיבִין עֲלֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן אֲכִילַת חֲזִיר וּלְבִישַׁת שַׁעַטְנֵז, שֶׁאֵין טַעַם בַּדָּבָר, אֶלָּא גְּזֵרַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְחֻקּוֹתָיו עַל עֲבָדָיו:
and My instructions: To include the Oral Law, the laws given to Moses from Sinai. [Yoma 28b]   וְתֽוֹרֹתָֽי: לְהָבִיא תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי (בראשית רבה):

Second Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 26

6And Isaac dwelt in Gerar.   ווַיֵּ֥שֶׁב יִצְחָ֖ק בִּגְרָֽר:
7And the men of the place asked about his wife, and he said, "She is my sister," because he was afraid to say, "[She is] my wife," [because he said,] "Lest the men of the place kill me because of Rebecca, for she is of comely appearance."   זוַיִּשְׁאֲל֞וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ לְאִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא כִּ֤י יָרֵא֙ לֵאמֹ֣ר אִשְׁתִּ֔י פֶּן־יַֽהַרְגֻ֜נִי אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ עַל־רִבְקָ֔ה כִּֽי־טוֹבַ֥ת מַרְאֶ֖ה הִֽוא:
about his wife: Heb. לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, lit., to his wife, about his wife, like (above 20:13): “Say about me (לִי), ‘He is my brother.’”   לְאִשְׁתּוֹ: עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ, כְּמוֹ אִמְרִי לִי אָחִי הוּא (בראשית כ׳:י״ג):
8And it came to pass, when he had been there for many days, that Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, looked out of the window, and he saw, and behold, Isaac was jesting with Rebecca his wife.   חוַיְהִ֗י כִּ֣י אָֽרְכוּ־ל֥וֹ שָׁם֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וַיַּשְׁקֵ֗ף אֲבִימֶ֨לֶךְ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים בְּעַ֖ד הַֽחַלּ֑וֹן וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה יִצְחָק֙ מְצַחֵ֔ק אֵ֖ת רִבְקָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ:
when he had been there for many days: He said [to himself], “From now on, I need not worry since they have not violated her until now,” and he did not take precautions to beware.   כִּי אָֽרְכוּ־: אָמַר, מֵעַתָּה אֵין לִי לִדְאֹג, מֵאַחַר שֶׁלֹּא אֲנָסוּהָ עַד עַכְשָׁו, וְלֹא נִזְהַר לִהְיוֹת נִשְׁמָר:
that Abimelech…looked, etc: He saw him engaging in marital relations. [Gen. Rabbah 64:5]   וַיַּשְׁקֵף אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וגומר: רָאָהוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ:
9So Abimelech called Isaac, and he said, "Behold, she is your wife; so how could you have said, 'She is my sister'?" And Isaac said to him, "Because I said, 'Lest I die because of her. '"   טוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ לְיִצְחָ֗ק וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אַ֣ךְ הִנֵּ֤ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֙ הִ֔וא וְאֵ֥יךְ אָמַ֖רְתָּ אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ יִצְחָ֔ק כִּ֣י אָמַ֔רְתִּי פֶּן־אָמ֖וּת עָלֶֽיהָ:
10And Abimelech said, "What have you done to us? The most prominent of the people might easily have lain with your wife, and you would have brought guilt upon us."   יוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ מַה־זֹּ֖את עָשִׂ֣יתָ לָּ֑נוּ כִּ֠מְעַ֠ט שָׁכַ֞ב אַחַ֤ד הָעָם֙ אֶת־אִשְׁתֶּ֔ךָ וְהֵֽבֵאתָ֥ עָלֵ֖ינוּ אָשָֽׁם:
The most prominent of the people: Heb. אַחַד הָעָם, the most prominent one of the people, meaning the king. [Gen. Targum Onkelos and Jonathan]   אַחַד הָעָם: הַמְיֻחָד בָּעָם, זֶה הַמֶּלֶךְ:
and you would have brought guilt upon us: Had he had relations, you would have brought guilt upon us.   וְהֵֽבֵאתָ עָלֵינוּ אָשָֽׁם: אִם שָׁכַב כְּבָר, הֵבֵאתָ עָלֵינוּ אָשָׁם:
11And Abimelech commanded all the people, saying, "Whoever touches this man or his wife shall be put to death."   יאוַיְצַ֣ו אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר הַנֹּגֵ֜עַ בָּאִ֥ישׁ הַזֶּ֛ה וּבְאִשְׁתּ֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
12And Isaac sowed in that land, and he found in that year a hundred fold, and the Lord blessed him.   יבוַיִּזְרַ֤ע יִצְחָק֙ בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַהִ֔וא וַיִּמְצָ֛א בַּשָּׁנָ֥ה הַהִ֖וא מֵאָ֣ה שְׁעָרִ֑ים וַיְבָֽרֲכֵ֖הוּ יְהֹוָֽה:
in that land: [The land yielded an abundant harvest] even though it was not considered as esteemed as the Land of Israel itself, i.e., as the land of the seven nations (Gen. Rabbah 64:6).   בָּאָרֶץ הַהִוא: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַצְמָהּ, כְּאֶרֶץ שִׁבְעָה גוֹיִם (בראשית רבה):
in that year: Even though it was not as it should have been, for it was a year of famine (Gen. Rabbah ad loc.).   בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִוא: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּתִקְנָהּ, שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׁנַת רְעָבוֹן (בראשית רבה):
in that land…in that year: Why both of them? To tell us that the land was hard and that the year was a hard one.   בָּאָרֶץ הַהִוא בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִוא: שְׁנֵיהֶם לָמָּה? לוֹמַר, שֶׁהָאָרֶץ קָשָׁה וְהַשָּׁנָה קָשָׁה:
a hundred fold: For they had estimated how much it [the land] was fit to produce, and it produced for each measure that they had estimated, one hundred [measures], and our Rabbis said that the purpose of this estimate was for tithing. [Gen. Rabbah 64:6]   מֵאָה שְׁעָרִים: שֶׁאֲמָדוּהָ כַּמָּה רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת, וְעָשְׂתָה עַל אַחַת שֶׁאֲמָדוּהָ מֵאָה. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ אֹמֶד זֶה לְמַעַשְׂרוֹת הָיָה:

Third Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 26

13And the man became great, and he grew constantly greater until he had grown very great.   יגוַיִּגְדַּ֖ל הָאִ֑ישׁ וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ הָלוֹךְ֙ וְגָדֵ֔ל עַ֥ד כִּֽי־גָדַ֖ל מְאֹֽד:
he had grown very great: For they would say, “Rather the manure of Isaac’s mules than Abimelech’s silver and gold” (Gen. Rabbah 64:7).   כִּֽי־גָדַל מאוד: שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים זֶבֶל פִּרְדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק וְלֹא כַסְפּוֹ וּזְהָבוֹ שֶׁל אֲבִימֶלֶךְ (בראשית רבה):
14And he had possessions of sheep and possessions of cattle and much production, and the Philistines envied him.   ידוַֽיְהִי־ל֤וֹ מִקְנֵה־צֹאן֙ וּמִקְנֵ֣ה בָקָ֔ר וַֽעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה וַיְקַנְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים:
and much production: Heb. וַעִבֻדָּה רַבָּה, much activity, in Old French ouvrene (enterprises). עִבוֹדָה means one job, whereas עִבֻדָּה means much production.   וַֽעֲבֻדָּה רַבָּה: פְּעֻלָּה רַבָּה בִּלְשׁוֹן לע"ז אוברי"נא, עֲבוֹדָה מַשְׁמָע עֲבוֹדָה אַחַת; עֲבֻדָּה מַשְׁמָע פְּעֻלָּה רַבָּה:
15And all the wells that his father's servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father the Philistines stopped them up and filled them with earth.   טווְכָל־הַבְּאֵרֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר חָֽפְרוּ֙ עַבְדֵ֣י אָבִ֔יו בִּימֵ֖י אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֑יו סִתְּמ֣וּם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיְמַלְא֖וּם עָפָֽר:
the Philistines stopped them up: Because they said, “They are a danger to us due to the armies that will come upon us.” [Onkelos renders:] טְמוּנוּן פְּלִשְׁתָּאֵי an expression of stopping up, and in the language of the Talmud, “stops up (מְטַמְטֵם) the heart.”   סִתְּמוּם פְּלִשְׁתִּים: מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ תַּקָּלָה הֵם לָנוּ מִפְּנֵי הַגְּיָסוֹת הַבָּאוֹת עָלֵינוּ, טַמּוֹנוּן פְּלִשְׁתָּאֵי לְשׁוֹן סְתִימָה, וּבִלְשׁוֹן הַתַּלְמוּד מְטַמְטֵם אֶת הַלֵּב:
16And Abimelech said to Isaac, "Go away from us, for you have become much stronger than we."   טזוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ אֶל־יִצְחָ֑ק לֵ֚ךְ מֵֽעִמָּ֔נוּ כִּֽי־עָצַ֥מְתָּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מְאֹֽד:
17And Isaac went away from there, and he encamped in the valley of Gerar and dwelt there.   יזוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ מִשָּׁ֖ם יִצְחָ֑ק וַיִּ֥חַן בְּנַֽחַל־גְּרָ֖ר וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב שָֽׁם:
in the valley of Gerar: far from the city.   בְּנַֽחַל־גְּרָר: רָחוֹק מִן הָעִיר:
18And Isaac again dug the wells of water which they had dug in the days of his father, Abraham, and the Philistines had stopped them up after Abraham's death; and he gave them names like the names that his father had given them.   יחוַיָּ֨שָׁב יִצְחָ֜ק וַיַּחְפֹּ֣ר | אֶת־בְּאֵרֹ֣ת הַמַּ֗יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר חָֽפְרוּ֙ בִּימֵי֙ אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֔יו וַיְסַתְּמ֣וּם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אַֽחֲרֵ֖י מ֣וֹת אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֤א לָהֶן֙ שֵׁמ֔וֹת כַּשֵּׁמֹ֕ת אֲשֶׁר־קָרָ֥א לָהֶ֖ן אָבִֽיו:
And Isaac again dug: [Meaning] the wells that they had dug in the days of his father Abraham and that the Philistines had stopped up-before Isaac traveled from Gerar, he went back and dug them.   וַיָּשָׁב וַיַּחְפֹּר: הַבְּאֵרוֹת אֲשֶׁר חָפְרוּ בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וּפְלִשְׁתִּים סִתְּמוּם, מִקֹּדֶם שֶׁנָּסַע יִצְחָק מִגְּרָר, חָזַר וַחֲפָרָן:
19And Isaac's servants dug in the valley, and they found there a well of living waters.   יטוַיַּחְפְּר֥וּ עַבְדֵֽי־יִצְחָ֖ק בַּנָּ֑חַל וַיִּ֨מְצְאוּ־שָׁ֔ם בְּאֵ֖ר מַ֥יִם חַיִּֽים:
20And the shepherds of Gerar quarreled with Isaac's shepherds, saying, "The water is ours"; so he named the well Esek, because they had contended with him.   כוַיָּרִ֜יבוּ רֹעֵ֣י גְרָ֗ר עִם־רֹעֵ֥י יִצְחָ֛ק לֵאמֹ֖ר לָ֣נוּ הַמָּ֑יִם וַיִּקְרָ֤א שֵֽׁם־הַבְּאֵר֙ עֵ֔שֶׂק כִּ֥י הִתְעַשְּׂק֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ:
Esek: Contention.   עֵשֶׂק: עִרְעוּר:
because they had contended with him: They engaged with him about it with strife and contention.   כִּי הִתְעַשְּׂקוּ עִמּֽוֹ: נִתְעַשְּׂקוּ עִמּוֹ עָלֶיהָ בִּמְרִיבָה וְעִרְעוּר:
21And they dug another well, and they quarreled about it also; so he named it Sitnah.   כאוַיַּחְפְּרוּ֙ בְּאֵ֣ר אַחֶ֔רֶת וַיָּרִ֖יבוּ גַּם־עָלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמָ֖הּ שִׂטְנָֽה:
Sitnah: nuysemant in Old French (harm, wrong, injury).   שִׂטְנָֽה: נושימנ"ט:
22And he moved away from there, and he dug another well, and they did not quarrel over it; so he named it Rehoboth, and he said, "For now the Lord has made room for us, and we will be fruitful in the land."   כבוַיַּעְתֵּ֣ק מִשָּׁ֗ם וַיַּחְפֹּר֙ בְּאֵ֣ר אַחֶ֔רֶת וְלֹ֥א רָב֖וּ עָלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ רְחֹב֔וֹת וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּ֣י עַתָּ֞ה הִרְחִ֧יב יְהֹוָ֛ה לָ֖נוּ וּפָרִ֥ינוּ בָאָֽרֶץ:
and we will be fruitful in the land: Heb. וּפָרִינוּ בָאָרֶץ, as the Targum translates it: וְנִיפוּשׁ בְּאַרְעָא, “and we will be fruitful in the land.”   וּפָרִינוּ בָאָֽרֶץ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְנֵיפוּשׁ בְּאַרְעָא:

Fourth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 26

23And he went up from there to Beer sheba.   כגוַיַּ֥עַל מִשָּׁ֖ם בְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע:
24And the Lord appeared to him on that night and said, "I am the God of Abraham, your father. Fear not, for I am with you, and I will bless you and multiply your seed for the sake of Abraham, My servant."   כדוַיֵּרָ֨א אֵלָ֤יו יְהֹוָה֙ בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֔וּא וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אָֽנֹכִ֕י אֱלֹהֵ֖י אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֑יךָ אַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּֽי־אִתְּךָ֣ אָנֹ֔כִי וּבֵֽרַכְתִּ֨יךָ֙ וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֣י אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֔ בַּֽעֲב֖וּר אַבְרָהָ֥ם עַבְדִּֽי:
25And he built an altar there, and he called in the name of the Lord, and he pitched his tent there, and Isaac's servants dug a well there.   כהוַיִּ֧בֶן שָׁ֣ם מִזְבֵּ֗חַ וַיִּקְרָא֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיֶּט־שָׁ֖ם אָֽהֳל֑וֹ וַיִּכְרוּ־שָׁ֥ם עַבְדֵֽי־יִצְחָ֖ק בְּאֵֽר:
26And Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and a group of his companions and Pichol, his general.   כווַֽאֲבִימֶ֕לֶךְ הָלַ֥ךְ אֵלָ֖יו מִגְּרָ֑ר וַֽאֲחֻזַּת֙ מֵֽרֵעֵ֔הוּ וּפִיכֹ֖ל שַׂר־צְבָאֽוֹ:
and a group of his companions: Heb. וַאִחֻזַת מֵרֵעֵהוּ, as the Targum renders: וְסִיעַת מֵרַחִמוֹהִי, a group of his friends [the “mem” meaning “of”] (Gen. Rabbah 64:9). Some interpret that in the word מֵרֵעֵהוּ, the “mem” is [part of] the root of the word, like (Jud. 14:11): “the thirty companions” (מֵרֵעִים) of Samson, in order that the word וַאִחֻזַת should be in the construct state [i.e., the group of his friends]. However, it is not polite to speak of royalty in this manner, i.e., “his group of companions,” because this would imply that he brought his entire group of companions, and that he had only one group of companions. Therefore, it should be interpreted in the previous manner, [i.e., that אִחֻזַת is not construct]. And do not be puzzled about the letter “thav” of אִחֻזַת. Although the word is not in the construct state, there are similar cases in Scripture (Ps. 60:13): “help against the adversary” עֶזְרָת מִצָּר (Isa. 51: 21): “drunk, but not from wine” (וּשְׁכֻרַת וְלֹא מִיָּיִן).   וַֽאֲחֻזַּת מֵֽרֵעֵהוּ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְסִיעַת מֵרַחֲמוֹהִי, סִיעַת מֵאוֹהֲבָיו. וְיֵשׁ פּוֹתְרִין מֵרֵעֵהוּ מ' מִיסוֹד הַתֵּבָה, כְּמוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים מֵרֵעִים דְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה תֵּבַת וַאֲחֻזַּת דְּבוּקָה; אֲבָל אֵין דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ לְדַבֵּר עַל הַמַּלְכוּת כֵּן, סִיעַת אוֹהֲבָיו, שֶׁאִם כֵּן, כָּל סִיעַת אוֹהֲבָיו הוֹלִיךְ עִמּוֹ, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ אֶלָּא סִיעָה אַחַת שֶׁל אוֹהֲבִים – לָכֵן יֵשׁ לְפָתְרוֹ בַּלָּשׁוֹן הָרִאשׁוֹן; וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל תָּי"ו שֶׁל אֲחֻזַּת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין תֵּבָה סְמוּכָה, יֵשׁ דֻּגְמָתָהּ בַּמִּקְרָא עֶזְרָת מִצָּר (תהילים ס'), וּשְׁכֻרַת וְלֹא מִיָּיִן (ישעיהו נ"א):
a group: Heb. אִחֻזַת, an expression of a gathering or a band [of people] who are held (שֶׁנֶאֱחָזִין) together.   אחזת: לְשׁוֹן קְבִיצָה וַאֲגֻדָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱחָזִין יַחַד:
27And Isaac said to them, "Why have you come to me, since you hate me, and you sent me away from you?"   כזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ יִצְחָ֔ק מַדּ֖וּעַ בָּאתֶ֣ם אֵלָ֑י וְאַתֶּם֙ שְׂנֵאתֶ֣ם אֹתִ֔י וַתְּשַׁלְּח֖וּנִי מֵֽאִתְּכֶֽם:
28And they said, "We have seen that the Lord was with you; so we said: Let there now be an oath between us, between ourselves and you, and let us form a covenant with you.   כחוַֽיֹּאמְר֗וּ רָא֣וֹ רָאִ֘ינוּ֘ כִּֽי־הָיָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֣ה | עִמָּךְ֒ וַנֹּ֗אמֶר תְּהִ֨י נָ֥א אָלָ֛ה בֵּֽינוֹתֵ֖ינוּ בֵּינֵ֣ינוּ וּבֵינֶ֑ךָ וְנִכְרְתָ֥ה בְרִ֖ית עִמָּֽךְ:
And they said, "We have seen: Heb. רָאוֹ רָאִינוּ, [a double expression meaning:] We saw it regarding your father; we saw it regarding you. [From Gen. Rabbah 64:10]   רָאוֹ רָאִינוּ: רָאִינוּ בְאָבִיךָ, רָאִינוּ בְךָ:
Let there now be an oath between us, etc.: Let the oath that has existed between us from the days of your father be now also between us and you. [From Targum Onkelos]   תְּהִי נָא אָלָה בֵּֽינוֹתֵינוּ וגו': הָאָלָה אֲשֶׁר בֵּינוֹתֵינוּ מִימֵי אָבִיךָ תְּהִי גַּם עַתָּה בינינו וביניך:
29If you do [not] harm us, as we have not touched you, and as we have done with you only good, and we sent you away in peace, [so do] you now, blessed of the Lord."   כטאִם־תַּֽעֲשֵׂ֨ה עִמָּ֜נוּ רָעָ֗ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א נְגַֽעֲנ֔וּךָ וְכַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשִׂ֤ינוּ עִמְּךָ֙ רַק־ט֔וֹב וַנְּשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ֖ בְּשָׁל֑וֹם אַתָּ֥ה עַתָּ֖ה בְּר֥וּךְ יְהֹוָֽה:
we have not touched you: when we said to you, “Go away from us.”   לֹא נְגַֽעֲנוּךָ: כְּשֶׁאָמַרְנוּ לְךָ לֵךְ מֵעִמָּנוּ:
you: You too, (other editions: now too) do to us likewise.   אַתָּה: גַּם אַתָּה עֲשֵׂה לָנוּ כְּמוֹ כֵן:

Fifth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 26

30So he made a feast for them, and they ate and drank.   לוַיַּ֤עַשׂ לָהֶם֙ מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה וַיֹּֽאכְל֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ:
31And they arose early in the morning, and they swore one to the other, and Isaac escorted them, and they went away from him in peace.   לאוַיַּשְׁכִּ֣ימוּ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיִּשָּֽׁבְע֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ לְאָחִ֑יו וַיְשַׁלְּחֵ֣ם יִצְחָ֔ק וַיֵּֽלְכ֥וּ מֵֽאִתּ֖וֹ בְּשָׁלֽוֹם:
32And it came to pass on that day, that Isaac's servants came and told him about the well that they had dug, and they said to him, "We have found water."   לבוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא וַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ עַבְדֵ֣י יִצְחָ֔ק וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ ל֔וֹ עַל־אֹד֥וֹת הַבְּאֵ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָפָ֑רוּ וַיֹּ֥אמְרוּ ל֖וֹ מָצָ֥אנוּ מָֽיִם:
33And he named it Shibah; therefore, the city is named Beer sheba until this very day.   לגוַיִּקְרָ֥א אֹתָ֖הּ שִׁבְעָ֑ה עַל־כֵּ֤ן שֵֽׁם־הָעִיר֙ בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
Shibah: Because of the covenant [shevuah in Hebrew means oath].   שִׁבְעָה: עַל שֵׁם הַבְּרִית:
34And Esau was forty years old, and he married Judith, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath, the daughter of Elon the Hittite.   לדוַיְהִ֤י עֵשָׂו֙ בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וַיִּקַּ֤ח אִשָּׁה֙ אֶת־יְהוּדִ֔ית בַּת־בְּאֵרִ֖י הַֽחִתִּ֑י וְאֶת־בָּ֣שְׂמַ֔ת בַּת־אֵילֹ֖ן הַֽחִתִּֽי:
forty years old: Esau was compared to a swine, as it is said (Ps. 80:14): “The boar from the forest gnaws at it.” This swine, when it lies down, stretches out its hooves, as if to say, “See, I am a clean (kosher) animal.” So do these [the chiefs of Esau] rob and plunder and then pretend to be honorable. During the entire forty years, Esau kidnapped wives from their husbands and violated them. When he was forty years old, he said: “My father married at forty; I, too, will do the same.” [From Gen. Rabbah 65:1]   בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה: עֵשָׂו הָיָה נִמְשָׁל לַחֲזִיר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר (תהילים פ'), הַחֲזִיר הַזֶּה כְּשֶׁהוּא שׁוֹכֵב, פּוֹשֵׁט טְלָפָיו, לוֹמַר רְאוּ שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר; כָּךְ אֵלּוּ גּוֹזְלִים וְחוֹמְסִים וּמַרְאִים עַצְמָם כְּשֵׁרִים; כָּל מ' שָׁנָה הָיָה עֵשָׂו צָד נָשִׁים מִתַּחַת בַּעֲלֵיהֶן וּמְעַנֶּה אוֹתָם, כְּשֶׁהָיָה בֶּן מ' אָמַר אַבָּא בֶּן מ' שָׁנָה נָשָׂא אִשָּׁה, אַף אֲנִי כֵן:
35And they were a vexation of the spirit to Isaac and to Rebecca.   להוַתִּֽהְיֶ֖יןָ מֹ֣רַת ר֑וּחַ לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְרִבְקָֽה:
a vexation of the spirit: Heb. מֹרַת רוּחַ, an expression of defiance of spirit הַמְרָאַת רוּחַ like (Deut. 9:24): “You have been rebellious מַמְרִים.” All their deeds were to provoke and to grieve. [From Targum Onkelos]   מֹרַת רוּחַ: לְשׁוֹן הַמְרָאוֹת רוּחַ, כְּמוֹ מַמְרִים הֱיִיתֶם, כָּל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן הָיוּ לְהַכְעִיס וּלְעִצָּבוֹן:
to Isaac and to Rebecca: for they worshipped idols. [From Midrash Tanchuma, Toledoth 8]   לְיִצְחָק וּלְרִבְקָֽה: שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹבְדוֹת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה (בראשית רבה):

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 27

1It came to pass when Isaac was old, and his eyes were too dim to see, that he called Esau his elder son, and he said to him, "My son," and he said to him, "Here I am."   אוַֽיְהִי֙ כִּֽי־זָקֵ֣ן יִצְחָ֔ק וַתִּכְהֶ֥יןָ עֵינָ֖יו מֵֽרְאֹ֑ת וַיִּקְרָ֞א אֶת־עֵשָׂ֣ו | בְּנ֣וֹ הַגָּדֹ֗ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ בְּנִ֔י וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו הִנֵּֽנִי:
were too dim: Because of the smoke of these [wives of Esau] (who would burn [incense] to the idols) (Tanchuma, Toledoth 8; Pesiktha Rabbathi 12). Another explanation: When Isaac was bound on the altar, and his father was about to slaughter him, the heavens opened, and the ministering angels saw and wept, and their tears fell upon Isaac’s eyes. As a result, his eyes became dim (Gen. Rabbah 65:6). A third explanation: to enable Jacob to take the blessings (Gen. Rabbah 65:8).   וַתִּכְהֶיןָ: בַּעֲשָׁנָן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר כְּשֶׁנֶּעֱקַד עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהָיָה אָבִיו רוֹצֶה לְשָׁחֳטוֹ, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִפְתְּחוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְרָאוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְהָיוּ בוֹכִים, וְיָרְדוּ דִמְעוֹתֵיהֶם וְנָפְלוּ עַל עֵינָיו, לְפִיכָךְ כָּהוּ עֵינָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטֹּל יַעֲקֹב אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת:
2And he said, "Behold now, I have grown old; I do not know the day of my death.   בוַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה־נָ֖א זָקַ֑נְתִּי לֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְתִּי י֥וֹם מוֹתִֽי:
I do not know the day of my death: Rabbi Joshua ben Korchah said: If a person reaches the age of [the death of] his parents, he should worry five years beforehand and five years afterwards, and Isaac was one hundred and twenty-three years old. He said, “Perhaps I will reach the age of [the death of] my mother, and she died at one hundred and twenty-seven, and I am thus within five years of her age; therefore, ”I do not know the day of my death," -perhaps [I will die] at my mother’s age and perhaps at my father’s age. [From Gen. Rabbah 65:12]   לֹא יָדַעְתִּי יוֹם מוֹתִֽי: אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה אִם מַגִּיעַ אָדָם לְפֶרֶק אֲבוֹתָיו יִדְאַג חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים לִפְנֵיהֶן וְחָמֵשׁ לְאַחַר כֵּן; וְיִצְחָק הָיָה בֶּן קכ"ג, אָמַר שֶׁמָּא לְפֶרֶק אִמִּי אֲנִי מַגִּיעַ וְהִיא מֵתָה בַּת קכ"ז וַהֲרֵינִי בֶן ה' שָׁנִים סָמוּךְ לְפִרְקָהּ; לְפִיכָךְ לא ידעתי יום מותי, שֶׁמָּא לְפֶרֶק אִמִּי, שֶׁמָּא לְפֶרֶק אַבָּא:
3So, now, sharpen your implements, your sword [and take] your bow, and go forth to the field, and hunt game for me.   גוְעַתָּה֙ שָׂא־נָ֣א כֵלֶ֔יךָ תֶּלְיְךָ֖ וְקַשְׁתֶּ֑ךָ וְצֵא֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְצ֥וּדָה לִּ֖י צָֽיִד (כתיב צידה) :
your sword: Heb. תֶּלְיךָ‏ְ, your sword, which is usually hung לִתְלוֹתָה.   תֶּלְיְךָ: חַרְבְּךָ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִתְלוֹתָהּ:
So, now, sharpen: שָׂא נָא an expression of sharpening, as we learned in the Mishnah (Beizah 28a): “We may not sharpen a knife [on a whet-stone] but we may sharpen it (מַשִּׂיאָה) against another one [on Yom-Tov].” [Isaac said]: “Sharpen your knife and slaughter properly, lest you feed me neveila ” [an animal not slaughtered according to ritual law] (Gen. Rabbah 65: 13).   שָׂא־נָא: לְשׁוֹן הַשְׁחָזָה, כְּאוֹתָהּ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ אֵין מַשְׁחִיזִין אֶת הַסַּכִּין, אֲבָל מַשִּׂיאָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי חֲבֶרְתָּהּ (ביצה כ"ח), חַדֵּד סַכִּינְךָ וּשְׁחֹט יָפֶה, שֶׁלֹּא תַאֲכִילֵנִי נְבֵלָה (בראשית רבה):
and hunt for me: from ownerless [game], and not from stolen [animals]. [Gen. Rabbah 65:13]   וְצוּדָה לִּי: מִן הַהֶפְקֵר וְלֹא מִן הַגֶּזֶל:
4And make for me tasty foods as I like, and bring them to me, and I will eat, in order that my soul will bless you before I die."   דוַֽעֲשֵׂה־לִ֨י מַטְעַמִּ֜ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָהַ֛בְתִּי וְהָבִ֥יאָה לִּ֖י וְאֹכֵ֑לָה בַּֽעֲב֛וּר תְּבָֽרֶכְךָ֥ נַפְשִׁ֖י בְּטֶ֥רֶם אָמֽוּת:
5But Rebecca overheard when Isaac spoke to Esau his son, and Esau went to the field to hunt game, to bring [it].   הוְרִבְקָ֣ה שֹׁמַ֔עַת בְּדַבֵּ֣ר יִצְחָ֔ק אֶל־עֵשָׂ֖ו בְּנ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ עֵשָׂו֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לָצ֥וּד צַ֖יִד לְהָבִֽיא:
to hunt game, to bring: What is the meaning of “to bring?” If he would not find game, he intended to bring [meat] from stolen [animals]. - [from Gen. Rabbah 65:13]   לָצוּד צַיִד לְהָבִֽיא: מַהוּ לְהָבִיא? אִם לֹא יִמְצָא צַיִד יָבִיא מִן הַגֶּזֶל:
6And Rebecca said to Jacob her son, saying, "Behold I have heard your father speaking to Esau your brother, saying,   ווְרִבְקָה֙ אָ֣מְרָ֔ה אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב בְּנָ֖הּ לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֤ה שָׁמַ֨עְתִּי֙ אֶת־אָבִ֔יךָ מְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶל־עֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִ֖יךָ לֵאמֹֽר:
7'Bring me game and make me tasty foods, and I will eat, and I will bless you before the Lord before my death.'   זהָבִ֨יאָה לִּ֥י צַ֛יִד וַֽעֲשֵׂה־לִ֥י מַטְעַמִּ֖ים וְאֹכֵ֑לָה וַֽאֲבָֽרֶכְכָ֛ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹתִֽי:
before the Lord: with His consent, that He will approve of what I do.   לִפְנֵי ה': בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, שֶׁיַּסְכִּים עַל יָדִי:
8And now my son, hearken to my voice, to what I am commanding you.   חוְעַתָּ֥ה בְנִ֖י שְׁמַ֣ע בְּקֹלִ֑י לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י מְצַוָּ֥ה אֹתָֽךְ:
9Go now to the flock, and take for me from there two choice kids, and I will make them tasty foods for your father, as he likes.   טלֶךְ־נָא֙ אֶל־הַצֹּ֔אן וְקַח־לִ֣י מִשָּׁ֗ם שְׁנֵ֛י גְּדָיֵ֥י עִזִּ֖ים טֹבִ֑ים וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂ֨ה אֹתָ֧ם מַטְעַמִּ֛ים לְאָבִ֖יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָהֵֽב:
and take for me: [“לִי” indicates that] they are mine, and they are not stolen, because so had Isaac written for her in her marriage contract, that she might take two kids every day (Gen. Rabbah 65:14).   וְקַח־לִי: מִשֶּׁלִּי הֵם וְאֵינָם גֶּזֶל, שֶׁכָּךְ כָּתַב לָהּ יִצְחָק בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ לִטֹּל שְׁנֵי גְּדָיֵי עִזִּים בְּכָל יוֹם (בראשית רבה):
two choice kids: Now did Isaac’s menu consist of two kids? But [the explanation is that] he sacrificed one as a Paschal offering, and one he made into tasty foods. [This is found] in Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 32).   שְׁנֵי גְּדָיֵי עִזִּים: וְכִי שְׁנֵי גְּדָיֵי עִזִּים הָיָה מַאֲכָל שֶׁל יִצְחָק? אֶלָּא הָאֶחָד הִקְרִיב לְפִסְחוֹ וְהָאֶחָד עָשָׂה מַטְעַמִּים; בְּפִרְקֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר:
as he likes: for the taste of a kid is like the taste of a deer.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר אָהֵֽב: כִּי טַעַם הַגְּדִי כְּטַעַם הַצְּבִי:
10And you shall bring [them] to your father that he may eat, in order that he bless you before his death."   יוְהֵֽבֵאתָ֥ לְאָבִ֖יךָ וְאָכָ֑ל בַּֽעֲבֻ֛ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹתֽוֹ:
11And Jacob said to Rebecca his mother, "Behold, my brother Esau is a hairy man, whereas I am a smooth man.   יאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־רִבְקָ֖ה אִמּ֑וֹ הֵ֣ן עֵשָׂ֤ו אָחִי֙ אִ֣ישׁ שָׂעִ֔ר וְאָֽנֹכִ֖י אִ֥ישׁ חָלָֽק:
a hairy man: Heb. אִישׁ שָׂעִר, one possessing hair.   אִישׁ שעיר: בַּעַל שֵׂעָר:
12Perhaps my father will touch me, and I will appear to him as a deceiver, and I will bring upon myself a curse and not a blessing."   יבאוּלַ֤י יְמֻשֵּׁ֨נִי֙ אָבִ֔י וְהָיִ֥יתִי בְעֵינָ֖יו כִּמְתַעְתֵּ֑עַ וְהֵֽבֵאתִ֥י עָלַ֛י קְלָלָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א בְרָכָֽה:
will touch me: Heb. יְמֻשֵּׁנִי, similar to (Deut. 28:29):“feeling (מְמַשֵּׁשׁ) at noon.”   יְמֻשֵּׁנִי: כְּמוֹ מְמַשֵּׁשׁ בַּצָּהֳרַיִם:
13And his mother said to him, "On me is your curse, my son. Only hearken to my voice and go, take [them] for me."   יגוַתֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ אִמּ֔וֹ עָלַ֥י קִלְלָֽתְךָ֖ בְּנִ֑י אַ֛ךְ שְׁמַ֥ע בְּקֹלִ֖י וְלֵ֥ךְ קַח־לִֽי:
14So he went, and he took, and he brought [them] to his mother, and his mother made tasty foods, as his father liked.   ידוַיֵּ֨לֶךְ֙ וַיִּקַּ֔ח וַיָּבֵ֖א לְאִמּ֑וֹ וַתַּ֤עַשׂ אִמּוֹ֙ מַטְעַמִּ֔ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר אָהֵ֥ב אָבִֽיו:
15And Rebecca took the costly garments of Esau, her elder son, which were with her in the house, and she dressed Jacob, her younger son.   טווַתִּקַּ֣ח רִ֠בְקָ֠ה אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֨י עֵשָׂ֜ו בְּנָ֤הּ הַגָּדֹל֙ הַֽחֲמֻדֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתָּ֖הּ בַּבָּ֑יִת וַתַּלְבֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב בְּנָ֥הּ הַקָּטָֽן:
the costly: הַחַמוּדֹת [means] the clean ones, as the Targum renders: דַּכְיָתָא [clean ones]. Another explanation: The ones [garments] that he had coveted [שֶׁחָמַד] from Nimrod. [From Gen. Rabbah 65:16]   הַֽחֲמֻדֹת: הַנְּקִיּוֹת, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ דָּכְיָתָא, דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁחָמַד אוֹתָן מִן נִמְרוֹד:
which were with her in the house: But He [Esau] had many wives, [with whom to entrust his garments] and yet he entrusted them [his garments] with his mother?! He was well aware of their deeds, and he was suspicious of them. [From Gen. Rabbah 65:16]   אֲשֶׁר אִתָּהּ בַּבָּיִת: וַהֲלֹא כַמָּה נָשִׁים הָיוּ לוֹ, וְהוּא מַפְקִיד אֵצֶל אִמּוֹ? אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה בָקִי בְמַעֲשֵׂיהֶן וְחוֹשְׁדָן:
16And the hides of the kids she put on his hands and on the smoothness of his neck.   טזוְאֵ֗ת עֹרֹת֙ גְּדָיֵ֣י הָֽעִזִּ֔ים הִלְבִּ֖ישָׁה עַל־יָדָ֑יו וְעַ֖ל חֶלְקַ֥ת צַוָּארָֽיו:
17And she gave the tasty foods and the bread that she had made, into the hand of Jacob her son.   יזוַתִּתֵּ֧ן אֶת־הַמַּטְעַמִּ֛ים וְאֶת־הַלֶּ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑תָה בְּיַ֖ד יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב בְּנָֽהּ:
18And he came to his father and said, "My father!" And he said, "Here I am. Who are you, my son?"   יחוַיָּבֹ֥א אֶל־אָבִ֖יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אָבִ֑י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הִנֶּ֔נִּי מִ֥י אַתָּ֖ה בְּנִֽי:
19And Jacob said to his father, "I am Esau your firstborn. I have done as you have spoken to me. Please rise, sit down and eat of my game, so that your soul will bless me."   יטוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶל־אָבִ֗יו אָֽנֹכִי֙ עֵשָׂ֣ו בְּכֹרֶ֔ךָ עָשִׂ֕יתִי כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ אֵלָ֑י קֽוּם־נָ֣א שְׁבָ֗ה וְאָכְלָה֙ מִצֵּידִ֔י בַּֽעֲב֖וּר תְּבָֽרֲכַ֥נִּי נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
I am…Esau…your firstborn: [He meant]: I am the one who is bringing you [food] and Esau is your firstborn. [From Tanchuma Buber]   אָֽנֹכִי עֵשָׂו בכורך: אָנֹכִי הַמֵּבִיא לְךָ וְעֵשָׂו הוּא בְּכוֹרֶךָ:
I have done: many things, as you have spoken to me.   עָשִׂיתִי: כַמָּה דְבָרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֵלַי:
sit down: Heb. שְׁבָה, an expression of sitting around the table [at a meal]. Therefore, it is rendered [by Onkelos] אִסְתְּחַר.   שְׁבָה: לְשׁוֹן מֵסֵב עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, לְכָךְ מְתֻרְגָּם אִסְתָּחַר:
20And Isaac said to his son, "How is it that you have found [it] so quickly, my son?" And he said, "Because the Lord your God prepared it before me."   כוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִצְחָק֙ אֶל־בְּנ֔וֹ מַה־זֶּ֛ה מִהַ֥רְתָּ לִמְצֹ֖א בְּנִ֑י וַיֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י הִקְרָ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְפָנָֽי:
21And Isaac said to Jacob, "Please come closer, so that I may feel you, my son, whether you are really my son Esau or not."   כאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִצְחָק֙ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב גְּשָׁה־נָּ֥א וַֽאֲמֻֽשְׁךָ֖ בְּנִ֑י הַֽאַתָּ֥ה זֶ֛ה בְּנִ֥י עֵשָׂ֖ו אִם־לֹֽא:
Please come closer, so that I may feel you: Isaac said to himself, “Esau does not usually mention the name of Heaven with frequency, but this one said: ‘Because the Lord your God prepared it….’” [from Gen. Rabbah 65:19]   גְּשָׁה־נָּא וַֽאֲמֻֽשְׁךָ: אָמַר יִצְחָק בְּלִבּוֹ אֵין דֶּרֶךְ עֵשָׂו לִהְיוֹת שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם שָׁגוּר בְּפִיו, וְזֶה אָמַר כִּי הִקְרָה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ:
22So Jacob drew near to Isaac his father, and he felt him, and he said, "The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau."   כבוַיִּגַּ֧שׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֛ב אֶל־יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִ֖יו וַיְמֻשֵּׁ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הַקֹּל֙ ק֣וֹל יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְהַיָּדַ֖יִם יְדֵ֥י עֵשָֽׂו:
the voice of Jacob: who speaks entreatingly: “Please rise,” but Esau spoke harshly, “Let my father arise!” [From Tanchuma Buber, Toledoth 15]   קוֹל יַֽעֲקֹב: שֶׁמְּדַבֵּר בִּלְשׁוֹן תַּחֲנוּנִים קוּם נָא, אֲבָל עֵשָׂו קִנְטוּרְיָא דִּבֵּר יָקֻם אָבִי:
23And he did not recognize him because his hands were hairy like the hands of his brother Esau, and he blessed him.   כגוְלֹ֣א הִכִּיר֔וֹ כִּֽי־הָי֣וּ יָדָ֗יו כִּידֵ֛י עֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִ֖יו שְׂעִרֹ֑ת וַיְבָֽרֲכֵֽהוּ:
24And he said, "Are you [indeed] my son Esau?" And he said, "I am."   כדוַיֹּ֕אמֶר אַתָּ֥ה זֶ֖ה בְּנִ֣י עֵשָׂ֑ו וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָֽנִי:
And he said, “I am.”: He did not say, “I am Esau,” but “I am.” [From Num. Rabbah 10:6]   וַיֹּאמֶר אָֽנִי: לֹא אָמַר אֲנִי עֵשָׂו אֶלָּא אָנִי:
25And he said, "Serve [it] to me that I may eat of the game of my son, so that my soul will bless you." And he served him, and he ate, and he brought him wine, and he drank.   כהוַיֹּ֗אמֶר הַגִּ֤שָׁה לִּי֙ וְאֹֽכְלָה֙ מִצֵּ֣יד בְּנִ֔י לְמַ֥עַן תְּבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ נַפְשִׁ֑י וַיַּגֶּשׁ־לוֹ֙ וַיֹּאכַ֔ל וַיָּ֧בֵא ל֦וֹ יַ֖יִן וַיֵּֽשְׁתְּ:
26And his father Isaac said to him, "Please come closer and kiss me, my son."   כווַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֑יו גְּשָׁה־נָּ֥א וּֽשֲׁקָה־לִּ֖י בְּנִֽי:
27And he came closer, and he kissed him, and he smelled the fragrance of his garments, and he blessed him, and he said, "Behold, the fragrance of my son is like the fragrance of a field, which the Lord has blessed!   כזוַיִּגַּשׁ֙ וַיִּשַּׁק־ל֔וֹ וַיָּ֛רַח אֶת־רֵ֥יחַ בְּגָדָ֖יו וַיְבָֽרֲכֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר רְאֵה֙ רֵ֣יחַ בְּנִ֔י כְּרֵ֣יחַ שָׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּֽרֲכ֖וֹ יְהֹוָֽה:
and he smelled, etc.: Is it not so that there is no odor more offensive than that of washed goat skins? But this teaches us that the fragrance of the Garden of Eden entered with him. [From Tanchuma Buber 16]   וַיָּרַח וגו': וַהֲלֹא אֵין רֵיחַ רַע יוֹתֵר מִשֶּׁטֶף הָעִזִּים? אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה עִמּוֹ רֵיחַ גַּן עֵדֶן;
is like the fragrance of a field, which the Lord has blessed: for He gave it a pleasant fragrance, and this is a field of apples. So did our Sages explain it. [From Ta’anith 29b]   כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בֵּֽרֲכוֹ ה': שֶׁנָּתַן בּוֹ רֵיחַ טוֹב וְזֶהוּ שְׂדֵה תַּפּוּחִים, כָּךְ דָּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה:

Sixth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 27

28And may the Lord give you of the dew of the heavens and [of] the fatness of the earth and an abundance of grain and wine.   כחוְיִתֶּן־לְךָ֙ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים מִטַּ֨ל הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וּמִשְׁמַנֵּ֖י הָאָ֑רֶץ וְרֹ֥ב דָּגָ֖ן וְתִירֽשׁ:
And may the Lord give you: May He give and repeatedly give (Gen. Rabbah 66:3). According to its simple meaning, it refers back to the previous topic: “Look, the fragrance of my son” which God has given him, “is like the fragrance of a field, etc.,” and furthermore, “May He give you of the dew of the heavens, etc.”   וְיִתֶּן־לְךָ: יִתֵּן וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתֵּן (בראשית רבה). וּלְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ מוּסָב לְעִנְיָן הָרִאשׁוֹן: רְאֵה רֵיחַ בְּנִי שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה וְגוֹ' וְעוֹד יִתֵּן לְךָ מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם וְגוֹ':
of the dew of the heavens: [It is to be interpreted] according to its simple meaning, and there are Midrashic interpretations of many kinds. (Another explanation: What is the meaning of הָאֱלֹהִים [I.e., why is the Divine Name which signifies God’s attribute of Justice used here? To teach that He will treat you] with justice. If you deserve it, He will give to you, and if not, He will not give to you. But to Esau he said, “The fat places of the earth shall be your dwelling place.” Whether righteous or wicked, He will give to you. And from him [Isaac], Solomon learned; when he built the Temple, he arranged his prayer, [saying that] an Israelite, who has faith and justifies the Divine decree upon himself, will not complain about You; therefore (I Kings 8:39): “and give to every man [Israelite] according to his ways,” for You know what is in his heart. But a gentile lacks faith; therefore [Solomon] said (ibid. verse 43): “You shall hear in heaven, etc., and do according to all that the stranger calls upon You for,” i.e., whether he is deserving or undeserving, give to him, so that he should not complain about You. [This is found] in an old and correct edition of Rashi.) [From Tanchuma Buber, Toledoth 14]   מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם: כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ; וּמִדְרְשֵׁי אַגָּדָה יֵשׁ לְהַרְבֵּה פָנִים: (דָבָר אַחֵר, מַהוּ הָאֱלֹהִים? בַּדִּין; אִם רָאוּי לְךָ יִתֵּן לְךָ וְאִם לָאו לֹא יִתֵּן לְךָ, אֲבָל לְעֵשָׂו אָמַר מִשְׁמַנֵּי הָאָרֶץ יִהְיֶה מוֹשָׁבֶךָ, בֵּין צַדִּיק בֵּין רָשָׁע יִתֵּן לְךָ; וּמִמֶּנּוּ לָמַד שְׁלֹמֹה, כְּשֶׁעָשָׂה הַבַּיִת סִדֵּר תְּפִלָּתוֹ. יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהוּא בַעַל אֱמוּנָה וּמַצְדִּיק עָלָיו אֶת הַדִּין לֹא יִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ תִּגָּר, לְפִיכָךְ וְנָתַתָּ לָאִישׁ בְכָל דְּרָכָיו אֲשֶׁר תֵּדַע אֶת לְבָבוֹ (מלכים א, ח'), אֲבָל נָכְרִי מְחֻסַּר אֲמָנָה, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי (שם), בֵּין רָאוּי בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי תֵּן לוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ תִּגָּר, ברש"י ישן מדיק:)
29Nations shall serve you and kingdoms shall bow down to you; you shall be a master over your brothers, and your mother's sons shall bow down to you. Those who curse you shall be cursed, and those who bless you shall be blessed."   כטיַֽעַבְד֣וּךָ עַמִּ֗ים וְיִשְׁתַּֽחֲו֤וּ (כתיב וישתחו) לְךָ֙ לְאֻמִּ֔ים הֱוֵ֤ה גְבִיר֙ לְאַחֶ֔יךָ וְיִשְׁתַּֽחֲו֥וּ לְ֖ךָ בְּנֵ֣י אִמֶּ֑ךָ אֹֽרֲרֶ֣יךָ אָר֔וּר וּמְבָֽרֲכֶ֖יךָ בָּרֽוּךְ:
your mother’s sons: But Jacob said to Judah, “your father’s sons” because he [Jacob] had sons from many mothers, but here, since he [Isaac] had married only one wife, he said, “your mother’s sons” (Gen. Rabbah 66:4).   בְּנֵי אִמֶּךָ: וְיַעֲקֹב אָמַר לִיהוּדָה בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים מִכַּמָּה אִמָּהוֹת, וְכָאן, שֶׁלֹּא נָשָׂא אֶלָּא אִשָּׁה אַחַת, אוֹמֵר בְּנֵי אִמֶּךָ (בראשית רבה):
Those who curse you shall be cursed, and those who bless you shall be blessed: But concerning Balaam, Scripture says (Num. 24:9): “Those who bless you shall be blessed, and those who curse you shall be cursed” (Gen. Rabbah ibid.). [The reason for this is that, for] the righteous-their beginning is suffering and their end is tranquillity; and thus, those who curse them and cause them pain precede those who bless them. Isaac therefore mentioned the curse of those who curse before the blessing of those who bless. As for the wicked, however, their beginning is tranquillity, and their end is suffering; Balaam, therefore, mentioned the blessing before the curse. [From Gen. Rabbah 66:4]   אֹֽרֲרֶיךָ אָרוּר וּמְבָֽרֲכֶיךָ בָּרֽוּךְ: וּבְבִלְעָם הוּא אוֹמֵר מְבָרְכֶיךָ בָרוּךְ וְאֹרְרֶיךָ אָרוּר? הַצַּדִּיקִים תְּחִלָּתָם יִסּוּרִים וְסוֹפָן שַׁלְוָה וְאוֹרְרֵיהֶם וּמְצָעֲרֵיהֶם קוֹדְמִים לִמְבָרְכֵיהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ יִצְחָק הִקְדִּים קִלְלַת אוֹרְרִים לְבִרְכַת מְבָרְכִים; הָרְשָׁעִים תְּחִלָּתָן שַׁלְוָה וְסוֹפָן יִסּוּרִין, לְפִיכָךְ בִּלְעָם הִקְדִּים בְּרָכָה לִקְלָלָה (בראשית רבה):
30And it came to pass, when Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, and it came to pass Jacob had just left his father Isaac's presence, that his brother Esau came from his hunt.   לוַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר כִּלָּ֣ה יִצְחָק֘ לְבָרֵ֣ךְ אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹב֒ וַיְהִ֗י אַ֣ךְ יָצֹ֤א יָצָא֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מֵאֵ֥ת פְּנֵ֖י יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֑יו וְעֵשָׂ֣ו אָחִ֔יו בָּ֖א מִצֵּידֽוֹ:
had just left: Heb. יָצֹא יָצָא, [lit., going out, had gone out.] This one was leaving, and that one was coming in. [From Gen. Rabbah 66:5]   יָצֹא יָצָא: זֶה יוֹצֵא וְזֶה בָא:
31And he too had made tasty foods, and he brought [them] to his father, and he said to his father, "Let my father arise and eat of the game of his son, so that your soul will bless me. "   לאוַיַּ֤עַשׂ גַּם־הוּא֙ מַטְעַמִּ֔ים וַיָּבֵ֖א לְאָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאָבִ֗יו יָקֻ֤ם אָבִי֙ וְיֹאכַל֙ מִצֵּ֣יד בְּנ֔וֹ בַּֽעֲבֻ֖ר תְּבָֽרֲכַ֥נִּי נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
32And his father Isaac said to him, "Who are you?" And he said, "I am your son, your firstborn, Esau."   לבוַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֛וֹ יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִ֖יו מִי־אָ֑תָּה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֲנִ֛י בִּנְךָ֥ בְכֹֽרְךָ֖ עֵשָֽׂו:
33And Isaac shuddered a great shudder, and he said, "Who then is the one who hunted game and brought it to me, and I ate of everything while you had not yet come, and I blessed him? He, too, shall be blessed."   לגוַיֶּֽחֱרַ֨ד יִצְחָ֣ק חֲרָדָה֘ גְּדֹלָ֣ה עַד־מְאֹד֒ וַיֹּ֡אמֶר מִֽי־אֵפ֡וֹא ה֣וּא הַצָּֽד־צַ֩יִד֩ וַיָּ֨בֵא לִ֜י וָֽאֹכַ֥ל מִכֹּ֛ל בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא וָֽאֲבָֽרֲכֵ֑הוּ גַּם־בָּר֖וּךְ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
And Isaac shuddered: [וַיֶּחרָד is to be explained] as the Targum, וּתְוָה, an expression of bewilderment. According to the Midrash, however, he [actually shuddered because] he saw Gehinnom open beneath him. [From Tanchuma, Vezoth Haberachah 1]   וַיֶּֽחֱרַד: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וּתְוַהּ, לְשׁוֹן תְּמִיהָ. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ רָאָה גֵּיהִנֹּם פְּתוּחָה מִתַּחְתָּיו:
Who then: [the word] אֵפוֹא is an expression by itself, which has many usages. Another explanation: אֵפוֹא is a combination of אַיּה [where] and פֹּה [here], [so that מִי אֵפוֹא means]: Who is he and where is he, who hunted game?   מִֽי־אֵפוֹא: לָשׁוֹן לְעַצְמוֹ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם כַּמָּה דְבָרִים; אֵיפֹה – אַיֵּה פֹה, מִי הוּא וְאֵיפֹה הוּא הַצָּד צַיִד?
and I ate of everything: Any flavors I wished to taste, I tasted in it (Gen. Rabbah 67:2).   וָֽאֹכַל מִכֹּל: מִכָּל טְעָמִים שֶׁבִּקַּשְׁתִּי לִטְעֹם, טָעַמְתִּי בוֹ (בראשית רבה):
He, too, shall be blessed: That you should not say that had Jacob not deceived his father, he would not have received the blessings. Therefore, he concurred and blessed him intentionally (Gen. Rabbah 67:2).   גַּם־בָּרוּךְ יִֽהְיֶֽה: שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁרִמָּה יַעֲקֹב לְאָבִיו לֹא נָטַל אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת, לְכָךְ הִסְכִּים וּבֵרְכוֹ מִדַּעְתּוֹ (בראשית רבה):
34When Esau heard his father's words, he cried out a great and bitter cry, and he said to his father, "Bless me too, O my father!"   לדכִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ עֵשָׂו֙ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י אָבִ֔יו וַיִּצְעַ֣ק צְעָקָ֔ה גְּדֹלָ֥ה וּמָרָ֖ה עַד־מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאָבִ֔יו בָּֽרֲכֵ֥נִי גַם־אָ֖נִי אָבִֽי:
35And he said, "Your brother came with cunning and took your blessing."   להוַיֹּ֕אמֶר בָּ֥א אָחִ֖יךָ בְּמִרְמָ֑ה וַיִּקַּ֖ח בִּרְכָתֶֽךָ:
with cunning: with cleverness. [From Targumim]   בְּמִרְמָה: בְּחָכְמָה:
36And he said, "Is it for this reason that he was named Jacob? For he has deceived me twice; he took my birthright, and behold, now he has taken my blessing." And he said, "Have you not reserved a blessing for me?"   לווַיֹּ֡אמֶר הֲכִי֩ קָרָ֨א שְׁמ֜וֹ יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב וַיַּעְקְבֵ֨נִי֙ זֶ֣ה פַעֲמַ֔יִם אֶת־בְּכֹֽרָתִ֣י לָקָ֔ח וְהִנֵּ֥ה עַתָּ֖ה לָקַ֣ח בִּרְכָתִ֑י וַיֹּאמַ֕ר הֲלֹֽא־אָצַ֥לְתָּ לִּ֖י בְּרָכָֽה:
And he said,“Is it for this reason that he was named Jacob: הִכִי is an expression denoting the interrogative, as in (below 29:15): ”Is it because (הִכִי) you are my kinsman…?“ Was he named Jacob (יַעִקֹב) because of the future, because he was destined to deceive me (לְעָקְבֵנִי)? Midrash Tanchuma (Buber, Toledoth 23) [asks]: Why did Isaac shudder? He said, ”Perhaps I am guilty of an iniquity, for I have blessed the younger son before the older one, and thus altered the order of the relationship.“ [Thereupon], Esau started crying, ”He has already deceived me twice!“ His father said to him, ”What did he do to you?“ He replied, ”He took my birthright.“ He [Isaac] said,”That is why I was troubled and shuddered, for [I was afraid that] perhaps I [had] transgressed the line of strict justice, [but] now [that I know that] I actually blessed the firstborn, ‘he too shall be blessed’."   הֲכִי קָרָא שְׁמוֹ: לְשׁוֹן תֵּמַהּ הוּא, כְּמוֹ הֲכִי אָחִי אַתָּה, שֶׁמָּא לְכָךְ נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ יַעֲקֹב עַל שֵׁם סוֹפוֹ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְעָקְבֵנִי? תַּנְחוּמָא. לָמָּה חָרַד יִצְחָק? אָמַר שֶׁמָּא עָוֹן יֵשׁ בִּי שֶׁבֵּרַכְתִּי קָטָן לִפְנֵי גָּדוֹל וְשִׁנִּיתִי סֵדֶר הַיַּחַס, הִתְחִיל עֵשָׂו מְצָעֵק וַיַּעְקְבֵנִי זֶה פַעֲמַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו מֶה עָשָׂה לְךָ? אָמַר לוֹ אֶת בְּכֹרָתִי לָקָח, אָמַר בְּכָךְ הָיִיתִי מֵצֵר וְחָרֵד שֶׁמָּא עָבַרְתִּי עַל שׁוּרַת הַדִּין, עַכְשָׁו לַבְּכוֹר בֵּרַכְתִּי, גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה:
for he has deceived me: Heb. וַיַעְקְבֵנִי. [To be explained] according to the Targum וּכַמַנִי [meaning]: and he lay in wait for me. [The word] וְאָרַב [(Deut. 19:11): “and he lies in wait,”] is translated by the Targum as וּכְמַן Others read in the Targum [not וּכַמַנִי, but] וְחַכְּמַנִי [meaning]: he outwitted me.   וַיַּעְקְבֵנִי: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וּכְמַנִי – אֲרָבַנִי; וְאָרַב – וּכְמַן. וְיֵשׁ מְתַרְגְּמִין וְחַכְּמַנִי, נִתְחַכֵּם לִי:
reserved: [אָצַלְתּ] an expression of separation, as in וַיָּאצֶל (“and he separated”) (Num. 11:25). (Other editions read: וַיַּצֵּל (below 31:9). [From Targum Onkelos]   אָצַלְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן הַפְרָשָׁה כְּמוֹ וַיָּאצֶל:
37And Isaac answered and said to Esau, "Behold, I made him a master over you, and I gave him all his brothers as servants, and I have sustained him with corn and wine; so for you then, what shall I do, my son?"   לזוַיַּ֨עַן יִצְחָ֜ק וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְעֵשָׂ֗ו הֵ֣ן גְּבִ֞יר שַׂמְתִּ֥יו לָךְ֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֶחָ֗יו נָתַ֤תִּי לוֹ֙ לַֽעֲבָדִ֔ים וְדָגָ֥ן וְתִיר֖שׁ סְמַכְתִּ֑יו וּלְכָ֣ה אֵפ֔וֹא מָ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה בְּנִֽי:
Behold…a master: This is the seventh blessing [given to Jacob] and yet he puts it first? Rather, he said to him, “What use will a blessing be to you? If you acquire property, it will be his, for I have made him a master over you, and whatever a slave acquires, belongs to his master.” [From Gen. 67:5]   הֵן גְּבִיר: בְּרָכָה זוֹ שְׁבִיעִית הִיא, וְהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה? אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ מַה תּוֹעֶלֶת לְךָ בַּבְּרָכָה? אִם תִּקְנֶה נְכָסִים, שֶׁלּוֹ הֵם, שֶׁהֲרֵי גְּבִיר שַׂמְתִּיו לָךְ, וּמַה שֶּׁקָּנָה עֶבֶד קָנָה רַבּוֹ:
so for you then, what shall I do: Where will I seek for something to do for you?   וּלְכָה אפא מָה אֶֽעֱשֶׂה: אַיֵּה אֵיפֹא אֲבַקֵּשׁ מַה לַּעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ:
38And Esau said to his father, "Have you [but] one blessing, my father? Bless me too, my father." And Esau raised his voice and wept.   לחוַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵשָׂ֜ו אֶל־אָבִ֗יו הַֽבֲרָכָ֨ה אַחַ֤ת הִֽוא־לְךָ֙ אָבִ֔י בָּֽרֲכֵ֥נִי גַם־אָ֖נִי אָבִ֑י וַיִּשָּׂ֥א עֵשָׂ֛ו קֹל֖וֹ וַיֵּֽבְךְּ:
Have you [but] one blessing: The “hey” [in הַבִרָכָה] indicates an interrogative expression, as in (Num. 13:19): “are they in open cities (הַבְּמַחֲנַיִם)?;” “is it fat (הַשְּׁמֵנָה);?” (II Sam. 3:33): “[Should Abner die] like the death of (הַכְּמוֹת) a wicked man?”   הַֽבֲרָכָה אַחַת: הֵ"א זוֹ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְשׁוֹן תְּמִיהָ, כְּמוֹ הַבְּמַחֲנִים? הַשְּׁמֵנָה הִיא? הַכְּמוֹת נָבָל?
39And his father Isaac answered and said to him, "Behold, your dwelling place shall be the fat places of the earth and of the dew of the heaven from above.   לטוַיַּ֛עַן יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִ֖יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֑יו הִנֵּ֞ה מִשְׁמַנֵּ֤י הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה מֽוֹשָׁבֶ֔ךָ וּמִטַּ֥ל הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם מֵעָֽל:
Behold…the fat places of the earth: This is the part of Italy belonging to Greece (from Gen. Rabbah 67:6).   מִשְׁמַנֵּי ארץ וגו': זוֹ אִיטָלִיאָה שֶׁל יָוָן:
40And you shall live by your sword, and you shall serve your brother, and it will be, when you grieve, that you will break his yoke off your neck."   מוְעַל־חַרְבְּךָ֣ תִֽחְיֶ֔ה וְאֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ תַּֽעֲבֹ֑ד וְהָיָה֙ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר תָּרִ֔יד וּפָֽרַקְתָּ֥ עֻלּ֖וֹ מֵעַ֥ל צַוָּארֶֽךָ:
And…by your sword: וְעַל חַרְבּךָ is the same as בְּחַרְבּךָ‏ְ [by your sword]. Sometimes עַל takes the place of the letter “beth,” as in (Ezek. 33:26); “You stood by your sword (עַל חַרְבְּכֶם),” [which is the same as] בְּחַרְבְּכֶם (Exod. 6:26); “by their hosts (עַל צִבְאוֹתָם)” [is the same as] בְּצִבְאוֹתָם.   וְעַל־חַרְבְּךָ: כְּמוֹ בְּחַרְבְּךָ, יֵשׁ עַל בִּמְקוֹם בְּ', כְּמוֹ עֲמַדְתֶּם עַל חַרְבְּכֶם – בְּחַרְבְּכֶם; עַל צִבְאֹתָם – בְּצִבְאֹתָם:
and it will be, when you grieve: [תָּרִיד] is an expression of pain, as in (Ps. 55:3): “I will lament (אָרִיד) in my speech;” i.e., when the Israelites will transgress the Torah, and you will have cause to grieve about the blessings that he took, “you will break his yoke,” etc. [From Targum Onkelos]   תָּרִיד: לְשׁוֹן צַעַר כְּמוֹ אָרִיד בְּשִׂיחִי, כְּלוֹמַר, כְּשֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל הַתּוֹרָה וְיִהְיֶה לְךָ פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לְהִצְטַעֵר עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁנָּטַל, ופרקת עלו וגומר:
41And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing that his father had blessed him, and Esau said to himself, "Let the days of mourning for my father draw near, I will then kill my brother Jacob. "   מאוַיִּשְׂטֹ֤ם עֵשָׂו֙ אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב עַל־הַ֨בְּרָכָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּֽרֲכ֖וֹ אָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵשָׂ֜ו בְּלִבּ֗וֹ יִקְרְבוּ֙ יְמֵי֙ אֵ֣בֶל אָבִ֔י וְאַֽהַרְגָ֖ה אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב אָחִֽי:
Let the days of mourning for my father draw near: As its apparent meaning, “that I should not grieve my father,” and there are various Midrashic explanations.   יִקְרְבוּ יְמֵי אֵבֶל אָבִי: כְּמִשְׁמָעוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא אֲצָעֵר אֶת אַבָּא, וּמִדְרְשֵׁי אַגָּדָה לְכַמָּה פָנִים יֵשׁ:
42And Rebecca was told of the words of Esau, her elder son, and she sent and called Jacob, her younger son, and she said to him, "Behold, your brother Esau regrets [his relationship] to you [and wishes] to kill you.   מבוַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְרִבְקָ֔ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י עֵשָׂ֖ו בְּנָ֣הּ הַגָּדֹ֑ל וַתִּשְׁלַ֞ח וַתִּקְרָ֤א לְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ בְּנָ֣הּ הַקָּטָ֔ן וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּה֙ עֵשָׂ֣ו אָחִ֔יךָ מִתְנַחֵ֥ם לְךָ֖ לְהָרְגֶֽךָ:
And Rebecca was told of: She was told by Divine Inspiration what Esau was thinking in his heart. [From Gen. Rabbah 67:9]   וַיֻּגַּד לְרִבְקָה: בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ הֻגַּד לָהּ מַה שֶּׁעֵשָׂו מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ:
regrets [his relationship] to you: Heb. מִתְנַחֵם. He regrets the brotherly relationship, to consider other [than brotherly] thoughts, to behave towards you as a stranger and to kill you. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 67:9), however, explains [it as an expression of consolation]: In his eyes, you are already dead, and he has drunk a cup of consolation [a cup of wine customarily drunk in the house of mourning] over you. But according to its simple meaning, it is an expression of consolation. By killing you he consoles himself about [losing] the blessings (Tanchuam Buber, Vayetzei 1).   מִתְנַחֵם לְךָ: נִחָם עַל הָאַחְוָה לַחֲשֹׁב מַחֲשָׁבָה אַחֶרֶת לְהִתְנַכֵּר לְךָ וּלְהָרְגְּךָ. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה כְּבָר אַתָּה מֵת בְּעֵינָיו וְשָׁתָה עָלֶיךָ כּוֹס שֶׁל תַּנְחוּמִים. וּלְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ לְשׁוֹן תַּנְחוּמִים, מִתְנַחֵם הוּא עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת בַּהֲרִיגָתְךָ:
43And now, my son, hearken to my voice, and arise, flee to my brother Laban, to Haran.   מגוְעַתָּ֥ה בְנִ֖י שְׁמַ֣ע בְּקֹלִ֑י וְק֧וּם בְּרַח־לְךָ֛ אֶל־לָבָ֥ן אָחִ֖י חָרָֽנָה:
44And you shall dwell with him for a few days until your brother's wrath has subsided.   מדוְיָֽשַׁבְתָּ֥ עִמּ֖וֹ יָמִ֣ים אֲחָדִ֑ים עַ֥ד אֲשֶׁר־תָּשׁ֖וּב חֲמַ֥ת אָחִֽיךָ:
a few days: Heb. אִחָדִים, few.   אֲחָדִים: מֻעָטִים:
45Until your brother's rage subsides from you, and he forgets what you did to him, and I will send and bring you from there. Why should I be bereft of both of you on one day?"   מהעַד־שׁ֨וּב אַף־אָחִ֜יךָ מִמְּךָ֗ וְשָׁכַח֙ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֣יתָ לּ֔וֹ וְשָֽׁלַחְתִּ֖י וּלְקַחְתִּ֣יךָ מִשָּׁ֑ם לָמָ֥ה אֶשְׁכַּ֛ל גַּם־שְׁנֵיכֶ֖ם י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
Why should I be bereft: Heb. אֶשְׁכַּל. I will be bereft of both of you. [This teaches that] one who buries his children is called שָׁכוּל, bereft. And so, concerning Jacob, it is said (below 43:14): “As I am bereft (שָׁכֹלְתִּי), I shall be bereft (שָׁכָלְתּי).”   לָמָה אֶשְׁכַּל: אֶהְיֶה שַׁכּוּלָה מִשְּׁנֵיכֶם. הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת בָּנָיו קָרוּי שַׁכּוּל, וְכֵן בְּיַעֲקֹב אָמַר כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁכֹלְתִּי שָׁכָלְתִּי:
of both of you: If he rises up against you and you kill him, his sons will rise up and kill you. And the Divine Spirit poured itself upon her and she prophesied that they would die on the same day, as is delineated in the chapter entitled הַמְּקַנֵּא לְאִשְׁתּוֹ (Sotah 13a).   גַּם־שְׁנֵיכֶם: אִם יָקוּם עָלֶיךָ וְאַתָּה תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ יַעַמְדוּ בָנָיו וְיַהַרְגוּךָ; וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ נִזְרְקָה בָהּ וְנִתְנַבְּאָה שֶׁבְּיוֹם א' יָמוּתוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּפֶרֶק הַמְקַנֵּא לְאִשְׁתּוֹ:
46And Rebecca said to Isaac, "I am disgusted with my life because of the daughters of Heth. If Jacob takes a wife of the daughters of Heth like these, from the daughters of the land, of what use is life to me?"   מווַתֹּ֤אמֶר רִבְקָה֙ אֶל־יִצְחָ֔ק קַ֣צְתִּי בְחַיַּ֔י מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנ֣וֹת חֵ֑ת אִם־לֹקֵ֣חַ יַֽ֠עֲקֹ֠ב אִשָּׁ֨ה מִבְּנֽוֹת־חֵ֤ת כָּאֵ֨לֶּה֙ מִבְּנ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ לָ֥מָּה לִּ֖י חַיִּֽים:
I am disgusted with my life: Heb. קַצְתִּי, I am disgusted with my life.   קַצְתִּי בְחַיַּי: מָאַסְתִּי בְחַיַּי:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 28

1And Isaac called Jacob and blessed him, and he commanded him and said to him, "You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan.   אוַיִּקְרָ֥א יִצְחָ֛ק אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֹת֑וֹ וַיְצַוֵּ֨הוּ֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח אִשָּׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֥וֹת כְּנָֽעַן:
2Arise, go to Padan aram, to the house of Bethuel, your mother's father, and take yourself from there a wife of the daughters of Laban, your mother's brother.   בק֥וּם לֵךְ֙ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֔ם בֵּ֥יתָה בְתוּאֵ֖ל אֲבִ֣י אִמֶּ֑ךָ וְקַח־לְךָ֤ מִשָּׁם֙ אִשָּׁ֔ה מִבְּנ֥וֹת לָבָ֖ן אֲחִ֥י אִמֶּֽךָ:
to Padan: Heb. פַּדֶּנָה like לְפַדָּן. [From Targum Onkelos]   פַּדֶּנָֽה: כְּמוֹ לְפַדָּן:
to the house of Bethuel: Heb. בֵּיתָה to the house of (לְבֵית) Bethuel [Targum Onkelos]. Any word that requires a “lamed” at the beginning may take a “hey” at the end instead. [From Yev. 13b]   בֵּיתָה בְתוּאֵל: לְבֵית בְּתוּאֵל, כָּל תֵּבָה שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לָמֶ"ד בִּתְחִלָּתָהּ הֵטִיל לָהּ הֵ"א בְּסוֹפָהּ (יבמות י"ג):
3And may the Almighty God bless you and make you fruitful and multiply you, and you shall become an assembly of peoples.   גוְאֵ֤ל שַׁדַּי֨ יְבָרֵ֣ךְ אֹֽתְךָ֔ וְיַפְרְךָ֖ וְיַרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְהָיִ֖יתָ לִקְהַ֥ל עַמִּֽים:
And…the Almighty God: Heb. שַׁדַּי. May He Who has enough (שֶׁדָּי) blessings for those who are blessed from His mouth, bless you.   וְאֵל שַׁדַּי: מִי שֶׁדַּי בְּבִרְכוֹתָיו לַמִּתְבָּרְכִין מִפִּיו, יברך אותך:
4And may He give you the blessing of Abraham, to you and to your seed with you, that you may inherit the land of your sojournings, which God gave to Abraham."   דוְיִתֶּן־לְךָ֙ אֶת־בִּרְכַּ֣ת אַבְרָהָ֔ם לְךָ֖ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֣ אִתָּ֑ךְ לְרִשְׁתְּךָ֙ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ מְגֻרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן אֱלֹהִ֖ים לְאַבְרָהָֽם:
the blessing of Abraham: that He said to him (above 12:2): “And I will make you into a great nation;” (above 22:18): “[And all the nations of the world] will bless themselves with your seed.” May those aforementioned blessings be for you. May that nation and that blessed seed emanate from you. [From Tanchuma, Vezoth Haberachah 1]   אֶת־בִּרְכַּת אַבְרָהָם: שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְהִתְבָּרְכוּ בְזַרְעֲךָ יִהְיוּ אוֹתָן בְּרָכוֹת אֲמוּרוֹת בִּשְׁבִילְךָ – מִמְּךָ יֵצֵא אוֹתוֹ הַגּוֹי וְאוֹתוֹ הַזֶּרַע הַמְבֹרָךְ:

Seventh Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 28

5And Isaac sent Jacob, and he went to Padan aram, to Laban the son of Bethuel the Aramean, the brother of Rebecca, the mother of Jacob and Esau.   הוַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יִצְחָק֙ אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֑ם אֶל־לָבָ֤ן בֶּן־בְּתוּאֵל֙ הָֽאֲרַמִּ֔י אֲחִ֣י רִבְקָ֔ה אֵ֥ם יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב וְעֵשָֽׂו:
the mother of Jacob and Esau: I do not know what this teaches us. [I.e., We already know from the narrative that Rebecca was their mother.]   אֵם יַֽעֲקֹב וְעֵשָֽׂו: אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה מְּלַמְּדֵנוּ:
6And Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Padan aram, to take himself a wife from there, and that when he blessed him, he commanded him, saying, "You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan."   ווַיַּ֣רְא עֵשָׂ֗ו כִּֽי־בֵרַ֣ךְ יִצְחָק֘ אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹב֒ וְשִׁלַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֔ם לָקַֽחַת־ל֥וֹ מִשָּׁ֖ם אִשָּׁ֑ה בְּבָֽרֲכ֣וֹ אֹת֔וֹ וַיְצַ֤ו עָלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח אִשָּׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֥וֹת כְּנָֽעַן:
7And Jacob listened to his father and his mother, and he went to Padan aram.   זוַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־אָבִ֖יו וְאֶל־אִמּ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָֽם:
And Jacob listened: This is connected to the aforementioned topic: When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed [Jacob] and that he had sent him off to Padan-aram, and that Jacob listened to his father and went to Padan-aram, and that the daughters of Canaan were displeasing [to his father], then he, too, went to Ishmael.   וַיִּשְׁמַע יַֽעֲקֹב: מְחֻבָּר לָעִנְיָן שֶׁל מַעְלָה, וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי בֵרַךְ יִצְחָק וְגוֹ' וְכִי שִׁלַּח אוֹתוֹ פַּדֶּנָה אֲרָם, וְכִי שָׁמַע יַעֲקֹב אֶל אָבִיו וְהָלַךְ פַּדֶּנָה אֲרָם, וְכִי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנַעַן, וְהָלַךְ גַּם הוּא אֶל יִשְׁמָעֵאל:
8And Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan were displeasing to his father Isaac.   חוַיַּ֣רְא עֵשָׂ֔ו כִּ֥י רָע֖וֹת בְּנ֣וֹת כְּנָ֑עַן בְּעֵינֵ֖י יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִֽיו:
9So Esau went to Ishmael, and he took Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, the sister of Nebaioth, in addition to his other wives as a wife.   טוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ עֵשָׂ֖ו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵ֑אל וַיִּקַּ֡ח אֶת־מָֽחֲלַ֣ת | בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֨אל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֲח֧וֹת נְבָי֛וֹת עַל־נָשָׁ֖יו ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
the sister of Nebaioth: Since it says, “the daughter of Ishmael,” do I not know that she was the sister of Nebaioth? But this teaches us that Ishmael died after he had betrothed her to Esau, before her marriage, and her brother Nebaioth gave her hand in marriage. This also teaches us that Jacob was sixty-three years old at that time, for Ishmael was seventy-four years old when Jacob was born. Ishmael was fourteen years older than Isaac, and Isaac was sixty years old when they were born, hence [Ishmael was] seventy-four. He lived one hundred and thirty seven years, as it is stated (above 25:17): “and these are the years of the life of Ishmael,” etc. Consequently, Jacob was sixty-three at Ishmael’s death. We learn from here that he hid for fourteen years in the house of Eber and afterwards went to Haran. [This can be deduced from the fact that] he stayed in Laban’s house before Joseph’s birth only fourteen years, as it is said (below 31:41): “I worked for you fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your sheep,” and the payment for the sheep took place after Joseph was born, as it is said (below 30:25): “And it came to pass when Rachel had given birth to Joseph, etc.,” and Joseph was thirty years old when he became ruler, and from then until Jacob descended to Egypt were nine years: seven of plenty and two of famine. And Jacob said to Pharaoh (below 47:9): “The days of the years of my sojournings are one hundred and thirty years.” Go forth and figure 14 years before Joseph was born, plus the 30 years of Joseph’s age, plus the 9 years from the time he became ruler until Jacob came. The total is 53. And when he [Jacob] left his father, he was 63, totaling 116. Yet he said [to Pharaoh, “I am] one hundred and thirty years old.” Hence, there are fourteen years missing. Thus, you learn that after he had received the blessings, he hid in the house of Eber for fourteen years. [From Meg. 17:a.] (However, he was not punished [for these fourteen years] because of the merit [of having studied] Torah, for Joseph was separated from his father only twenty-two years, i.e., from age seventeen until age thirty-nine, corresponding to the twenty-two years that Jacob was separated from his father [when] he did not honor him. These are the twenty years in Laban’s house, plus the two years that he spent traveling [home], as it is written (below 33:17): “And he built himself a house, and for his cattle he made booths.” Our Rabbis of Blessed Memory inferred from this verse that he spent eighteen months on the road, for the house was for the rainy season, and the booths were for the summer. And, according to the calculation of the verses, which we calculated above, from the time he left his father until he went down to Egypt, at the age of one hundred and thirty, we find an additional fourteen years, therefore, it is certain that he hid in the house of Eber to learn Torah while on his way to the house of Laban. And because of the merit of the Torah, he was not punished for them [those fourteen years], and Joseph was separated from him for only twenty-two years-measure for measure. The above is from an old Rashi text).   אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת: מִמַּשְׁמָע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהִיא אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת? אֶלָּא לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁמֵּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל מִשֶּׁיְּעָדָהּ לְעֵשָׂו קֹדֶם נִשּׂוּאֶיהָ וְהִשִּׂיאָהּ נְבָיוֹת אָחִיהָ, וְלָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָיָה יַעֲקֹב בְּאוֹתוֹ הַפֶּרֶק בֶּן ס"ג שָׁנִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן ע"ד שָׁנִים הָיָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד יַעֲקֹב, י"ד שָׁנָה הָיָה גָדוֹל יִשְׁמָעֵאל מִיִּצְחָק, וְיִצְחָק בֶּן ס' שָׁנָה בְּלֶדֶת אוֹתָם הֲרֵי ע"ד, וּשְׁנוֹתָיו הָיוּ קל"ז, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְגוֹ', נִמְצָא יַעֲקֹב כְּשֶׁמֵּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן ס"ג שָׁנִים הָיָה, וְלָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁנִּטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר י"ד שָׁנָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָלַךְ לְחָרָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא שָׁהָה בְּבֵית לָבָן לִפְנֵי לֵדָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף אֶלָּא י"ד שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עֲבַדְתִּיךָ אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בִּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתֶיךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים בְּצֹאנֶךָ, וּשְׂכַר הַצֹּאן מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יוֹסֵף הָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה רָחֵל אֶת יוֹסֵף וְגוֹ'; וְיוֹסֵף בֶּן ל' שָׁנָה הָיָה כְּשֶׁמָּלַךְ, וּמִשָּׁם עַד שֶׁיָּרַד יַעֲקֹב לְמִצְרַיִם ט' שָׁנִים, ז' שֶׁל שָׂבָע וּב' שֶׁל רָעָב, וְיַעֲקֹב אָמַר לְפַרְעֹה יְמֵי שְׁנֵי מְגוּרַי שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה – צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב י"ד שֶׁלִּפְנֵי לֵדַת יוֹסֵף וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שֶׁל יוֹסֵף וְתֵשַׁע מִשֶּׁמָּלַךְ עַד שֶׁבָּא יַעֲקֹב, הֲרֵי נ"ג, וּכְשֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ מֵאָבִיו הָיָה בֶּן ס"ג, הֲרֵי קי"ו, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה, הֲרֵי חֲסֵרִים י"ד שָׁנִים, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁקִּבֵּל הַבְּרָכוֹת נִטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר י"ד שָׁנִים, אֲבָל לֹא נֶעֱנַשׁ בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה; שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא פֵּרֵשׁ יוֹסֵף מֵאָבִיו אֶלָּא כ"ב שָׁנָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מִי"ז עַד ל"ט, כְּנֶגֶד כ"ב שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ יַעֲקֹב מֵאָבִיו וְלֹא כִבְּדוֹ, וְהֵם כ' שָׁנִים בְּבֵית לָבָן וּשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים שֶׁשָּׁהָה בַדֶּרֶךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב וַיִּבֶן לוֹ בָּיִת וּלְמִקְנֵהוּ עָשָׂה סֻכֹּת, וּפֵר' רבותינו זִכָּרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה מִזֶּה הַפָּסוּק שֶׁשָּׁהָה י"ח חֳדָשִׁים בַּדֶּרֶךְ – דְּבַיִת הֲוָה בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים וְסֻכֹּת הֲווּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה – וּלְחֶשְׁבּוֹן הַפְּסוּקִים שֶׁחָשַׁבְנוּ לְעֵיל מִשֶּׁפֵּרֵשׁ מֵאָבִיו עַד שֶׁיָּרַד לְמִצְרַיִם שֶׁהָיָה בֶּן ק"ל שָׁנִים, שֶׁשָּׁם אָנוּ מוֹצְאִים עוֹד י"ד שָׁנִים – אֶלָּא וַדַּאי נִטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ לְבֵית לָבָן לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה מִמֶּנּוּ, וּבִשְׁבִיל זְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה לֹא נֶעֱנַשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ יוֹסֵף מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא כ"ב שָׁנָה – מִדָּה כְּנֶגֶד מִדָּה – עַד כָּאן בְּרַשִׁ"י יָשָׁן:
to his other wives: He added wickedness upon his wickedness, for he did not divorce the first ones. [From Gen. Rabbah 67:13]   עַל־נָשָׁיו: הוֹסִיף רִשְׁעָה עַל רִשְׁעָתוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא גֵרֵשׁ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת:

Maftir Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 28

7And Jacob listened to his father and his mother, and he went to Padan aram.   זוַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־אָבִ֖יו וְאֶל־אִמּ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָֽם:
And Jacob listened: This is connected to the aforementioned topic: When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed [Jacob] and that he had sent him off to Padan-aram, and that Jacob listened to his father and went to Padan-aram, and that the daughters of Canaan were displeasing [to his father], then he, too, went to Ishmael.   וַיִּשְׁמַע יַֽעֲקֹב: מְחֻבָּר לָעִנְיָן שֶׁל מַעְלָה, וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי בֵרַךְ יִצְחָק וְגוֹ' וְכִי שִׁלַּח אוֹתוֹ פַּדֶּנָה אֲרָם, וְכִי שָׁמַע יַעֲקֹב אֶל אָבִיו וְהָלַךְ פַּדֶּנָה אֲרָם, וְכִי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנַעַן, וְהָלַךְ גַּם הוּא אֶל יִשְׁמָעֵאל:
8And Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan were displeasing to his father Isaac.   חוַיַּ֣רְא עֵשָׂ֔ו כִּ֥י רָע֖וֹת בְּנ֣וֹת כְּנָ֑עַן בְּעֵינֵ֖י יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִֽיו:
9So Esau went to Ishmael, and he took Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, the sister of Nebaioth, in addition to his other wives as a wife.   טוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ עֵשָׂ֖ו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵ֑אל וַיִּקַּ֡ח אֶת־מָֽחֲלַ֣ת | בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֨אל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֲח֧וֹת נְבָי֛וֹת עַל־נָשָׁ֖יו ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
the sister of Nebaioth: Since it says, “the daughter of Ishmael,” do I not know that she was the sister of Nebaioth? But this teaches us that Ishmael died after he had betrothed her to Esau, before her marriage, and her brother Nebaioth gave her hand in marriage. This also teaches us that Jacob was sixty-three years old at that time, for Ishmael was seventy-four years old when Jacob was born. Ishmael was fourteen years older than Isaac, and Isaac was sixty years old when they were born, hence [Ishmael was] seventy-four. He lived one hundred and thirty seven years, as it is stated (above 25:17): “and these are the years of the life of Ishmael,” etc. Consequently, Jacob was sixty-three at Ishmael’s death. We learn from here that he hid for fourteen years in the house of Eber and afterwards went to Haran. [This can be deduced from the fact that] he stayed in Laban’s house before Joseph’s birth only fourteen years, as it is said (below 31:41): “I worked for you fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your sheep,” and the payment for the sheep took place after Joseph was born, as it is said (below 30:25): “And it came to pass when Rachel had given birth to Joseph, etc.,” and Joseph was thirty years old when he became ruler, and from then until Jacob descended to Egypt were nine years: seven of plenty and two of famine. And Jacob said to Pharaoh (below 47:9): “The days of the years of my sojournings are one hundred and thirty years.” Go forth and figure 14 years before Joseph was born, plus the 30 years of Joseph’s age, plus the 9 years from the time he became ruler until Jacob came. The total is 53. And when he [Jacob] left his father, he was 63, totaling 116. Yet he said [to Pharaoh, “I am] one hundred and thirty years old.” Hence, there are fourteen years missing. Thus, you learn that after he had received the blessings, he hid in the house of Eber for fourteen years. [From Meg. 17:a.] (However, he was not punished [for these fourteen years] because of the merit [of having studied] Torah, for Joseph was separated from his father only twenty-two years, i.e., from age seventeen until age thirty-nine, corresponding to the twenty-two years that Jacob was separated from his father [when] he did not honor him. These are the twenty years in Laban’s house, plus the two years that he spent traveling [home], as it is written (below 33:17): “And he built himself a house, and for his cattle he made booths.” Our Rabbis of Blessed Memory inferred from this verse that he spent eighteen months on the road, for the house was for the rainy season, and the booths were for the summer. And, according to the calculation of the verses, which we calculated above, from the time he left his father until he went down to Egypt, at the age of one hundred and thirty, we find an additional fourteen years, therefore, it is certain that he hid in the house of Eber to learn Torah while on his way to the house of Laban. And because of the merit of the Torah, he was not punished for them [those fourteen years], and Joseph was separated from him for only twenty-two years-measure for measure. The above is from an old Rashi text).   אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת: מִמַּשְׁמָע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהִיא אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת? אֶלָּא לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁמֵּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל מִשֶּׁיְּעָדָהּ לְעֵשָׂו קֹדֶם נִשּׂוּאֶיהָ וְהִשִּׂיאָהּ נְבָיוֹת אָחִיהָ, וְלָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָיָה יַעֲקֹב בְּאוֹתוֹ הַפֶּרֶק בֶּן ס"ג שָׁנִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן ע"ד שָׁנִים הָיָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד יַעֲקֹב, י"ד שָׁנָה הָיָה גָדוֹל יִשְׁמָעֵאל מִיִּצְחָק, וְיִצְחָק בֶּן ס' שָׁנָה בְּלֶדֶת אוֹתָם הֲרֵי ע"ד, וּשְׁנוֹתָיו הָיוּ קל"ז, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְגוֹ', נִמְצָא יַעֲקֹב כְּשֶׁמֵּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן ס"ג שָׁנִים הָיָה, וְלָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁנִּטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר י"ד שָׁנָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָלַךְ לְחָרָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא שָׁהָה בְּבֵית לָבָן לִפְנֵי לֵדָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף אֶלָּא י"ד שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עֲבַדְתִּיךָ אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בִּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתֶיךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים בְּצֹאנֶךָ, וּשְׂכַר הַצֹּאן מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יוֹסֵף הָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה רָחֵל אֶת יוֹסֵף וְגוֹ'; וְיוֹסֵף בֶּן ל' שָׁנָה הָיָה כְּשֶׁמָּלַךְ, וּמִשָּׁם עַד שֶׁיָּרַד יַעֲקֹב לְמִצְרַיִם ט' שָׁנִים, ז' שֶׁל שָׂבָע וּב' שֶׁל רָעָב, וְיַעֲקֹב אָמַר לְפַרְעֹה יְמֵי שְׁנֵי מְגוּרַי שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה – צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב י"ד שֶׁלִּפְנֵי לֵדַת יוֹסֵף וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שֶׁל יוֹסֵף וְתֵשַׁע מִשֶּׁמָּלַךְ עַד שֶׁבָּא יַעֲקֹב, הֲרֵי נ"ג, וּכְשֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ מֵאָבִיו הָיָה בֶּן ס"ג, הֲרֵי קי"ו, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה, הֲרֵי חֲסֵרִים י"ד שָׁנִים, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁקִּבֵּל הַבְּרָכוֹת נִטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר י"ד שָׁנִים, אֲבָל לֹא נֶעֱנַשׁ בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה; שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא פֵּרֵשׁ יוֹסֵף מֵאָבִיו אֶלָּא כ"ב שָׁנָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מִי"ז עַד ל"ט, כְּנֶגֶד כ"ב שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ יַעֲקֹב מֵאָבִיו וְלֹא כִבְּדוֹ, וְהֵם כ' שָׁנִים בְּבֵית לָבָן וּשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים שֶׁשָּׁהָה בַדֶּרֶךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב וַיִּבֶן לוֹ בָּיִת וּלְמִקְנֵהוּ עָשָׂה סֻכֹּת, וּפֵר' רבותינו זִכָּרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה מִזֶּה הַפָּסוּק שֶׁשָּׁהָה י"ח חֳדָשִׁים בַּדֶּרֶךְ – דְּבַיִת הֲוָה בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים וְסֻכֹּת הֲווּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה – וּלְחֶשְׁבּוֹן הַפְּסוּקִים שֶׁחָשַׁבְנוּ לְעֵיל מִשֶּׁפֵּרֵשׁ מֵאָבִיו עַד שֶׁיָּרַד לְמִצְרַיִם שֶׁהָיָה בֶּן ק"ל שָׁנִים, שֶׁשָּׁם אָנוּ מוֹצְאִים עוֹד י"ד שָׁנִים – אֶלָּא וַדַּאי נִטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ לְבֵית לָבָן לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה מִמֶּנּוּ, וּבִשְׁבִיל זְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה לֹא נֶעֱנַשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ יוֹסֵף מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא כ"ב שָׁנָה – מִדָּה כְּנֶגֶד מִדָּה – עַד כָּאן בְּרַשִׁ"י יָשָׁן:
to his other wives: He added wickedness upon his wickedness, for he did not divorce the first ones. [From Gen. Rabbah 67:13]   עַל־נָשָׁיו: הוֹסִיף רִשְׁעָה עַל רִשְׁעָתוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא גֵרֵשׁ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת:

Haftarah

Shmuel I (I Samuel) Chapter 20

18And Jonathan said to him, "Tomorrow is the new moon, and you will be remembered, for your seat will be vacant.   יחוַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן מָחָ֣ר חֹ֑דֶשׁ וְנִפְקַ֕דְתָּ כִּ֥י יִפָּקֵ֖ד מוֹשָׁבֶֽךָ:
Tomorrow is the new moon: and it is the custom of all those who eat at the king’s table to come on the festive day to the table.   מחר חדש: ודרך כל אוכלי שולחן המלך לבא ביום מועד אל השולחן:
and you will be remembered: My father will remember you, and ask where you are.   ונפקדת: אבי יפקדך וישאל היכן אתה:
for your seat will be vacant: for your seat in which you sit, will be vacant, and so did Jonathan render: and you will be sought, for your seat will be vacant.   כי יפקד מושבך: שיהיה מושבך חסר, שאתה יושב בו וכן תרגם יונתן: ותתבעי ארי יהי מרוח בית אסחרותך:
and you will be remembered: [ונפקדת is] an expression of remembering.   ונפקדת: לשון זכרון:
will be vacant: [יפקד is] an expression of lacking.   כי יפקד: לשון חסרון:
19And for three days, you shall hide very well, and you shall come to the place where you hid on the day of work, and you shall stay beside the traveler's stone.   יטוְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ תֵּרֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד וּבָאתָ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִסְתַּ֥רְתָּ שָּׁ֖ם בְּיּ֣וֹם הַֽמַּעֲשֶֹ֑ה וְיָ֣שַׁבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖צֶל הָאֶ֥בֶן הָאָֽזֶל:
And for three days you shall hide very well: And you shall triple the days, and then you shall descend very much, i.e., when the third day arrives, you shall descend into a secret place, and hide very well, for then they will seek you. And you shall come to this secret place, wherein you are hiding today, which is a workday. And so did Jonathan render: on the weekday, for he hid on that day, as it is stated: (infra v. 24) “And David hid in the field;” immediately, “and it was the new moon” on the morrow.   ושלשת: שלשת ימים, ואז תרד מאוד, כלומר לכשתגיע היום השלישי, תרד במקום סתר ותתחבא הרבה, כי אז יבקשוך, ובאת אל המקום הסתר הזה אשר אתה נסתר בו היום, שהוא יום מעשה מלאכה וכן תרגם יונתן: ביומא דחולא, שאותו היום נסתר, כמה שנאמר (פסוק כד): 'ויסתר דוד בשדה' מיד, 'ויהי החדש' מחר:
the travelers’ stone: (Heb. ‘even-ha azel,’ lit., the going stone, i.e.) a stone which was a sign (a landmark) for travelers.   האבן האזל: אבן שהיתה אות להולכי דרכים:
Ha-azel: those who go on the road. And so did Jonathan render: even atha, the stone which was a sign.   האזל: הולכי הדרך, וכן תרגם יונתן: אבן אתא, אבן האות:
20And I shall shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a mark.   כוַאֲנִ֕י שְׁל֥שֶׁת הַחִצִּ֖ים צִדָּ֣ה אוֹרֶ֑ה לְשַֽׁלַּֽח־לִ֖י לְמַטָּרָֽה:
to the side, I shall shoot: This is not a ‘mappiq-heh’ (aspirate ‘heh’). צדה is to be interpreted like לצד, to a side, for every word which requires a ‘lamed’ as a prefix, the Scripture gives a ‘he’ as a suffix. (Jeb. 13b) At the side of that stone, I shall shoot arrows to a mark, so that the youth will not understand, and this sign shall be for you to divine whether you must flee.   צדה אורה: לא מפיק ה"א, ופתרון צדה כמו לצד, כל תיבה שצריכה למ"ד בתחלתה, הטיל לה ה"א בסופה, בצד אותה אבן, אורה חצים למטרה, כדי שלא יבין הנער, וזה סימן יהיה לך לנחש אם אתה צריך לברוח:
21And behold, I shall send the youth, (saying,) 'Go, find the arrows.' If I say to the youth, 'Behold, the arrows are on this side of you,' take it and come, for it is well with you, and there is nothing the matter, as the Lord lives.   כאוְהִנֵּה֙ אֶשְׁלַ֣ח אֶת־הַנַּ֔עַר לֵ֖ךְ מְצָ֣א אֶת־הַחִצִּ֑ים אִם־אָמֹר֩ אֹמַ֨ר לַנַּ֜עַר הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֣ים | מִמְּךָ֣ וָהֵ֗נָּה קָחֶ֧נּוּ | וָבֹ֛אָה כִּֽי־שָׁל֥וֹם לְךָ֛ וְאֵ֥ין דָּבָ֖ר חַי־יְהֹוָֽה:
And behold, I shall send, etc.: And it is customary for one who seeks an arrow which has been shot, to go to the place where he sees the arrow flying, but he cannot ascertain exactly. Sometimes he searches for it, and the arrow is beyond him, and sometimes he goes beyond the arrow and searches for it, and you shall have this sign.   והנה אשלח וגו': ודרך המבקש חץ הירוי, הולך עד מקום שרואה שהחץ הולך, ואינו יכול לכוין יפה, פעמים שהוא מחפשה והחץ להלן ממנו, ופעמים שהוא הולך להלן מן החץ ומחפשה, והניחוש הזה יהיה לך:
If I say to the youth… take it and come: you yourself emerge from your hiding place, and take it, and come to me, for you have not to fear, for it is well with you. The Holy One Blessed be He, desires that you be here, and even if I have heard evil from Father.   אם אמור אומר לנער וגו' קחנו ובואה: צא אתה בעצמך ממקום מחבואך, וקחנו ובוא אלי, כי אין לך לירא, כי שלום לך, הקב"ה חפץ שתהא כאן ולא תירא, ואפילו שמעתי מאבא רעה:
22But, if I say thus to the youth, 'Behold, the arrows are beyond you,' go! For the Lord has sent you away.   כבוְאִם־כֹּ֚ה אֹמַר֙ לָעֶ֔לֶם הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֖ים מִמְּךָ֣ וָהָ֑לְאָה לֵ֕ךְ כִּ֥י שִֽׁלַּחֲךָ֖ יְהֹוָֽה:
But, if I say thus… Go! For the Lord has sent you away: The Holy One Blessed be He tells you to flee and escape.   ואם כה אומר וגו' לך כי שלחך: הקב"ה אומר לך לברוח ולהמלט:
23And (concerning) the matter which we have spoken, I and you, behold, the Lord is between me and you forever."   כגוְהַ֨דָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְנוּ אֲנִ֣י וָאָ֑תָּה הִנֵּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינְךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
And concerning the matter which we have spoken: the covenant which we made together.   והדבר אשר דברנו: ברית שכרתנו יחד:
behold, the Lord is between me and you: as Witness concerning that matter.   הנה ה' ביני וביניך: עד על אותו דבר:
24And David hid in the field, and when it was the new moon, Saul sat down to the meal to eat.   כדוַיִּסָּתֵ֥ר דָּוִ֖ד בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וַיְהִ֣י הַחֹ֔דֶשׁ וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־ (כתיב עֶל־) הַלֶּ֖חֶם לֶאֱכֽוֹל:
25And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, upon the seat by the wall, and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat down beside Saul, and David's place was vacant.   כהוַיֵּ֣שֶׁב הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ עַל־מ֨וֹשָׁב֜וֹ כְּפַ֣עַם | בְּפַ֗עַם אֶל־מוֹשַׁב֙ הַקִּ֔יר וַיָּ֙קָם֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אַבְנֵ֖ר מִצַּ֣ד שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֥וֹם דָּוִֽד:
the seat by the wall: at the head of the couch beside the wall.   אל מושב הקיר: בראש המטה אצל הקיר:
and Jonathan arose: He got up from his place, since it is not proper for a son to recline beside his father. Since their custom was to eat reclining on couches and David would recline between Jonathan and Saul, now that David did not come, Jonathan did not recline until Abner sat down beside Saul, and afterwards, Jonathan sat beside Abner. And if you say that he did not sit at all, the Scripture states: (infra v. 34) “And Jonathan arose from the table,” implying that he had been sitting.   ויקם יהונתן: עמד ממקומו, לפי שאין דרך הבן להיות מיסב אצל אביו, שדרכן היה לאכול מסובין על המטות, והיה דוד מיסב בין יהונתן ובין שאול, עכשיו שלא בא דוד, לא היסב יהונתן, עד שישב אבנר מצד שאול, ואחר כך ישב יהונתן מצד אבנר ואם תאמר לא ישב כלל, הרי הוא אומר (פסוק לד): ויקם יהונתן מעל השלחן, מכלל שישב:
26And Saul did not say anything on that day, for he thought, "It is an incident; he is not clean, for he is not clean."   כווְלֹֽא־דִבֶּ֥ר שָׁא֛וּל מְא֖וּמָה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֚י אָמַר֙ מִקְרֶ֣ה ה֔וּא בִּלְתִּ֥י טָה֛וֹר ה֖וּא כִּֽי־לֹ֥א טָהֽוֹר:
It is an incident: He has experienced a seminal emission.   מקרה הוא: קרי ראה:
he is not clean: and he has not yet immersed himself, for had he immersed himself for the uncleanness of his emission, he would not have to wait until sunset in order to eat ordinary food.   בלתי טהור הוא: ועדיין לא טבל לקריו, שאלו טבל לקריו, אין צריך הערב שמש לחולין:
for he is not clean: This clause gives the reason for the matter; i.e., since he is not clean, he, therefore, did not come, lest he contaminate the feast.   כי לא טהור: זו היא נתינת טעם לדבר, לפי שאינו טהור, לפיכך לא בא, שלא יטמא את הסעודה:
27And it was, on the morrow of the new moon, the second (day of the month), that David's place was vacant, and Saul said to Jonathan, his son, "Why has not the son of Jesse come to the meal either yesterday or today?"   כזוַיְהִ֗י מִֽמָּחֳרַ֚ת הַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֣וֹם דָּוִ֑ד ס וַיֹּ֚אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֔וֹ מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־בָ֧א בֶן־יִשַׁ֛י גַּם־תְּמ֥וֹל גַּם־הַיּ֖וֹם אֶל־הַלָּֽחֶם:
on the morrow of the new moon: on the morrow of the renewal of the moon.   ממחרת החדש: ממחרת חידוש הלבנה:
the second: on the second day of the month.   השני: ביום שני לחדש:
28And Jonathan answered Saul, "David asked leave of me (to go) to Bethlehem.   כחוַיַּ֥עַן יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן אֶת־שָׁא֑וּל נִשְׁאֹ֨ל נִשְׁאַ֥ל דָּוִ֛ד מֵעִמָּדִ֖י עַד־בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם:
29And he said, 'Let me go away now, for we have a family sacrifice in the city, and he, my brother, commanded me, and now, if I have found favor in your eyes, let me slip away now, and see my brothers. ' He, therefore, did not come to the king's table."   כטוַיֹּ֡אמֶר שַׁלְּחֵ֣נִי נָ֡א כִּ֣י זֶבַח֩ מִשְׁפָּחָ֨ה לָ֜נוּ בָּעִ֗יר וְה֚וּא צִוָּֽה־לִי֙ אָחִ֔י וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־מָצָ֚אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ אִמָּ֥לְטָה נָּ֖א וְאֶרְאֶ֣ה אֶת־אֶחָ֑י עַל־כֵּ֣ן לֹא־בָ֔א אֶל־שֻׁלְחַ֖ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
and he, my brother, commanded me: The eldest of the house, commanded me that I be there. And he is my brother Eliab.   והוא צוה לי אחי: גדול הבית צוה לי שאהיה שם, והוא אחי אליאב:
let me slip away: ‘Escamoter’ in French. I shall go away for one day and come back.   אמלטה: אשקמוצי"ד בלע"ז, אלך יום אחד ואבוא:
30And Saul's wrath was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, "You son of a straying woman deserving of punishment! Did I not know that you choose the son of Jesse, to your shame and to the shame of your mother's nakedness?   לוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֚ף שָׁאוּל֙ בִּיה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ בֶּֽן־נַעֲוַ֖ת הַמַּרְדּ֑וּת הֲל֣וֹא יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־בֹחֵ֚ר אַתָּה֙ לְבֶן־יִשַׁ֔י לְבָ֨שְׁתְּךָ֔ וּלְב֖שֶׁת עֶרְוַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ:
a straying woman, deserving of punishment: (בן נעות המרדות) An expression of straying and wandering, נע ונד, a gadding woman. Just as you say זעוה from זע, and the ‘tav’ is for the construct state, for it is connected to the word המרדות.   נעות המרדות: לשון נע, אשה נעה ונדה, יוצאנית, כאשר תאמר 'זעוה' מן 'זע', כן תאמר 'נעוה' מן 'נע', והתי"ו מן הדיבוק, שהוא דבוק למרדות:
deserving of punishment: (Heb. המרדות), who deserves to be chastised and disciplined. Another explanation is as follows: When the men of Benjamin grabbed the girls of Shiloh, who came out to dance in the vineyards (Jud. 21:21), Saul was bashful, and did not want to grab [a girl], until she came herself, behaving insolently, and pursued him.   המרדות: שהיא ראויה לרדות ולייסר דבר אחר: כשחטפו בני בנימן מבנות שילה שיצאו לחול בכרמים, היה שאול ביישן ולא רצה לחטוף, עד שבאתה היא עצמה והעיזה פניה ורדפה אחריו:
straying woman: because of the vineyards. And that is a winepress, like (the Talmudical passage): Purge the winepress (which was used for forbidden wine) (Ab. Zarah 74b); His winepresses will drip with wine (Targum Onkelos, Gen. 40:12)….(The last three words of Rashi are incomprehensible, and are probably erroneous. The correct version is unknown to us.)   נעות: על שם הכרמים, והיא גת, כמו (עבודה זרה עד ב): נעוה ארתחו. יטופון נעווהי בחמר (תרגום פרשת ויחי פסוק חכלילי עינים (בראשית מט יב)), ולא מן השם:
31For all the days that the son of Jesse is living on the earth, you and your kingdom will not be established. And now, send and take him to me, for he is condemned to death."   לאכִּ֣י כָל־הַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֚ר בֶּן־יִשַׁי֙ חַ֣י עַל־הָאֲדָמָ֔ה לֹ֥א תִכּ֖וֹן אַתָּ֣ה וּמַלְכוּתֶ֑ךָ וְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁלַ֨ח וְקַ֚ח אֹתוֹ֙ אֵלַ֔י כִּ֥י בֶן־מָ֖וֶת הֽוּא:
32And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, "Why should he be put to death? What has he done?"   לבוַיַּ֙עַן֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל אָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו לָ֥מָּה יוּמַ֖ת מֶ֥ה עָשָֹֽה:
33And Saul cast the spear upon him to strike him; and Jonathan knew that it had been decided upon by his father, to put David to death.   לגוַיָּ֨טֶל שָׁא֧וּל אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֛ית עָלָ֖יו לְהַכֹּת֑וֹ וַיֵּ֙דַע֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן כִּֽי־כָ֥לָה הִ֛יא מֵעִ֥ם אָבִ֖יו לְהָמִ֥ית אֶת־דָּוִֽד:
34And Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger; and he did not eat any food on the second day of the new moon, for he was grieved concerning David, for his father had put him to shame.   לדוַיָּ֧קָם יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן מֵעִ֥ם הַשֻּׁלְחָ֖ן בָּחֳרִי־אָ֑ף וְלֹא־אָכַ֞ל בְּיוֹם־הַחֹ֚דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי֙ לֶ֔חֶם כִּ֚י נֶעְצַב֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד כִּ֥י הִכְלִמ֖וֹ אָבִֽיו:
he was grieved (lit.) to David: concerning David.   נעצב אל דוד: בשביל דוד:
for his father had put him to shame: concerning David.   כי הכלימו אביו: בשביל דוד:
35And it was in the morning, that Jonathan went out at David's appointed time, and a small boy was with him.   להוַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיֵּצֵ֧א יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְמוֹעֵ֣ד דָּוִ֑ד וְנַ֥עַר קָטֹ֖ן עִמּֽוֹ:
at David’s appointed time: at the time which David had set for him.   למועד דוד: למועד אשר קבע לו דוד:
36And he said to his boy, "Run, find now the arrows which I shoot." The boy ran; and he shot the arrow to cause it to go beyond him.   לווַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְנַעֲר֔וֹ רֻ֗ץ מְצָ֥א נָא֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י מוֹרֶ֑ה הַנַּ֣עַר רָ֔ץ וְהֽוּא־יָרָ֥ה הַחֵ֖צִי לְהַעֲבִרֽוֹ:
to cause it to go beyond him.: The arrow went beyond the boy.   להעבירו: החצי עבר את הנער:
37And the lad came up to the place of the arrow, which Jonathan had shot. And Jonathan called after the lad, and said, "Isn't the arrow beyond you?"   לזוַיָּבֹ֚א הַנַּ֙עַר֙ עַד־מְק֣וֹם הַחֵ֔צִי אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָרָ֖ה יְהוֹנָתָ֑ן וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אַחֲרֵ֚י הַנַּ֙עַר֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הֲל֥וֹא הַחֵ֖צִי מִמְּךָ֥ וָהָֽלְאָה:
38And Jonathan called after the lad, "Quickly, hasten, do not stand!" And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.   לחוַיִּקְרָ֚א יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַנַּ֔עַר מְהֵרָ֥ה ח֖וּשָׁה אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֑ד וַיְלַקֵּ֞ט נַ֚עַר יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים (כתיב הַ֣חִצִּ֔י) וַיָּבֹ֖א אֶל־אֲדֹנָֽיו:
39And the lad knew nothing; only Jonathan and David knew the matter.   לטוְהַנַּ֖עַר לֹֽא־יָדַ֣ע מְא֑וּמָה אַ֚ךְ יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ וְדָוִ֔ד יָדְע֖וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר:
40And Jonathan gave his weapons to his boy, and said to him, "Go, bring (them) to the city."   מוַיִּתֵּ֚ן יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו אֶל־הַנַּ֖עַר אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֵ֖ךְ הָבֵ֥יא הָעִֽיר:
41The lad departed, and David arose from (a place) toward the south; and he fell upon his face to the ground three times, and prostrated himself three times. And they kissed one another, and wept one with the other, until David exceeded.   מאהַנַּעַר֘ בָּא֒ וְדָוִ֗ד ֤קָם מֵאֵ֣צֶל הַנֶּ֔גֶב וַיִּפֹּ֨ל לְאַפָּ֥יו אַ֛רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ שָׁל֣שׁ פְּעָמִ֑ים וַֽיִּשְּׁק֣וּ | אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֗הוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ עַד־דָּוִ֖ד הִגְדִּֽיל:
from a place toward the south: (lit., from by the south. Jonathan renders:) from the side of the travelers’ (or sign) stone which was toward the south.   מאצל הנגב: (תרגום:) מסטר אבן אתא דלקבל דרומא:
until David exceeded: He cried more.   עד דוד הגדיל: הרבה לבכות:
42And Jonathan said to David, "Go in peace! (And bear in mind) that we have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, saying, 'May the Lord be between me and you, and between my descendants and your descendants forever.' "   מבוַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן לְדָוִ֖ד לֵ֣ךְ לְשָׁל֑וֹם אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨עְנוּ שְׁנֵ֜ינוּ אֲנַ֗חְנוּ בְּשֵׁ֚ם יְהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהֹוָ֞ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה | בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֗ךָ וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעִ֛י וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
Go in peace!: And the oath which we have sworn, may the Lord be witness thereon forever.   לך לשלום: והשבועה אשר נשבענו, ה' יהיה עד עליה עד עולם:
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