Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 25

1And Abraham took another wife and her name was Keturah.   אוַיֹּ֧סֶף אַבְרָהָ֛ם וַיִּקַּ֥ח אִשָּׁ֖ה וּשְׁמָ֥הּ קְטוּרָֽה:
Keturah: (Gen. Rabbah 61:4) This is Hagar. She was called Keturah because her deeds were as beautiful as incense (קְטֹרֶת), and because she tied (קָטְרָה, the Aramaic for“tied”) her opening, for she was not intimate with any man from the day she separated from Abraham.   קְטוּרָֽה: זוֹ הָגָר, וְנִקְרֵאת קְטוּרָה עַל שֶׁנָּאִים מַעֲשֶׁיהָ כִּקְטֹרֶת (בראשית רבה), וְשֶׁקָּשְׁרָה פִּתְחָהּ, שֶֶׁלֹא נִזְדַּוְּגָה לְאָדָם מִיּוֹם שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה מֵאַבְרָהָם:
2And she bore him Zimran and Jokshan and Medan and Midian and Jishbak and Shuah.   בוַתֵּ֣לֶד ל֗וֹ אֶת־זִמְרָן֙ וְאֶת־יָקְשָׁ֔ן וְאֶת־מְדָ֖ן וְאֶת־מִדְיָ֑ן וְאֶת־יִשְׁבָּ֖ק וְאֶת־שֽׁוּחַ:
3And Jokshan begot Sheba and Dedan, and the sons of Dedan were Ashurim, Letushim, and Leumim.   גוְיָקְשָׁ֣ן יָלַ֔ד אֶת־שְׁבָ֖א וְאֶת־דְּדָ֑ן וּבְנֵ֣י דְדָ֗ן הָי֛וּ אַשּׁוּרִ֥ם וּלְטוּשִׁ֖ם וּלְאֻמִּֽים:
Ashurim and Letushim: the names of the heads of nations (Gen. Rabbah 61:5). But I cannot reconcile the translation of Onkelos with the language of the verse [who translated אַשּׁוּרִם as לְמַשִׁירְיָן, meaning “camps.” And if you say that it is not so, because the “aleph” is not part of the root, we do have words that do not commence with an “aleph,” yet are prefixed with an “aleph.” For example (Amos 7:7): חוֹמַת אִנךְ‏ָ (a wall made by a plumbline), which is derived from [the same root as] (II Sam. 4:4) נְכֵה רַגְלָיִם (“lame in his feet”); and like (II Kings 4:2) אָסוּךְ‏ שֶׁמֶן (“a jug of oil”), which is derived from [the same root as] (Ruth 3:3) וְרָחַצְתְּ וָסַכְתָּ (“and you shall bathe and anoint yourself”).   אשורים ולטושים: שֵׁם רָאשֵׁי אֻמּוֹת (בראשית רבה), וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס אֵין לִי לְיַשְּׁבוֹ עַל לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ לְמַשִּׁירְיָן, לְשׁוֹן מַחֲנֶה, וְאִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ כֵן מִפְּנֵי הָאָלֶ"ף שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְסוֹדִית, הֲרֵי לָנוּ תֵּבוֹת שֶׁאֵין בְּרֹאשָׁם אָלֶ"ף וְנִתּוֹסְפָה אָלֶ"ף בְּרֹאשָׁם, כְּמוֹ חוֹמַת אֲנָךְ (עמוס ז) שֶׁהוּא מִן נְכֵה רַגְלַיִם, וּכְמוֹ אָסוּךְ שָׁמֶן (מ"ב ד), שֶׁהוּא מִן וְרָחַצְתְּ וָסַכְתְּ:
and Letushim: They are tent dwellers who spread hither and thither, and travel each in “his palatial tents,” (using the expression from Dan. 11:45), and so Scripture states (I Sam. 30:16): “and behold, they are scattered (נְטֻשִׁים) over the entire earth,” for “lammed” and “nun” are interchangeable.]   וּלְטוּשִׁם: הֵם בַּעֲלֵי אֹהָלִים הַמִּתְפַּזְרִים אָנֶה וָאָנָה וְנוֹסְעִים אִיש בְּאָהֳלֵי אַפַּדְנוֹ, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר וְהִנָּם נְטֻשִׁים עַל פְּנֵי כָל הָאָרֶץ (שמואל א ל') שֶׁכֵּן לָמֶ"ד וְנוּ"ן מִתְחַלְּפוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ):
4And the sons of Midian [were] Ephah and Epher and Enoch and Abida and Elda'ah; all these were the sons of Keturah.   דוּבְנֵ֣י מִדְיָ֗ן עֵיפָ֤ה וָעֵ֨פֶר֙ וַֽחֲנֹ֔ךְ וַֽאֲבִידָ֖ע וְאֶלְדָּעָ֑ה כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י קְטוּרָֽה:
5And Abraham gave all that he possessed to Isaac.   הוַיִּתֵּ֧ן אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ לְיִצְחָֽק:
And Abraham gave, etc.: (Gen. Rabbah 61:6) R. Nechemiah said: He gave him a permanent blessing, for the Holy One, blessed be He, had said to Abraham (above 12:2)“ and you shall be a blessing,” i.e., the blessings are delivered into your hand to bless whomever you wish. And Abraham gave them over to Isaac. — [Mid. Ps. 1:5]   וַיִּתֵּן אַבְרָהָם וגו': אָמַר רַ' נְחֶמְיָה בְּרָכָה דִּיאַתִּיקֵי, שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת בְּיָדְךָ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת מִי שֶׁתִּרְצֶה, וְאַבְרָהָם מְסָרָן לְיִצְחָק (בראשית רבה):
6And to the sons of Abraham's concubines, Abraham gave gifts, and he sent them away from his son Isaac while he [Abraham] was still alive, eastward to the land of the East.   ווְלִבְנֵ֤י הַפִּֽילַגְשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְאַבְרָהָ֔ם נָתַ֥ן אַבְרָהָ֖ם מַתָּנֹ֑ת וַיְשַׁלְּחֵ֞ם מֵעַ֨ל יִצְחָ֤ק בְּנוֹ֙ בְּעוֹדֶ֣נּוּ חַ֔י קֵ֖דְמָה אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ קֶֽדֶם:
concubines: (Gen. Rabbah 61:4) This [the word [פִּילַגְשִׁם] is spelled defectively [missing the letter “yud”], because there was only one concubine. That was Hagar, who was identical with Keturah. [The “yud,” denoting the plural, is absent, hence Rashi understands that the word פִּילַגְשִׁם denotes the singular. In our Torah scrolls, the plene spelling appears.] Wives are those who have a marriage contract, whereas concubines have no marriage contract, as is explained in Sanhedrin (21a) regarding David’s wives and concubines.   הַפִּֽילַגְשִׁים: חָסֵר כְּתִיב, שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה אֶלָּא פִּלֶגֶשׁ אַחַת, הִיא הָגָר, הִיא קְטוּרָה (בראשית רבה). נָשִׁים בִּכְתֻבָּה, פִּילַגְשִׁים בְּלֹא כְּתֻבָּה, כִּדְאָמְרִינַן בְּסַנְהֶדְרִין, בְּנָשִׁים וּפִילַגְשִׁים דְּדָוִד:
Abraham gave gifts: Our Sages explained that he gave them “the name of impurity” (Sanh. 91a). Another explanation: All that was given to him because of Sarah and the other gifts that were given to him, all these he gave to them, for he did not wish to benefit from them.   נָתַן אַבְרָהָם מתנות: פֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֵׁם טֻמְאָה מָסַר לָהֶם (סנהדרין צ"א). דָּבָר אַחֵר מַה שֶּׁנִּתַּן לוֹ עַל אוֹדוֹת שָׂרָה וּשְׁאָר מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁנִתְּנוּ לוֹ, הַכֹּל נָתַן לָהֶם, שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם:
7And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life that he lived: one hundred years and seventy years and five years.   זוְאֵ֗לֶּה יְמֵ֛י שְׁנֵֽי־חַיֵּ֥י אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־חָ֑י מְאַ֥ת שָׁנָ֛ה וְשִׁבְעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וְחָמֵ֥שׁ שָׁנִֽים:
one hundred years and seventy years and five years: When he was one hundred years old, he was as one who is seventy years old, and when he was seventy years old, he was as one who is five years old, without sin.   מְאַת שָׁנָה וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וְחָמֵשׁ שָׁנִֽים: בֶּן ק' כְּבֶן ע' וּבֶן ע' כְּבֶן ה' בְּלֹא חֵטְא:
8And Abraham expired and died in a good old age, old and satisfied, and he was gathered to his people.   חוַיִּגְוַ֨ע וַיָּ֧מָת אַבְרָהָ֛ם בְּשֵׂיבָ֥ה טוֹבָ֖ה זָקֵ֣ן וְשָׂבֵ֑עַ וַיֵּאָ֖סֶף אֶל־עַמָּֽיו:
9And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the Cave of Machpelah in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which faces Mamre,   טוַיִּקְבְּר֨וּ אֹת֜וֹ יִצְחָ֤ק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל֙ בָּנָ֔יו אֶל־מְעָרַ֖ת הַמַּכְפֵּלָ֑ה אֶל־שְׂדֵ֞ה עֶפְרֹ֤ן בֶּן־צֹ֨חַר֙ הַֽחִתִּ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מַמְרֵֽא:
Isaac and Ishmael: (Gen. Rabbah 30:4, 38:12) From here [we may deduce] that Ishmael repented and let Isaac go before him, and that is the meaning of “a good old age” which is stated regarding Abraham (above 15:15). - [B.B. 16b]   יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל: מִכָּאן שֶׁעָשָׂה יִשְׁמָעֵאל תְּשׁוּבָה וְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת יִצְחָק לְפָנָיו, וְהִיא שֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאַבְרָהָם (בראשית רבה):
10The field that Abraham had bought from the sons of Heth there Abraham and his wife Sarah were buried.   יהַשָּׂדֶ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־קָנָ֥ה אַבְרָהָ֖ם מֵאֵ֣ת בְּנֵי־חֵ֑ת שָׁ֛מָּה קֻבַּ֥ר אַבְרָהָ֖ם וְשָׂרָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ:
11Now it came to pass after Abraham's death, that God blessed his son Isaac, and Isaac dwelt near Be'er Lachai Ro'i.   יאוַיְהִ֗י אַֽחֲרֵי֙ מ֣וֹת אַבְרָהָ֔ם וַיְבָ֥רֶךְ אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב יִצְחָ֔ק עִם־בְּאֵ֥ר לַחַ֖י רֹאִֽי:
Now it came to pass after Abraham’s death, that God blessed, etc.: He consoled him with the consolations of the mourners (Sotah 14b). Another explanation: Even though the Holy One, blessed be He, delivered the blessings to Abraham, he was afraid to bless Isaac because he foresaw Esau emanating from him. So he said, “May the Master of blessings come and bless whomever He pleases.” And the Holy One, blessed be He, came and blessed him. - [Tan. Lech Lecha 4]   וַיְהִי אַֽחֲרֵי מוֹת אַבְרָהָם וַיְבָרֶךְ וגו': נִחֲמוֹ תַּנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּסַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת לְאַבְרָהָם, נִתְיָרֵא לְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִצְחָק מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּפָה אֶת עֵשָׂו יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנוּ, אָמַר יָבֹא בַּעַל הַבְּרָכוֹת וִיבָרֵךְ אֵת אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב בְּעֵינָיו, וּבָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבֵרְכוֹ (סוטה י"ד):