ב"ה

Torah Reading for Lech-Lecha

Parshat Lech-Lecha
Shabbat, 8 Cheshvan, 5785
9 November, 2024
Select a portion:
Complete: (Genesis 12:1 - 17:27; Isaiah 40:27 - 41:16)
Show content in:

First Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 12

1And the Lord said to Abram, "Go forth from your land and from your birthplace and from your father's house, to the land that I will show you.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־אַבְרָ֔ם לֶךְ־לְךָ֛ מֵֽאַרְצְךָ֥ וּמִמּֽוֹלַדְתְּךָ֖ וּמִבֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַרְאֶֽךָּ:
Go forth: Heb. לֶךְ לְךָ, lit. go to you, for your benefit and for your good, and there I will make you into a great nation, but here, you will not merit to have children. Moreover, I will make your character known in the world. — [from Rosh Hashanah 16b, Tan.]   לֶךְ־לְךָ: לַהֲנָאָתְךָ וּלְטוֹבָתְךָ, שָׁם אֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, כָּאן אִי אַתָּה זוֹכֶה לְבָנִים, וְעוֹד שֶׁאוֹדִיעַ טִבְעֲךָ בָּעוֹלָם:
from your land: Now had he not already gone out of there with his father and come as far as Haran? Rather, thus did He say to him, “Distance yourself more from there and leave your father’s house.”   מֵאַרְצְךָ: וַהֲלֹא כְבָר יָצָא מִשָּׁם עִם אָבִיו וּבָא עַד חָרָן? אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר לוֹ הִתְרַחֵק עוֹד מִשָּׁם וְצֵא מִבֵּית אָבִיךָ:
that I will show you: He did not reveal the land to him immediately, in order to make it dear in his eyes and to give him reward for every command. Similarly (below 22:2): “your son, your only one, whom you love, Isaac.” Similarly (ibid.):  “on one of the mountains that I will say to you.” Similarly (Jonah 3:2): “and proclaim upon it the proclamation that I will speak to you.” [from Gen. Rabbah 39:9]   אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ: לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ הָאָרֶץ מִיָּד כְּדֵּי לְחַבְּבָהּ בְּעֵינָיו, וְלָתֵת לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר; כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, אֶת בִּנְךָ אֶת יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתָּ אֶת יִצְחָק (ברא' כ"ב), כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בַּזֶּה וּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ אֶת הַקְּרִיאָה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר אֵלֶיךָ (יונה ג'):
2And I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you, and I will aggrandize your name, and [you shall] be a blessing.   בוְאֶֽעֶשְׂךָ֙ לְג֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל וַֽאֲבָ֣רֶכְךָ֔ וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה שְׁמֶ֑ךָ וֶֽהְיֵ֖ה בְּרָכָֽה:
And I will make you into a great nation: Since traveling causes three things: 1) it diminishes procreation, 2) it diminishes money, and 3) it diminishes fame (lit. name), therefore, he required these three blessings, namely that He blessed him concerning children, concerning money, and concerning fame. (Other editions: And this is the meaning of and I will aggrandize your name. I will add a letter to your name, for until now, your name was אַבְרָם. From now on [your name will be] אַבְרָהָם, and אַבְרָהָם equals 248, corresponding to a person’s limbs. (Found in an old Rashi . — [from Gen. Rabbah 39:11; Tan. Buber, Chaye Sarah 6)   וְאֶֽעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל: לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ גּוֹרֶמֶת לִשְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַמָּמוֹן וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, לְכָךְ הֻזְקַק לִשְׁלֹשָׁה בְּרָכוֹת הַלָּלוּ, שֶׁהִבְטִיחוֹ עַל הַבָּנִים וְעַל הַמָּמוֹן וְעַל הַשֵּׁם:
and I will bless you: with money (Genesis Rabbah 39:11).   וַֽאֲבָרֶכְךָ: בְּמָמוֹן (בראשית רבה):
and [you shall] be a blessing: The blessings are entrusted into your hand. Until now, they were in My hand; I blessed Adam and Noah. From now on, you may bless whomever you wish. (Gen. Rabbah) (ad loc.). Another explanation: “And I will make you into a great nation”: This is [the basis] of saying “the God of Abraham.” “And I will bless you”: This is [the basis] of saying “the God of Isaac.” “And I will aggrandize your name”: This is [the basis] of saying “the God of Jacob” [in the initial benediction of the Silent Prayer]. You might think that [the first benediction of the Silent Prayer] should be concluded [by mentioning] them all. Therefore, Scripture states: “and [you shall] be a blessing”: with you they will conclude, and not with them. [i.e., the closing of the blessing is “the shield of Abraham,” and not “the shield of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.”] [from Pes. 117b]   וֶֽהְיֵה בְּרָכָֽה: הַבְּרָכוֹת נְתוּנוֹת בְּיָדְךָ; עַד עַכְשָׁו הָיוּ בְיָדִי, בֵּרַכְתִּי לְאָדָם וְנֹחַ, וּמֵעַכְשָׁו אַתָּה תְבָרֵךְ אֶת אֲשֶׁר תַּחְפֹּץ (בראשית רבה). דָּבָר אַחֵר ואעשך לגוי גדול זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם, ואברכך זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק, ואגדלה שמך זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב. יָכוֹל יִהְיוּ חוֹתְמִין בְּכֻלָּן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בְּךָ חוֹתְמִין וְלֹא בָהֶם:
3And I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse, and all the families of the earth shall be blessed in you."   גוַֽאֲבָֽרְכָה֙ מְבָ֣רֲכֶ֔יךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ֖ אָאֹ֑ר וְנִבְרְכ֣וּ בְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
shall be blessed in you: There are many aggadoth, but this is its simple meaning: A man says to his son, May you be like Abraham. And so is every instance of [the words] “shall be blessed with you” in Scripture. And the following [text] proves this (below 48:20): “With you, Israel shall bless, saying: May God make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh.” - [from Sifrei, Naso 18]   וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ: יֵשׁ אַגָּדוֹת רַבּוֹת, וְזֶהוּ פְשׁוּטוֹ, אָדָם אוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ תְּהֵא כְּאַבְרָהָם, וְכֵן כָּל וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא, וְזֶה מוֹכִיחַ בְּךָ יְבָרֵךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר יְשִׂמְךָ אֱלֹהִים כְּאֶפְרַיִם וְכִמְנַשֶּׁה (בר' מ"ח):
4And Abram went, as the Lord had spoken to him, and Lot went with him, and Abram was seventy five years old when he left Haran.   דוַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אַבְרָ֗ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר אֵלָיו֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אִתּ֖וֹ ל֑וֹט וְאַבְרָ֗ם בֶּן־חָמֵ֤שׁ שָׁנִים֙ וְשִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה בְּצֵאת֖וֹ מֵֽחָרָֽן:
5And Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his brother's son, and all their possessions that they had acquired, and the souls they had acquired in Haran, and they went to go to the land of Canaan, and they came to the land of Canaan.   הוַיִּקַּ֣ח אַבְרָם֩ אֶת־שָׂרַ֨י אִשְׁתּ֜וֹ וְאֶת־ל֣וֹט בֶּן־אָחִ֗יו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָכָ֔שׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂ֣וּ בְחָ֑רָן וַיֵּֽצְא֗וּ לָלֶ֨כֶת֙ אַ֣רְצָה כְּנַ֔עַן וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אַ֥רְצָה כְּנָֽעַן:
and the souls they had acquired in Haran: whom he had brought under the wings of the Shechinah. Abraham would convert the men, and Sarah would convert the women, and Scripture ascribes to them [a merit] as if they had made them (Gen. Rabbah 39:14). (Hence, the expression אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, lit. that they made.) The simple meaning of the verse is: the slaves and maidservants that they had acquired for themselves, as in [the verse] (below 31:1): “He acquired (עָשָׂה) all this wealth” [an expression of acquisition]; (Num. 24:18): “and Israel acquires,” an expression of acquiring and gathering.   אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן: שֶׁהִכְנִיסָן תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה; אַבְרָהָם מְגַיֵּר אֶת הָאֲנָשִׁים וְשָׂרָה מְגַיֶּרֶת הַנָּשִׁים, וּמַעֲלֶה עֲלֵיהֶם הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ עֲשָׂאוּם; וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא עֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחוֹת שֶׁקָּנוּ לָהֶם, כְּמוֹ עָשָׂה אֵת כָּל הַכָּבֹד הַזֶּה (שם ל"א), וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֹשֶׂה חָיִל (במדבר כד יח), לְשׁוֹן קוֹנֶה וְכוֹנֵס:
6And Abram passed through the land, until the place of Shechem, until the plain of Moreh, and the Canaanites were then in the land.   ווַיַּֽעֲבֹ֤ר אַבְרָם֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ עַ֚ד מְק֣וֹם שְׁכֶ֔ם עַ֖ד אֵל֣וֹן מוֹרֶ֑ה וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֖י אָ֥ז בָּאָֽרֶץ:
And Abram passed through the land: He entered therein.   וַיַּֽעֲבֹר אַבְרָם בָּאָרֶץ: נִכְנַס לְתוֹכָהּ:
until the place of Shechem: to pray for Jacob’s sons when they would come to wage war in Shechem. [from unknown midrashic source, also quoted by Redak]   עַד מְקוֹם שְׁכֶם: לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַל בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב, כְּשֶׁיָּבֹאוּ לְהִלָּחֵם בִּשְׁכֶם:
until the plain of Moreh: That is Shechem. He showed him Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, where Israel accepted the oath of the Torah. [from aforementioned midrashic source]   אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה: הוּא שְׁכֶם. הֶרְאָהוּ הַר גְּרִיזִים וְהַר עֵיבָל, שֶׁשָּׁם קִבְּלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה:
and the Canaanites were then in the land: He [the Canaanite] was gradually conquering the Land of Israel from the descendants of Shem, for it fell in Shem’s share when Noah apportioned the land to his sons, as it is said (below 14: 18): “And Malchizedek the king of Salem.” Therefore, (below verse 7): And the Lord said to Abram: To your seed will I give this land. I am destined to restore it to your children, who are of the descendants of Shem. [from Sifra, end of Kedoshim]   וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִי אָז בָּאָרֶץ: הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ וְכוֹבֵשׁ אֶת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִזַּרְעוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם, שֶׁבְּחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם נָפְלָה כְּשֶׁחָלַק נֹחַ אֶת הָאָרֶץ לְבָנָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם (ברא' י"ב), לְפִיכָךְ וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת, עָתִיד אֲנִי לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לְבָנֶיךָ שֶׁהֵם מִזַּרְעוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם:
7And the Lord appeared to Abram, and He said, "To your seed I will give this land," and there he built an altar to the Lord, Who had appeared to him.   זוַיֵּרָ֤א יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־אַבְרָ֔ם וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לְזַ֨רְעֲךָ֔ אֶתֵּ֖ן אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֑את וַיִּ֤בֶן שָׁם֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הַנִּרְאֶ֥ה אֵלָֽיו:
and there he built an altar: [in thanksgiving] for the good tidings concerning his descendants and the good tidings concerning the Land of Israel. [from Gen. Rabbah 39:15-16]   וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ: עַל בְּשׂוֹרַת הַזֶּרַע וְעַל בְּשׂוֹרַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל:
8And he moved from there to the mountain, east of Beth el, and he pitched his tent; Beth el was to the west and Ai was to the east, and there he built an altar to the Lord, and he called in the name of the Lord.   חוַיַּעְתֵּ֨ק מִשָּׁ֜ם הָהָ֗רָה מִקֶּ֛דֶם לְבֵֽית־אֵ֖ל וַיֵּ֣ט אָֽהֳלֹ֑ה בֵּֽית־אֵ֤ל מִיָּם֙ וְהָעַ֣י מִקֶּ֔דֶם וַיִּֽבֶן־שָׁ֤ם מִזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וַיִּקְרָ֖א בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהֹוָֽה:
And he moved from there: his tent.   וַיַּעְתֵּק מִשָּׁם: אָהֳלוֹ:
east of Beth-el: Heb. מִקֶּדֶם, from the east of Beth-el. Hence, Beth-el was to his west. That is what the Torah means by “Beth-el was in the west.”   מִקֶּדֶם לְבֵֽית־אֵל: בְּמִזְרָחָהּ שֶׁל בֵּית אֵל נִמְצֵאת בֵּית אֵל בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ, הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בֵּית אֵל מִיָּם:
his tent: According to the masoretic text, it is written אהלה, which can be read אָהֳלָה, her tent. First he pitched his wife’s tent and afterwards his own (Gen. Rabbah 39:15).   אהלו: אהלה כְתִיב, בַּתְּחִלָּה נָטָה אֶת אֹהֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ (בראשית רבה):
and there he built an altar: He prophesied that his sons were destined to stumble there because of the iniquity of Achan, and he prayed there for them. [from Gen. Rabbah 39:16, Yelammedenu]   וַיִּֽבֶן־שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ: נִתְנַבֵּא שֶׁעֲתִידִין בָּנָיו לְהִכָּשֵׁל שָׁם עַל עֲוֹן עָכָן, וְהִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם עֲלֵיהֶם:
9And Abram traveled, continually traveling southward.   טוַיִּסַּ֣ע אַבְרָ֔ם הָל֥וֹךְ וְנָס֖וֹעַ הַנֶּֽגְבָּה:
continually traveling: lit. going and traveling. [He traveled] in intervals, staying here for a month or more, traveling from there, and pitching his tent elsewhere. And all his travels were southward, to go to the south of the Land of Israel, and that is to the direction of Jerusalem, (The meaning is that Jerusalem was in the middle of the world and the end of the Land of Israel. So it is explained in Isaiah.) which is in the territory of Judah, who took [his portion] in the south of the Land of Israel, to Mount Moriah, which was his [Judah’s] heritage. (Gen. Rabbah 39:16). [Note that the parenthetic addendum appears in several editions of Rashi, but its connection to this verse is obscure, because the location of Jerusalem in the middle of the world is irrelevant.]   הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ: לִפְרָקִים יוֹשֵׁב כָּאן חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ יוֹתֵר, וְנוֹסֵעַ מִשָּׁם וְנוֹטֶה אָהֳלוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, וְכָל מַסָּעָיו הַנֶּגְבָּה, לָלֶכֶת לִדְרוֹמָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְֹרָאֵל וְהִיא לְצַד יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁהוּא בְּחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל יְהוּדָה, שֶׁנָּטְלוּ בִּדְרוֹמָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְֹרָאֵל לְהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה שֶׁהִיא נַחֲלָתוֹ (בראשית רבה):
10And there was a famine in the land, and Abram descended to Egypt to sojourn there because the famine was severe in the land.   יוַיְהִ֥י רָעָ֖ב בָּאָ֑רֶץ וַיֵּ֨רֶד אַבְרָ֤ם מִצְרַ֨יְמָה֙ לָג֣וּר שָׁ֔ם כִּֽי־כָבֵ֥ד הָֽרָעָ֖ב בָּאָֽרֶץ:
a famine in the land: in that land alone, to test him, whether he would think ill of the words of the Holy One, blessed be He, Who ordered him to go to the Land of Canaan, and now He was forcing him to leave it. [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 26]   רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ: בְּאוֹתָהּ הָאָרֶץ לְבַדָּהּ, לְנַסּוֹתוֹ, אִם יְהַרְהֵר אַחַר דְּבָרָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאָמַר לָלֶכֶת אֶל אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, וְעַכְשָׁו מַשִּׂיאוֹ לָצֵאת מִמֶּנָּה:
11Now it came to pass when he drew near to come to Egypt, that he said to Sarai his wife, "Behold now I know that you are a woman of fair appearance.   יאוַיְהִ֕י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הִקְרִ֖יב לָב֣וֹא מִצְרָ֑יְמָה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֶל־שָׂרַ֣י אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ הִנֵּה־נָ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֛י אִשָּׁ֥ה יְפַת־מַרְאֶ֖ה אָֽתְּ:
Behold now I know: The Midrash Aggadah (Tan. Lech Lecha 5) [states that] until now, he did not recognize her [beauty] because of the modesty of both of them, but now he recognized her [beauty] through an incident. Another explanation: It is customary that through the hardship of travel, a person becomes unattractive, but she remained with her beauty. The simple meaning of the verse is: Behold, now the time has arrived when we must be concerned about your beauty. I have known already for a long time that you are of fair appearance, but now we are coming among black and ugly people, the brothers of the Cushites, and they are not accustomed to a beautiful woman. Similar to this (below 19:2): “Behold now, my lords, please turn.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 40:4]   הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי: מִדְרַש אַגָּדָה עַד עַכְשָׁו לֹא הִכִּיר בָּהּ מִתּוֹךְ צְנִיעוּת שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶם, וְעַכְשָׁו הִכִּיר בָּה עַל יְדֵי מַעֲשֶׂה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִנְהַג הָעוֹלָם שֶׁעַל יְדֵי טֹרַח הַדֶּרֶךְ אָדָם מִתְבַּזֶּה, וְזֹאת עָמְדָה בְּיָפְיָהּ. וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא הִנֵּה נָא הִגִּיעַ הַשָּׁעָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִדְאֹג עַל יָפְיֵךְ, יָדַעְתִּי זֶה יָמִים רַבִּים כִּי יְפַת מַרְאֶה אַתְּ, וְעַכְשָׁו אָנוּ בָאִים בֵּין אֲנָשִׁים שְׁחֹרִים וּמְכֹעָרִים, אֲחֵיהֶם שֶׁל כּוּשִׁים, וְלֹא הֻרְגְּלוּ בְאִשָּׁה יָפָה; וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ הִנֶּה נָּא אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא (בר' י"ט):
12And it will come to pass when the Egyptians see you, that they will say, 'This is his wife,' and they will slay me and let you live.   יבוְהָיָ֗ה כִּֽי־יִרְא֤וּ אֹתָךְ֙ הַמִּצְרִ֔ים וְאָֽמְר֖וּ אִשְׁתּ֣וֹ זֹ֑את וְהָֽרְג֥וּ אֹתִ֖י וְאֹתָ֥ךְ יְחַיּֽוּ:
13Please say [that] you are my sister, in order that it go well with me because of you, and that my soul may live because of you."   יגאִמְרִי־נָ֖א אֲחֹ֣תִי אָ֑תְּ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יִֽיטַב־לִ֣י בַֽעֲבוּרֵ֔ךְ וְחָֽיְתָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י בִּגְלָלֵֽךְ:
in order that it go well with me because of you: They will give me gifts.   לְמַעַן יִֽיטַב־לִי בַֽעֲבוּרֵךְ: יִתְּנוּ לִי מַתָּנוֹת:

Second Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 12

14And it came to pass when Abram came to Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very pretty.   ידוַיְהִ֕י כְּב֥וֹא אַבְרָ֖ם מִצְרָ֑יְמָה וַיִּרְא֤וּ הַמִּצְרִים֙ אֶת־הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה כִּֽי־יָפָ֥ה הִ֖וא מְאֹֽד:
And it came to pass when Abram came to Egypt: It should have said, when they came to Egypt, but it teaches us that he hid her in a trunk, and when they demanded the customs duty, they opened it and saw her. [from Gen. Rabbah 40:5]   וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה: הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר כְּבוֹאָם מִצְרַיְמָה? אֶלָּא לִמֵּד שֶׁהִטְמִין אוֹתָהּ בְּתֵבָה, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁתָּבְעוּ אֶת הַמֶּכֶס פָּתְחוּ וְרָאוּ אוֹתָהּ:
15And Pharaoh's princes saw her, and they praised her to Pharaoh, and the woman was taken to the house of Pharaoh.   טווַיִּרְא֤וּ אֹתָהּ֙ שָׂרֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיְהַֽלֲל֥וּ אֹתָ֖הּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה וַתֻּקַּ֥ח הָֽאִשָּׁ֖ה בֵּ֥ית פַּרְעֹֽה:
and they praised her to Pharaoh: They praised her among themselves, saying, “This [woman] is fit for the king.” - [from Targum Onkelos according to Ramban]   וַיְהַֽלֲלוּ אותה אֶל־פַרְעֹה: הִלְּלוּהָ בֵינֵיהֶם לוֹמַר הֲגוּנָה זוֹ לַמֶּלֶךְ:
16And he benefited Abram for her sake, and he had flocks and cattle and he donkeys and men servants and maid servants, and she donkeys and camels.   טזוּלְאַבְרָ֥ם הֵיטִ֖יב בַּֽעֲבוּרָ֑הּ וַֽיְהִי־ל֤וֹ צֹֽאן־וּבָקָר֙ וַֽחֲמֹרִ֔ים וַֽעֲבָדִים֙ וּשְׁפָחֹ֔ת וַֽאֲתֹנֹ֖ת וּגְמַלִּֽים:
and he benefited Abram: Pharaoh [benefited him]for her sake. [from Targum Jonathan]   וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב: פַּרְעֹה בעבורה:
17And the Lord plagued Pharaoh [with] great plagues as well as his household, on account of Sarai, Abram's wife.   יזוַיְנַגַּ֨ע יְהֹוָ֧ה | אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֛ה נְגָעִ֥ים גְּדֹלִ֖ים וְאֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ עַל־דְּבַ֥ר שָׂרַ֖י אֵ֥שֶׁת אַבְרָֽם:
And the Lord plagued Pharaoh…[with] great plagues: He was stricken with the plague of “ra’athan,” making intercourse harmful to him. Gen. Rabbah (41:2)   וַיְנַגַּע ה' וגו': בְּמַכַּת רָאתָן לָקָה, שֶׁהַתַּשְׁמִישׁ קָשֶׁה לוֹ (בראשית רבה):
as well as his household: lit. and his house. As the Targum states: and upon the people of his house, (and its midrashic interpretation (Tan. Lech Lecha 8) is that this includes its walls, pillars, and utensils. In an old Rashi).   וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְעַל אֱנַשׁ בֵּיתֵהּ וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ לְרַבּוֹת כֹּתָלָיו וְעַמּוּדָיו וְכֵּלָיו בְּרַשִׁ"י יָשָׁן):
on account of Sarai: [The words עַל דְבַר שָׂרַי mean literally] according to her words: she would say to the angel, “Strike,” and he would strike. [from Tan. Lech Lecha 5]   עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי: עַל פִּי דִּבּוּרָהּ; אוֹמֶרֶת לַמַּלְאָךְ הַךְ, וְהוּא מַכֶּה;
18And Pharaoh summoned Abram, and he said, "What is this that you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?   יחוַיִּקְרָ֤א פַרְעֹה֙ לְאַבְרָ֔ם וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מַה־זֹּ֖את עָשִׂ֣יתָ לִּ֑י לָ֚מָּה לֹֽא־הִגַּ֣דְתָּ לִּ֔י כִּ֥י אִשְׁתְּךָ֖ הִֽוא:
19Why did you say, 'She is my sister,' so that I took her to myself for a wife? And now, here is your wife; take [her] and go."   יטלָמָ֤ה אָמַ֨רְתָּ֙ אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֔וא וָֽאֶקַּ֥ח אֹתָ֛הּ לִ֖י לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וְעַתָּ֕ה הִנֵּ֥ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֖ קַ֥ח וָלֵֽךְ:
take [her] and go: Not like Abimelech, who said to him (below 20:15): “Here is my land before you.” But he [Pharaoh] said to him, “Go and do not stay, because the Egyptians are lascivious,” as it is said (Ezek. 23:20): “and whose issue is the issue of horses.” - [from Tan. Lech Lecha]   קַח וָלֵֽךְ: לֹא כַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הִנֵּה אַרְצִי לְפָנֶיךָ, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ לֵךְ וְאַל תַּעֲמֹד, שֶׁהַמִּצְרִים שְׁטוּפֵי זִמָּה הֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְזִרְמַת סוּסִים זִרְמָתָם: (יחזקאל כ"ג):
20And Pharaoh commanded men on his behalf, and they escorted him and his wife and all that was his.   כוַיְצַ֥ו עָלָ֛יו פַּרְעֹ֖ה אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וַיְשַׁלְּח֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לֽוֹ:
And Pharaoh commanded men on his behalf: on his account, to escort him and to guard him.   וַיְצַו עָלָיו: עַל אוֹדוֹתָיו, לְשַׁלְּחוֹ וּלְשָׁמְרוֹ:
and they escorted him: Heb. וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ, to be explained according to the Targum: and they escorted him.   וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְאַלְוִיאוּ:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 13

1And Abram came up from Egypt, he and his wife and all that was his, and Lot with him, to the south.   אוַיַּ֩עַל֩ אַבְרָ֨ם מִמִּצְרַ֜יִם ה֠וּא וְאִשְׁתּ֧וֹ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ וְל֥וֹט עִמּ֖וֹ הַנֶּֽגְבָּה:
And Abram came up, etc., to the south: To come to the south of the Land of Israel, as Scripture stated above (12:9): continually traveling southward to Mount Moriah. And in every case when one goes from Egypt to the land of Canaan, he goes from south to north, for the land of Egypt is south of the Land of Israel, as is evidenced by the travels [of the Jews in the desert] and by the boundaries of the Land.   וַיַּעַל אַבְרָם וגו' הַנֶּֽגְבָּה: לָבֹא לִדְרוֹמָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְֹרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לְמַעְלָה הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ הַנֶּגְבָּה, לְהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה; וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, מִדָּרוֹם לְצָפוֹן הוּא מְהַלֵּךְ, שֶׁאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בִּדְרוֹמָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁמּוֹכִיחַ בַּמַּסָּעוֹת וּבִגְבוּלֵי הָאָרֶץ:
2And Abram was very heavy with cattle, with silver, and with gold.   בוְאַבְרָ֖ם כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד בַּמִּקְנֶ֕ה בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וּבַזָּהָֽב:
very heavy: laden with burdens.   כָּבֵד מְאֹד: טָעוּן מַשָּׂאוֹת:
3And he went on his journeys, from the south and until Beth el, until the place where his tent had been previously, between Beth el and between Ai.   גוַיֵּ֨לֶךְ֙ לְמַסָּעָ֔יו מִנֶּ֖גֶב וְעַד־בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל עַד־הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁר־הָ֨יָה שָׁ֤ם אָֽהֳלֹה֙ בַּתְּחִלָּ֔ה בֵּ֥ין בֵּֽית־אֵ֖ל וּבֵ֥ין הָעָֽי:
And he went on his journeys: When he returned from Egypt to the land of Canaan, he went and lodged in the inns where he had lodged on his way to Egypt. This teaches you etiquette, that a person should not change his lodgings (Arachin 16b). Another explanation (Gen. Rabbah 41: 3): On his return, he paid his debts.   וַיֵּלֶךְ לְמַסָּעָיו: כְּשֶׁחָזַר מִמִּצְרַיִם לְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ וְלָן בָּאַכְסַנְיוֹת שֶׁלָּן בָּהֶם בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ לְמִצְרַיִם, לִמֶּדְךָ דֶּרֶך אֶרֶץ, שֶׁלֹּא יְשַׁנֶּה אָדָם מֵאַכְסַנְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בַּחֲזָרָתוֹ פָּרַע הַקָּפוֹתָיו (בראשית רבה):
from the south: The land of Egypt is south of the land of Canaan.   מִנֶּגֶב: אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בִּדְרוֹמָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן:
4To the place of the altar that he had made at first, and Abram called there in the name of the Lord.   דאֶל־מְקוֹם֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥שָׂה שָׁ֖ם בָּרִֽאשֹׁנָ֑ה וַיִּקְרָ֥א שָׁ֛ם אַבְרָ֖ם בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהֹוָֽה:
that he had made at first, and Abram called there: And where Abram had called in the name of the Lord. We may also say that it means: and now he called there in the name of the Lord.   אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁם בָּרִֽאשֹׁנָה: וַאֲשֶׁר קָרָא שָׁם אַבְרָם בְּשֵׁם ה' וְגַם יֵשׁ לוֹמַר וַיִּקְרָא שָׁם עַכְשָׁו בְּשֵׁם ה':

Third Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 13

5And also Lot, who went with Abram, had flocks and cattle and tents.   הוְגַ֨ם־לְל֔וֹט הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ אֶת־אַבְרָ֑ם הָיָ֥ה צֹֽאן־וּבָקָ֖ר וְאֹֽהָלִֽים:
who went with Abram: What brought about that he had this [wealth]? His going with Abram. [from B.K. 93a]   הַֽהֹלֵךְ אֶת־אַבְרָם: מִי גָרַם שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ זֹאת? הֲלִיכָתוֹ עִם אַבְרָם:
6And the land did not bear them to dwell together, for their possessions were many, and they could not dwell together.   ווְלֹֽא־נָשָׂ֥א אֹתָ֛ם הָאָ֖רֶץ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת יַחְדָּ֑ו כִּֽי־הָיָ֤ה רְכוּשָׁם֙ רָ֔ב וְלֹ֥א יָֽכְל֖וּ לָשֶׁ֥בֶת יַחְדָּֽו:
And…did not bear: It was unable to supply enough pasture for their cattle, and this is an abbreviated expression, and an additional word is needed. [It is to be explained] as: “And the pasture of the land could not bear them.” Therefore, וְלֹא נָשָׂא is written in the masculine gender.   וְלֹֽא־נָשָׂא אֹתָם: לֹא הָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה לְהַסְפִּיק מִרְעֶה לְמִקְנֵיהֶם, וְלָשׁוֹן קָצָר הוּא, וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו, כְּמוֹ וְלֹא נָשָׂא אוֹתָם מִרְעֵה הָאָרֶץ, לְפִיכָךְ כָּתַב וְלֹא נָשָׂא בִּלְשׁוֹן זָכָר:
7And there was a quarrel between the herdsmen of Abram's cattle and between the herdsmen of Lot's cattle, and the Canaanites and the Perizzites were then dwelling in the land.   זוַֽיְהִי־רִ֗יב בֵּ֚ין רֹעֵ֣י מִקְנֵֽה־אַבְרָ֔ם וּבֵ֖ין רֹעֵ֣י מִקְנֵה־ל֑וֹט וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י אָ֖ז ישֵׁ֥ב בָּאָֽרֶץ:
And there was a quarrel: Since Lot’s herdsmen were wicked, and they pastured their animals in fields belonging to others, Abram’s herdsmen rebuked them for committing robbery, but they responded, “The land was given to Abram, who has no heir; so Lot will inherit him, and therefore this is not robbery.” But Scripture states: “And the Canaanites and the Perizzites were then dwelling in the land,” and Abram had not yet been awarded its possession. [from Gen. Rabbah 41:5]   וַֽיְהִי־רִיב: לְפִי שְׁהָיוּ רוֹעִים שֶׁל לוֹט רְשָׁעִים וּמַרְעִים בְּהֶמְתָּם בִּשְׂדוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְרוֹעֵי אַבְרָם מוֹכִיחִים אוֹתָם עַל הַגֶּזֶל, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים נִתְּנָה הָאָרֶץ לְאַבְרָם, וְלוֹ אֵין יוֹרֵשׁ, וְלוֹט יוֹרְשׁוֹ, וְאֵין זֶה גֶּזֶל, וְהַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי אָז יֹשֵׁב בָּאָרֶץ, וְלֹא זָכָה בָהּ אַבְרָם עֲדַיִן (ב"):
8And Abram said to Lot, "Please let there be no quarrel between me and between you and between my herdsmen and between your herdsmen, for we are kinsmen.   חוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַבְרָ֜ם אֶל־ל֗וֹט אַל־נָ֨א תְהִ֤י מְרִיבָה֙ בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֔ךָ וּבֵ֥ין רֹעַ֖י וּבֵ֣ין רֹעֶ֑יךָ כִּֽי־אֲנָשִׁ֥ים אַחִ֖ים אֲנָֽחְנוּ:
kinsmen: meaning relatives, and according to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 41:6), they resembled each other in their facial features.   אֲנָשִׁים אַחִים: קְרוֹבִים, וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה דּוֹמִין בִּקְלַסְתֵּר פָּנִים:
9Is not all the land before you? Please part from me; if [you go] left, I will go right, and if [you go] right, I will go left."   טהֲלֹ֤א כָל־הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ הִפָּ֥רֶד נָ֖א מֵֽעָלָ֑י אִם־הַשְּׂמֹ֣אל וְאֵימִ֔נָה וְאִם־הַיָּמִ֖ין וְאַשְׂמְאִֽילָה:
if [you go] left, I will go right: Wherever you dwell, I will not distance myself from you, and I will stand by you as a protector and a helper. And he ultimately needed him, as it is said (below 14:14): “And Abram heard that his kinsman had been captured, etc.”   אִם־הַשְּׂמֹאל וְאֵימִנָה: בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב, לֹא אֶתְרַחֵק מִמְּךָ וְאֶעֱמֹד לְךָ לְמָגֵן וּלְעֵזֶר, וְסוֹף דָּבָר הֻצְרַךְ לוֹ, שְׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם כִּי נִשְׁבָּה אָחִיו וְגוֹ':
I will go right: [Grammatically, this means] “I will go towards the right,” like וְאַשְׂמְאִילָה, “and I will go towards the left.” Now if you say that it should have been vowelized וְאַיְמִינָה, we find the same in another place (viz., II Sam. 14:19): “if anyone can turn to the right (לַהֵמִין),” and it is not vowelized לְהַיְמִין.   וְאֵימִנָה: אַיְמִין אֶת עַצְמִי, כְּמוֹ וְאַשְׂמְאִילָה אַשְׂמְאִיל אֶת עַצְמִי. וְאִם תֹּאמַר הָיָה לוֹ לִנָּקֵד וְאַיְמִינָה, כָּךְ מָצִינוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר אִם יֵשׁ לְהֵמִין (שמואל ב י"ד) וְאֵין נָקוּד לְהַיְמִין:
10And Lot raised his eyes, and he saw the entire plain of the Jordan, that it was entirely watered; before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as you come to Zoar.   יוַיִּשָּׂא־ל֣וֹט אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ אֶת־כָּל־כִּכַּ֣ר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן כִּ֥י כֻלָּ֖הּ מַשְׁקֶ֑ה לִפְנֵ֣י | שַׁחֵ֣ת יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶת־סְדֹם֙ וְאֶת־עֲמֹרָ֔ה כְּגַן־יְהֹוָה֙ כְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בֹּֽאֲכָ֖ה צֹֽעַר:
that it was entirely watered: A land with streams of water.   כִּי כֻלָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה: אֶרֶץ נַחֲלֵי מַיִם:
before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah: that plain was:   לִפְנֵי שַׁחֵת ה' אֶת־סדום וְאֶת־עֲמֹרָה: הָיָה אוֹתוֹ מִישׁוֹר:
like the garden of the Lord: for [growing] trees.   כְּגַן־ה': לָאִילָנוֹת:
like the land of Egypt: for [growing] seeds (Gen. Rabbah 41:7).   כְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם: לַזְּרָעִים (בראשית רבה):
as you come to Zoar: Until Zoar. And the Midrash Aggadah interprets it unfavorably: it was because they were lascivious that Lot chose their region for himself (Tractate Horioth 10b).   בֹּֽאֲכָה צֹֽעַר: עַד צֹעַר. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה דוֹרְשָׁהּ לִגְנַאי, עַל שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁטוּפֵי זִמָּה בָּחַר לוֹ לוֹט בִּשְׁכוּנָתָם:
11And Lot chose for himself the entire plain of the Jordan, and Lot traveled from the east, and they parted from one another.   יאוַיִּבְחַר־ל֣וֹ ל֗וֹט אֵ֚ת כָּל־כִּכַּ֣ר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיִּסַּ֥ע ל֖וֹט מִקֶּ֑דֶם וַיִּפָּ֣רְד֔וּ אִ֖ישׁ מֵעַ֥ל אָחִֽיו:
plain: Heb. כִּכָּר, the plain, as the Targum renders it. Note that according to Rashi, כִּכָּר is not the generic term for a plain, but the proper name of the Plain of the Jordan. See below (14:5).   כִּכַּר: מִישׁוֹר, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
from the east: He traveled from beside Abram and went away to the west of Abram; hence, he travelled from east to west (Targum Jonathan). According to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 41:7), he distanced himself from the Ancient One (מִקַּדְמוֹנוֹ) of the world. He said, “I care neither for Abram nor for his God.”   מִקֶּדֶם: נָסַע מֵאֵצֶל אַבְרָם וְהָלַך לוֹ לְמַעֲרָבוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָם; נִמְצָא נוֹסֵעַ מִמִּזְרָח לְמַעֲרָב. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה הִסִּיעַ עַצְמוֹ מִקַּדְמוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם; אָמַר אִי אֶפְשִׁי לֹא בְּאַבְרָם וְלֹא בֵאלֹהָיו:
12Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and he pitched his tents until Sodom.   יבאַבְרָ֖ם יָשַׁ֣ב בְּאֶֽרֶץ־כְּנָ֑עַן וְל֗וֹט יָשַׁב֙ בְּעָרֵ֣י הַכִּכָּ֔ר וַיֶּֽאֱהַ֖ל עַד־סְדֹֽם:
and he pitched his tents: He pitched tents for his herdsmen and his cattle until Sodom.   וַיֶּֽאֱהַל: נָטָה אֳהָלִים לְרוֹעָיו וּלְמִקְנֵהוּ עַד סְדוֹם:
13And the people of Sodom were very evil and sinful against the Lord.   יגוְאַנְשֵׁ֣י סְדֹ֔ם רָעִ֖ים וְחַטָּאִ֑ים לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מְאֹֽד:
And the people of Sodom were…evil: Nevertheless, Lot did not hesitate to sojourn with them. And our Rabbis (Yoma 38b) learned from here that (Prov. 10:7) “the name of the wicked shall rot.” [Having mentioned them, the Torah speaks of their evil.]   וְאַנְשֵׁי סדום רָעִים: וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִמְנַע לוֹט מִלִּשְׁכֹּן עִמָּהֶם. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ לָמְדוּ מִכָּאן (יומא ל"ח) וְשֵׁם רְשָׁעִים יִרְקָב (משלי י'):
evil: with their bodies.   רָעִים: בְּגוּפָם:
and sinful: with their money. [from Sanh. 109a]   וְחַטָּאִים: בְּמָמוֹנָם (סנה' ק"ט):
very… against the Lord: They recognized their Master and intended to rebel against Him. [from Sifra, Bechukkothai 2]   לה' מְאֹֽד: יוֹדְעִים רִבּוֹנָם, וּמִתְכַּוְּנִים לִמְרֹד בּוֹ:
14And the Lord said to Abram after Lot had parted from him, "Please raise your eyes and see, from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward.   ידוַֽיהֹוָ֞ה אָמַ֣ר אֶל־אַבְרָ֗ם אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הִפָּֽרֶד־ל֣וֹט מֵֽעִמּ֔וֹ שָׂ֣א נָ֤א עֵינֶ֨יךָ֙ וּרְאֵ֔ה מִן־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֣ה שָׁ֑ם צָפֹ֥נָה וָנֶ֖גְבָּה וָקֵ֥דְמָה וָיָֽמָּה:
after Lot had parted: As long as the wicked man was with him, the Divine speech withdrew from him (and above, when Lot was with him, and it is written (12:7): “And the Lord appeared to Abram,” [we must assume that] at that time, he was righteous, and this is easy to understand). [from Tan. Vayeze 10]   אַֽחֲרֵי הִפָּֽרֶד־לוֹט: כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָרָשָׁע עִמּוֹ הָיָה הַדִּבּוּר פּוֹרֵשׁ מִמֵֶּנּוּ:
15For all the land that you see I will give to you and to your seed to eternity.   טוכִּ֧י אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה רֹאֶ֖ה לְךָ֣ אֶתְּנֶ֑נָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
16And I will make your seed like the dust of the earth, so that if a man will be able to count the dust of the earth, so will your seed be counted.   טזוְשַׂמְתִּ֥י אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֖ כַּֽעֲפַ֣ר הָאָ֑רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר | אִם־יוּכַ֣ל אִ֗ישׁ לִמְנוֹת֙ אֶת־עֲפַ֣ר הָאָ֔רֶץ גַּם־זַרְעֲךָ֖ יִמָּנֶֽה:
that if a man will be able: Just as it is impossible for the dust to be counted, so will your seed not be counted. [from Targum Onkelos]   אֲשֶׁר אִם־יוּכַל אִישׁ: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶעָפָר לְהִמָּנוֹת כָּךְ זַרְעֲךָ לֹא יִמָּנֶה:
17Rise, walk in the land, to its length and to its breadth, for I will give it to you."   יזק֚וּם הִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ בָּאָ֔רֶץ לְאָרְכָּ֖הּ וּלְרָחְבָּ֑הּ כִּ֥י לְךָ֖ אֶתְּנֶֽנָּה:
18And Abram pitched his tents, and he came, and he dwelt in the plain of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and there he built an altar to the Lord.   יחוַיֶּֽאֱהַ֣ל אַבְרָ֗ם וַיָּבֹ֛א וַיֵּ֛שֶׁב בְּאֵֽלֹנֵ֥י מַמְרֵ֖א אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּחֶבְר֑וֹן וַיִּֽבֶן־שָׁ֥ם מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
Mamre: the name of a man. [from Gen. Rabbah 42:8]   מַמְרֵא: שֵׁם אָדָם:

Fourth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 14

1Now it came to pass in the days of Amraphel the king of Shinar, Arioch the king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and Tidal the king of Goyim.   אוַיְהִ֗י בִּימֵי֙ אַמְרָפֶ֣ל מֶֽלֶךְ־שִׁנְעָ֔ר אַרְי֖וֹךְ מֶ֣לֶךְ אֶלָּסָ֑ר כְּדָרְלָעֹ֨מֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֵילָ֔ם וְתִדְעָ֖ל מֶ֥לֶךְ גּוֹיִֽם:
Amraphel: This is Nimrod, who said (אָמַר) to Abram, “Fall (פּוֹל) into the fiery furnace.” (Gen. Rabbah) [from Mid. Tan., Lech Lecha 6; Er. 53a, Targum Jonathan]   אַמְרָפֶל: הוּא נִמְרוֹד, שֶׁאָמַר לְאַבְרָהָם פֹּל לְתוֹךְ כִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ (בראשית רבה):
the king of Goyim: There is a place named Goyim, because [people] from many nations (גּוֹיִם) and places assembled there, and they crowned over them a man named Tidal (Gen. Rabbah 42:4).   מֶֽלֶךְ־גּוֹיִֽם: מָקוֹם יֵשׁ שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ גּוֹיִם, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ שָׁמָּה מִכַּמָּה אֻמּוֹת וּמְקוֹמוֹת וְהִמְלִיכוּ אִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶם וּשְׁמוֹ תִדְעָל:
2That they waged war with Bera the king of Sodom and with Birsha the king of Gomorrah, Shineab the king of Admah, and Shemeber the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar.   בעָשׂ֣וּ מִלְחָמָ֗ה אֶת־בֶּ֨רַע֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ סְדֹ֔ם וְאֶת־בִּרְשַׁ֖ע מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמֹרָ֑ה שִׁנְאָ֣ב | מֶ֣לֶךְ אַדְמָ֗ה וְשֶׁמְאֵ֨בֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ צְבוֹיִ֔ם (כתיב צביים) וּמֶ֥לֶךְ בֶּ֖לַע הִיא־צֹֽעַר:
Bera: He was evil (רַע) to Heaven and evil to people. [from Tan. Lech Lecha 8]   בֶּרַע: רַע לַשָּׁמַיִם וְרַע לַבְּרִיּוֹת:
Birsha: He was elevated in wickedness (רֶשַׁע). [cf. Tan. Lech Lecha 8]   בִּרְשַׁע: שֶׁנִּתְעַלָּה בְרֶשַׁע:
Shineab: He hated (שׂוֹנֵא) his Father (אָב) in Heaven. [from Tan. ad loc.]   שִׁנְאָב: שׂוֹנֵא אָבִיו שׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם:
Shemeber: He made (שָׂם) wings (אֵבֶר) to fly and to spring and to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He. [from Tan. ad loc.]   שמאבר: שָׂם אֵבֶר לָעוּף וְלִקְפֹּץ וְלִמְרֹד בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:
Bela: the name of the city.   בֶּלַע: שֵׁם הָעִיר:
3All these joined in the valley of Siddim, which is the Dead Sea.   גכָּל־אֵ֨לֶּה֙ חָֽבְר֔וּ אֶל־עֵ֖מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֑ים ה֖וּא יָ֥ם הַמֶּֽלַח:
the valley of Siddim: This was its name because there were many fields (שָׂדוֹת) in it, and there are many Aggadic midrashim. [from Targum Onkelos]   עֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים: כָּךְ שְׁמוֹ, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיו בוֹ שָׂדוֹת הַרְבֵּה:
which is the Dead Sea: Afterwards, the sea flowed into it, and it became the Dead Sea. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 42:6), however, states that the rocks around it split, and rivers flowed into it.   הוּא יָם הַמֶּֽלַח: לְאַחַר זְמַן נִמְשַׁךְ הַיָּם לְתוֹכוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה יָם הַמֶּלַח. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה אוֹמֵר שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעוּ הַצּוּרִים סְבִיבוֹתָיו וְנִמְשְׁכוּ יְאוֹרִים לְתוֹכוֹ:
4For twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and for thirteen years they rebelled.   דשְׁתֵּ֤ים עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה עָֽבְד֖וּ אֶת־כְּדָרְלָעֹ֑מֶר וּשְׁלֹֽשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה שָׁנָ֖ה מָרָֽדוּ:
For twelve years they served: These five kings [served] Chedorlaomer.   שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה עָֽבְדוּ: חֲמִשָּׁה מְלָכִים הַלָּלוּ אֶת כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר:
5And in the fourteenth year, Chedorlaomer came, and the kings who were with him, and they smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim.   הוּבְאַרְבַּע֩ עֶשְׂרֵ֨ה שָׁנָ֜ה בָּ֣א כְדָרְלָעֹ֗מֶר וְהַמְּלָכִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ וַיַּכּ֤וּ אֶת־רְפָאִים֙ בְּעַשְׁתְּרֹ֣ת קַרְנַ֔יִם וְאֶת־הַזּוּזִ֖ים בְּהָ֑ם וְאֵת֙ הָֽאֵימִ֔ים בְּשָׁוֵ֖ה קִרְיָתָֽיִם:
And in the fourteenth year: of their rebellion, Chedorlaomer came. Since the matter concerned him, he bore “the heavier side of the beam” [i.e., he bore a major part of the responsibility]. [from Gen. Rabbah 42:6]   וּבְאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה: לְמִרְדָּן בָּא כְדָרְלָעֹמֶר לְפִי שֶׁהוּא הָיָה בַעַל הַמַּעֲשֶׂה נִכְנַס בְּעֹבִי הַקּוֹרָה:
and the kings: These are the three kings.   וְהַמְּלָכִים: אֵלֶּה שְׁלשָׁה מְלָכִים:
and the Zuzim: These are the Zamzumim. See Deut. 2:20.   הַזּוּזִים: הֵם זַמְזֻמִּים:
6And the Horites in their mountain Seir, until the plain of Paran, which is alongside the desert.   ווְאֶת־הַֽחֹרִ֖י בְּהַֽרֲרָ֣ם שֵׂעִ֑יר עַ֚ד אֵ֣יל פָּארָ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
in their mountain: Heb. בְּהַרְרָם, in their mountain. [from Targum Onkelos]   בְּהַֽרֲרָם: בְּהַר שֶׁלָּהֶם:
the plain of Paran: Heb. אֵיל. According to its Aramaic translation, it means a plain. I say, however, that אֵיל does not mean a plain, but rather, that the plain of Paran was named Eil, and that [the plain] of Mamre was named Elonei, and that [the plain] of the Jordan was named Kikkar, and that [the plain] of Shittim was named Abel, אָבֵל הַשִּׁטִּים (Num. 33:49). And similarly, Baal-gad [was a plain] named Baal. [Though] they are all translated מִישׁוֹר, a plain, each one has its name accompanying it.   אֵיל פָּארָן: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ מִישׁוֹר. וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁאֵין אֵיל לְשׁוֹן מִישׁוֹר, אֶלָּא מִישׁוֹר שֶׁל פָּארָן אֵיל שְׁמוֹ, וְשֶׁל מַמְרֵא אֵלוֹנֵי שְׁמוֹ, וְשֶׁל יַרְדֵּן כִּכָּר שְׁמוֹ, וְשֶׁל שִׁטִּים אָבֵל שְׁמוֹ, אָבֵל הַשִּׁטִּים, וְכֵן בַּעַל גָּד בַּעַל שְׁמוֹ; וְכֻלָּם מְתֻרְגָּמִין מִישׁוֹר, וְכָל א' שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו:
alongside the desert: Heb. עַל, alongside the desert, like (Num. 2:20): “and alongside them (וְעָלָיו) was the tribe of Manasseh.” - [from Targum Onkelos]   עַל־הַמִּדְבָּֽר: אֵצֶל הַמִּדְבָּר, כְּמוֹ וְעָלָיו מַטֵּה מְנַשֶּׁה (במדבר ב'):
7And they returned and came to Ein Mishpat, which is Kadesh, and they smote the entire field of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who dwelt in Hazezon Tamar.   זוַיָּשֻׁ֠בוּ וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ אֶל־עֵ֤ין מִשְׁפָּט֙ הִ֣וא קָדֵ֔שׁ וַיַּכּ֕וּ אֶת־כָּל־שְׂדֵ֖ה הָֽעֲמָֽלֵקִ֑י וְגַם֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י הַיּשֵׁ֖ב בְּחַֽצֲצֹ֥ן תָּמָֽר:
Ein Mishpat, which is Kadesh: lit. the fountain of judgment. [It was thus called] because of the future, for Moses and Aaron were destined to be judged there concerning matters [that would occur at] that fountain, viz. the waters of Meribah (Tan. Lech Lecha 8). Onkelos, however, rendered it according to its simple meaning, the place where the people of the province would assemble for all litigation.   עֵין מִשְׁפָּט היא קָדֵשׁ: עַל שֵׁם הֶעָתִיד, שֶׁעֲתִידִין מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן לְהִשְָּׁפֵט שָׁם עַל עִסְקֵי אוֹתוֹ הָעַיִן וְהֵם מֵי מְרִיבָה. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגְּמוֹ כִפְשׁוּטוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהָיוּ בְנֵי הַמְּדִינָה מִתְקַבְּצִים שָׁם לְכָל מִשְׁפָּט:
field of the Amalekites: Amalek had not yet been born, but it was given this appellation because of the [name it would bear] in the future. [from Tan. ad loc.]   שְׂדֵה הָֽעֲמָֽלֵקִי: עֲדַיִן לֹא נוֹלַד עֲמָלֵק, וְנִקְרָא עַל שֵׁם הֶעָתִיד:
in Hazezon Tamar: This is Ein-Gedi. This is an explicit verse in (II) Chronicles (20:2) concerning Jehoshaphat.   בחצצון תָּמָֽר: הוּא עֵין גֶּדִי, מִקְרָא מָלֵא בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים (ב' כ') בִּיהוֹשָׁפָט:
8And the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar, came forth, and they engaged them in battle in the valley of Siddim.   חוַיֵּצֵ֨א מֶֽלֶךְ־סְדֹ֜ם וּמֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמֹרָ֗ה וּמֶ֤לֶךְ אַדְמָה֙ וּמֶ֣לֶךְ צְבוֹיִ֔ם (כתיב צביים) וּמֶ֥לֶךְ בֶּ֖לַע הִוא־צֹ֑עַר וַיַּֽעַרְכ֤וּ אִתָּם֙ מִלְחָמָ֔ה בְּעֵ֖מֶק הַשִּׂדִּֽים:
9With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam and Tidal the king of Goyim and Amraphel the king of Shinar and Arioch the king of Ellasar, four kings against the five.   טאֵ֣ת כְּדָרְלָעֹ֜מֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ עֵילָ֗ם וְתִדְעָל֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ גּוֹיִ֔ם וְאַמְרָפֶל֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ שִׁנְעָ֔ר וְאַרְי֖וֹךְ מֶ֣לֶךְ אֶלָּסָ֑ר אַרְבָּעָ֥ה מְלָכִ֖ים אֶת־הַֽחֲמִשָּֽׁה:
four kings against the five: Nevertheless, the few were victorious. This is to inform you that they were mighty men. Despite this, Abram did not hesitate to pursue them. [from Gen. Rabbah 42:7]   אַרְבָּעָה מְלָכִים וגו': וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נִצְּחוּ הַמֻּעָטִים, לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁגִּבּוֹרִים הָיוּ, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִמְנַע אַבְרָהָם מִלִּרְדֹּף אַחֲרֵיהֶם:
10Now the valley of Siddim was [composed of] many clay pits, and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled and they fell there, and the survivors fled to a mountain.   יוְעֵ֣מֶק הַשִּׂדִּ֗ים בֶּֽאֱרֹ֤ת בֶּֽאֱרֹת֙ חֵמָ֔ר וַיָּנֻ֛סוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־סְדֹ֥ם וַֽעֲמֹרָ֖ה וַיִּפְּלוּ־שָׁ֑מָּה וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים הֶ֥רָה נָּֽסוּ:
many clay pits: There were many pits there from which they took earth for the clay for building (Targum Onkelos). The Midrashic explanation (Gen. Rabbah ad loc.) is that the clay was kneaded in them [i.e., in the pits], and a miracle was wrought for the king of Sodom that he escaped from there, because some of the nations did not believe that Abraham had been saved from Ur of the Chaldees, from the fiery furnace, but since this one escaped from the clay, they believed in Abraham retroactively.   בֶּֽאֱרֹת בֶּֽאֱרֹת חֵמָר: בְּאֵרוֹת הַרְבֵּה הָיוּ שָׁם, שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין מִשָּׁם אֲדָמָה לְטִיט שֶׁל בִּנְיָן. וּמִדְרַש אַגָּדָה שֶׁהָיָה הַטִּיט מֻגְבָּל בָּהֶם, וְנַעֲשָׂה נֵס לְמֶלֶךְ סְדוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ בָאֻמּוֹת מִקְצָתָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ מַאֲמִינִין שֶׁנִּצַּל אַבְרָהָם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים מִכִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא זֶה מִן הַחֵמָר, הֶאֱמִינוּ בְאַבְרָם לְמַפְרֵעַ:
fled to a mountain: [Meaning]: They fled to a mountain. The word הֶרָה is the same as לְהַר. Any word that requires a lamed at the beginning, may have a hey added to it at the end [instead]. But there is a difference between הֶרָה and הָהָרָה, for the hey at the end of the word takes the place of the lamed at the beginning [of the word], but it does not take the place of a lamed vowelized with a pattach under it. Now הֶרָה is like לְהַר or like אֶל הַר, [to a mountain,] but it does not specify to which mountain, for each one fled to whichever mountain he found first. But when the letter hey is placed at the beginning, by writing הָהָרָה, or הַמִּדְבָּרָה, it is to be interpreted as אֶל הָהָר, or like לְהָהָר, [to the mountain], and it refers to that mountain that is known and specified in the chapter.   הֶרָה נָּֽסוּ: לְהָר נָסוּ, הֶרָה, כְּמוֹ לְהָר; כָּל תֵּבָה שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לָמֶ"ד בִּתְחִלָּתָהּ, הֵטִיל לָהּ הֵ"א בְּסוֹפָהּ. וְיֵשׁ חִלּוּק בֵּין הֶרָה לְהָהָרָה, שֶׁהֵ"א שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַתֵּבָה עוֹמֶדֶת בִּמְקוֹם לָמֶ"ד שֶׁבְּרֹאשָׁהּ, אֲבָל אֵינָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת בִּמְקוֹם לָמֶ"ד וּנְקוּדָה פַּתָּח תַּחְתֶּיהָ, וַהֲרֵי הֶרָה כְּמוֹ לְהַר אוֹ כְּמוֹ אֶל הַר, וְאֵינוֹ מְפָרֵשׁ לְאֵיזֶה הַר, אֶלָּא שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד נָס בַּאֲשֶׁר מָצָא הַר תְּחִלָּה, וּכְשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן הֵ"א בְרֹאשָׁהּ לִכְתֹּב הָהָרָה אוֹ הַמִּדְבָּרָה, פִּתְרוֹנוֹ כְּמוֹ אֶל הָהָר אוֹ כְמוֹ לְהָהָר, וּמַשְׁמַע לְאוֹתוֹ הַר הַיָּדוּעַ וּמְפֹרָשׁ בַּפָּרָשָׁה:
11And they took all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food, and they departed.   יאוַיִּקְח֠וּ אֶת־כָּל־רְכֻ֨שׁ סְדֹ֧ם וַֽעֲמֹרָ֛ה וְאֶת־כָּל־אָכְלָ֖ם וַיֵּלֵֽכוּ:
12And they took Lot and his possessions, the son of Abram's brother, and they departed, and he was living in Sodom.   יבוַיִּקְח֨וּ אֶת־ל֧וֹט וְאֶת־רְכֻשׁ֛וֹ בֶּן־אֲחִ֥י אַבְרָ֖ם וַיֵּלֵ֑כוּ וְה֥וּא ישֵׁ֖ב בִּסְדֹֽם:
and he was living in Sodom: What brought this about to him [that he was taken captive]? His living in Sodom. [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   וְהוּא ישֵׁב בסדום: מִי גָרַם לוֹ זֹאת? יְשִׁיבָתוֹ בִסְדוֹם:
13And the fugitive came and he told Abram the Hebrew, and he was living in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshkol and the brother of Aner, who were Abram's confederates.   יגוַיָּבֹא֙ הַפָּלִ֔יט וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְאַבְרָ֣ם הָֽעִבְרִ֑י וְהוּא֩ שֹׁכֵ֨ן בְּאֵֽלֹנֵ֜י מַמְרֵ֣א הָֽאֱמֹרִ֗י אֲחִ֤י אֶשְׁכֹּל֙ וַֽאֲחִ֣י עָנֵ֔ר וְהֵ֖ם בַּֽעֲלֵ֥י בְרִֽית־אַבְרָֽם:
And the fugitive came: According to its simple meaning, this was Og, who escaped from the battle, and that is what is referred to (in Deut. 3:11): “Only Og survived from the rest of the Rephaim.” And that is the meaning of “survived,” that Amraphel and his allies did not kill him when they smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-Karnaim [Midrash Tanchuma (Chukkath 25)]. The Midrash Gen. Rabbah [explains]: This is Og, who escaped from the Generation of the Flood, and this is the meaning of “from the rest of the Rephaim,” as it is said: (above 6:4): “The Nephilim were on the earth, etc.” And he [Og] intended that Abram should be killed and he would marry Sarah (Gen. Rabbah 42:8).   וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט: לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ זֶה עוֹג, שֶׁפָּלַט מִן הַמִּלְחָמָה, וְהוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב כִּי רַק עוֹג נִשְׁאַר מִיֶּתֶר הָרְפָאִים (דבר' ג') וְזֶהוּ נִשְׁאַר, שֶׁלֹּא הֲרָגוּהוּ אַמְרָפֶל וַחֲבֵרָיו כְּשֶׁהִכּוּ הָרְפָאִים בְּעַשְׁתְּרוֹת קַרְנַיִם, תַּנְחוּמָא וּמִדְרַשׁ בּרֵאשִׁית רַבָּה זֶה עוֹג, שֶׁפָּלַט מִדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל; וְזֶהוּ מִיֶּתֶר הָרְפָאִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ וְגוֹ' (לְעֵיל ו') וּמִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּהָרֵג אַבְרָם וְיִשָּׂא אֶת שָׂרָה:
the Hebrew: Heb. הָעִבְרִי. [So called] because he came from the other side (מֵעֵבֶר) of the [Euphrates] river (Gen. Rabbah 42:8).   הָֽעִבְרִי: שֶׁבָּא מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר (בראשית רבה):
Abram’s confederates: lit. the masters of Abram’s covenant. Because they made a covenant with him. (Other editions add: Another explanation of [בַּעֲלֵי בְּרִית]: They gave him advice concerning circumcision (Aggadath Bereishith 19:3), as is explained elsewhere) (below 18:1). [According to Aggadath Bereishith, the covenant mentioned is that of circumcision.]   בַּֽעֲלֵי בְרִֽית־אַבְרָֽם: שֶׁכָּרְתוּ עִמּוֹ בְּרִית:
14And Abram heard that his kinsman had been taken captive, and he armed his trained men, those born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and he pursued [them] until Dan.   ידוַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע אַבְרָ֔ם כִּ֥י נִשְׁבָּ֖ה אָחִ֑יו וַיָּ֨רֶק אֶת־חֲנִיכָ֜יו יְלִידֵ֣י בֵית֗וֹ שְׁמֹנָ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ וּשְׁל֣שׁ מֵא֔וֹת וַיִּרְדֹּ֖ף עַד־דָּֽן:
and he armed: Heb. וַיָּרֶק, like its Aramaic translation: וְזָרֵיז, [and he armed], and similarly (Lev. 26:33): וַהִרִיקֹתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב [which Onkelos renders]: “and I will arm Myself with My sword against you,” and similarly (Exod. 15:9): “I will arm myself (אָרִיק) with my sword,” and similarly (Ps. 35:3): “And arm Yourself (וְהָרֵק) with a spear and ax.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 43:2]   וַיָּרֶק: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְזָרִיז, וְכֵן וַהֲרִיקֹתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב (ויקרא כ"ו) – אֶזְדַּיֵּן בְּחַרְבִּי עֲלֵיכֶם, וְכֵן אָרִיק חַרְבִּי (שמות ט"ו), וְכֵן וְהָרֵק חֲנִית וּסְגֹר (תה' ל"ה):
his trained men: Heb. חֲנִיכָיו. It is written חֲנִיכוֹ [in the singular], his trained man (other editions: It is read). This is Eliezer, whom he had trained to [perform the] commandments, and it [חֲנִיכָיו] is an expression of the initiation (lit. the beginning of the entrance) of a person or a utensil to the craft with which he [or it] is destined to remain, and similarly (Prov. 22: 6): “Train (חֲנֹךְ) a child”; (Num. 7:10): “the dedication of (חֲנֻכַּת) the altar”; (Ps. 30:1): “the dedication of (חֲנֻכַּת) the Temple,” and in Old French it is called enseigner [to instruct, train].   חֲנִיכָיו: חנכו כְּתִיב (סְפָרִים אֲחֵרִים קְרֵי), זֶה אֱלִיעֶזֶר שֶׁחִנְּכוֹ לְמִצְוֹת וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן הַתְחָלַת כְּנִיסַת הָאָדָם אוֹ כְלִי לָאֻמָּנוּת שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לַעֲמֹד בָּהּ, וְכֵן חֲנֹךְ לַנַּעַר (משלי כ"ב), חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ (במד' ז'), חֲנֻכַּת הַבַּיִת (תה' ל') ובלע"ז קוֹרִין לוֹ אינצ"נייר:
three hundred and eighteen: Our Sages said (Gen. Rabbah 43:2, Ned. 32a): It was Eliezer alone, and it [the number 318] is the numerical value of his name.   שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר וגו': רַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ אֱלִיעֶזֶר לְבַדּוֹ הָיָה (נדרים ל"ב), וְהוּא מִנְיַן גִּימַטְרִיָּא שֶׁל שְׁמוֹ:
until Dan: There he became weak, for he saw that his children were destined to erect a calf there (Sanh. 96a). The reference is to I Kings 12:29: “And he (Jeroboam) placed one in Beth-el, and the other he placed in Dan.”   עַד־דָּֽן: שָׁם תָּשַׁשׁ כֹּחוֹ, שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁעֲתִידִין בָּנָיו לְהַעֲמִיד שָׁם עֵגֶל (סנה' צ"ו):
15And he divided himself against them at night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them until Hobah, which is to the left of Damascus.   טווַיֵּֽחָלֵ֨ק עֲלֵיהֶ֧ם | לַ֛יְלָה ה֥וּא וַֽעֲבָדָ֖יו וַיַּכֵּ֑ם וַיִּרְדְּפֵם֙ עַד־חוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִשְּׂמֹ֖אל לְדַמָּֽשֶׂק:
And he divided himself against them: According to its simple meaning, transpose the verse: “And he divided himself, he and his servants, upon them at night,” as is customary for pursuers, who divide themselves after the pursued when they flee, one here and one there.   וַיֵּֽחָלֵק עֲלֵיהֶם: לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ סָרֵס הַמִּקְרָא "וַיֵּחָלֵק הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו עֲלֵיהֶם לַיְלָה" כְּדֶּרֶך הָרוֹדְפִים שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְּגִים אַחַר הַנִּרְדָּפִים, כְּשֶׁבּוֹרְחִין זֶה לְכָאן וְזֶה לְכָאן:
at night: i.e., after nightfall he did not refrain from pursuing them. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 43:3) states, however, that the night was divided, and in its first half, a miracle was wrought for him, and its second half was preserved for the [miracle of] midnight in Egypt.   לַיְלָה: כְּלוֹמַר אַחַר שֶׁחָשְׁכָה לֹא נִמְנַע מִלְּרָדְפָם. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה שֶׁנֶּחֱלַק הַלַּיְלָה, וּבְחֶצְיוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן נַעֲשָׂה לוֹ נֵס, וְחֶצְיוֹ הַשֵּׁנִי נִשְׁמַר וּבָא לוֹ לַחֲצוֹת לַיְלָה שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם:
until Hobah: There is no place named Hobah, but Dan is called Hobah [culpable] because of the idolatry which would be practiced there [in the future]. [from Tan. Lech Lecha 13]   עַד־חוֹבָה: אֵין מָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ חוֹבָה, וְדָן קוֹרֵא חוֹבָה, עַל שֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁעֲתִידָה לִהְיוֹת שָׁם:
16And he restored all the possessions, and also Lot his brother and his possessions he restored, and also the women and the people.   טזוַיָּ֕שֶׁב אֵ֖ת כָּל־הָֽרְכֻ֑שׁ וְגַם֩ אֶת־ל֨וֹט אָחִ֤יו וּרְכֻשׁוֹ֙ הֵשִׁ֔יב וְגַ֥ם אֶת־הַנָּשִׁ֖ים וְאֶת־הָעָֽם:
17And the king of Sodom came out toward him, after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, to the valley of Shaveh, which is the valley of the king.   יזוַיֵּצֵ֣א מֶֽלֶךְ־סְדֹם֘ לִקְרָאתוֹ֒ אַֽחֲרֵ֣י שׁוּב֗וֹ מֵֽהַכּוֹת֙ אֶת־כְּדָרְלָעֹ֔מֶר וְאֶת־הַמְּלָכִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ אֶל־עֵ֣מֶק שָׁוֵ֔ה ה֖וּא עֵ֥מֶק הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
to the valley of Shaveh: That is its name, and the Targum renders: to the clear plain. It was clear of trees and of every obstacle.   עֵמֶק שָׁוֵה: כָּךְ שְׁמוֹ, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ לְמֵישַׁר מְפַנָּא – פָּנוּי מֵאִילָנוֹת וּמִכָּל מִכְשׁוֹל:
the valley of the king: [Onkelos renders:] the king’s race course; one race course was thirty rods long, which was designated for the king to play there. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 42:5, 43:5), however, [explains that it was] a valley where all the nations concurred (הֻשְׁווּ) and crowned Abram over them as a prince of God and as an officer.   עֵמֶק הַמֶּֽלֶךְ: בֵּית רֵיסָא דְמַלְכָּא בֵּית רִיס א' שֶׁהוּא שְׁלֹשִׁים קָנִים, שֶׁהָיָה מְיֻחָד לַמֶּלֶךְ לְצַחֵק שָׁם. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה עֵמֶק, שֶׁהֻשְׁווּ שָׁם כָּל הָאֻמּוֹת וְהִמְלִיכוּ אֶת אַבְרָהָם עֲלֵיהֶם לִנְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים וּלְקָצִין:
18And Malchizedek the king of Salem brought out bread and wine, and he was a priest to the Most High God.   יחוּמַלְכִּי־צֶ֨דֶק֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ שָׁלֵ֔ם הוֹצִ֖יא לֶ֣חֶם וָיָ֑יִן וְה֥וּא כֹהֵ֖ן לְאֵ֣ל עֶלְיֽוֹן:
And Malchizedek: The Midrash Aggadah (Targum Jonathan, Ned. 32b, Mid. Ps. 76:3) states that he was Shem, the son of Noah.   וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק: מִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה הוּא שֵׁם בֶן נֹחַ (נדרים ל"ב):
bread and wine: This is done for those weary from battle, and he [Malchizedek] demonstrated that he bore no grudge against him [Abram] for slaying his sons (Tan. Lech Lecha 15). And according to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 43:6), he hinted to him about the meal offerings and the libations, which his [Abraham’s] children would offer up there.   לֶחֶם וָיָיִן: כָּךְ עוֹשִׂים לִיגִיעֵי מִלְחָמָה, וְהֶרְאָה לוֹ שֶׁאֵין בְּלִבּוֹ עָלָיו עַל שֶׁהָרַג אֶת בָּנָיו. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה רָמַז לוֹ עַל הַמְּנָחוֹת וְעַל הַנְּסָכִים שֶׁיַּקְרִיבוּ שָׁם בָּנָיו:
19And he blessed him, and he said, "Blessed be Abram to the Most High God, Who possesses heaven and earth.   יטוַיְבָֽרֲכֵ֖הוּ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר בָּר֤וּךְ אַבְרָם֙ לְאֵ֣ל עֶלְי֔וֹן קֹנֵ֖ה שָׁמַ֥יִם וָאָֽרֶץ:
Who possesses heaven and earth: Heb. קֹנֶה, like (Ps. 115:15): the Maker of heaven and earth. By making them, He acquired them to be His.   קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָֽרֶץ: כְּמוֹ עֹשֵׂה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ (תה' קל"ד); עַל יְדֵי עֲשִׂיָּתָן קְנָאָן לִהְיוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ:
20And blessed be the Most High God, Who has delivered your adversaries into your hand," and he gave him a tithe from all.   כוּבָרוּךְ֙ אֵ֣ל עֶלְי֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־מִגֵּ֥ן צָרֶ֖יךָ בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וַיִּתֶּן־ל֥וֹ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֖ר מִכֹּֽל:
Who has delivered: Heb. מִגֵּן, Who has delivered, and likewise, (Hosea 11:8): “I shall deliver you (אֲמַגֶּנְךָ), O Israel.”   אֲשֶׁר־מִגֵּן: אֲשֶׁר הִסְגִּיר, וְכֵן אֲמַגֶּנְךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל (הושע י"א):
and he gave him: [i.e.,] Abram [gave Malchizedek] a tithe from all that was his because he was a priest. [from Gen. Rabbah 44:7]   וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ: אַבְרָהָם מעשר מכל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה כֹהֵן:

Fifth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 14

21And the king of Sodom said to Abram, "Give me the souls, and the possessions take for yourself."   כאוַיֹּ֥אמֶר מֶֽלֶךְ־סְדֹ֖ם אֶל־אַבְרָ֑ם תֶּן־לִ֣י הַנֶּ֔פֶשׁ וְהָֽרְכֻ֖שׁ קַח־לָֽךְ:
Give me the souls: Of that which was captured that belonged to me, which you rescued, give me back the people only.   תֶּן־לִי הַנֶּפֶשׁ: מִן הַשְּׁבִי שֶׁלִּי שֶׁהִצַּלְתָּ, הַחֲזֵר לִי הַגּוּפִים לְבַדָּם:
22And Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I raise my hand to the Lord, the Most High God, Who possesses heaven and earth.   כבוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אַבְרָ֖ם אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ סְדֹ֑ם הֲרִמֹ֨תִי יָדִ֤י אֶל־יְהֹוָה֙ אֵ֣ל עֶלְי֔וֹן קֹנֵ֖ה שָׁמַ֥יִם וָאָֽרֶץ:
I raise my hand: Heb. הֲרִימֹתִי, lit. I raised. This is an expression of an oath: “I raise my hand to the Most High God.” And similarly (Gen. 22:16): בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי [means] “I swear by Myself,” and similarly (Gen. 23:13): נָתַתִּי כֶּסֶף הַשָּׂדֶה קַח מִמֶּנִּי [means] “I am giving you the price of the field, take it from me.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 43:9]   הרימתי יָדִי: לְשׁוֹן שְׁבוּעָה, מֵרִים אֲנִי אֶת יָדִי לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן, וְכֵן בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי (בר' כ"ב), נִשְׁבַּע אֲנִי, וְכֵן נָתַתִּי כֶּסֶף הַשָּׂדֶה קַח מִמֶּנִּי (שם כ"ג), נוֹתֵן אֲנִי לְךָ כֶּסֶף הַשָּׂדֶה, קָחֵהוּ מִמֶּנִּי:
23Neither from a thread to a shoe strap, nor will I take from whatever is yours, that you should not say, 'I have made Abram wealthy.'   כגאִם־מִחוּט֙ וְעַ֣ד שְׂרֽוֹךְ־נַ֔עַל וְאִם־אֶקַּ֖ח מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָ֑ךְ וְלֹ֣א תֹאמַ֔ר אֲנִ֖י הֶֽעֱשַׁ֥רְתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָֽם:
Neither from a thread to a shoe strap: will I keep for myself of the captured possessions.   אִם־מִחוּט וְעַד שְׂרֽוֹךְ־נַעַל: אַעֲכֵּב לְעַצְמִי מִן הַשְּׁבִי:
nor will I take from whatever is yours: And if you offer [lit. say] to give me reward from your treasuries, I will not take [it].   וְאִם־אֶקַּח מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ: וְאִם תֹּאמַר לָתֵת לִי שָׂכָר מִבֵּית גְּנָזֶיךָ, לֹא אֶקַּח:
that you should not say, etc: The Holy One, blessed be He, promised to make me rich, as it is said (above 12:2): “and I will bless you, etc.”   וְלֹא תֹאמַר וגו': שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִבְטִיחַנִי לְעַשְּׁרֵנִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וְגוֹ':
24Exclusive of what the lads ate, and the share of the men who went with me; Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre they shall take their share."   כדבִּלְעָדַ֗י רַ֚ק אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽכְל֣וּ הַנְּעָרִ֔ים וְחֵ֨לֶק֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָֽלְכ֖וּ אִתִּ֑י עָנֵר֙ אֶשְׁכֹּ֣ל וּמַמְרֵ֔א הֵ֖ם יִקְח֥וּ חֶלְקָֽם:
the lads: My servants who went with me, and additionally, Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre, etc. Although my servants entered the battle, as it is stated (above verse 14): “he and his servants, and smote them,” while Aner and his companions stayed with the luggage to guard [it], nevertheless, “they shall take their share.” And from him, David learned, as he said (I Sam. 30:24): “for as the share of him who goes down into battle, so is the share of him who stays with the luggage; they shall share alike.” Therefore, it says (ibid. verse 25): “And it was so from that day (and had been so) from before, that he made it a statute and an ordinance.” It does not say וָהָלְאָה [and onwards], because that statute had already been enacted in the days of Abram. [from Gen. Rabbah 43:9]   הַנְּעָרִים: עֲבָדַי אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אִתִּי וְעוֹד עָנֵר אֶשְׁכֹּל וּמַמְרֵא וְגוֹ'; אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲבָדַי נִכְנְסוּ לַמִּלְחָמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו וַיַּכֵּם, וְעָנֵר וַחֲבֵרָיו יָשְׁבוּ עַל הַכֵּלִים לִשְׁמֹר, אֲפִלּוּ הָכִי הֵם יִקְחוּ חֶלְקָם. וּמִמֶּנּוּ לָמַד דָּוִד, שֶׁאָמַר כְּחֵלֶק הַיֹּרֵד בַּמִּלְחָמָה וּכְחֵלֶק הַיֹּשֵׁב עַל הַכֵּלִים יַחְדָּו יַחֲלֹקוּ (שמואל א ל'), וּלְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר וַיְהִי מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָמָעְלָה וַיְשִׂמֶהָ לְחֹק וּלְמִשְׁפָּט (שם), וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר וָהָלְאָה, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתַּן הַחֹק בִּימֵי אַבְרָם:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 15

1After these incidents, the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision, saying, "Fear not, Abram; I am your Shield; your reward is exceedingly great."   אאַחַ֣ר | הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה הָיָ֤ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־אַבְרָ֔ם בַּמַּֽחֲזֶ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אַל־תִּירָ֣א אַבְרָ֗ם אָֽנֹכִי֙ מָגֵ֣ן לָ֔ךְ שְׂכָֽרְךָ֖ הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד:
After these incidents: Wherever the term אַחַר is used, it signifies immediately afterwards; אַחֲרֵי signifies a long time afterwards (Gen. Rabbah 44:5). After this miracle had been wrought for him, that he slew the kings, he was worried and said, “Perhaps I have received reward for all my righteous deeds.” Therefore, the Omnipresent said to him, “Fear not Abram, I am your Shield” from punishment, that you will not be punished for all those souls that you have slain, and as far as your being worried about receiving reward, your reward is exceedingly great. [from Aggadath Bereishith 16:2; Tan. Buber, Lech Lecha 15; Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 27]   אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה: כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶאֱמַר אַחַר – סָמוּךְ, אַחֲרֵי – מֻפְלָג (בראשית רבה). אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לוֹ נֵס זֶה, שֶׁהָרַג אֶת הַמְּלָכִים וְהָיָה דוֹאֵג וְאוֹמֵר, שֶׁמָּא קִבַּלְתִּי שָׂכָר עַל כָּל צִדְקוֹתַי, לְכָךְ אָמַר לוֹ הַמָּקוֹם אַל תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ, מִן הָעֹנֶשׁ, שֶׁלֹּא תֵּעָנֵשׁ עַל כָּל אוֹתָן נְפָשׁוֹת שֶׁהָרַגְתָּ; וּמַה שֶּׁאַתָּה דוֹאֵג עַל קִבּוּל שְׂכָרְךָ, שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד (בראשית רבה):
2And Abram said, "O Lord God, what will You give me, since I am going childless, and the steward of my household is Eliezer of Damascus?"   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַבְרָ֗ם אֲדֹנָ֤י יֱהֹוִה֙ מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִ֔י וְאָֽנֹכִ֖י הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עֲרִירִ֑י וּבֶן־מֶ֣שֶׁק בֵּיתִ֔י ה֖וּא דַּמֶּ֥שֶׂק אֱלִיעֶֽזֶר:
since I am going childless: Heb. עֲרִירִי. Menachem ben Saruk (Machbereth p. 137) explained it as meaning an heir, and a similar instance is (Mal. 2:12): “a son (עֵר) and a grandson (וְעֹנֶה).” Hence, עֲרִירִי would mean without an heir, as you would say (Job 31:12): “and it will uproot (תְשָׁרֵשׁ) all my crops,” [meaning] it will tear out its roots. Similarly עֲרִירִי means childless; in Old French, desenfantez. It appears to me, however, that עֵר וְעֹנֶה is derived from the same root as (Song of Songs 5:2): “but my heart is awake (עֵר),” whereas עֲרִירִי is an expression of destruction, as in (Ps. 137:7): “Raze it, raze it (עָרוּ עָרוּ)” and as in (Hab. 3:13): “destroying (עָרוֹת) the foundation,” and as in (Jer. 51:58): “shall be completely destroyed (עַרְעֵר תִּתְעַרְעַר),” and as in (Zeph. 2:14): “for the cedarwork will be destroyed (עֵרָה).”   הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי: מְנַחֵם בֶּן סָרוּק פֵּרְשׁוֹ לְשׁוֹן יוֹרֵשׁ, וְחָבֵר לוֹ עֵר וְעֹנֶה (מלאכי ב'), עֲרִירִי, בְלֹא יוֹרֵשׁ, כַּאֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר וּבְכָל תְּבוּאָתִי תְשָׁרֵשׁ (איוב ל"א), תְּעַקֵּר שָׁרָשֶׁיהָ, כָּךְ לְשׁוֹן עֲרִירִי חֲסַר בָּנִים, ובלע"ז דישאנפנטיש. וְלִי נִרְאֶה עֵר וְעֹנֶה מִגִּזְרַת וְלִבִּי עֵר (שיר השירים ה'), וַעֲרִירִי לְשׁוֹן חֻרְבָּן, וְכֵן עָרוּ עָרוּ (תה' קל"ז), וְכֵן עָרוֹת יְסוֹד (חבקוק ג'), וְכֵן עַרְעֵר תִּתְעַרְעָר (ירמ' נ"א), וְכֵן כִּי אַרְזָה עֵרָה (צפניה ב'):
and the steward of my household: וּבֶן מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי, to be interpreted like the Aramaic translation, (וּבַר פַּרְנָסָה הָדֵין דִי בְּבֵיתִי): and this sustainer who is in my house). My entire household is sustained by his orders, as (below 41:40): “and by your orders they will be sustained (יִשַּׁק).” [בֶּן מֶשֶׁק means] “my administrator,” but if I had a son, my son would be appointed over my possessions.   וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, שֶׁכָּל בֵּיתִי נִזּוֹן עַל פִּיו, כְּמוֹ וְעַל פִּיךָ יִשַּׁק (בר' מלכים א), אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁלִּי, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה לִי בֵן, הָיָה בְנִי מְמֻנֶּה עַל שֶׁלִּי:
Damascus: Heb. דַּמֶּשֶׂק. According to the Targum, he was from Damascus, but according to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 44:9) [the meaning is] that he pursued the kings until Damascus. And in our Talmud (Yoma 28b), it (the word דַּמֶּשֶׂק) is interpreted as a notarikon [acrostic for דּוֹלֶה וּמַשְׁקֶה]: he drew and gave to drink from his master’s teachings to others.   דַּמֶּשֶׂק: לְפִי הַתַּרְגּוּם מִדַּמֶּשֶׂק הָיָה, וּלְפִי מִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה שֶׁרָדַף הַמְּלָכִים עַד דַּמֶּשֶׂק. וּבַתַּלְמוּד דָרְשׁוּ נוֹטָרִיקוֹן דּוֹלֶה וּמַשְׁקֶה מִתּוֹרַת רַבּוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים:
3And Abram said, "Behold, You have given me no seed, and behold, one of my household will inherit me."   גוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַבְרָ֔ם הֵ֣ן לִ֔י לֹ֥א נָתַ֖תָּה זָ֑רַע וְהִנֵּ֥ה בֶן־בֵּיתִ֖י יוֹרֵ֥שׁ אֹתִֽי:
Behold, You have given me no seed: So of what avail is all that You will give me?   הֵן לִי לֹא נתת זָרַע: וּמַה תּוֹעֶלֶת בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר תִּתֵּן לִי?
4And behold, the word of the Lord came to him, saying, "This one will not inherit you, but the one who will spring from your innards-he will inherit you."   דוְהִנֵּ֨ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֵלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹ֥א יִירָֽשְׁךָ֖ זֶ֑ה כִּי־אִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵצֵ֣א מִמֵּעֶ֔יךָ ה֖וּא יִֽירָשֶֽׁךָ:
5And He took him outside, and He said, "Please look heavenward and count the stars, if you are able to count them." And He said to him, "So will be your seed."   הוַיּוֹצֵ֨א אֹת֜וֹ הַח֗וּצָה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הַבֶּט־נָ֣א הַשָּׁמַ֔יְמָה וּסְפֹר֙ הַכּ֣וֹכָבִ֔ים אִם־תּוּכַ֖ל לִסְפֹּ֣ר אֹתָ֑ם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ כֹּ֥ה יִֽהְיֶ֖ה זַרְעֶֽךָ:
And He took him outside: According to its simple meaning: He took him out of his tent, outdoors, to see the stars. But according to its midrashic interpretation, He said to him, “Go out of your astrology,” for you have seen in the signs of the zodiac that you are not destined to have a son. Indeed, Abram will have no son, but Abraham will have a son. Similarly, Sarai will not give birth, but Sarah will give birth. I will give you another name, and your destiny will change (Ned. 32a, Gen. Rabbah 44:10). Another explanation: He took him out of the terrestrial sphere and lifted him above the stars. This explains the expression of הַבָּטָה, looking down from above (Gen. Rabbah 44:12).   וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה: לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ הוֹצִיאוֹ מֵאָהֳלוֹ לַחוּץ לִרְאוֹת הַכּוֹכָבִים, וּלְפִי מִדְרָשׁוֹ אָמַר לוֹ צֵא מֵאִצְטַגְנִינוּת שֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁרָאִיתָ בַּמַּזָּלוֹת שֶׁאֵינְךָ עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד בֵּן, אַבְרָם אֵין לוֹ בֵן, אֲבָל אַבְרָהָם יֵשׁ לוֹ בֵן, שָׂרַי לֹא תֵלֵד, אֲבָל שָׂרָה תֵלֵד; אֲנִי קוֹרֵא לָכֶם שֵׁם אַחֵר וְיִשְׁתַּנֶּה הַמַּזָּל. דָּבָר אַחֵר הוֹצִיאוֹ מֵחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִן הַכּוֹכָבִים, וְזֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן הַבָּטָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה:
6And he believed in the Lord, and He accounted it to him as righteousness.   ווְהֶֽאֱמִ֖ן בַּֽיהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶ֥הָ לּ֖וֹ צְדָקָֽה:
And he believed in the Lord: He did not request of Him a sign regarding this, but regarding the inheritance of the land, he did request of Him a sign, and he said to Him, “How will I know?” [from Ned. 32a]   והאמין בה': לֹא שָׁאַל לוֹ אוֹת עַל זֹאת; אֲבָל עַל יְרֻשַּׁת הָאָרֶץ שָׁאַל לוֹ אוֹת וְאָמַר לוֹ בַּמָּה אֵדַע.
and He accounted it to him as righteousness: The Holy One, blessed be He, accounted it to Abram as a merit and as righteousness for the faith that he believed in Him (Targum Jonathan). Another explanation for: “How will I know?” He did not ask Him for a sign, but he said before Him, “Let me know with what merit will they [my descendants] remain therein [in the Land]?” The Holy One, blessed be He, replied, “With the merit of the sacrifices.”   וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָֽה: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חֲשָׁבָהּ לאַבְרָם לִזְכוּת וְלִצְדָקָה עַל הַאֲמָנָה שֶׁהֶאֱמִין בּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בַּמָּה אֵדַע, לֹא שָׁאַל לוֹ אוֹת אֶלָּא אָמַר לְפָנָיו, הוֹדִיעֵנִי בְּאֵיזֶה זְכוּת יִתְקַיְּמוּ בָּהּ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בִּזְכוּת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת:

Sixth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 15

7And He said to him, "I am the Lord, Who brought you forth from Ur of the Chaldees, to give you this land to inherit it."   זוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלָ֑יו אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר הֽוֹצֵאתִ֨יךָ֙ מֵא֣וּר כַּשְׂדִּ֔ים לָ֧תֶת לְךָ֛ אֶת־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּ֖את לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
8And he said, "O Lord God, how will I know that I will inherit it?"   חוַיֹּאמַ֑ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה בַּמָּ֥ה אֵדַ֖ע כִּ֥י אִֽירָשֶֽׁנָּה:
9And He said to him, "Take for Me three heifers and three goats and three rams, and a turtle dove and a young bird."   טוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו קְחָ֥ה לִי֙ עֶגְלָ֣ה מְשֻׁלֶּ֔שֶׁת וְעֵ֥ז מְשֻׁלֶּ֖שֶׁת וְאַ֣יִל מְשֻׁלָּ֑שׁ וְתֹ֖ר וְגוֹזָֽל:
three heifers: (Gen. Rabbah 44:14) Three calves, symbolic of the three bulls: the bull of Yom Kippur, the bull brought when the interpretation of a law is hidden from the people [because of an error of the Sanhedrin], and the heifer whose neck was broken.   עֶגְלָה מְשֻׁלֶּשֶׁת: שְׁלשָׁה עֲגָלִים; רֶמֶז לִשְׁלֹשָׁה פָרִים, פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וּפַר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה:
and three goats: Symbolic of the he-goat that is sacrificed inside, the he-goats of the additional offering of the festivals, and the he-goat that is sacrificed as a sin offering for an individual.   וְעֵז מְשֻׁלֶּשֶׁת: רֶמֶז לְשָׂעִיר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בִּפְנִים וּשְׂעִירֵי מוּסָפִין שֶׁל מוֹעֵד וּשְׂעִיר חַטַּאת יָחִיד:
and three rams: A guilt offering for a definite sin, a guilt offering for a doubtful sin, and a ewe lamb for a sin offering for an individual.   וְאַיִל מְשֻׁלָּשׁ: אֲשַׁם וַדַּאי וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְכִבְשָׂה שֶׁל חַטַּאת יָחִיד:
and a turtle dove and a young bird: A turtle dove and a young pigeon. [These are the various species offered up for all kinds of atonement sacrifices.]   ותור וְגוֹזָֽל: תּוֹר וּבֶן יוֹנָה (בראשית רבה):
10And he took for Him all these, and he divided them in the middle, and he placed each part opposite its mate, but he did not divide the birds.   יוַיִּקַּח־ל֣וֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֗לֶּה וַיְבַתֵּ֤ר אֹתָם֙ בַּתָּ֔וֶךְ וַיִּתֵּ֥ן אִֽישׁ־בִּתְר֖וֹ לִקְרַ֣את רֵעֵ֑הוּ וְאֶת־הַצִּפֹּ֖ר לֹ֥א בָתָֽר:
and he divided them: He divided each one into two parts. The verse does not lose its simple meaning, because He was forming a covenant with him to keep His promise, to cause his sons to inherit the land, as it is written (verse 18): “On that day, the Lord formed a covenant with Abram, saying, etc.,” and it is the custom of those who form a covenant to divide an animal and to pass between its parts, as it is written (Jer. 34:19): “who passed between the parts of the calf.” Here too, “a smoking furnace and a fire brand, which passed between the parts,” was the agent of the Shechinah, which is [referred to as] fire. [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 28]   וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם: חָלַק כָּל אֶחָד לִשְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים; וְאֵין הַמִּקְרָא יוֹצֵא מִידֵי פְשׁוּטוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה כוֹרֵת בְּרִית עִמּוֹ לִשְׁמֹר הַבְטָחָתוֹ לְהוֹרִיש לְבָנָיו אֶת הָאָרֶץ כְּדִכְתִיב בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כָּרַת ה' אֶת אַבְרָם בְּרִית לֵאמֹר וְגוֹמֵר, וְדֶרֶך כּוֹרְתֵי בְרִית לְחַלֵּק בְּהֵמָה וְלַעֲבֹר בֵּין בְּתָרֶיהָ, כְּמַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן הָעֹבְרִים בֵּין בִּתְרֵי הָעֵגֶל (ירמיה ל"ד), אַף כָּאן תַנּוּר עָשָׁן וְלַפִּיד אֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָבַר בֵּין הַגְּזָרִים הוּא שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל שְׁכִינָה, שֶׁהוּא אֵשׁ.
but he did not divide the birds: Since the idol-worshipping nations are likened to bulls, rams, and goats, as it is said (Ps. 22:13): “Many bulls surrounded me, etc.,” and Scripture states (Dan. 8:20): “The ram that you saw, the one with horns, represents the kings of Media and Persia,” and Scripture states (ibid. verse 21): “And the he-goat is the king of Greece.” And the Israelites are likened to young doves, as it is said (Song of Songs 2:14): “My dove, in the clefts of the rock.” Therefore, he divided the animals, as an allusion that the nations will gradually perish. “But he did not divide the bird,” as an allusion that Israel will exist forever. [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 28; Targum. Ps. 22: 13]   וְאֶת־הצפור לֹא בָתָֽר: לְפִי שֶׁהָאֻמּוֹת נִמְשְׁלוּ לְפָרִים וְאֵילִים וּשְֹעִירִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר סְבָבוּנִי פָּרִים רַבִּים וְגוֹ' (תהל' כ"ב), וְאוֹמֵר הָאַיִל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ בַּעַל הַקְּרָנָיִם מַלְכֵי מָדַי וּפָרָס (דניאל ח'), וְאוֹמֵר וְהַצָּפִיר הַשָּׂעִיר מֶלֶךְ יָוָן (שם), וְיִשְֹרָאֵל נִמְשְׁלוּ לִבְנֵי יוֹנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע (שיר השירים ב'), לְפִיכָךְ בִּתֵּר הַבְּהֵמוֹת, רֶמֶז שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הָאֻמּוֹת כָּלִים וְהוֹלְכִים, ואת הצפור לא בתר, רֶמֶז שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יִשְֹרָאֵל קַיָּמִין לְעוֹלָם:
11And the birds of prey descended upon the carcasses, and Abram drove them away.   יאוַיֵּ֥רֶד הָעַ֖יִט עַל־הַפְּגָרִ֑ים וַיַּשֵּׁ֥ב אֹתָ֖ם אַבְרָֽם:
And the birds of prey: Heb. הָעַיִט. This is a bird, and [it is called עַיִט] because it swoops down [עָט] and seeks the carcasses. Like (Job 9:26): “to swoop upon food,” and like (I Sam. 15:19): “and you flew (וַתַּעַט) upon the spoil.”   הָעַיִט: הוּא עוֹף, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהוּא עָט וְשׁוֹאֵף אֶל הַנְּבֵלוֹת לָטוּשׂ עֲלֵי אֹכֶל, כְּמוֹ וַתַּעַט אֶל הַשָּׁלָל (שמואל א ט"ו):
upon the carcasses: upon the parts. (Other editions: הַפְּגָרִים is translated into Aramaic as פַּגְלַיָא, [meaning “carcass,” and not “parts,” as Rashi interprets]. But because they [the Targumim] were accustomed to translating אִישׁ בִּתְרוֹ [verse 10] as וִיהַב פַּלְגַּיָא [meaning: “He placed each part”], the word פַּגְלַיָא was mistakenly changed to פַּלְגַּיָא, and they therefore translated הַפְּגָרִים as פַּלְגַיָא. But whoever translates that way is in error, because we cannot equate בְּתָרִים, parts, to פְּגָרִים, carcasses, for בְּתָרִים should be translated פַּלְגַּיָא, and פְּגָרִים should be translated פַּגְלַיָא, an expression of פִּגוּל, an abominable thing, as (Lev. 19:7): “it is an abominable thing (פִּגוּל),” an expression of a carcass. (So I heard from Rabbi Judah the son of Rabbi Samuel.) And so it was emended in a Rashi ms., and in another ms. was written: So did Rabbi Meir the son of Rabbi Samuel explain.)   עַל־הַפְּגָרִים: עַל הַבְּתָרִים. הַפְּגָרִים מְתַרְגְּמִינָן פַּגְלַיָּא, אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻרְגְּלוּ לְתַרְגֵּם "איש בִּתְרוֹ" וִיהַב פַּלְגַּיָּא, נִתְחַלֵּף לָהֶם תֵּבַת פַּגְלַיָּא לְפַלְגַּיָּא, וְתִרְגְּמוּ הַפְּגָרִים פַּלְגַּיָּא; וְכָל הַמְתַרְגֵּם כֵּן טוֹעֶה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לְהַקִּיש בְּתָרִים לִפְגָרִים, שֶׁבְּתָרִים תַּרְגּוּמוֹ פַּלְגַּיָּא, וּפְגָרִים תַּרְגּוּמוֹ פַּגְלַיָּא, לְשׁוֹן פִּגּוּל, כְּמוֹ פִּגּוּל הוּא (ויקרא ז') לְ' פֶּגֶר:
and Abram drove them away: Heb. וַיַּשֵּׁב, an expression of blowing and causing to fly away, like (Ps. 147:18): “He causes His wind to blow (יַשֵּׁב).” This is an allusion that David the son of Jesse will come to destroy them, but they will not permit him from heaven [to do so] until the King Messiah arrives. [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 28]   וַיַּשֵּׁב: לְשׁוֹן נְשִׁיבָה וְהַפְרָחָה, כְּמוֹ יַשֵּׁב רוּחוֹ (תה' קמ"ז), רֶמֶז שֶׁיָּבֹא דָוִד בֶּן יִשַּׁי לְכַלּוֹתָם, וְאֵין מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ:
12Now the sun was ready to set, and a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and behold, a fright, a great darkness was falling upon him.   יבוַיְהִ֤י הַשֶּׁ֨מֶשׁ֙ לָב֔וֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָ֖ה נָֽפְלָ֣ה עַל־אַבְרָ֑ם וְהִנֵּ֥ה אֵימָ֛ה חֲשֵׁכָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה נֹפֶ֥לֶת עָלָֽיו:
and behold, a fright, etc.: An allusion to the troubles and darkness of the exiles. [from above mentioned source, Targum Jonathan, Targum Yerushalmi, Gen. Rabbah 42:17, and many other midrashic sources]   וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה וגו': רֶמֶז לְצָרוֹת וְחשֶׁךְ שֶׁל גָּלִיּוֹת:
13And He said to Abram, "You shall surely know that your seed will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and they will enslave them and oppress them, for four hundred years.   יגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאַבְרָ֗ם יָדֹ֨עַ תֵּדַ֜ע כִּי־גֵ֣ר | יִֽהְיֶ֣ה זַרְעֲךָ֗ בְּאֶ֨רֶץ֙ לֹ֣א לָהֶ֔ם וַֽעֲבָד֖וּם וְעִנּ֣וּ אֹתָ֑ם אַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָֽה:
that your seed will be strangers: From the time that Isaac was born until the Israelites left Egypt was four hundred years. How so? Isaac was sixty years old when Jacob was born, and Jacob, when he went down to Egypt, said, “The days of the years of my sojournings are one hundred and thirty years,” which total 190. They were in Egypt 210 years, like the numerical value of רְדוּ (see Rashi, below 42:2; ר = 200, ד = 4, ו = 6, totaling 210). Thus, the total is 400 years. Now, if you should say that they were 400 years in Egypt, [this is not so] because Kehath was one of those who descended to Egypt. If you compute the years of Kehath (133) and those of Amram (his son, 137), and the 80 years of Moses, his age when they left Egypt, you will find only 350 [years]. And you must still subtract from them all the years that Kehath lived after the birth of Amram and that Amram lived after the birth of Moses. [from Seder Olam ch. 3]   כִּי־גֵר יִֽהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ: מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יִצְחָק עַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְֹרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה כֵּיצַד? יִצְחָק בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד יַעֲקֹב, וְיַעֲקֹב כְּשֶׁיָּרַד לְמִצְרַיִם אָמַר יְמֵי שְׁנֵי מְגוּרַי שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה, הֲרֵי ק"צ, וּבְמִצְרַיִם הָיוּ מָאתַיִם וְעֶשֶׂר כְּמִנְיַן רְד"וּ, הֲרֵי אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה. וְאִם תֹּאמַר בְּמִצְרַיִם הָיוּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת, הֲרֵי קְהָת מִיּוֹרְדֵי מִצְרַיִם הָיָה, צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב שְׁנוֹתָיו שֶׁל קְהָת וְשֶׁל עַמְרָם וּשְׁמוֹנִים שֶׁל משֶׁה שֶׁהָיָה כְּשֶׁיֶָּצְאוּ יִשְֹרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, אֵין אַתָּה מוֹצֵא אֶלָּא שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים, וְאַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן כָּל הַשָּׁנִים שֶׁחַי קְהָת אַחַר לֵדַת עַמְרָם וְשֶׁחַי עַמְרָם אַחַר לֵדַת משֶׁה:
in a land that is not theirs: It does not say, “in the land of Egypt,” but “[in a land] that is not theirs,” and from the time Isaac was born (below 21:34): “and Abraham sojourned, etc.” (Below 20:1): “And [Isaac] sojourned in Gerar.” (Ps. 105:23): “And Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham.” (Below 47:4): “To sojourn in the land we have come.” - [from Mid. Abchir]   בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם: לֹא נֶאֱמַר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, אֶלָּא לֹא לָהֶם – וּמִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יִצְחָק וַיָּגָר אַבְרָהָם וְגוֹ' (בר' כ"א), וּבְיִצְחָק גּוּר בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹאת (שם כ"ו), וְיַעֲקֹב גָּר בְּאֶרֶץ חָם (תה' ק"ה), לָגוּר בָּאָרֶץ בָּאנוּ (בר' מ"ז):
14And also the nation that they will serve will I judge, and afterwards they will go forth with great possessions.   ידוְגַ֧ם אֶת־הַגּ֛וֹי אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַֽעֲבֹ֖דוּ דָּ֣ן אָנֹ֑כִי וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֥ן יֵֽצְא֖וּ בִּרְכֻ֥שׁ גָּדֽוֹל:
And also the nation: [The word] וְגַם, [and also], is to include the four kingdoms (Babylon, Persia and Media, Greece, and Edom), for they too will perish because they enslaved Israel. [from Gen. Rabbah 44:19]   וְגַם אֶת־הַגּוֹי: וְגַם לְרַבּוֹת ד' מַלְכֻיּוֹת, שֶׁאַף הֵן כָּלִים עַל שֶׁשִּׁעְבְּדוּ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל:
will I judge: with ten plagues. [from Gen. Rabbah 44:20]   דָּן אָנֹכִי: בְּעֶשֶׂר מַכּוֹת:
with great possessions: with much money, as it is said (Exod. 12:36): “and they emptied out Egypt.”   בִּרְכֻשׁ גָּדֽוֹל: בְּמָמוֹן גָּדוֹל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְנַצְּלוּ אֶת מִצְרָיִם (שמות י"ב):
15But you will come to your forefathers in peace; you will be buried in a good old age.   טווְאַתָּ֛ה תָּב֥וֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ בְּשָׁל֑וֹם תִּקָּבֵ֖ר בְּשֵׂיבָ֥ה טוֹבָֽה:
But you will come to your forefathers in peace: And you will not witness any of this. [From Gen. Rabbah 44:20]   וְאַתָּה תָּבוֹא: וְלֹא תִרְאֶה כָּל אֵלֶה:
to your forefathers: His father was an idolater, and He announces to him that he will come to him? This teaches you that Terah repented. [from Tan. Shemoth 18]   אֶל־אבותיך: אָבִיו עוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהוּא מְבַשְּׂרוֹ שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלָיו? לִמֶּדְךָ שֶׁעָשָׂה תֶּרַח תְּשׁוּבָה:
you will be buried in a good old age: He announced to him that Ishmael would repent during his lifetime (Gen. Rabbah 30:4, 38:12), and that Esau would not embark on evil ways during his lifetime. Therefore, he died five years before his time, and on that very day, Esau rebelled (ibid. 63:12). See below 25:29f.   תִּקָּבֵר בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָֽה: בִּשְּׂרוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה יִשְׁמָעֵאל תְּשׁוּבָה בְּיָמָיו, וְלֹא יֵצֵא עֵשָׂו לְתַרְבּוּת רָעָה בְּיָמָיו; וּלְפִיכָךְ מֵת ה' שָׁנִים קֹדֶם זְמַנּוֹ, וּבוֹ בַיּוֹם מָרַד עֵשָׂו:
16And the fourth generation will return here, for the iniquity of the Amorites will not be complete until then."   טזוְד֥וֹר רְבִיעִ֖י יָשׁ֣וּבוּ הֵ֑נָּה כִּ֧י לֹֽא־שָׁלֵ֛ם עֲוֹ֥ן הָֽאֱמֹרִ֖י עַד־הֵֽנָּה:
And the fourth generation: After they will have been exiled to Egypt, they will be there for three generations, and the fourth will return to this land (Mishnath Rabbi Eliezer ch. 5), for in the land of Canaan He spoke with him, and formed this covenant, as it is written (above verse 7): “to give you this land to inherit it.” And so it was: Jacob descended to Egypt. Go forth and figure his generations: Judah, Perez, and Hezron, and Caleb the son of Hezron was one of those who entered the land (Sotah 11b).   וְדוֹר רְבִיעִי: לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּגְלוּ לְמִצְרַיִם יִהְיוּ שָׁם ג' דּוֹרוֹת, וְהָרְבִיעִי יָשׁוּבוּ לָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת, לְפִי שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן הָיָה מְדַבֵּר עִמּוֹ, וְכָרַת בְּרִית זוֹ, כְּדִכְתִיב: לָתֶת לְךָ אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְרִשְׁתָּהּ. וְכֵן הָיָה: יַעֲקֹב יָרַד לְמִצְרַיִם, צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב דּוֹרוֹתָיו: יְהוּדָה, פֶּרֶץ, וְחֶצְרוֹן, וְכָלֵב בֶּן חֶצְרוֹן מִבָּאֵי הָאָרֶץ הָיָה:
for the iniquity of the Amorites will not be complete: that they should be sent out of their land until that time, for the Holy One, blessed be He, does not punish a nation until its measure is full, as it is said: (Isa. 27:8):“When her measure is full, when You send her away, then You will strive with her.” - [from Zohar, vol. 1, p. 113b]   כִּי לֹֽא־שָׁלֵם עֲוֹן הָֽאֱמֹרִי: לִהְיוֹת מִשְׁתַּלֵּחַ מֵאַרְצוֹ עַד אוֹתוֹ זְמַן, שֶׁאֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִפְרָע מֵאֻמָּה עַד שֶׁתִּתְמַלֵּא סְאָתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּסַאסְּאָה בְּשַׁלְחָהּ תְּרִיבֶנָּה (יש' כ"ז):
17Now it came to pass that the sun had set, and it was dark, and behold, a smoking furnace and a fire brand, which passed between these parts.   יזוַיְהִ֤י הַשֶּׁ֨מֶשׁ֙ בָּ֔אָה וַֽעֲלָטָ֖ה הָיָ֑ה וְהִנֵּ֨ה תַנּ֤וּר עָשָׁן֙ וְלַפִּ֣יד אֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָבַ֔ר בֵּ֖ין הַגְּזָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
Now it came to pass that the sun had set: Heb. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בָּאָה. [The subject apparently does not agree with the predicate, because שֶׁמֶשׁ is a feminine noun, whereas וַיְהִי is a masculine verb. Therefore, Rashi explains as follows:] This is similar to (below 42:35): “And it came to pass that they were emptying their sacks”; (II Kings 13:21): “And it came to pass that they were burying a man”; meaning: this event took place. [The subject of וַיְהִי is not הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ but דָבָר זֶה (i.e., it is as if the masculine noun דָבָר זֶה (this event) were inserted after וַיְהִי.] The same is true in the two instances quoted by Rashi, in which the subject is plural, whereas the predicate is singular. There too, the subject of וַיְהִי is דָבָר זֶה.]   וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בָּאָה: כְּמוֹ וַיְהִי הֵם מְרִיקִים שַׂקֵּיהֶם (בראשית מ"ב), וַיְהִי הֵם קֹבְרִים אִישׁ (מלכים ב י"ג), כְּלוֹמַר, וַיְהִי דָּבָר זֶה:
the sun had set: Heb. בָּאָה. It had set.   הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בָּאָה: שָׁקְעָה:
and it was dark: The day darkened.   וַֽעֲלָטָה הָיָה: חָשַׁךְ הַיּוֹם:
and behold, a smoldering furnace, etc.: He hinted to him that the kingdoms of the pagans would fall into hell. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 28]   וְהִנֵּה תַנּוּר עָשָׁן וגו': רָמַז לוֹ שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בַּגֵּיהִנֹּם:
had set: Heb. בָּאָה Its accent is on the first syllable. Therefore, it is explained that it had already set; but if its accent were at the end, on the “alef,” it would be explained to mean: as it was setting. but it is impossible to say this, for it is already written (above verse 12): “Now the sun was setting,” and the passing of the smoking furnace happened after this. It is found that it had already set. And this difference exists in every word in the feminine gender, whose radical consists of two letters, such as בא (to come), קם (to arise), שב (to return). When the accent is on the first syllable, it is in the past tense, e.g., this case and e.g., (below 29:9): “and Rachel came (בָּאָה)”; (below 37:7): “my sheaf arose (קָמָה)”; (Ruth 1:15): “Lo! Your sister-in-law has returned (שָׁבָה).” However, when the accent is on the final syllable, it is in the present tense, denoting a thing that is happening now and is continuing to happen, like (below 29:6): “She is coming בָּאָה with the flocks”; (Esther 2:14): “In the evening she would come (בָּאָה), and in the morning she would return (שָׁבָה).”   בָּאָה: טַעֲמוֹ לְמַעְלָה, לְכָךְ הוּא מְבֹאָר שֶׁבָּא כְבָר. וְאִם הָיָה טַעֲמוֹ לְמַטָּה, בָּאָלֶ"ף, הָיָה מְבֹאָר כְּשֶׁהִיא שׁוֹקַעַת; וְאִי אֶפְשַָׁר לוֹמַר כֵּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְבָר כְּתִיב וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא, וְהַעֲבָרַת תַּנּוּר עָשָׁן לְאַחַר מִכָּאן הָיְתָה, נִמְצָא שֶׁכְּבָר שָׁקְעָה; וְזֶה חִלּוּק בְּכָל תֵּבָה לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה שֶׁיְּסוֹדָהּ שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת, כְּמוֹ בָּא, קָם, שָׁב: כְּשֶׁהַטַּעַם לְמַעְלָה, לְשׁוֹן עָבַר הוּא, כְּגוֹן זֶה, וּכְגוֹן וְרָחֵל בָּאָה, קָמָה אֲלֻמָּתִי, הִנֵּה שָׁבָה יְבִמְתֵּךְ, וּכְשֶׁהַטַּעַם לְמַטָּה הוּא לְשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה, דָּבָר שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה עַכְשָׁו וְהוֹלֵךְ, כְּמוֹ בָּאָה עִם הַצֹּאן, בָּעֶרֶב הִיא בָאָה וּבַבֹּקֶר הִיא שָׁבָה:
18On that day, the Lord formed a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your seed I have given this land, from the river of Egypt until the great river, the Euphrates river.   יחבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא כָּרַ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־אַבְרָ֖ם בְּרִ֣ית לֵאמֹ֑ר לְזַרְעֲךָ֗ נָתַ֨תִּי֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את מִנְּהַ֣ר מִצְרַ֔יִם עַד־הַנָּהָ֥ר הַגָּדֹ֖ל נְהַר־פְּרָֽת:
To your seed I have given: The word of the Holy One, blessed be He, is like an accomplished fact.   לְזַרְעֲךָ נָתַתִּי: אֲמִירָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּאִלוּ הִיא עֲשׂוּיָה:
the great river, the Euphrates river: Since it is associated with the Land of Israel, He calls it great, even though it is the last of the four rivers going forth from Eden, as it is said (above 2:14): “and the fourth river that is the Euphrates.” A common proverb states: “A king’s servant is a king; associate with a ruler, and people will bow down to you.” - [from Sifrei Devarim 6]   הַנָּהָר הגדול: לְפִי שֶׁהוּא דָבוּק לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל קוֹרְאֵהוּ גָּדוֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְאֻחָר בְּאַרְבָּעָה נְהָרוֹת הַיּוֹצְאִים מֵעֵדֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת. מָשָׁל הֶדְיוֹט: עֶבֶד מֶלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ, הִדָּבֵק לַשַּׁחֲוָר וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְךָ (בראשית רבה):
19The Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites,   יטאֶת־הַקֵּינִי֙ וְאֶת־הַקְּנִזִּ֔י וְאֵ֖ת הַקַּדְמֹנִֽי:
The Kenites: There are ten nations [enumerated] here, but He gave them only seven nations. The [other] three are Edom, Moab, and Ammon, and they are [here referred to as] the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, which are destined to be [our] heritage in the future, as it is said (Isa. 11:14): “upon Edom and Moab shall they stretch forth their hand, and the children of Ammon shall obey them.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 44:23]   אֶת־הקני: עֶשֶׂר אֻמּוֹת יֵשׁ כָּאן וְלֹא נָתַן לָהֶם אֶלָּא שִׁבְעָה גוֹיִם, וְהַשְּׁלשָׁה אֱדוֹם וּמוֹאָב וְעַמּוֹן, וְהֵם קֵינִי, קְנִזִּי, וְקַדְּמוֹנִי עֲתִידִים לִהְיוֹת יְרֻשָּׁה לֶעָתִיד (בראשית רבה), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֱדוֹם וּמוֹאָב מִשְׁלוֹחַ יָדָם וּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן מִשְׁמַעְתָּם (ישעיה י"א):
20And the Hittites and the Perizzites and the Rephaim,   כוְאֶת־הַֽחִתִּ֥י וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּ֖י וְאֶת־הָֽרְפָאִֽים:
and the Rephaim: the land of Og, concerning which it is said (Deut. 3: 13):“That is called the land of the Rephaim.”   וְאֶת־הָֽרְפָאִֽים: אֶרֶץ עוֹג, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּה: הַהוּא יִקָּרֵא אֶרֶץ רְפָאִים (דברים ג'):
21And the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Girgashites and the Jebusites."   כאוְאֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְאֶת־הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֔י וְאֶת־הַגִּרְגָּשִׁ֖י וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִֽי:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 16

1Now Sarai, Abram's wife, had not borne to him, and she had an Egyptian handmaid named Hagar.   אוְשָׂרַי֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת אַבְרָ֔ם לֹ֥א יָֽלְדָ֖ה ל֑וֹ וְלָ֛הּ שִׁפְחָ֥ה מִצְרִ֖ית וּשְׁמָ֥הּ הָגָֽר:
an Egyptian handmaid: She was Pharaoh’s daughter. When he (Pharaoh) saw the miracles that were wrought for Sarah, he said, “It is better that my daughter be a handmaid in this household, than a mistress in another household.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 45:1]   שׁפחה מִצְרִית: בַּת פַּרְעֹה הָיְתָה, כְּשֶׁרָאָה נִסִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשָׂרָה אָמַר: מוּטָב שֶׁתְּהֵא בִתִּי שִׁפְחָה בְּבַיִת זֶה וְלֹא גְבִירָה בְּבַיִת אַחֵר:
2And Sarai said to Abram, "Behold now, the Lord has restrained me from bearing; please come to my handmaid; perhaps I will be built up from her." And Abram hearkened to Sarai's voice.   בוַתֹּ֨אמֶר שָׂרַ֜י אֶל־אַבְרָ֗ם הִנֵּה־נָ֞א עֲצָרַ֤נִי יְהֹוָה֙ מִלֶּ֔דֶת בֹּא־נָא֙ אֶל־שִׁפְחָתִ֔י אוּלַ֥י אִבָּנֶ֖ה מִמֶּ֑נָּה וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע אַבְרָ֖ם לְק֥וֹל שָׂרָֽי:
perhaps I will be built up from her: This teaches that whoever has no children is not built up but demolished. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:2]   אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה: לִמֵּד עַל מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בָּנִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָנוּי אֶלָּא הָרוּס:
I will be built up from her: in the merit that I will bring my rival into my house. — [from Gen. Rabbah 71:7, Aggadath Bereishith 52]   אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה: בִּזְכוּת שֶׁאַכְנִיס צָרָתִי לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתִי:
to Sarai’s voice: to the Divine Spirit within her. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:2]   לְקוֹל שָׂרַי: לְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁבָּהּ (בראשית רבה):
3So Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, at the end of ten years of Abram's dwelling in the land of Canaan, and she gave her to Abram her husband for a wife.   גוַתִּקַּ֞ח שָׂרַ֣י אֵֽשֶׁת־אַבְרָ֗ם אֶת־הָגָ֤ר הַמִּצְרִית֙ שִׁפְחָתָ֔הּ מִקֵּץ֙ עֶ֣שֶׂר שָׁנִ֔ים לְשֶׁ֥בֶת אַבְרָ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וַתִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֛הּ לְאַבְרָ֥ם אִישָׁ֖הּ ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
So Sarai, Abram’s wife, took: She took her with words, “You are fortunate that you have merited to cleave to a holy body such as this one.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 45:3]   וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי: לְקָחַתָּה בִּדְבָרִים, אַשְׁרַיִךְ שֶׁזָּכִית לִדָּבֵק בְּגוּף קָדוֹשׁ כָּזֶה (בראשית רבה):
at the end of ten years: This is the allotted time for a woman who has lived ten years with her husband and has not borne children to him, when he is obligated to marry another. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:3]   מִקֵּץ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים: מוֹעֵד הַקָּבוּעַ לְאִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁהֲתָה עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים וְלֹא יָלְדָה לְבַעֲלָהּ, חַיָּב לִשָֹּא אַחֶרֶת:
of Abram’s dwelling: This tells us that the time they dwelled outside the Land does not count in the number [ten years], because it was not said to him, “and I will make you into a great nation,” [i.e., this promise would not be fulfilled] until he would come to the Land of Israel. — [from above source]   לְשֶׁבֶת אַבְרָם וגו': מַגִּיד שֶׁאֵין יְשִׁיבַת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ עוֹלָה לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן (יב' ס"ד), לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר לוֹ וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא לְאֶרֶץ יִשְֹרָאֵל:
4And he came to Hagar, and she conceived, and she saw that she was pregnant, and her mistress became unimportant in her eyes.   דוַיָּבֹ֥א אֶל־הָגָ֖ר וַתַּ֑הַר וַתֵּ֨רֶא֙ כִּ֣י הָרָ֔תָה וַתֵּקַ֥ל גְּבִרְתָּ֖הּ בְּעֵינֶֽיהָ:
And he came to Hagar, and she conceived: from the first union. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:4]   וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָגָר וַתַּהַר: מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה (בראשית רבה):
and her mistress became unimportant in her eyes: She said, “This Sarai her conduct in secret is not like her conduct in public. She shows herself as if she is a righteous woman, but she is not a righteous woman, for she did not merit to conceive all these years, whereas I have conceived from the first union.” - [from aforementioned source]   וַתֵּקַל גְּבִרְתָּהּ בְּעֵינֶֽיהָ: אָמְרָה שָׂרַי זוֹ אֵין סִתְרָהּ כִּגְלוּיָהּ מַרְאָה עַצְמָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא צַדֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, שֶׁלֹּא זָכְתָה לְהֵרָיוֹן כָּל הַשָּׁנִים הַלָּלוּ, וַאֲנִי נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה (בראשית רבה):
5And Sarai said to Abram, "May my injustice be upon you! I gave my handmaid into your bosom, and she saw that she had become pregnant, and I became unimportant in her eyes. May the Lord judge between me and you!"   הוַתֹּ֨אמֶר שָׂרַ֣י אֶל־אַבְרָם֘ חֲמָסִ֣י עָלֶ֒יךָ֒ אָֽנֹכִ֗י נָתַ֤תִּי שִׁפְחָתִי֙ בְּחֵיקֶ֔ךָ וַתֵּ֨רֶא֙ כִּ֣י הָרָ֔תָה וָֽאֵקַ֖ל בְּעֵינֶ֑יהָ יִשְׁפֹּ֥ט יְהֹוָ֖ה בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינֶֽיֹךָ:
May my injustice be upon you: [For] the injustice that has been done to me, I lay the punishment upon you. When you prayed to God, “What will You give me, since I am going childless?” you prayed only for yourself, whereas you should have prayed for both of us, and I would have been remembered with you. Moreover, you are stealing from me your [protective] words, for you hear my degradation, and you remain silent (i.e., you are depriving me of the words you should have spoken to Hagar to reprimand her on my behalf). — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:5]   חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ: חָמָס הֶעָשׂוּי לִי, עָלֶיךָ אֲנִי מֵטִיל הָעֹנֶשׁ; כְּשֶׁהִתְפַּלַּלְתָּ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַה תִּתֶּן לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי, לֹא הִתְפַּלַּלְתָּ אֶלָּא עָלֶיךָ, וְהָיָה לְךָ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַל שְׁנֵינוּ, וְהָיִיתִי אֲנִי נִפְקֶדֶת עִמְּךָ, וְעוֹד דְּבָרֶיךָ אַתָּה חוֹמֵס מִמֶּנִי, שֶׁאַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ בִּזְיוֹנִי וְשׁוֹתֵק (בראשית רבה):
I gave my handmaid, etc. between me and you: Every בֶּינֶיךָ in Scripture is spelled defectively (without the second yud), but this one is spelled plene. It may thus also be read וּבֵינַיִךְ (second person feminine), for she cast an evil eye on Hagar’s pregnancy, and she miscarried her fetus. That is why the angel said to Hagar, “Behold, you will conceive.” But was she not already pregnant? Yet he announces to her that she will conceive? But this teaches that she miscarried her first pregnancy. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:5]   אָֽנֹכִי נָתַתִּי שִׁפְחָתִי וגו' בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶֽיֹךָ: כָּל בֵּינֶיךָ שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא חָסֵר, וְזֶה מָלֵא, קְרִי בֵיהּ וּבָנַיִךְ, שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה עַיִן הָרָע בְּעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל הָגָר וְהִפִּילָה עֻבָּרָהּ; הוּא שֶׁהַמַּלְאָךְ אוֹמֵר לְהָגָר הִנָּךְ הָרָה, וְהֲלֹא כְבָר הָרְתָה, וְהוּא מְבַשֵּׁר לָהּ שֶׁתַּהַר? אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִפִּילָה הֵרָיוֹן הָרִאשׁוֹן:
6And Abram said to Sarai, "Here is your handmaid in your hand; do to her that which is proper in your eyes." And Sarai afflicted her, and she fled from before her.   ווַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַבְרָ֜ם אֶל־שָׂרַ֗י הִנֵּ֤ה שִׁפְחָתֵךְ֙ בְּיָדֵ֔ךְ עֲשִׂי־לָ֖הּ הַטּ֣וֹב בְּעֵינָ֑יִךְ וַתְּעַנֶּ֣הָ שָׂרַ֔י וַתִּבְרַ֖ח מִפָּנֶֽיהָ:
And Sarai afflicted her: She enslaved her harshly. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:6]   וַתְּעַנֶּהָ שׁרי: הָיְתָה מְשַׁעְבֶּדֶת בָּהּ בְּקֹשִׁי (בראשית רבה):
7And an angel of the Lord found her by a water fountain in the desert, by the fountain on the road to Shur.   זוַיִּמְצָאָ֞הּ מַלְאַ֧ךְ יְהֹוָ֛ה עַל־עֵ֥ין הַמַּ֖יִם בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר עַל־הָעַ֖יִן בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ שֽׁוּר:
8And he said, "Hagar, Sarai's servant, where are you coming from, and where are you going to?" And she said, "From before Sarai my mistress, I am fleeing."   חוַיֹּאמַ֗ר הָגָ֞ר שִׁפְחַ֥ת שָׂרַ֛י אֵֽי־מִזֶּ֥ה בָ֖את וְאָ֣נָה תֵלֵ֑כִי וַתֹּ֕אמֶר מִפְּנֵי֙ שָׂרַ֣י גְּבִרְתִּ֔י אָֽנֹכִ֖י בֹּרַֽחַת:
where are you coming from: [meaning]: “Where have you come from?” He knew [where she was coming from] but he wished to give her an opening to commence speaking with her. Now the אֵי מִזֶּה [lit. where from this] means: “Where is the place about which you can say, ‘From this place I have come.’”   מִזֶּה בָאת: מֵהֵיכָן בָּאת? יוֹדֵע הָיָה, אֶלָּא לִתֵּן לָהּ פֶּתַח לִכָּנֵס עִמָּה בִּדְבָרִים. וּלְשׁוֹן אֵי מִזֶּה: אַיֵּה הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁתֹּאמַר עָלָיו מִזֶּה אֲנִי בָאָה?
9And the angel of the Lord said to her, "Return to your mistress, and allow yourself to be afflicted under her hands."   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה שׁ֖וּבִי אֶל־גְּבִרְתֵּ֑ךְ וְהִתְעַנִּ֖י תַּ֥חַת יָדֶֽיהָ:
And the angel of the Lord said to her, etc.: For each statement, another angel was sent to her. Therefore, the word מַלְאָךְ, angel, is used with each statement. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:7]   וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ וגו': עַל כָּל אֲמִירָה הָיָה שָׁלוּחַ לָהּ מַלְאָךְ אַחֵר, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר מַלְאָךְ בְּכָל אֲמִירָה וַאֲמִירָה:
10And the angel of the Lord said to her, "I will greatly multiply your seed, and it will not be counted for abundance."   יוַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה הַרְבָּ֥ה אַרְבֶּ֖ה אֶת־זַרְעֵ֑ךְ וְלֹ֥א יִסָּפֵ֖ר מֵרֹֽב:
11And the angel of the Lord said to her, "Behold, you will conceive and bear a son, and you shall name him Ishmael, for the Lord has heard your affliction.   יאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה הִנָּ֥ךְ הָרָ֖ה וְיֹלַ֣דְתְּ בֵּ֑ן וְקָרָ֤את שְׁמוֹ֙ יִשְׁמָעֵ֔אל כִּֽי־שָׁמַ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־עָנְיֵֽךְ:
Behold, you will conceive: When you return, you will conceive, like (Jud. 13:5): Behold you shall conceive, stated concerning the wife of Manoah.   הִנָּךְ הָרָה: כְּשֶׁתָּשׁוּבִי תַּהֲרִי, כְּמוֹ הִנָּךְ הָרָה דְאֵשֶׁת מָנוֹחַ:
and bear a son: וְיֹלַדְתְּ is וְיוֹלֶדֶת, and similar to this (Jer. 22:23): You, who abide (ישַׁבְתְּ) in the Lebanon, (יוֹשֶׁבֶת) who nest (מְקוּנַנְתְּ) in the cedars [like, מְקוֹנֶנֶת].   וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן: כְּמוֹ וְיוֹלֶדֶת, וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ יֹשַׁבְתְּי בַּלְּבָנוֹן מְקֻנַּנְתְּי בָּאֲרָזִים (ירמיה כ"ב):
and you shall name him: This is the imperative [feminine], as the text states for the masculine: (below 17:19): “and you shall name him (וְקָראתָ אֶת שְׁמוֹ) Isaac.”   וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ: צִוּוּי הוּא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְזָכָר וְקָרָאתָ אֶת שְׁמוֹ יִצְחָק (בר' י"ז):
12And he will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be upon all, and everyone's hand upon him, and before all his brothers he will dwell."   יבוְה֤וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ פֶּ֣רֶא אָדָ֔ם יָד֣וֹ בַכֹּ֔ל וְיַ֥ד כֹּ֖ל בּ֑וֹ וְעַל־פְּנֵ֥י כָל־אֶחָ֖יו יִשְׁכֹּֽן:
A wild donkey of a man: who loves the wilderness to hunt beasts, as it is written (below 21:20f): “And he was an archer; and he dwelt in the desert of Paran.”   פֶּרֶא אָדָם: אוֹהֵב מִדְבָּרוֹת לָצוּד חַיּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת (בראשית כ"א):
his hand will be upon all: [He will be] a bandit. — [from Tan. Shemot]   יָדוֹ בַכֹּל: לִסְטִים:
and everyone’s hand upon him: Everyone will hate him and attack him.   וְיַד כֹּל בּוֹ: הַכֹּל שׂוֹנְאִין אוֹתוֹ וּמִתְגָּרִין בּוֹ:
and before all his brothers he will dwell: for his seed will be numerous.   וְעַל־פְּנֵי כֹּל אֶחָיו ישכון: שֶׁיִּהְיֶה זַרְעוֹ גָּדוֹל (בראשית רבה):
13And she called the name of the Lord, Who had spoken to her, "You are the God of seeing," because she said, "Have I seen [him] here also after I have seen?"   יגוַתִּקְרָ֤א שֵֽׁם־יְהֹוָה֙ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר אֵלֶ֔יהָ אַתָּ֖ה אֵ֣ל רֳאִ֑י כִּ֣י אָֽמְרָ֗ה הֲגַ֥ם הֲלֹ֛ם רָאִ֖יתִי אַֽחֲרֵ֥י רֹאִֽי:
You are the God of seeing: רֳאִי is vowelized with a “chataf kamatz” because it is a noun, i.e., the God of seeing, Who sees the humiliation of the humiliated. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:10] (Other editions: Another explanation: “You are the God of seeing” meaning that He sees all, but no one sees Him. Targum Jonathan).   אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי: נָקוּד חֲטַף קָמָץ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם דָּבָר, אֱלוֹהַּ הָרְאִיָּה, שֶׁרוֹאֶה בְעֶלְבּוֹן שֶׁל עֲלוּבִין:
Have I seen here also: הֲגַם הֲלֹם is an expression of wonderment. Would I have thought that even here in the desert I would see the emissary of the Omnipresent after I had seen them in the house of Abraham, where I was accustomed to seeing angels? And you should know that she was accustomed to seeing them, because Manoah saw the angel once and said, “We will surely die,” and this one saw four, one after the other, and she was not frightened. — [from Gen. Rabbah 45:7]   הֲגַם הֲלֹם: לְשׁוֹן תֵּמַהּ; וְכִי סְבוּרָה הָיִיתִי שֶׁאַף הֲלוֹם בַּמִּדְבָּרוֹת רָאִיתִי שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי אוֹתָם בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם שֶׁשָּׁם הָיִיתִי רְגִילָה לִרְאות מַלְאָכִים? וְתֵדַע שֶׁהָיְתָה רְגִילָה לִרְאוֹתָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי מָנוֹחַ רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְאָךְ פַּעַם אַחַת וְאָמַר מוֹת נָמוּת (שופ' י"ג), וְזוֹ רָאֲתָה ד' זֶה אַחַר זֶה וְלֹא חָרְדָה:
14Therefore the well was called Be'er Lachai Ro'i; behold it is between Kadesh and between Bered.   ידעַל־כֵּן֙ קָרָ֣א לַבְּאֵ֔ר בְּאֵ֥ר לַחַ֖י רֹאִ֑י הִנֵּ֥ה בֵֽין־קָדֵ֖שׁ וּבֵ֥ין בָּֽרֶד:
Be’er Lachai Ro’i: As the Targum renders: a well upon which the living angel appeared.   בְּאֵר לַחַי: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
15And Hagar bore a son to Abram, and Abram named his son, whom Hagar had borne, Ishmael.   טווַתֵּ֧לֶד הָגָ֛ר לְאַבְרָ֖ם בֵּ֑ן וַיִּקְרָ֨א אַבְרָ֧ם שֶׁם־בְּנ֛וֹ אֲשֶׁר־יָֽלְדָ֥ה הָגָ֖ר יִשְׁמָעֵֽאל:
and Abram named, etc.: Although Abram had not heard the words of the angel, who said,“And you shall name him Ishmael,” the Holy Spirit rested upon him, and he called him Ishmael. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi, also Mid. Aggadah]   וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָם שֶׁם־וגו': אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע אַבְרָם דִּבְרֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ שֶׁאָמַר וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, שָׁרְתָה רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ עָלָיו וּקְרָאוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל:
16And Abram was eighty-six years old, when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram.   טזוְאַבְרָ֕ם בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וְשֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֑ים בְּלֶֽדֶת־הָגָ֥ר אֶת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל לְאַבְרָֽם:
And Abram was eighty-six years old, etc.: This was written in praise of Ishmael, to let us know that he was thirteen years old when he was circumcised, and he did not object. — [Mid. Aggadah]   וְאַבְרָם בֶּן־שמונים וגו': לְשִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׁמָעֵאל נִכְתַּב, לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהָיָה בֶּן י"ג שָׁנָה כְּשֶׁנִּמּוֹל וְלֹא עִכֵּב:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 17

1And Abram was ninety-nine years old, and God appeared to Abram, and He said to him, "I am the Almighty God; walk before Me and be perfect.   אוַיְהִ֣י אַבְרָ֔ם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וְתֵ֣שַׁע שָׁנִ֑ים וַיֵּרָ֨א יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־אַבְרָ֗ם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ אֲנִי־אֵ֣ל שַׁדַּ֔י הִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ לְפָנַ֖י וֶֽהְיֵ֥ה תָמִֽים:
I am the Almighty God: Heb. שַׁדַּי - I am He Whose Godliness suffices for every creature. [שֶׁ that, דַּי is sufficient]. Therefore, walk before Me, and I will be your God and your Protector, and wherever it (this name) appears in Scripture, it means “His sufficiency,” but each one is [to be interpreted] according to the context. — [from Gen. Rabbah 46:3]   שׁדי: אֲנִי הוּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ דַּי בֶּאֱלֹהוּתִי לְכָל בְּרִיָּה, לְפִיכָךְ הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וְאֶהְיֶה לְךָ לֶאֱלוֹהַּ ולְפַטְרוֹן; וְכֵן כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא בַּמִּקְרָא פֵּרוּשׁוֹ כָּךְ: דַּי שֶׁלּוֹ, וְהַכֹּל לְפִי הָעִנְיָן:
walk before Me: As the Targum renders: “Serve Me, cleave to My service.”   הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ פְּלַח קֳדָמַי, הִדַּבֵּק בַּעֲבוֹדָתִי:
and be perfect: This too is one command following another command: be perfect in all My trials (Mid. Ps. 119:3), i.e., “Walk before Me” with faith and honesty, and also be perfect in all My trials. [Mizrachi] According to its midrashic interpretation, walk before Me refers to the commandment of circumcision, and thereby, you will be perfect, for as long as the foreskin is upon you, I consider you imperfect (Gen. Rabbah 46:1). Another explanation: “and be perfect” - Now you are missing [control over] five organs: two eyes, two ears, and the male organ. I will add a letter to your name, and the numerical value of your letters [of your name] will be 248, corresponding to the number of your organs (Tan. Lech Lecha 16, Ned. 32b).   וֶֽהְיֵה תָמִֽים: אַף זֶה צִוּוּי אַחַר צִוּוּי, הֱיֵה שָׁלֵם בְּכָל נִסְיוֹנוֹתַי; וּלְפִי מִדְרָשׁוֹ הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי בְּמִצְוַת מִילָה, וּבַדָּבָר הַזֶּה תִהְיֶה תָּמִים, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָעָרְלָה בְךָ אַתָּה בַּעַל מוּם לְפָנַי. דָּבָר אַחֵר וֶהְיֵה תָמִים, (עַכְשָׁו אַתָּה חָסֵר ה' אֵבָרִים, ב' עֵינַיִם, ב' אָזְנַיִם, וְרֹאשׁ הַגְּוִיָּה) שֶׁאוֹסִיף לְךָ אוֹת עַל שִׁמְךָ, וְיִהְיוּ מִנְיַן אוֹתִיּוֹתֶיךָ רמ"ח כְּמִנְיַן אֵבָרֶיךָ:
2And I will place My covenant between Me and between you, and I will multiply you very greatly."   בוְאֶתְּנָ֥ה בְרִיתִ֖י בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֑ךָ וְאַרְבֶּ֥ה אֽוֹתְךָ֖ בִּמְאֹ֥ד מְאֹֽד:
And I will place My covenant: A covenant of love and the covenant of the land, to give it to you as a heritage through [your fulfillment of] this commandment. — [from Gen. Rabbah 46:9]   וְאֶתְּנָה בְרִיתִי: בְּרִית שֶׁל אַהֲבָה וּבְרִית הָאָרֶץ לְהוֹרִישָׁהּ לְךָ עַל יְדֵי מִצְוָה זוֹ:
3And Abram fell upon his face, and God spoke with him, saying,   גוַיִּפֹּ֥ל אַבְרָ֖ם עַל־פָּנָ֑יו וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אִתּ֛וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹֽר:
And Abram fell upon his face: from fear of the Shechinah, for as long as he was uncircumcised, he did not have the strength to stand when the Divine Presence stood over him, and that is what is said concerning Balaam (Num. 24:4): “who falls and his eyes are open” (Num. Rabbah 12:8). I found this in the Baraitha of Rabbi Eliezer (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 29).   וַיִּפֹּל אַבְרָם עַל־פָּנָיו: מִמּוֹרָא הַשְּׁכִינָה; שֶׁעַד שֶׁלֹּא מָל לֹא הָיָה בוֹ כֹחַ לַעֲמֹד וְרוּח הַקֹּדֶשׁ נִצֶּבֶת עָלָיו, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּבִלְעָם נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם, בִּבְרַיְתָא דְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר:
4"As for Me, behold My covenant is with you, and you shall become the father of a multitude of nations.   דאֲנִ֕י הִנֵּ֥ה בְרִיתִ֖י אִתָּ֑ךְ וְהָיִ֕יתָ לְאַ֖ב הֲמ֥וֹן גּוֹיִֽם:
5And your name shall no longer be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham, for I have made you the father of a multitude of nations.   הוְלֹֽא־יִקָּרֵ֥א ע֛וֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ֖ אַבְרָ֑ם וְהָיָ֤ה שִׁמְךָ֙ אַבְרָהָ֔ם כִּ֛י אַב־הֲמ֥וֹן גּוֹיִ֖ם נְתַתִּֽיךָ:
the father of a multitude of nations: אַב הֲמוֹן is an acrostic of his name [i.e., - אב ר הם]. (Gen. Rabbah 46:7). The “resh” that was in it [his name] originally, denoting that he was the father only of Aram, which was his native place, whereas now [he became] the father of the whole world (Ber. 13a): nevertheless the “resh” that was there originally was not moved from its place. For even the “yud” in Sarai’s name complained to the Shechinah until it was added to Joshua, as it is said: (Num. 13:16): “and Moses called Hosea [הוֹשֵׁעַ] the son of Nun, Joshua [יְהוֹשֻׁעַ].” - [from Gen. Rabbah 47:1]   כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם: לְשׁוֹן נוֹטָרִיקוֹן שֶׁל שְׁמוֹ; וְרֵי"ש שֶׁהָיְתָה בוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אָב אֶלָּא לַאֲרָם שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹמוֹ וְעַכְשָׁו אָב לְכָל הָעוֹלָם, לֹא זָזָה מִמְּקוֹמָהּ, שֶׁאַף יוֹ"ד שֶׁל שָׂרַי נִתְרָעֲמָה עַל הַשְּׁכִינָה עַד שֶׁנִּתּוֹסְפָה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לְהוֹשֵׁעַ בִּן נוּן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (במדבר י"ג):
6And I will make you exceedingly fruitful, and I will make you into nations, and kings will emerge from you.   ווְהִפְרֵתִ֤י אֹֽתְךָ֙ בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד וּנְתַתִּ֖יךָ לְגוֹיִ֑ם וּמְלָכִ֖ים מִמְּךָ֥ יֵצֵֽאוּ:
and I will make you into nations: [This refers to] Israel and Edom, for he already had Ishmael, and He would therefore not be informing him about him.   וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְגוֹיִם: יִשְׂרָאֵל וֶאֱדוֹם, שֶׁהֲרֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל כְּבָר הָיָה לוֹ, וְלֹא הָיָה מְבַשְּׂרוֹ עָלָיו:

Seventh Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 17

7And I will establish My covenant between Me and between you and between your seed after you throughout their generations as an everlasting covenant, to be to you for a God and to your seed after you.   זוַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִ֨י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֜י בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֗ךָ וּבֵ֨ין זַרְעֲךָ֧ אַֽחֲרֶ֛יךָ לְדֹֽרֹתָ֖ם לִבְרִ֣ית עוֹלָ֑ם לִֽהְי֤וֹת לְךָ֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֖ אַֽחֲרֶֽיךָ:
And I will establish My covenant: And what is that covenant? To be to you for a God.   וַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי: וּמַה הִיא הַבְּרִית? לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים:
8And I will give you and your seed after you the land of your sojournings, the entire land of Canaan for an everlasting possession, and I will be to them for a God."   חוְנָֽתַתִּ֣י לְ֠ךָ֠ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֨ אַֽחֲרֶ֜יךָ אֵ֣ת | אֶ֣רֶץ מְגֻרֶ֗יךָ אֵ֚ת כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן לַֽאֲחֻזַּ֖ת עוֹלָ֑ם וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָהֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
for an everlasting possession: And there I will be to you for a God (Gen. Rabbah 46:9), but if one dwells outside the Holy Land, it is as though he has no God (Keth. 110b).   לַֽאֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם: וְשָׁם אֶהְיֶה לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים, אֲבָל הַדָּר בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ דּוֹמֶה כְמִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֱלוֹהַּ:
9And God said to Abraham, "And you shall keep My covenant, you and your seed after you throughout their generations.   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֔ם וְאַתָּ֖ה אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֑ר אַתָּ֛ה וְזַרְעֲךָ֥ אַֽחֲרֶ֖יךָ לְדֹֽרֹתָֽם:
And you: Heb. וְאַתָּה. This “vav” connects [this verse] to the preceding matter. “As for Me, behold My covenant is with you,” and you must be careful to observe it. Now what does its observance entail? “This is My covenant, which you shall observe…that every male among you be circumcised.”   וְאַתָּה: וָי"ו זוֹ מוֹסִיף עַל עִנְיָן רִאשׁוֹן, אֲנִי הִנֵּה בְרִיתִי אִתָּךְ, וְאַתָּה הֱוֵי זָהִיר לְשָׁמְרוֹ, וּמַה הִיא שְׁמִירָתוֹ? זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם וְגוֹ':
10This is My covenant, which you shall observe between Me and between you and between your seed after you, that every male among you be circumcised.   יזֹ֣את בְּרִיתִ֞י אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּשְׁמְר֗וּ בֵּינִי֙ וּבֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ הִמּ֥וֹל לָכֶ֖ם כָּל־זָכָֽר:
between Me and you: those living now.   בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וגו': אוֹתָם שֶׁל עַכְשָׁו:
and between your seed: who are destined to be born.   וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַֽחֲרֶיךָ: הָעֲתִידִין לְהִוָּלֵד:
be circumcised: Heb. הִמּוֹל, is like לְהִמּוֹל, to circumcise [the infinitive], as you might say עֲשוֹת in place of לַעֲשוֹת, to do.   הִמּוֹל: כְּמוֹ לְהִמּוֹל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר עֲשׂוֹת, כְּמוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת:
11And you shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be as the sign of a covenant between Me and between you.   יאוּנְמַלְתֶּ֕ם אֵ֖ת בְּשַׂ֣ר עָרְלַתְכֶ֑ם וְהָיָה֙ לְא֣וֹת בְּרִ֔ית בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵֽינֵיכֶֽם:
And you shall circumcise: וּנְמַלְתֶּם is like וּמַלְתֶּם, and the “nun” is superfluous, a radical that sometimes appears in it, like the “nun” of נוֹשֵׁךְ and the “nun” of נוֹשֵׂא. וּנְמַלְתֶּם has the same form as וּנְשָׂאתֶם, (i.e., the Kal form). But יִמּוֹל is in the passive form (the Nifal), like יֵעָשֶׂה (it will be done), יֵאָכֵל (it will be eaten).   וּנְמַלְתֶּם: כְּמוֹ וּמַלְתֶּם, וְהַנּוּ"ן בּוֹ יְתֵרָה לִיסוֹד הַנּוֹפֵל בּוֹ לִפְרָקִים, כְּגוֹן נ' שֶׁל נוֹשֵׁךְ ונ' שֶׁל נוֹשֵׂא, וּנְמַלְתֶּם, כְּמוֹ וּנְשָׂאתֶם; אֲבָל יִמּוֹל לְשׁוֹן יִפָּעֵל, כְּמוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה, יֵאָכֵל:
12And at the age of eight days, every male shall be circumcised to you throughout your generations, one that is born in the house, or one that is purchased with money, from any foreigner, who is not of your seed.   יבוּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים יִמּ֥וֹל לָכֶ֛ם כָּל־זָכָ֖ר לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם יְלִ֣יד בָּ֔יִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּ֨סֶף֙ מִכֹּ֣ל בֶּן־נֵכָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹ֥א מִזַּרְעֲךָ֖ הֽוּא:
one that is born in the house: whom the maidservant bore in the house.   יְלִיד בָּיִת: שֶׁיְּלָדַתּוּ הַשִּׁפְחָה בַּבַּיִת:
one that is purchased with money: whom he bought after he was born.   מקנת כֶּסֶף: שֶׁקְּנָאוֹ מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד:
13Those born in the house and those purchased for money shall be circumcised, and My covenant shall be in your flesh as an everlasting covenant.   יגהִמּ֧וֹל | יִמּ֛וֹל יְלִ֥יד בֵּֽיתְךָ֖ וּמִקְנַ֣ת כַּסְפֶּ֑ךָ וְהָֽיְתָ֧ה בְרִיתִ֛י בִּבְשַׂרְכֶ֖ם לִבְרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם:
Those born in the house… shall be circumcised: Here Scripture repeated it [the commandment to circumcise a slave born in the house;] but did not state [that it is to be] on the eighth day, to teach you that there is a slave born in the house who is circumcised after eight days [other editions: at the age of one day], as is delineated in Tractate Shabbath (135b).   הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּֽיתְךָ: כָּאן כָּפַל עָלָיו וְלֹא אָמַר לִשְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁיֵּשׁ יְלִיד בַּיִת נִמּוֹל לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים (ס"א לְאֶחָד) כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת (דף קל"ה ב'):
14And an uncircumcised male, who will not circumcise the flesh of his foreskin-that soul will be cut off from its people; he has broken My covenant."   ידוְעָרֵ֣ל | זָכָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יִמּוֹל֙ אֶת־בְּשַׂ֣ר עָרְלָת֔וֹ וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּ֑יהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י הֵפַֽר:
And an uncircumcised male: Here Scripture teaches that circumcision is in that place that distinguishes between male and female.   וְעָרֵל זָכָר: כָּאן לִמֵּד שֶׁהַמִּילָה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא נִכָּר בֵּין זָכָר לִנְקֵבָה (בראשית רבה):
who will not circumcise: When he reaches the age when he becomes liable for punishment, then [his soul] will be cut off (Shab. 133b), but his father [who does not circumcise him] is not punishable by “kareth” (spiritual excision), but is guilty of transgressing a positive commandment (Yeb. 70b).   אֲשֶׁר לֹֽא־יִמּוֹל: מִשֶּׁיַּגִּיעַ לִכְלַל עֳנָשִׁין וְנִכְרְתָה; אֲבָל אָבִיו אֵין עָנוּשׁ עָלָיו כָּרֵת, אֲבָל עוֹבֵר בַּעֲשֵׂה:
that soul will be cut off: He goes childless (Yeb. 55a) and dies prematurely (Moed Katan 28a).   וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ: הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּמֵת קֹדֶם זְמַנּוֹ (שבת כ"ד):
15And God said to Abraham, "Your wife Sarai-you shall not call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name.   טווַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֔ם שָׂרַ֣י אִשְׁתְּךָ֔ לֹֽא־תִקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמָ֖הּ שָׂרָ֑י כִּ֥י שָׂרָ֖ה שְׁמָֽהּ:
you shall not call her name Sarai: which means “my princess,” for me, but not for others. But Sarah, in an unqualified sense, shall be her name, that she will be a princess over all. — [from Ber. 13a]   לֹֽא־תִקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָהּ שָׂרַי: דְּמַשְׁמַע שָׂרַי, לִי וְלֹא לְאַחֵרִים, כי שרה סְתָם שְׁמָהּ, שֶׁתְּהֵא שָׂרָה עַל כֹּל (ברכות י"ג):
16And I will bless her, and I will give you a son from her, and I will bless her, and she will become [a mother of] nations; kings of nations will be from her. "   טזוּבֵֽרַכְתִּ֣י אֹתָ֔הּ וְגַ֨ם נָתַ֧תִּי מִמֶּ֛נָּה לְךָ֖ בֵּ֑ן וּבֵֽרַכְתִּ֨יהָ֙ וְהָֽיְתָ֣ה לְגוֹיִ֔ם מַלְכֵ֥י עַמִּ֖ים מִמֶּ֥נָּה יִֽהְיֽוּ:
And I will bless her: And what is the blessing? That she returned to her youth, as it is said (below 18:12): “My skin has become smooth.” - [from B.M. 87a]   וּבֵֽרַכְתִּי אותה: וּמַה הִיא הַבְּרָכָה? שֶׁחָזְרָה לְנַעֲרוּתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הָיְתָה לִּי עֶדְנָה (בר' י"ח):
and I will bless her: with breast feeding, when she required it, on the day of Isaac’s feast, for people were murmuring against them, that they had brought a foundling from the street and were saying, “He is our son.” So each one brought her child with her, but not her wet nurse, and she (Sarah) nursed them all. That is what is said (below 21:7): “Sarah has nursed children.” Gen. Rabbah (53:9) alludes slightly to this. — [from B.M. 87a]   וּבֵֽרַכְתִּיהָ: בַּהֲנָקַת שָׁדַיִם כְּשֶׁנִּצְרְכָה לְכָךְ בְּיוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה שֶׁל יִצְחָק, שֶׁהָיוּ מְרַנְּנִין עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ אֲסוּפִי מִן הַשּׁוּק וְאוֹמְרִים בְּנֵנוּ הוּא, וְהֵבִיאָה כָל אַחַת בְּנָה עִמָּהּ וּמֵנִקְתָּהּ לֹא הֵבִיאָה, וְהִיא הֵנִיקָה אֶת כֻּלָּם; הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הֵינִיקָה בָנִים שָׂרָה, בּרֵאשִׁית רַבָּה רְמָזוֹ בְּמִקְצָת:
17And Abraham fell on his face and rejoiced, and he said to himself, "Will [a child] be born to one who is a hundred years old, and will Sarah, who is ninety years old, give birth?"   יזוַיִּפֹּ֧ל אַבְרָהָ֛ם עַל־פָּנָ֖יו וַיִּצְחָ֑ק וַיֹּ֣אמֶר בְּלִבּ֗וֹ הַלְּבֶ֤ן מֵאָֽה־שָׁנָה֙ יִוָּלֵ֔ד וְאִ֨ם־שָׂרָ֔ה הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה תֵּלֵֽד:
And Abraham fell on his face and rejoiced: Heb. וַיִּצְחָק. Onkelos renders this as an expression of joy, וַחֲדִי “and he rejoiced,” but the one [וַתִּצְחָק] in the case of Sarah (below 18:12) [he renders] as an expression of laughter. You learn that Abraham believed and rejoiced, but Sarah did not believe and ridiculed, and for this reason, the Holy One, blessed be He, was angry with Sarah, but was not angry with Abraham.   וַיִּפֹּל אַבְרָהָם עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּצְחָק: זֶה תַּרְגּוּם אוֹנְקֵלוֹס, לְשׁוֹן שִׂמְחָה, וַחֲדִי, וְשֶׁל שָׂרָה לְשׁוֹן מָחוֹךְ; לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאַבְרָהָם הֶאֱמִין וְשָׂמַח וְשָׂרָה לֹא הֶאֱמִינָה וְלִגְלְגָה, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁהִקְפִּיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל שָׂרָה וְלֹא הִקְפִּיד עַל אַבְרָהָם:
Will [a child] be born to on, etc.: There are questions which are positive assertions, like (I Sam. 2:27): הֲנִגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי, “Did I appear?” [meaning: “of course I appeared!”]; (II Sam. 15:27): הֲרֹאֶה אַתָּה, “Do you see?” [meaning: “of course you see!”] This too is a positive assertion, and so did he say to himself, “Was such kindness done to anyone else, that the Holy One, blessed be He, is doing for me?”   הַלְּבֶן: יֵשׁ תְּמִיהוֹת שֶׁהֵן קַיָּמוֹת, כְּמוֹ הֲנִגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי? (שמואל א ב'), הֲרֹאֶה אַתָּה (יח' ח'), אַף זוֹ הִיא קַיֶּמֶת; וְכָךְ אָמַר בְּלִבּוֹ, הֲנַעֲשָׂה חֶסֶד זֶה לְאַחֵר, מַה שֶּׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לִי?
and will Sarah, who is ninety years old: Shall she be worthy of giving birth? Now although the first generations begot children at the age of five hundred, in Abraham’s time, the years were already lessened, and weakness had come to the world. Go out and learn this from the ten generations from Noah to Abraham, who hastened to beget children at the age of sixty and seventy.   וְאִם־שָׂרָה הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה: הָיְתָה כְדַאי לֵילֵד; וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ מוֹלִידִין בְּנֵי ת"ק שָׁנָה, בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם נִתְמָעֲטוּ הַשָּׁנִים כְּבָר וּבָא תַּשּׁוּת כֹּחַ לָעוֹלָם, צֵא וּלְמַד מֵעֲשָׂרָה דּוֹרוֹת שֶׁמִּנֹּחַ וְעַד אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁמִּהֲרוּ תּוֹלְדוֹתֵיהֶן בְּנֵי ס' וּבְנֵי ע':
18And Abraham said to God, "If only Ishmael will live before You!"   יחוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים ל֥וּ יִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל יִֽחְיֶ֥ה לְפָנֶֽיךָ:
If only Ishmael will live: If only Ishmael will live! I do not deserve to receive such a reward as this.   לוּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל יִֽחְיֶה: הַלְוַאי שֶׁיִּחְיֶה יִשְׁמָעֵאל; אֵינִי כְדַאי לְקַבֵּל מַתַּן שָׂכָָר כָּזֶה:
will live before You: [This means]: [“Let him] live in fear of You,” as in (verse 1): “Walk before Me,” [which Onkelos renders:] “Serve Me.” [following Targum Jonathan]   יִֽחְיֶה לְפָנֶֽיךָ: יִחְיֶה בְיִרְאָתֶךָ, כְּמוֹ הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי – פְּלַח קֳדָמַי:
19And God said, "Indeed, your wife Sarah will bear you a son, and you shall name him Isaac, and I will establish My covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his seed after him.   יטוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים אֲבָל֙ שָׂרָ֣ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֗ יֹלֶ֤דֶת לְךָ֙ בֵּ֔ן וְקָרָ֥אתָ אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יִצְחָ֑ק וַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִ֨י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֥י אִתּ֛וֹ לִבְרִ֥ית עוֹלָ֖ם לְזַרְע֥וֹ אַֽחֲרָֽיו:
Indeed: אֲבָל is an expression of a confirmation of a statement, and likewise (below 42:21): “Indeed (אֲבָל), we are guilty”; (II Kings 4:14): “Indeed (אֲבָל), she has no son.” - [from Targumim]   אֲבָל: לְשׁוֹן אֲמִתַּת דְּבָרִים, וְכֵן אֲבָל אֲשֵׁמִים אֲנַחְנוּ (בראשית מ"ב), אֲבָל בֵּן אֵין לָהּ (מלכים ב ד'):
and you shall name him Isaac: Heb. יִצְחָק, because of the rejoicing (צְחוֹק) (Mid. Chaseroth v’Yetheroth). And some say: because of the ten (י) trials, and Sarah’s ninety (צ) years, and the eighth (ח) day on which he was circumcised, and Abraham’s hundred (ק) years. (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 32). (Other editions: “And My covenant.” Why is this written? Is it not already written (verse 9): “And you shall keep My covenant, you and your seed, etc.?” But because He said (verse 7): “And I will establish, etc.,” one might think that the sons of Ishmael and the sons of Keturah are included in the establishment [of the covenant]. Therefore, Scripture states: “And I will establish My covenant with him,” and not with others. Now, why does it say [again in verse 21]: “But My covenant I will establish with Isaac?” This teaches us that he was holy from the womb. Another explanation [for the repetition of verse 19]: Said Rabbi Abba: Scripture here derives an a fortiori conclusion regarding the son of the mistress from [what is written regarding] the son of the handmaid. It is written here: “Behold I have blessed him, and I will make him fruitful, and I will multiply him.” This refers to Ishmael. How much more so, “But My covenant I will establish with Isaac!” (Gen. Rabbah 47:5).   וְקָרָאתָ אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יִצְחָק: עַל שֵׁם הַצְּחוֹק, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים עַל שֵׁם הָעֲשָׂרָה נִסְיוֹנוֹת וצ' שָׁנָה שֶׁל שָׂרָה וח' יָמִים שֶׁנִּמּוֹל, וק' שָׁנָה שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתּוֹ לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר, כְּבָר כְּתִיב וְאַתָּה אֶת בְּרִיתִי תִשְׁמֹר אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ וְגוֹ'? אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר וַהֲקִמוֹתִי וְגוֹ', יָכוֹל בְּנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וּבְנֵי קְטוּרָה בִּכְלַל הַקִּיּוּם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת בְּרִיתִי אִתּוֹ – וְלֹא עִם אֲחֵרִים וְאֶת בְּרִיתִי אקים אֶת־יִצְחָק לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר? אֶלָּא לִמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה קָדוֹשׁ מִבֶּטֶן. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמַר רַ' אַבָּא, מִכָּאן לָמַד קַל וָחֹמֶר בֶּן הַגְּבִירָה מִבֶּן הָאָמָה; כְּתִיב הִנֵּה בֵּרַכְתִּי אֹתוֹ וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֹתוֹ וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֹתוֹ, זֶה יִשְׁמָעֵאל, וְקַל וָחֹמֶר וְאֶת בְּרִיתִי אָקִים אֶת יִצְחָק:
My covenant: The covenant of circumcision shall be given over [only] to the seed of Isaac. See Sanh. 59.   אֶת בְּרִיתִי: בְּרִית הַמִּילָה תְּהֵא מְסוּרָה לְזַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק:
20And regarding Ishmael, I have heard you; behold I have blessed him, and I will make him fruitful, and I will multiply him exceedingly; he will beget twelve princes, and I will make him into a great nation.   כוּלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל֘ שְׁמַעְתִּ֒יךָ֒ הִנֵּ֣ה | בֵּרַ֣כְתִּי אֹת֗וֹ וְהִפְרֵיתִ֥י אֹת֛וֹ וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֥י אֹת֖וֹ בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד שְׁנֵֽים־עָשָׂ֤ר נְשִׂיאִם֙ יוֹלִ֔יד וּנְתַתִּ֖יו לְג֥וֹי גָּדֽוֹל:
twelve princes: Heb. נְשִׂיאִים. They will disappear like clouds, as (Prov. 25:14): Clouds (נְשִׂיאִים) and wind. — [from Gen. Rabbah 47:5]   שְׁנֵֽים־עָשָׂר נשיאים: כַּעֲנָנִים יִכְלוּ; כְּמוֹ נְשִׂיאִים וְרוּחַ (משלי כ"ה):
21But My covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this time next year."   כאוְאֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אָקִ֣ים אֶת־יִצְחָ֑ק אֲשֶׁר֩ תֵּלֵ֨ד לְךָ֤ שָׂרָה֙ לַמּוֹעֵ֣ד הַזֶּ֔ה בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הָֽאַחֶֽרֶת:
22And He finished speaking with him, and God went up from above Abraham.   כבוַיְכַ֖ל לְדַבֵּ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ וַיַּ֣עַל אֱלֹהִ֔ים מֵעַ֖ל אַבְרָהָֽם:
from above Abraham: This is a euphemism used in reference to the Shechinah, and we learn that the righteous are the chariot of the Omnipresent. — [from Gen. Rabbah 47:6, 82:6]   מֵעַל אַבְרָהָֽם: לְשׁוֹן נְקִיָּה הוּא כְּלַפֵּי שְׁכִינָה, וְלָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַצַּדִּיקִים מֶרְכַּבְתּוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם (בראשית רבה):
23And Abraham took Ishmael his son and all those born in his house and all those purchased with his money, every male of the people of Abraham's household, and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on that very day, as God had spoken with him.   כגוַיִּקַּ֨ח אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֣אל בְּנ֗וֹ וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־יְלִידֵ֤י בֵיתוֹ֙ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־מִקְנַ֣ת כַּסְפּ֔וֹ כָּל־זָכָ֕ר בְּאַנְשֵׁ֖י בֵּ֣ית אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיָּ֜מָל אֶת־בְּשַׂ֣ר עָרְלָתָ֗ם בְּעֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ אֱלֹהִֽים:
on that very day: On the very day that he was commanded (Mid. Ps. 112:2), during the day and not at night. He was afraid neither of the heathens nor of the scorners. [He circumcised in the light of day] so that his enemies and his contemporaries would not say, “Had we seen him, we would not have allowed him to circumcise and to fulfill the commandment of the Omnipresent” (Gen. Rabbah 47:9).   בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם: בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּצְטַוָּה, בַּיּוֹם וְלֹא בַּלַּיְלָה; לֹא נִתְיָרֵא לֹא מִן הַגּוֹיִם וְלֹא מִן הַלֵּצָנִים, וְשֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ אוֹיְבָיו וּבְנֵי דּוֹרוֹ אוֹמְרִים אִלּוּ רְאִינוּהוּ לֹא הִנַּחְנוּהוּ לָמוּל וּלְקַיֵּם מִצְוָתוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם:
and he circumcised: Heb. וַיָמָל, an expression in the וַיִפְעַל form, (the active [kal] form.)   וַיָּמָל: לְשׁוֹן וַיִּפְעַל:
24And Abraham was ninety-nine years old, when he was circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin.   כדוְאַ֨בְרָהָ֔ם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִ֥ים וָתֵ֖שַׁע שָׁנָ֑ה בְּהִמֹּל֖וֹ בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
when he was circumcised: Heb. בְּהִמֹּלוֹ, when it was done to him, like (above 2:4): “when they were created (בְּהִבָּרְאָם).”   בהמולו: בְּהִפָּעֲלוֹ, כְּמוֹ בְּהִבָּרְאָם (בראשית ב'):
25And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin.   כהוְיִשְׁמָעֵ֣אל בְּנ֔וֹ בֶּן־שְׁל֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה בְּהִ֨מֹּל֔וֹ אֵ֖ת בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
when he was circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin: Concerning Abraham, it does not say אֵת, because he was lacking only the severing of the flesh, because it had already been flattened out by intercourse, but Ishmael, who was a youth, required that the foreskin be severed and the corona be uncovered. Therefore, in his case, it is אֵת. Gen. Rabbah (47:8).   בהמולו אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתֽוֹ: בְּאַבְרָהָם לֹא נֶאֱמַר "אֵת", לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה חָסֵר אֶלָּא חִתּוּךְ בָּשָׂר, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְמָעֵךְ עַל יְדֵי תַשְׁמִישׁ; אֲבָל יִשְׁמָעֵאל שֶׁהָיָה יֶלֶד, הֻזְקַק לַחְתֹּךְ עָרְלָה וְלִפְרֹעַ הַמִּילָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ "אֵת" (בראשית רבה):
26On that very day, Abraham was circumcised, and [so was] Ishmael his son.   כובְּעֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה נִמּ֖וֹל אַבְרָהָ֑ם וְיִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל בְּנֽוֹ:
On that very day: when Abraham reached the age of ninety-nine and Ishmael [reached the age of] thirteen, “Abraham was circumcised, and [so was] Ishmael his son.”   בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה: שֶׁמָּלְאוּ לְאַבְרָהָם צ"ט שָׁנָה וּלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל י"ג שָׁנִים נמול אברהם וישמעאל בנו:
27And all the people of his household, those born in his house and those bought with money from foreigners, were circumcised with him.   כזוְכָל־אַנְשֵׁ֤י בֵיתוֹ֙ יְלִ֣יד בָּ֔יִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּ֖סֶף מֵאֵ֣ת בֶּן־נֵכָ֑ר נִמֹּ֖לוּ אִתּֽוֹ:

Maftir Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 17

24And Abraham was ninety-nine years old, when he was circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin.   כדוְאַ֨בְרָהָ֔ם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִ֥ים וָתֵ֖שַׁע שָׁנָ֑ה בְּהִמֹּל֖וֹ בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
when he was circumcised: Heb. בְּהִמֹּלוֹ, when it was done to him, like (above 2:4): “when they were created (בְּהִבָּרְאָם).”   בהמולו: בְּהִפָּעֲלוֹ, כְּמוֹ בְּהִבָּרְאָם (בראשית ב'):
25And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin.   כהוְיִשְׁמָעֵ֣אל בְּנ֔וֹ בֶּן־שְׁל֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה בְּהִ֨מֹּל֔וֹ אֵ֖ת בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
when he was circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin: Concerning Abraham, it does not say אֵת, because he was lacking only the severing of the flesh, because it had already been flattened out by intercourse, but Ishmael, who was a youth, required that the foreskin be severed and the corona be uncovered. Therefore, in his case, it is אֵת. Gen. Rabbah (47:8).   בהמולו אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתֽוֹ: בְּאַבְרָהָם לֹא נֶאֱמַר "אֵת", לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה חָסֵר אֶלָּא חִתּוּךְ בָּשָׂר, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְמָעֵךְ עַל יְדֵי תַשְׁמִישׁ; אֲבָל יִשְׁמָעֵאל שֶׁהָיָה יֶלֶד, הֻזְקַק לַחְתֹּךְ עָרְלָה וְלִפְרֹעַ הַמִּילָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ "אֵת" (בראשית רבה):
26On that very day, Abraham was circumcised, and [so was] Ishmael his son.   כובְּעֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה נִמּ֖וֹל אַבְרָהָ֑ם וְיִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל בְּנֽוֹ:
On that very day: when Abraham reached the age of ninety-nine and Ishmael [reached the age of] thirteen, “Abraham was circumcised, and [so was] Ishmael his son.”   בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה: שֶׁמָּלְאוּ לְאַבְרָהָם צ"ט שָׁנָה וּלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל י"ג שָׁנִים נמול אברהם וישמעאל בנו:
27And all the people of his household, those born in his house and those bought with money from foreigners, were circumcised with him.   כזוְכָל־אַנְשֵׁ֤י בֵיתוֹ֙ יְלִ֣יד בָּ֔יִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּ֖סֶף מֵאֵ֣ת בֶּן־נֵכָ֑ר נִמֹּ֖לוּ אִתּֽוֹ:

Haftarah

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 40

27Why should you say, O Jacob, and speak, O Israel, "My way has been hidden from the Lord, and from my God, my judgment passes"?   כזלָ֚מָּה תֹאמַר֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּתְדַבֵּ֖ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל נִסְתְּרָ֚ה דַרְכִּי֙ מֵֽיְהֹוָ֔ה וּמֵֽאֱלֹהַ֖י מִשְׁפָּטִ֥י יַֽעֲבֽוֹר:
Why should you say: My people ([K’li Paz, mss.:] the people of) Jacob, and speak in exile.   למה תאמר: עמי יעקב ותדבר בגלות:
My way has been hidden from the Lord: He hid from before His eyes all that we served Him, and gave those who did not know Him, dominion over us.   נסתרה דרכי מה': העלים מנגד עיניו כל מה שעבדנוהו והמשיל עלינו אות' שלא ידעוהו:
and from my God, my judgment passes?: He ignores the judgment of the good reward He should have paid our forefathers and us.   ומאלהי משפטי יעבור: העביר מלפניו משפט הגמול הטוב שהי' לו לשלם לאבותינו ולנו:
28Do you not know-if you have not heard-an everlasting God is the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the earth; He neither tires nor wearies; there is no fathoming His understanding.   כחהֲל֨וֹא יָדַ֜עְתָּ אִם־לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ אֱלֹהֵ֨י עוֹלָ֚ם | יְהֹוָה֙ בּוֹרֵא֙ קְצ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יִיעַ֖ף וְלֹ֣א יִיגָ֑ע אֵ֥ין חֵ֖קֶר לִתְבֽוּנָתֽוֹ:
the Creator of the ends of the earth… there is no fathoming His understanding: And One who has such strength and such wisdom. He knows the thoughts. Why does He delay your benefit, only to terminate the transgression and to expiate the sin through afflictions.   בורא קצות הארץ וגו': אין חקר לתבונתו ומי שיש לו כח כזה וחכמה כזו הוא יודע את המחשבות למה הוא מאחר טובתכם אלא כדי לכלות את הפשע ולהתם את החטאת ע"י היסורין:
29Who gives the tired strength, and to him who has no strength, He increases strength.   כטנֹתֵ֥ן לַיָּעֵ֖ף כֹּ֑חַ וּלְאֵ֥ין אוֹנִ֖ים עָצְמָ֥ה יַרְבֶּֽה:
Who gives the tired strength: And who will eventually renew strength for your tiredness.   נותן ליעף כח: וסופו להחליף כח לעייפותכם:
30Now youths shall become tired and weary, and young men shall stumble.   לוְיִֽעֲפ֥וּ נְעָרִ֖ים וְיִגָ֑עוּ וּבַֽחוּרִ֖ים כָּשׁ֥וֹל יִכָּשֵֽׁלוּ:
Now youths shall become tired: Heb. נְעָרִים. The might of your enemies who are devoid (מְנֹעָרִים) of commandments, shall become faint.   ויעפו נערים: גבורת הכשדי' המנוערים מן המצות תיעף:
and young men shall stumble: Those who are now mighty and strong, shall stumble, but you, who put your hope in the Lord shall gain new strength and power.   ובחורים כשול יכשלו: אותם שהם עכשיו גבורים וחזקים יכשלו ואתם קוי ה' תחליפו כח חדש וחזק:
31But those who put their hope in the Lord shall renew [their] vigor, they shall raise wings as eagles; they shall run and not weary, they shall walk and not tire.   לאוְקוֵֹ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ יַֽחֲלִ֣יפוּ כֹ֔חַ יַֽעֲל֥וּ אֵ֖בֶר כַּנְּשָׁרִ֑ים יָר֙וּצוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יִיגָ֔עוּ יֵֽלְכ֖וּ וְלֹ֥א יִיעָֽפוּ:
wings: [The Hebrew אבר means] a wing.   אבר: כנף:

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 41

1Be silent to Me, you islands, and kingdoms shall renew [their] strength; they shall approach, then they shall speak, together to judgment let us draw near.   אהַֽחֲרִ֚ישׁוּ אֵלַי֙ אִיִּ֔ים וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים יַֽחֲלִ֣יפוּ כֹ֑חַ יִגְּשׁוּ֙ אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ יַחְדָּ֖ו לַמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט נִקְרָֽבָה:
Be silent to Me: in order to hear My words.   החרישו אלי: כדי לשמוע דבר:
islands: Heathens ([mss. Kli Paz:] nations).   איים: אומות של עכו"ם:
shall renew [their] strength: They shall adorn themselves and strengthen themselves with all their might perhaps they will succeed in their judgment by force.   יחליפו כח: יתקשטו ויתחזקו בכל גבורתם אולי יעמדו בדין בכח:
they shall approach: here, and then, when they approach, they shall speak.   יגשו: הלום ואז משיגשו ידברו:
to judgment let us draw near: to reprove them to their faces.   למשפט נקרבה: להוכיח' על פניהם:
2Who aroused from the East, [the one] whom righteousness accompanied? He placed nations before him and over kings He gave him dominion; He made his sword like dust, his bow like wind-blown stubble.   במִ֚י הֵעִיר֙ מִמִּזְרָ֔ח צֶ֖דֶק יִקְרָאֵ֣הוּ לְרַגְל֑וֹ יִתֵּ֨ן לְפָנָ֚יו גּוֹיִם֙ וּמְלָכִ֣ים יַ֔רְדְּ יִתֵּ֚ן כֶּֽעָפָר֙ חַרְבּ֔וֹ כְּקַ֥שׁ נִדָּ֖ף קַשְׁתּֽוֹ:
Who aroused from the East: one whom righteousness accompanied? Who aroused Abraham to bring him from Aram which is in the East and the righteousness that he would perform that was opposite his feet wherever he went.   מי העיר ממזרח: אותו שצדק יקראהו לרגלו מי העיר את אברה' להביאו מארם שהוא במזרח וצדק שהיה עושה היא היתה לקראת רגליו בכל אשר הלך:
He placed nations before him: He, Who aroused him to leave his place to cause him to move, He placed before him four kings and their hosts.   יתן לפניו גוים: מי שהעירו ממקומו להסיע הוא נתן לפניו ארבעה מלכים וחיילותיהם:
He gave him dominion: Heb. יַרְדְּ, like יַרָדֶּה.   ירד: ירדה:
He made his sword like dust: [Jonathan paraphrases:] He cast slain ones before his sword like dust. He suffered his sword to take its toll of casualties as [numerous as] grains of dust, and his bow He suffered to take its toll of casualties who would fall like wind blown stubble.   יתן כעפר חרבו: רמא כעפרא קטולין קדם חרביה, נתן את חרבו ועושה חללים רבים כעפר ואת קשתו נתן מרבה הרוגים ונופלים כקש נדף:
3He pursued them and passed on safely, on a path upon which he had not come with his feet.   גיִרְדְּפֵ֖ם יַֽעֲב֣וֹר שָׁל֑וֹם אֹ֥רַח בְּרַגְלָ֖יו לֹ֥א יָבֽוֹא:
He pursued them and passed on safely: He traversed all his fords safely; he did not stumble when he pursued them.   ירדפם יעבור שלום: הלך על מעברותיו בשלום לא נכשל ברדפו אותם:
a path upon which he had not come with his feet: A road upon which he had not come previously with his feet. [The future tense of] יָבוֹא means that he was not accustomed to come.   אורח ברגליו לא יבא: דרך אשר לא בא קודם לכן ברגליו, לא יבא לא היה רגיל לבא:
4Who worked and did, Who calls the generations from the beginning; I, the Lord, am first, and with the last ones I am He.   דמִֽי־פָעַ֣ל וְעָשָׂ֔ה קֹרֵ֥א הַדֹּר֖וֹת מֵרֹ֑אשׁ אֲנִ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ רִאשׁ֔וֹן וְאֶת־אַֽחֲרֹנִ֖ים אֲנִי־הֽוּא:
Who worked and did: for him all this? He Who called the generations from the beginning, to Adam, He did this also for Abraham.   מי פעל ועשה: לו את זאת מי שהוא קורא הדורות מראש לאדם הראשון הוא עשה לאברהם גם את זאת:
I, the Lord, am first: to perform wonders and to aid.   אני ה' ראשון: להפליא פלא ולעזור:
and with the last ones I am He: Also with you, the last sons, I will be, and I will aid you.   ואת אחרונים אני הוא: אף עמכם בנים אחרונים אהיה ואעזור אתכם:
5The islands shall see and fear; the ends of the earth shall quake; they have approached and come.   הרָא֚וּ אִיִּים֙ וְיִירָ֔אוּ קְצ֥וֹת הָאָ֖רֶץ יֶֽחֱרָ֑דוּ קָֽרְב֖וּ וַיֶּֽאֱתָיֽוּן:
The islands shall see: [lit. saw.] The heathens shall see the mighty deeds that I will perform, and they shall fear.   ראו איים: עובדי עכו"ם הגבורות שאעשה וייראו:
they have approached and come: One to another they will gather to war when they see the redemption.   קרבו ויאתיון: זה אצל זה נאספים להלחם כשיראו הגאולה:
6Each one shall aid his fellow, and to his brother he shall say, "Strengthen yourself."   ואִ֥ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ יַעְזֹ֑רוּ וּלְאָחִ֖יו יֹאמַ֥ר חֲזָֽק:
Each one… his fellow etc.: He shall say, “Strengthen yourself” for war, perhaps their gods will protect them [lit. stand up for them].   איש את רעהו וגו': יאמר חזק למלחמה אולי יעמדו להם אלהיהם:
7And the craftsman strengthened the smith, the one who smooths with the hammer [strengthened] the one who wields the sledge hammer; he says of the cement, "It is good," and he strengthened it with nails that it should not move.   זוַיְחַזֵּ֚ק חָרָשׁ֙ אֶת־צֹרֵ֔ף מַֽחֲלִ֥יק פַּטִּ֖ישׁ אֶת־ה֣וֹלֶם פָּ֑עַם אֹמֵ֚ר לַדֶּ֙בֶק֙ ט֣וֹב ה֔וּא וַיְחַזְּקֵ֥הוּ בְמַסְמְרִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִמּֽוֹט:
And the craftsman strengthened: [i.e.,] the one who molds the idol.   ויחזק חרש: נוסך הפסל:
the smith: who plates it with gold.   את צורף: המרקעו בזהב:
the one who smoothes with the hammer: The final stage, when he taps lightly to flatten out the work.   מחליק פטיש: באחרונה כשהוא מכה בנחת להחליק את המלאכה:
the one who wields the sledge hammer: He is the one who commences on it when it is a block, and beats it with all his might.   את הולם פעם: הוא המתחיל בה כשהיא עשת ומכה בכל כחו:
he says of the cement, “It is good,”: Heb. דֶּבֶק. He alludes to those who seek suitable ground upon which to adhere iron plates.   אומר לדבק טוב הוא: על אותן שהיו מחזירין אחר קרקע טובה לדבק בה עששיות ברזל:
of the cement: דֶּבֶק is soudure in French, weld.   דבק: שולדור"א:
and he strengthened it: The idol.   ויחזקהו: לצלם:
with nails that it should not move: All of them will strengthen each other.   במסמרים לא ימוט: כולם יחזקו זה את זה:
8But you, Israel My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham, who loved Me,   חוְאַתָּה֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עַבְדִּ֔י יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּחַרְתִּ֑יךָ זֶ֖רַע אַבְרָהָ֥ם אֹֽהֲבִֽי:
But you, Israel My servant: and I am obliged to help you. The end of this sentence is (infra 10): “Do not fear.” This appears to me to be the sequence of the section according to its simple meaning. But the Midrash Aggadah in Gen. Rabbah 44:7 expounds the entire section as alluding to Malchizedek and Abraham.   ואתה ישראל עבדי: ועלי יש לעזור לך סוף המקרא אל תירא כי אתך אני כך נראה לי חבור הענין לפי פשוטו ומ"א בבראשית רבה דורש כל הענין במלכי צדק ואברה'
[5] Islands saw: the war and feared. Shem [Malchizedek] feared Abraham, lest he say to him, You begot these wicked men in the world. And Abraham feared Shem, since he slew his sons, the people of Elam, who was descended from Shem.   ראו איים: אותה מלחמ' וייראו שם נתיירא מאברהם פן יאמר לו העמדת רשעים אלו בעולם ואברהם נתיירא משם לפי שהרג את בני עילם שהם משם:
islands: Just as the islands of the sea are distinguished and recognized in the sea, so were Abraham and Shem distinguished in the world.   איים: כשם שאיי הים מסויימין בעולם כך אברהם ושם היו מסויימין בעולם:
[6] Each one aided his fellow: This one [Shem] aided this one [Abraham] with blessings, “Blessed be Abram” (Gen. 14:19), and this one [Abraham] aided this one [Shem] with gifts, “And he gave him tithe from everything” (ibid. verse 20).   איש את רעהו יעזורו: זה עוזר את זה בברכו' ברוך אברם (בראשית י״ד:כ׳) וזה עוזר את זה במתנות (שם) ויתן לו מעשר מכל:
[7] And the craftsman strengthened: This is Shem, who was a blacksmith, to make nails and bars for the ark.   ויחזק חרש: זה שם שהיה נפח לעשות מסמרות ובריחים לתבה:
the smith: This is Abraham, who purified (צוֹרֵף) the people, to bring them near to God [lit. to Heaven].   את צורף: זה אברהם שהוא צורף את הבריות לקרבן אל השכינה:
the sledge hammer: This is Abraham, who smote (הָלַם) all these kings at one time.   את הולם פעם: זה אברהם שהלם כל המלכים האלה פעם אחת:
He says of the cement: Heb. דֶּבֶק. The nations said, It is good to cleave to this one’s God [rather than to Nimrod’s idols].   אומר לדבק טוב הוא: טוב לידבק באלוה של זה:
And he strengthened him: Shem strengthened Abraham to cleave to the Holy One, blessed be He, and not to move.   ויחזקהו: שם לאברה' להיו' דבק בהקב"ה ולא ימוט:
[8] And you, Israel My servant: Abraham, who was not descended from righteous men, I did all this for him, and you, Israel My servant, who belong to Me by dint of two forefathers.   ואתה ישראל עבדי: אברהם שלא היה מזרע צדיקים עשיתי לו כל זאת ואתה ישראל עבדי. הקנוי לי משני אבות:
the seed of Abraham, who loved Me: who did not recognize Me because of the admonition and the teaching of his fathers, but out of love.   זרע אברהם אוהבי: שלא הכירני מתוך תוכחה ולימוד אבותיו אלא מתוך אהבה:
9Whom I grasped from the ends of the earth, and from its nobles I called you, and I said to you, "You are My servant"; I chose you and I did not despise you.   טאֲשֶׁ֚ר הֶֽחֱזַקְתִּ֙יךָ֙ מִקְצ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמֵֽאֲצִילֶ֖יהָ קְרָאתִ֑יךָ וָֽאֹ֚מַר לְךָ֙ עַבְדִּי־אַ֔תָּה בְּחַרְתִּ֖יךָ וְלֹ֥א מְאַסְתִּֽיךָ:
whom I grasped: Heb. הֶחֱזַקְתִּי. I took you for My share. Comp. (Ex. 4:4) “And he stretched out his hand and grasped (וַיְּחֲזֵק) it.”   אשר החזקתיך: לקחתיך לחלקי כמו (שמות ד׳:ד׳) וישלח ידו ויחזק בו:
from the ends of the earth: from the other nations.   מקצות הארץ: משאר העכו"ם:
and from its nobles: from the greatest of them.   ומאציליה: מן הגדולים שבהן:
I called you: by name for My share, “My firstborn son, Israel” (ibid. v. 22).   קראתיך: בשם לחלקי בני בכורי ישראל:
and I did not despise you: like Esau, as it is said (Malachi 1:3), “And Esau I hated.”   ולא מאסתיך: כזה שנאמר בו (מלאכי א) שנאתי:
10Do not fear for I am with you; be not discouraged for I am your God: I encouraged you, I also helped you, I also supported you with My righteous hand.   יאַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּֽי עִמְּךָ֣־אָ֔נִי אַל־תִּשְׁתָּ֖ע כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אִמַּצְתִּ֙יךָ֙ אַף־עֲזַרְתִּ֔יךָ אַף־תְּמַכְתִּ֖יךָ בִּימִ֥ין צִדְקִֽי:
be not discouraged: Heb. אַל תִּשְׁתָּע. Let your heart not melt like wax (שַׁעֲוָה). This is the rule: Every word whose first radical is ‘shin,’ when it is used in the reflexive present, past, or future, the ‘tav’ separates it and enters between the first two radicals. Comp. (infra 49:16) “And He was astounded (וַיַּשְׁתּוֹמֵם);” (Micah 6:16) “For the statutes of Omri shall be observed (וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּר);” (I Sam. 1:14) “will you be drunk (תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִין)?;” (Job 30:16) “My soul is poured out (תִּשְׁתַּפֵּךְ).”   אל תשתע: אל ימס לבך להיות כשעוה זו וזה הכלל כל תיבה שתחל' יסודה שי"ן כשבא לדבר בל' מתפעל התפעל או יתפעל התי"ו חולקת ונכנסת בין שתי אותיות שרשי התיבה כמו (ישעיה כט) וישתומם (מיכה ז) וישתמר חוקות עמרי (ש"א א) תשתכרין (איוב ל) תשתפך נפשי:
11Behold all those incensed against you shall be ashamed and confounded; those who quarreled with you shall be as nought and be lost.   יאהֵ֚ן יֵבֹ֙שׁוּ֙ וְיִכָּ֣לְמ֔וּ כֹּ֖ל הַנֶּֽחֱרִ֣ים בָּ֑ךְ יִֽהְי֥וּ כְאַ֛יִן וְיֹֽאבְד֖וּ אַנְשֵׁ֥י רִיבֶֽךָ:
12You may seek them but not find them, those who quarrel with you; those who war with you shall be as nought and as nothing.   יבתְּבַקְשֵׁם֙ וְלֹ֣א תִמְצָאֵ֔ם אַנְשֵׁ֖י מַצֻּתֶ֑ךָ יִהְי֥וּ כְאַ֛יִן וּכְאֶ֖פֶס אַנְשֵׁ֥י מִלְחַמְתֶּֽךָ:
13For I, the Lord your God, grasp your right hand; Who says to you, "Fear not, I help you."   יגכִּ֗י אֲנִ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מַֽחֲזִ֣יק יְמִינֶ֑ךָ הָֽאֹמֵ֥ר לְךָ֛ אַל־תִּירָ֖א אֲנִ֥י עֲזַרְתִּֽיךָ:
14Fear not, O worm of Jacob, the number of Israel; "I have helped you," says the Lord, and your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.   ידאַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ תּוֹלַ֣עַת יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מְתֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲנִ֚י עֲזַרְתִּיךְ֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְגֹֽאֲלֵ֖ךְ קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
O worm of Jacob: Heb. תּוֹלַעַת. The family of Jacob, which is weak like a worm, which has no strength except in its mouth. תּוֹלַעַת is vermener in O.F., [vermisseau in Modern French, a worm].   תולעת יעקב: משפחת יעקב החלשה כתולעת שאין לה גבורה אלא בפיה, תולעת וירמונ"א בלע"ז:
the number of Israel: Heb. מְתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, the number of Israel.   מתי ישראל: מספר ישראל:
15Behold I have made you a new grooved threshing-sledge, with sharp points; you shall thresh the mountains and crush them fine, and you shall make hills like chaff.   טוהִנֵּ֣ה שַׂמְתִּ֗יךְ לְמוֹרָג֙ חָר֣וּץ חָדָ֔שׁ בַּ֖עַל פִּֽיפִיּ֑וֹת תָּד֚וּשׁ הָרִים֙ וְתָדֹ֔ק וּגְבָע֖וֹת כַּמֹּ֥ץ תָּשִֽׂים:
a… grooved threshing sledge: It is a heavy wooden implement made with many grooves, similar to the ironsmiths’ tool known as ‘lime’ in French, a file, and they drag it over the straw of the ears of grain and it cuts them until they become fine straw.   למורג חרוץ: כלי הוא של עץ וכבד ועשוי חריצים חריצים כעין כלי נפחים של ברזל שקורין לימ"א בלע"ז וגוררין על הקשין של שבלין ומחתכן עד שנעשו תבן דק:
new: When it is new, before the points of its grooves are smoothed off, it cuts very much, but when it becomes old, the points of the grooves are smoothed off.   חדש: כשהוא חדש עד שלא הוחלקו פיות חריציו הוא חותך הרבה אבל משנתישן הוחלקו פיות חריציו:
with sharp points: Heb. פִּיפִיוֹת. Those are the points of the grooves.   בעל פיפיות: הם חידודי החריצין:
you shall thresh the mountains: kings and princes.   תדוש הרים: מלכים ושרים:
16You shall winnow them, and a wind shall carry them off, and a tempest shall scatter them, and you shall rejoice with the Lord, with the Holy One of Israel shall you praise yourself.   טזתִּזְרֵם֙ וְר֣וּחַ תִּשָּׂאֵ֔ם וּסְעָרָ֖ה תָּפִ֣יץ אֹתָ֑ם וְאַתָּה֙ תָּגִ֣יל בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה בִּקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תִּתְהַלָּֽל:
You shall winnow them: You shall scatter them, as with a pitchfork, to the wind.   תזרם: תזרה אותם כבמזרה לרוח:
and a wind shall carry them off: by themselves to Gehinnom.   ורוח תשאם: מאליהם לגיהנם:
Select a portion:
English translation © Judaica Press, all rights reserved.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.