Torah Reading for Noach

Parshat Noach
Shabbat, 6 Cheshvan, 5784
21 October, 2023
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Complete: (Genesis 6:9 - 11:32; Isaiah 54:1-10)
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First Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 6

9These are the generations of Noah, Noah was a righteous man he was perfect in his generations; Noah walked with God.   טאֵ֚לֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹ֣ת נֹ֔חַ נֹ֗חַ אִ֥ישׁ צַדִּ֛יק תָּמִ֥ים הָיָ֖ה בְּדֹֽרֹתָ֑יו אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹֽחַ:
These are the generations of Noah—Noah was a righteous man: Since Scripture mentions him, it tells his praise, as it is said (Prov. 10:7): “The mention of a righteous man is for a blessing.” - [Pesikta Rabbathi 12]. Another explanation [for why the names of the children are not mentioned immediately following “These are the generations of Noah”]: To teach you that the main generations [progeny] of the righteous are good deeds. — [Mid. Tan. Noah 2]   אֵלֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק: הוֹאִיל וְהִזְכִּירוֹ סִפֵּר בְּשִׁבְחוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר זֵכֶר צַדִּיק לִבְרָכָה (משלי י'). דָּבָר אַחֵר לִמֶּדְךָ שֶׁעִקַּר תּוֹלְדוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים:
in his generations: Some of our Sages interpret it [the word בְּדֹרֹתָיו] favorably: How much more so if he had lived in a generation of righteous people, he would have been even more righteous. Others interpret it derogatorily: In comparison with his generation he was righteous, but if he had been in Abraham’s generation, he would not have been considered of any importance. — [Sanh. 108a, Gen. Rabbah 30:9, Tan. Noach 5]   בדרותיו: יֵשׁ מֵרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דּוֹרְשִׁים אוֹתוֹ לְשֶׁבַח, כָּל שֶׁכֵּן אִלּוּ הָיָה בְדוֹר צַדִּיקִים הָיָה צַדִּיק יוֹתֵר; וְיֵשׁ שֶׁדּוֹרְשִׁים אוֹתוֹ לִגְנַאי, לְפִי דוֹרוֹ הָיָה צַדִּיק וְאִלּוּ הָיָה בְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם לֹא הָיָה נֶחְשָׁב לִכְלוּם (סנה' ק"ח):
Noah walked with God: But concerning Abraham, Scripture says (below 24:40): “[the Lord] before Whom I walked.” Noah required [God’s] support to uphold him [in righteousness], but Abraham strengthened himself and walked in his righteousness by himself. — [Tan. Noach 5]   אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ: וּבְאַבְרָהָם הוּא אוֹמֵר אֲשֶׁר הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי לְפָנָיו? (ברא' כ"ד), נֹחַ הָיָה צָרִיךְ סַעַד לְתָמְכוֹ, אֲבָל אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מִתְחַזֵּק וּמְהַלֵּךְ בְצִדְקוֹ מֵאֵלָיו:
walked: (הִתְהַלֶּךְ) is here in the past tense. The following is the usage of the “lammed”: in the “heavy” (כָּבֵד) form [this refers to conjugations with a dagesh in one of the root letters, in this case, in the lammed], one form can be used [both] for the future [really the imperative] and the past tense. For example, (Gen. ibid. 13): “Rise, walk (הִתְהַלֵּךְ)” is the future (i.e., imperative). “Noah walked (הִתְהַלֶּךְ)” is the past. (I Sam. 12:19): “Pray (הִתְפַּלֵּל) for your servants” is future (i.e., imperative), and (I Kings 8:42) “and he will come and pray (וְהִתְפַּלֵּל) toward this house” is past, only that the “vav” at the beginning converts it to the future. — [as explained by Mizrachi]   הִתְהַלֶּךְ־: לְשׁוֹן עָבָר, וְזֶהוּ שִׁמּוּשׁוֹ שֶׁל לָשׁוֹן, בְּלָשׁוֹן כָּבֵד מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְהַבָּא וּלְשֶׁעָבַר בְּלָשׁוֹן א', קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ (שם י"ג) לְהַבָּא, הִתְהַלֶּךְ נֹחַ לְשֶׁעָבַר; הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד עֲבָדֶיךָ (שמואל א' י"ב) לְהַבָּא, וּבָא וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה (מ"א ח') לְשׁוֹן עָבָר, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַוָּי"ו שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ הֲפָכוֹ לְהַבָּא:
10And Noah begot three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.   יוַיּ֥וֹלֶד נֹ֖חַ שְׁלשָׁ֣ה בָנִ֑ים אֶת־שֵׁ֖ם אֶת־חָ֥ם וְאֶת־יָֽפֶת:
11Now the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth became full of robbery.   יאוַתִּשָּׁחֵ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ לִפְנֵ֣י הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ חָמָֽס:
was corrupt: Heb. וַתִּשָּׁחֵת is an expression of immorality and idolatry. (other editions add: immorality, “for all flesh had corrupted (הִשְׁחִית) its way,” and idolatry), as in (Deut. 4:16): “Lest you deal corruptly (תַּשְׁחִיתוּן).” - [Sanh. 56b, 57a]   וַתִּשָּׁחֵת: לְשׁוֹן עֶרְוָה וַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה (סנה' נ"ז) כְּמוֹ פֶּן תַּשְׁחִתוּן (דב' ד'), כִּי הִשְׁחִית כָּל בָּשָׂר וְגוֹ':
and the earth became full of robbery: Heb. חָמָס, robbery. (other editions add: as it is said (Jonah 3:8): “and of the dishonest gain (הֶחָמָס) which is in their hands.”) - [Sanh. 108a]   וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ חָמָֽס: גֶּזֶל:
12And God saw the earth, and behold it had become corrupted, for all flesh had corrupted its way on the earth.   יבוַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְהִנֵּ֣ה נִשְׁחָ֑תָה כִּֽי־הִשְׁחִ֧ית כָּל־בָּשָׂ֛ר אֶת־דַּרְכּ֖וֹ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
for all flesh had corrupted: Even cattle, beasts, and fowl would mate with those who were not of their own species. — [from Tan. Noach 12]   כִּֽי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר: אֲפִלּוּ בְהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף נִזְקָקִין לְשֶׁאֵינָן מִינָן:
13And God said to Noah, "The end of all flesh has come before Me, for the earth has become full of robbery because of them, and behold I am destroying them from the earth.   יגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֜ים לְנֹ֗חַ קֵ֤ץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ בָּ֣א לְפָנַ֔י כִּי־מָֽלְאָ֥ה הָאָ֛רֶץ חָמָ֖ס מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם וְהִנְנִ֥י מַשְׁחִיתָ֖ם אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
The end of all flesh: Wherever you find promiscuity (and idolatry), a pestilence comes upon the world and kills both good and bad alike. — [from Gen. Rabbah 26:5] Note that parenthetic words do not appear in Gen. Rabbah, Lev. Rabbah, or in early mss. and printed editions of Rashi. We have translated אַנְדְרוֹלוּמוּסְיָה as pestilence, following Aruch. See below.   קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר: כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא זְנוּת וַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אַנְדְּרוֹלוֹמוּסְיָא בָּאָה לְעוֹלָם וְהוֹרֶגֶת טוֹבִים וְרָעִים.
for the earth has become full of robbery: Their verdict was sealed only because of robbery. — [from Sanh. 108a]   כִּי־מָֽלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס: לֹא נֶחְתַּם גְּזַר דִּינָם אֶלָּא עַל הַגֶּזֶל (סנה' ק"ח):
from the earth: [אֶת הָאָרֶץ] is similar מִן הָאָרֶץ: “from the earth.” Similar to this is (Exod. 9:29): “When I go the city” [meaning] “from” the city; (I Kings 15:23): “He was stricken his feet” [meaning] “from” his feet (i.e, he suffered from a foot ailment). Another explanation: אֶת הָאָרֶץ means “together with the earth,” for even the three handbreadths of the depth of the plowshare were blotted out and obliterated.   אֶת־הָאָרֶץ: כְּמוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ, וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ כְּצֵאתִי אֶת הָעִיר (שמ' ט'), מִן הָעִיר; חָלָה אֶת רַגְלָיו (מ"א ט"ו), מִן רַגְלָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר אֶת הָאָרֶץ – עִם הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁאַף ג' טְפָחִים שֶׁל עֹמֶק הַמַּחֲרֵשָׁה נִמֹּחוּ וְנִטַּשְׁטְשׁוּ:
14Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with compartments, and you shall caulk it both inside and outside with pitch.   ידעֲשֵׂ֤ה לְךָ֙ תֵּבַ֣ת עֲצֵי־גֹ֔פֶר קִנִּ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֶת־הַתֵּבָ֑ה וְכָֽפַרְתָּ֥ אֹתָ֛הּ מִבַּ֥יִת וּמִח֖וּץ בַּכֹּֽפֶר:
Make for yourself an ark: Many ways to bring relief and rescue are available to Him; why, then, did He burden him with this construction? In order that the people of the Generation of the Flood should see him occupying himself with it for one hundred twenty years and ask him, “For what do you need this?” And he would say to them, “The Holy One, blessed be He, is destined to bring a flood upon the world.” Perhaps they would repent. - [Aggadath Bereishith 1:2, Tan. Noach 5, Tan. Buber Bereishith 37, Gen. Rabbah 30:7]   עֲשֵׂה לְךָ תֵּבַת: הַרְבֵּה רֶוַח וְהַצָּלָה לְפָנָיו, וְלָמָּה הִטְרִיחוֹ בְּבִנְיָן זֶה? כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּהוּ אַנְשֵׁי דוֹר הַמַּבּוּל עוֹסֵק בָּהּ ק"כ שָׁנָה, וְשׁוֹאֲלִין אוֹתוֹ מַה זֹּאת לְךָ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָבִיא מַבּוּל לָעוֹלָם, אוּלַי יָשׁוּבוּ:
gopher wood: That is its name. Now why from this species (גֹפֶר)? Because of sulphur (גָפְרִית) with which it was decreed upon them to be blotted out. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi p. 66]   עֲצֵי־גופר: כָּךְ שְׁמוֹ. וְלָמָּה מִמִּין זֶה? עַל שֵׁם גָּפְרִית שֶׁנִּגְזַר עֲלֵיהֶם לִמָּחוֹת בּוֹ:
compartments: individual dwellings for each domestic animal and wild beast. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 23]   קִנִּים: מְדוֹרִים מְדוֹרִים לְכָל בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה:
with pitch: Heb. כֹּפֶר This is זֶפֶת in Aramaic, and we find in the Talmud (Shab. 67a, b, Ned. 51a, Git. 69b, B.M. 23b, 40a, 70a, Ar. 19a) the word כּוּפְרָא [meaning pitch]. In Moses’ ark [i.e., the ark in which Moses was placed in the Nile], since the water was calm, it was enough to have mud on the inside and pitch on the outside. Another reason: so that this righteous man [Moses] should not smell the bad odor of pitch. But here, because of the force of the water, he caulked it with pitch both inside and outside. — [from Gen. Rabbah 31:10, Sotah 12a]   בַּכֹּֽפֶר: זֶפֶת בְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, וּמָצִינוּ בַּתַּלְמוּד כּוּפְרָא בְּתֵבָתוֹ שֶׁל משֶׁה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיוּ הַמַּיִם תָּשִׁים דַּיָּהּ בְּחֹמֶר מִבִּפְנִים וְזֶפֶת מִבַּחוּץ; וְעוֹד, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָרִיחַ אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק רֵיחַ רַע שֶׁל זֶפֶת, אֲבָל כָּאן מִפְּנֵי חֹזֶק הַמַּיִם זִפְּתָהּ מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ:
15And this [is the size] you shall make it: three hundred cubits the length of the ark, fifty cubits its breadth, and thirty cubits its height.   טווְזֶ֕ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה אֹתָ֑הּ שְׁל֧שׁ מֵא֣וֹת אַמָּ֗ה אֹ֚רֶךְ הַתֵּבָ֔ה חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים אַמָּה֙ רָחְבָּ֔הּ וּשְׁלשִׁ֥ים אַמָּ֖ה קֽוֹמָתָֽהּ:
16You shall make a skylight for the ark, and to a cubit you shall finish it to the top, and the entrance of the ark you shall place in its side; you shall make it with bottom [compartments], second story [compartments], and third story [compartments].   טזצֹ֣הַר | תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לַתֵּבָ֗ה וְאֶל־אַמָּה֙ תְּכַלֶּ֣נָּה מִלְמַ֔עְלָה וּפֶ֥תַח הַתֵּבָ֖ה בְּצִדָּ֣הּ תָּשִׂ֑ים תַּחְתִּיִּ֛ם שְׁנִיִּ֥ם וּשְׁלִשִׁ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂהָ:
a skylight: Heb. צֹהַר, lit. light. Some say [that it was] a window, and some say [that it was] a precious stone, which gave them light. — [Gen. Rabbah 31:11]   צֹהַר: יֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים חַלּוֹן וְיֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים אֶבֶן טוֹבָה הַמְּאִירָה לָהֶם (ב"ר שם):
and to a cubit you shall finish it to the top: Its covering slanted upwards until it narrowed at the top to one cubit (Gen. Rabbah 31:11), so that the rain should run down (the following does not appear in certain editions) (from both sides) (Sanh. 108b, Maharsha).   וְאֶל־אַמָּה תְּכַלֶּנָּה מִלְמַעְלָה: כִּסּוּיָהּ מְשֻׁפָּע וְעוֹלֶה עַד שֶׁהוּא קָצָר מִלְמַעְלָה וְעוֹמֵד עַל אַמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּזוּבוּ הַמַּיִם לְמַטָּה מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן:
you shall place in its side: so that the rains should not fall into it.   בְּצִדָּהּ תָּשִׂים: שֶׁלֹּא יִפְּלוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים בָּהּ:
bottom [compartments], second-story [compartments], and third-story [compartments]: three stories, one above the other; the upper compartments were for people, the middle ones for [animal] dwellings, and the bottom ones for waste matter. — [from Sanh. 108b]   תַּחְתִּיִּם שְׁנִיִּם וּשְׁלִשִׁים: ג' עֲלִיוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּב זוֹ, עֶלְיוֹנִים לָאָדָם, אֶמְצָעִים לְמָדוֹֹר, תַּחְתִּיִּים לְזֶבֶל (שם):
17And I, behold I am bringing the flood, water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which there is the spirit of life, from beneath the heavens; all that is upon the earth will perish.   יזוַֽאֲנִ֗י הִֽנְנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אֶת־הַמַּבּ֥וּל מַ֨יִם֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ לְשַׁחֵ֣ת כָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ֙ ר֣וּחַ חַיִּ֔ים מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָ֖רֶץ יִגְוָֽע:
And I, behold I am bringing: Behold, I am ready to agree with those [angels] who urged Me long ago (Ps. 8:5): “What is man that You should remember him?” - [Gen. Rabbah 31:12]   וַֽאֲנִי הִֽנְנִי מֵבִיא: הִנְנִי מוּכָן לְהַסְכִּים עִם אוֹתָם שֶׁזֵּרְזוּנִי וְאָמְרוּ לְפָנַי כְּבָר מָה אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ (תה' ח'):
the flood: Heb. הַמַּבּוּל: that wore out (בִּלָּה) everything; that mixed up (בִּלְבֵּל) everything; that transported (הוֹבִיל) everything from the high [ground] to the low [ground]. This [the last interpretation] is [the basis for] the rendering of Onkelos: טוֹפָנָא, a flood [from טוּף, to float], because it caused everything to float and brought them down to Babylon, which is deep, and this is why it was called Shinar, because all those who died in the Flood were shaken out (נִנְעֲרוּ) there. — [Yer. Ber. 4:1, Gen. Rabbah 37:4]   מבול: שֶׁבִּלָּה אֶת הַכֹּל, שֶׁבִּלְבֵּל אֶת הַכֹּל, שֶׁהוֹבִיל אֶת הַכֹּל מִן הַגָּבוֹהַּ לַנָּמוּךְ; וְזֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן אֻנְקְלוֹס שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם טוֹפָנָא, שֶׁהֵצִיף אֶת הַכֹּל, וֶהֱבִיאָהּ לְבָבֶל שֶׁהִיא עֲמֻקָּה, לְכָךְ נִקְרֵאת שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁנִּנְעֲרוּ שָׁם כָּל מֵתֵי מַבּוּל:
18And I will set up My covenant with you, and you shall come into the ark, you and your sons, and your wife and your sons' wives with you.   יחוַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִ֥י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתָּ֑ךְ וּבָאתָ֙ אֶל־הַתֵּ֔בָה אַתָּ֕ה וּבָנֶי֛ךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ֥ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנֶי֖ךָ אִתָּֽךְ:
And I will set up My covenant with you: A covenant was necessary for the fruits, so that they should not rot and become putrid, and so that the wicked of the generation should not kill him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 31:12]   וַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי: בְּרִית הָיָה צָרִיךְ עַל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִרְקְבוּ וִיעַפְּשׁוּ וְשֶׁלֹּא יַהַרְגוּהוּ רְשָׁעִים שֶׁבַּדּוֹר (ב"ר):
you and your sons, and your wife: the men separately and the women separately. From here, we deduce that they were prohibited to engage in marital relations [in the ark]. — [Sanh. 108b]   אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ: הָאֲנָשִׁים לְבַד וְהַנָּשִׁים לְבַד; מִכָּאן שֶׁנֶּאֱסְרוּ בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה: (שם):
19And of all living things of all flesh, two of each you shall bring into the ark to preserve alive with you; they shall be male and female.   יטוּמִכָּל־הָ֠חַ֠י מִכָּל־בָּשָׂ֞ר שְׁנַ֧יִם מִכֹּ֛ל תָּבִ֥יא אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֖ה לְהַֽחֲיֹ֣ת אִתָּ֑ךְ זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה יִֽהְיֽוּ:
And of all living things: Even demons. — [Gen. Rabbah 31:13]   וּמִכָּל־הָחַי: אֲפִלּוּ שֵׁדִים (ב"ר):
two of each: Of the least [numerous] of them, there were no less than two, one male and one female.   שְׁנַיִם מִכָּל־: מִן הַפָּחוּת שֶׁבָּהֶם לֹא פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁנַיִם, אֶחָד זָכָר וְאֶחָד נְקֵבָה:
20Of the fowl after its kind and of the animals after their kind, of every creeping thing upon the ground after its kind; two of each shall come to you to preserve alive.   כמֵֽהָע֣וֹף לְמִינֵ֗הוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ מִכֹּ֛ל רֶ֥מֶשׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֖ה לְמִינֵ֑הוּ שְׁנַ֧יִם מִכֹּ֛ל יָבֹ֥אוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ לְהַֽחֲיֽוֹת:
Of the fowl after its kind: (Gen. Rabbah) [Note that this derash is not found in Gen. Rabbah, but in Tan. Noach 12] Those that mated with their kind, and did not corrupt their way, and came by themselves, and all that the ark accepted, [i.e., the ark repulsed the unfit animals and did not let them enter], he brought into it. — [Sanh. 108b, Tan. ad loc., Zev. 116a, Gen. Rabbah 32:8 from 7:16; Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 23 from ibid. 15; only Mid. Hagadol from this verse]   מֵֽהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ: אוֹתָן שֶׁדָּבְקוּ בְמִינֵיהֶם וְלֹא הִשְׁחִיתוּ דַרְכָּם, וּמֵאֵלֵיהֶם בָּאוּ, וְכֹל שֶׁהַתֵּבָה קוֹלַטְתּוֹ הִכְנִיס (ב"ר):
21And you, take for yourself of every food that is eaten and gather it in to you, and it shall be for you and for them to eat."   כאוְאַתָּ֣ה קַח־לְךָ֗ מִכָּל־מַֽאֲכָל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל וְאָֽסַפְתָּ֖ אֵלֶ֑יךָ וְהָיָ֥ה לְךָ֛ וְלָהֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָֽה:
22And Noah did; according to all that God had commanded him, so he did.   כבוַיַּ֖עַשׂ נֹ֑חַ כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֥ה אֹת֛וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים כֵּ֥ן עָשָֽׂה:
And Noah did: This refers to the building of the ark. — [Gen. Rabbah 31:14]   וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ: זֶה בִּנְיַן הַתֵּבָה:

Second Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 7

1And the Lord said to Noah, "Come into the ark, you and all your household, for it is you that I have seen as a righteous man before Me in this generation.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ לְנֹ֔חַ בֹּֽא־אַתָּ֥ה וְכָל־בֵּֽיתְךָ֖ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה כִּי־אֹֽתְךָ֥ רָאִ֛יתִי צַדִּ֥יק לְפָנַ֖י בַּדּ֥וֹר הַזֶּֽה:
for it is you that I have seen as a righteous man before Me: But it does not say: “a righteous man, perfect” [as it does in 6:9]. From here [we deduce] that we tell part of a person’s praise in his presence and all of it in his absence. — [Gen. Rabbah 32:3]   רָאִיתִי צַדִּיק: וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר צַדִּיק תָּמִים, מִכָּאן שֶׁאוֹמְרִים מִקְצַת שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם בְּפָנָיו וְכֻלּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו (ב"ר):
2Of all the clean animals you shall take for yourself seven pairs, a male and its mate, and of the animals that are not clean, two, a male and its mate.   במִכֹּ֣ל | הַבְּהֵמָ֣ה הַטְּהוֹרָ֗ה תִּקַּח־לְךָ֛ שִׁבְעָ֥ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ וְאִשְׁתּ֑וֹ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֡ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹ֣א טְהֹרָ֥ה הִ֛וא שְׁנַ֖יִם אִ֥ישׁ וְאִשְׁתּֽוֹ:
Of all the clean animals: that are destined to be clean for Israel. We learn [from here] that Noah studied the Torah. — [Zev. 116a]   הַטְּהוֹרָה: הָעֲתִידָה לִהְיוֹת טְהוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל; לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁלָּמַד נֹחַ תּוֹרָה (שם פ' כ"ו):
seven pairs: in order that he might offer up some as a sacrifice upon leaving [the ark]. — [Tan. Vayakhel 6]   שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה: כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּקְרִיב מֵהֶם קָרְבָּן בְּצֵאתוֹ:
3Also, of the fowl of the heavens, seven pairs, male and female, to keep seed alive on the face of the earth.   גגַּ֣ם מֵע֧וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם שִׁבְעָ֥ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה זָכָ֣ר וּנְקֵבָ֑ה לְחַיּ֥וֹת זֶ֖רַע עַל־פְּנֵ֥י כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Also, of the fowl of the heavens, etc.: Scripture speaks of the clean [fowl], and we learn that which is not explicit from that which is explicit. [i.e., Just as in the case of the animals, seven pairs of clean ones were to be brought into the ark, so was it in the case of the fowl, that seven pairs of clean ones were to be brought in, while of the unclean species, only one pair was to be saved.]   גַּם מֵעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו': בִּטְהוֹרִים הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, וְלָמַד סָתוּם מִן הַמְפֹרָשׁ:
4For in another seven days, I will make it rain upon the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will blot out all beings that I have made, off the face of the earth."   דכִּי֩ לְיָמִ֨ים ע֜וֹד שִׁבְעָ֗ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ מַמְטִ֣יר עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָ֑יְלָה וּמָחִ֗יתִי אֶת־כָּל־הַיְקוּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
For in another seven days: (Sanh. 108b) These are the seven days of mourning for the righteous Methuselah, for the Holy One, blessed be He, had consideration for his honor, and delayed the retribution. Go and calculate the years of Methuselah and you will find that they ended in the six-hundredth year of Noah’s life.   כִּי לְיָמִים עוֹד שִׁבְעָה: אֵלּוּ ז' יְמֵי אֶבְלוֹ שֶׁל מְתוּשֶׁלַח הַצַּדִּיק שֶׁחָס הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ וְעִכֵּב אֶת הַפֻּרְעָנוּת. צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב שְׁנוֹתָיו שֶׁל מְתוּשֶׁלַח וְתִמְצָא שֶׁהֵם כָּלִים בִּשְנַת ת"ר שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי נֹחַ (סנה' ק"ח):
For in another seven days: What is the meaning of “another” ? A [period of] time following a [period of] time; this [period] was added to the one hundred and twenty years. — [See Rashi 6:14]   כִּי לְיָמִים עוֹד: מַהוּ עוֹד? זְמַן אַחַר זְמַן זֶה נוֹסָף עַל ק"כ שָׁנָה:
forty days: Corresponding to the [time required for the] formation of the fetus, for they sinned by burdening the One Who formed them, by fashioning the forms of mamzerim (children born of incestuous and forbidden unions). - [Gen. Rabbah 32:5]   אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם: כְּנֶגֶד יְצִירַת הַוָּלָד, שֶׁקִּלְקְלוּ לְהַטְרִיחַ לְיוֹצְרָם לָצוּר צוּרַת מַמְזֵרִים:
5And Noah did, according to all that the Lord had commanded him.   הוַיַּ֖עַשׂ נֹ֑חַ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֖הוּ יְהֹוָֽה:
And Noah did: This refers to his entrance into the ark.   וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ: זֶה בִיאָתוֹ לַתֵּבָה:
6And Noah was six hundred years old, and the flood came about, water upon the earth.   ווְנֹ֕חַ בֶּן־שֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וְהַמַּבּ֣וּל הָיָ֔ה מַ֖יִם עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
7And Noah went in and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him into the ark because of the flood waters.   זוַיָּבֹ֣א נֹ֔חַ וּ֠בָנָ֠יו וְאִשְׁתּ֧וֹ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנָ֛יו אִתּ֖וֹ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה מִפְּנֵ֖י מֵ֥י הַמַּבּֽוּל:
And Noah…and his sons: The men separately and the women separately, because they were prohibited from engaging in marital relations since the world was steeped in pain. — [Tan. 11]   נֹחַ וּבָנָיו: הָאֲנָשִׁים לְבַד וְהַנָּשִׁים לְבַד, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱסְרוּ בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹלָם שָׁרוּי בְּצַעַר:
because of the flood waters: Noah, too, was of those who had little faith, believing and not believing that the Flood would come, and he did not enter the ark until the waters forced him to do so. — [Gen. Rabbah 32:6]   מִפְּנֵי מֵי הַמַּבּֽוּל: אַף נֹחַ מִקְּטַנֵּי אֲמָנָה הָיָה, מַאֲמִין וְאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִין שֶׁיָבֹא הַמַּבּוּל, וְלֹא נִכְנַס לַתֵּבָה עַד שְׁדְּחָקוּהוּ הַמַּיִם:
8Of the clean beasts and of the beasts that are not clean, and of the fowl, and all that creeps upon the earth.   חמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ הַטְּהוֹרָ֔ה וּמִ֨ן־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵינֶ֖נָּה טְהֹרָ֑ה וּמִ֨ן־הָע֔וֹף וְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־רֹמֵ֖שׂ עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
9Two by two they came to Noah to the ark, male and female, as God had commanded Noah.   טשְׁנַ֨יִם שְׁנַ֜יִם בָּ֧אוּ אֶל־נֹ֛חַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֖ה זָכָ֣ר וּנְקֵבָ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־נֹֽחַ:
they came to Noah: By themselves. — [Tan. Noach 12]   בָּאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ: מֵאֵלֵיהֶן:
two by two: They were all equal in this number; the smallest number was two.   שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם: כֻּלָם הֻשְׁווּ בְּמִנְיָן זֶה – מִן הַפָּחוּת הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם:
10And it came to pass after the seven days, that the flood waters were upon the earth.   יוַיְהִ֖י לְשִׁבְעַ֣ת הַיָּמִ֑ים וּמֵ֣י הַמַּבּ֔וּל הָי֖וּ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
11In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on this day, all the springs of the great deep were split, and the windows of the heavens opened up.   יאבִּשְׁנַ֨ת שֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֤וֹת שָׁנָה֙ לְחַיֵּי־נֹ֔חַ בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י בְּשִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂ֥ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה נִבְקְעוּ֙ כָּל־מַעְיְנוֹת֙ תְּה֣וֹם רַבָּ֔ה וַֽאֲרֻבֹּ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם נִפְתָּֽחוּ:
in the second month: Rabbi Eliezer says: This refers to Marheshvan; Rabbi Joshua says: this refers to Iyar. — [Seder Olam Rabbah, ch. 4]   בחודש הַשֵּׁנִי: רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר זֶה מַרְחֶשְׁוָן; רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר זֶה אִיָּר (ר"ה י"א):
were split: to emit their waters.   נִבְקְעוּ: לְהוֹצִיא מֵימֵיהֶן:
the great deep: Measure for measure. They sinned with [Gen. 6:5] “the evil of man was great,” and they were punished with “the great deep.” - [Sanh. 108a]   תְּהוֹם רַבָּה: מִדָּה כְנֶגֶד מִדָּה, הֵם חָטְאוּ בְּרַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם וְלָקוּ בִּתְהוֹם רַבָּה:
12And the rain was upon the earth for forty days and forty nights.   יבוַיְהִ֥י הַגֶּ֖שֶׁם עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָֽיְלָה:
And the rain was upon the earth: And further (verse 17) Scripture says: “Now the Flood was [upon the earth].” But when He brought them [the rains] down, He brought them down with mercy, so that if they would repent, they would be rains of blessing. When they did not repent, they became a flood. — [Midrash Hane’elam, Zohar Chadash 28a]   וַיְהִי הַגֶּשֶׁם עַל־הָאָרֶץ: וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר וַיְהִי הַמַּבּוּל? אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוֹרִידָן הוֹרִידָן בְּרַחֲמִים, שֶׁאִם יַחְזְרוּ יִהְיוּ גִּשְׁמֵי בְרָכָה; כְּשֶׁלֹּא חָזְרוּ הָיוּ לְמַבּוּל:
forty days, etc.: The first day does not count because its night was not included with it, [i.e., on the night preceding it, no rain fell] for it is written (verse 11): “on this day, all the springs were split.” The result is that the forty days ended on the twenty-eighth of Kislev, according to Rabbi Eliezer. For the months are counted according to their order, one full [composed of thirty days], and one defective [composed of twenty-nine days], leaving twelve days of Marcheshvan and twenty-eight of Kislev [totalling forty].   אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וגו': אֵין יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן מִן הַמִּנְיָן, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לֵילוֹ עִמּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי כְתִיב בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ כָּל מַעְיְנֹת, נִמְצְאוּ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם כָּלִים בְּכ"ח בְּכִסְלֵו לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֱזֶר, שֶׁהַחֳדָשִׁים נִמְנִין כְּסִדְרָן אֶחָד מָלֵא וְאֶחָד חָסֵר, הֲרֵי י"ב מִמַּרְחֶשְׁוָן וְכ"ח מִכִּסְלֵו:
13On this very day, Noah came, and Shem and Ham and Japheth, Noah's sons, and Noah's wife and his sons' three wives with them, into the ark.   יגבְּעֶ֨צֶם הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ בָּ֣א נֹ֔חַ וְשֵֽׁם־וְחָ֥ם וָיֶ֖פֶת בְּנֵי־נֹ֑חַ וְאֵ֣שֶׁת נֹ֗חַ וּשְׁל֧שֶׁת נְשֵֽׁי־בָנָ֛יו אִתָּ֖ם אֶל־הַתֵּבָֽה:
On this very day: Scripture teaches you that the people of his generation were saying, “If we see him going into the ark, we will break it and kill him.” Said the Holy One, blessed be He, “I will bring him in before the eyes of all, and we will see whose word will prevail!” - [Sifrei Ha’azinu 337]   בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה: לִמֶּדְךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁהָיוּ בְנֵי דוֹרוֹ אוֹמְרִים אִלּוּ אָנוּ רוֹאִים אוֹתוֹ נִכְנָס לַתֵּבָה, אָנוּ שׁוֹבְרִין אוֹתָהּ וְהוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי מַכְנִיסוֹ לְעֵינֵי כֻלָּם וְנִרְאֶה דְבַר מִי יָקוּם:
14They, and every beast after its kind, and every domestic animal after its kind, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird of every wing.   ידהֵ֜מָּה וְכָל־הַֽחַיָּ֣ה לְמִינָ֗הּ וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ וְכָל־הָרֶ֛מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וְכָל־הָע֣וֹף לְמִינֵ֔הוּ כֹּ֖ל צִפּ֥וֹר כָּל־כָּנָֽף:
bird of every wing: It [the word צִפּוֹר is in the construct state [meaning]: “birds of every type of wing,” to include locusts. (The word כָּנָף means feather, as (Lev. 1:17):“And he shall split it apart with its feathers (בִכְנָפָיו)” for even its feathers were included in the burnt offering. Here too, [the meaning is] any bird with any kind of appearance of feathers). [Chul. 139b]   צִפּוֹר כֹּל כָּנָֽף: דָבוּק הוּא, צִפּוֹר שֶׁל כָּל מִין כָּנָף, לְרַבּוֹת חֲגָבִים (כָּנָף לְשׁוֹן נוֹצָה, כְּמוֹ וְשִׁסַּע אֹתוֹ בִכְנָפָיו, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נוֹצָתָהּ עוֹלָה, אַף כָּאן צִפּוֹר כָּל מִין מַרְאִית נוֹצָה):
15And they came to Noah to the ark, two by two of all flesh in which there is the spirit of life.   טווַיָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־נֹ֖חַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה שְׁנַ֤יִם שְׁנַ֨יִם֙ מִכָּל־הַבָּשָׂ֔ר אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ ר֥וּחַ חַיִּֽים:
16And those who came male and female of all flesh came, as God had commanded him, and the Lord shut him in.   טזוְהַבָּאִ֗ים זָכָ֨ר וּנְקֵבָ֤ה מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ בָּ֔אוּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה אֹת֖וֹ אֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיִּסְגֹּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲדֽוֹ:
and the Lord shut him in: He protected him (Targum Onkelos) that they should not break it; He surrounded the ark with bears and lions, and they killed some of them (Tan. Buber Noach 10). The simple meaning of the verse is that He closed [the ark] in front of him against the water. Likewise, every בְּעַד in Scripture is an expression of “in front of.” (Below 20:18): “in front of (בְּעַד) every womb”; (II Kings 4:4): “in front of you (בַּעֲדֵךְ) and in front of (וּבְעַד) your sons”; (Job 2:4): “skin in front of (בְּעַד) skin” ; (Ps. 3:4): “a shield in front of me (בַּעֲדִי)”; (I Sam. 12:19): “Pray בְּעַד your servants,” meaning “in front” [on behalf] of your servants.   ויסגור ה' בַּֽעֲדֽוֹ: הֵגֵן עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁבְּרוּהָ, הִקִּיף הַתֵּבָה דֻּבִּים וַאֲרָיוֹת וְהָיוּ הוֹרְגִים בָּהֶם; וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא סָגַר כְּנֶגֶדוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם, וְכֵן כָּל בְּעַד שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא לְשׁוֹן כְּנֶגֶד הוּא, בְּעַד כָּל רֶחֶם (בראשית כ׳:י״ח), בַּעֲדֵךְ וּבְעַד בָּנַיִךְ (מ"ב ד'), עוֹר בְּעַד עוֹר (איוב ב'), מָגֵן בַּעֲדִי (תהלים ג'), הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד עֲבָדֶיךָ (שמואל א' י"ב) – כְּנֶגֶד עֲבָדֶיךָ:

Third Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 7

17Now the Flood was forty days upon the earth, and the waters increased, and they lifted the ark, and it rose off the earth.   יזוַיְהִ֧י הַמַּבּ֛וּל אַרְבָּעִ֥ים י֖וֹם עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּרְבּ֣וּ הַמַּ֗יִם וַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־הַתֵּבָ֔ה וַתָּ֖רָם מֵעַ֥ל הָאָֽרֶץ:
and it rose off the earth: It was submerged in the water eleven cubits like a loaded ship, which is partially submerged in the water, and the following verses prove this. — [from Gen. Rabbah 32:9] See Rashi below 8:3.   וַתָּרָם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ: מְשֻׁקַּעַת הָיְתָה בַּמַּיִם י"א אַמָּה כִסְפִינָה טְעוּנָה הַמְשֻׁקַּעַת מִקְצָתָהּ בַּמַּיִם; וּמִקְרָאוֹת שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ יוֹכִיחוּ:
18And the waters became powerful, and they increased very much upon the earth, and the ark moved upon the waters.   יחוַיִּגְבְּר֥וּ הַמַּ֛יִם וַיִּרְבּ֥וּ מְאֹ֖ד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַתֵּ֥לֶךְ הַתֵּבָ֖ה עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם:
became powerful: By themselves.   וַיִּגְבְּרוּ: מֵאֵלֵיהֶן:
19And the waters became exceedingly powerful upon the earth, and all the lofty mountains that were under the heavens were covered up.   יטוְהַמַּ֗יִם גָּֽבְר֛וּ מְאֹ֥ד מְאֹ֖ד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיְכֻסּ֗וּ כָּל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ הַגְּבֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־תַּ֖חַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
20Fifteen cubits above did the waters prevail, and the mountains were covered up.   כחֲמֵ֨שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה אַמָּה֙ מִלְמַ֔עְלָה גָּֽבְר֖וּ הַמָּ֑יִם וַיְכֻסּ֖וּ הֶֽהָרִֽים:
Fifteen cubits above: Above the peaks of all the mountains, after the waters were equal to [at the same level as] the mountain peaks. — [from Gen. Rabbah 32:11]   חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מִלְמַעְלָה: לְמַעְלָה שֶׁל גֹּבַהּ כָּל הֶהָרִים, לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻשְׁווּ הַמַּיִם לְרָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים:
21And all flesh perished that moved upon the earth, among the fowl, and among the cattle, and among the beasts, and among all creeping creatures that creep upon the earth and all mankind.   כאוַיִּגְוַ֞ע כָּל־בָּשָׂ֣ר | הָֽרֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ בָּע֤וֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבַ֣חַיָּ֔ה וּבְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְכֹ֖ל הָֽאָדָֽם:
22Everything that had the breath of the spirit of life in its nostrils, of all that were on the dry land, died.   כבכֹּ֡ל אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁמַת־ר֨וּחַ חַיִּ֜ים בְּאַפָּ֗יו מִכֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֶּחָֽרָבָ֖ה מֵֽתוּ:
the breath of the spirit of life: Heb. נִשְמַת, the breath (נְשָמָה) of the spirit of life [and not “soul”].   נִשְׁמַת־רוּחַ חַיִּים: נְשָׁמָה שֶׁל רוּחַ חַיִּים:
that were on the dry land: But not the fish, which were in the sea. — [Sanh. 108a]   אֲשֶׁר בֶּחָֽרָבָה: וְלֹא דָגִים שֶׁבַּיָּם (סנה' ק"ח):
23And it [the Flood] blotted out all beings that were upon the face of the earth, from man to animal to creeping thing and to the fowl of the heavens, and they were blotted out from the earth, and only Noah and those with him in the ark survived.   כגוַיִּ֜מַח אֶת־כָּל־הַיְק֣וּם | אֲשֶׁ֣ר | עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֗ה מֵֽאָדָ֤ם עַד־בְּהֵמָה֙ עַד־רֶ֨מֶשׂ֙ וְעַד־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַיִּמָּח֖וּ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּשָּׁ֧אֶר אַךְ־נֹ֛חַ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ בַּתֵּבָֽה:
And it blotted out: Heb. וַיִּמַח is in the וַיִּפְעַל form, the active voice, and not in the וַיִּפָּעֶל form, the passive voice. And this is of the form of וַיִּפֶן, he turned, וַיִּבֶן, he built. Every word [i.e., verb] whose root ends with a “hey,” e.g., בנה, to build, מחה, to erase, קנה, to acquire—when you prefix it with a “vav” and a “yud,” it is vowelized with a “chirik” under the “yud.” [Rashi teaches us that the meaning of the verse is not “and all beings were blotted out,” but “and it”—meaning the Flood—“blotted out all beings.”]   וַיִּמַח: לְשׁוֹן וַיִּפְעַל הוּא וְאֵינוֹ לָשׁוֹן וַיִפָּעֵל, וְהוּא מִגִּזְרַת וַיִּפֶן וַיִּבֶן כָּל תֵּבָה שֶׁסּוֹפָהּ הֵ"א, כְּגוֹן בָּנָה, מָחָה, קָנָה, כְּשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן וָי"ו יוֹ"ד בְּרֹאשָׁהּ, נָקוּד בְּחִירִק תַּחַת הַיּוֹ"ד:
and only Noah…survived: אַךְ means “only” Noah. This is its simple meaning, but the Midrash Aggadah (Tan. Noach 9) [states]: He was groaning and spitting blood because of the burden [of caring for] the cattle and the beasts, and some say that he delayed feeding the lion, and it struck him, and concerning him it is said (Prov. 11:31): “Behold a righteous man is requited [for his sins] in this world.” - [Tan. Noach 9]   אַךְ־נֹחַ: לְבַד נֹחַ, זֶהוּ פְּשׁוּטוֹ; וּמִדְרָש אַגָדָה גוֹנֵחַ וְכוֹהֶה דָם מִטֹּרַח הַבְּהֵמוֹת וְהַחַיּוֹת. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים שֶׁאִחֵר מְזוֹנוֹת לָאֲרִי וְהִכִּישׁוֹ, וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר הֵן צַדִּיק בָּאָרֶץ יְשֻׁלָּם (משלי יא):
24And the water prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.   כדוַיִּגְבְּר֥וּ הַמַּ֖יִם עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים וּמְאַ֖ת יֽוֹם:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 8

1And God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the cattle that were with him in the ark, and God caused a spirit to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided.   אוַיִּזְכֹּ֤ר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־נֹ֔חַ וְאֵ֤ת כָּל־הַֽחַיָּה֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ בַּתֵּבָ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲבֵ֨ר אֱלֹהִ֥ים ר֨וּחַ֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וַיָּשֹׁ֖כּוּ הַמָּֽיִם:
And God remembered: Heb. אֱלֹהִים. This name represents the Divine Standard of Justice, which was converted to the Divine Standard of Mercy through the prayer of the righteous. But the wickedness of the wicked converts the Divine Standard of Mercy to the Divine Standard of Justice, as it is said: (above 6:5ff.): “And the Lord (י-ה-ו-ה) saw that the evil of man was great, etc. And the Lord (י-ה-ו-ה) said, ‘I will blot out, etc.’” although that name is the name of the Divine Standard of Mercy. — [Gen. Rabbah 33:3, Succah 14a. That Noah prayed in the ark appears in Tan. Noach 11, Aggadath Bereishith 7:3, Sefer Hayashar].   ויזכור אֱלֹהִים: זֶה הַשֵּׁם מִדַּת הַדִּין הוּא, וְנֶהֶפְכָה לְמִדַּת רַחֲמִים עַל יְדֵי תְפִלַּת הַצַּדִּיקִים; וְרִשְׁעָתָן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים הוֹפֶכֶת מִדַּת רַחֲמִים לְמִדַּת הַדִּין, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר וַיַּרְא ה' כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם, וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה, (ברא' ו') וְהוּא שֵׁם מִדַּת רַחֲמִים:
And God remembered Noah, etc.: What did He remember regarding the animals? The merit that they did not corrupt their way before this [the Flood], and that they did not copulate in the ark. — [Tan. Buber Noach 11, Yer. Ta’an. 1:6]   ויזכור אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וגו': מַה זָּכַר לָהֶם לַבְּהֵמוֹת? זְכוּת, שֶׁלֹּא הִשְׁחִיתוּ דַרְכָּם קֹדֶם לָכֵן וְשֶׁלֹּא שִׁמְּשׁוּ בַּתֵּבָה:
and God caused a spirit to pass: A spirit of consolation and calm passed before Him. — [Targum Jonathan and Yerushalmi]   וַיַּֽעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ: רוּחַ תַּנְחוּמִין וַהֲנָחָה עָבְרָה לְפָנָיו:
over the earth: Concerning [events on] the earth.   עַל־הָאָרֶץ: עַל עִסְקֵי הָאָרֶץ:
and the waters subsided: Heb. וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ, like (Esther 2:1): “when the king’s fury subsided (כְּשֹׁךְ),” an expression of the calming of anger. — [from Tan. Buber Noach 12]   וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ: כְּמוֹ כְּשֹׁךְ חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ (אסתר ב') לְשׁוֹן הַנָּחַת חֵמָה:
2And the springs of the deep were closed, and the windows of the heavens, and the rain from the heavens was withheld.   בוַיִּסָּֽכְרוּ֙ מַעְיְנֹ֣ת תְּה֔וֹם וַֽאֲרֻבֹּ֖ת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וַיִּכָּלֵ֥א הַגֶּ֖שֶׁם מִן־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
And the springs…were closed: When they were opened, it was written (7: 11): “all the springs,” but here, “all” is not written, because some of them remained [open], those that were necessary for the world, such as the hot springs of Tiberias and the like. — [Gen. Rabbah 33:4]   וַיִּסָּֽכְרוּ מעינות: כְּשֶׁנִּפְתְּחוּ כְּתִיב כָּל מַעְיְנֹת; וְכָאן אֵין כְּתִיב כָּל, לְפִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּיְּרוּ מֵהֶם אוֹתָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם צֹרֶךְ לָעוֹלָם, כְּגוֹן חַמֵּי טְבֵרְיָא וְכַיוֹצֵא בָהֶן:
was withheld: Heb. וַיִכָּלֵא, and it was withheld, like (Ps. 40:12): “You will not withhold (תִכְלָא) Your mercies”; (Gen. 23:6): “[None of us] will withhold (יִכְלֶה) from you.”   וַיִּכָּלֵא: וַיִמָּנַע כְּמוֹ לֹא תִכְלָא רַחֲמֶיךָ (תהלים מ'), לֹא יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ (ברא' כג):
3And the waters receded off the earth more and more, and the water diminished at the end of a hundred and fifty days.   גוַיָּשֻׁ֧בוּ הַמַּ֛יִם מֵעַ֥ל הָאָ֖רֶץ הָל֣וֹךְ וָשׁ֑וֹב וַיַּחְסְר֣וּ הַמַּ֔יִם מִקְצֵ֕ה חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים וּמְאַ֖ת יֽוֹם:
at the end of a hundred and fifty days: they commenced to diminish, and that was on the first of Sivan. How so? On the twenty-seventh of Kislev, the rains stopped, leaving three days in Kislev and twenty-nine in Teveth, making a total of thirty-two days, and Shevat, Adar, Nissan, and Iyar total one hundred and eighteen [days], making a grand total of one hundred fifty [days]. — [Seder Olam ch. 4]   מִקְצֵה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמְאַת יֽוֹם: הִתְחִילוּ לַחֲסֹר וְהוּא אֶחָד בְּסִיוָן. כֵּיצַד? בְּכ"ז בְּכִסְלֵו פָּסְקוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים, הֲרֵי ג' מִכִּסְלֵו וְכ"ט מִטֵּבֵת הֲרֵי ל"ב, וּשְׁבָט וַאֲדָר וְנִיסָן וְאִיָּר קי"ח, הֲרֵי ק"נ:
4And the ark came to rest in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat.   דוַתָּ֤נַח הַתֵּבָה֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י בְּשִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂ֥ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ עַ֖ל הָרֵ֥י אֲרָרָֽט:
in the seventh month: Sivan, which is the seventh counting from Kislev, in which the rains stopped. — [from aforementioned source]   בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי: סִיוָן, וְהוּא שְׁבִיעִי לְכִסְלֵו שֶׁבּוֹ פָּסְקוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים:
on the seventeenth day: From here you learn that the ark was submerged in the water eleven cubits, for it is written: (verse 5) “In the tenth [month], on the first of the month, the mountain peaks appeared.” That is [the month of] Av, which is the tenth month counting from Marcheshvan, when the rains fell, and they were fifteen cubits higher than the mountains. They diminished from the first of Sivan until the first of Av fifteen cubits in sixty days, at the rate of a cubit in four days. The result is that on the sixteenth of Sivan they had diminished only four cubits, and the ark came to rest on the next day. You learn [from here] that it was submerged eleven cubits in the waters [which were] above the mountain peaks. — [from aforementioned source]   בְּשִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂר יוֹם: מִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁהָיְתָה הַתֵּבָה מְשֻׁקַּעַת בַּמַּיִם י"א אַמָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְתִיב בָּעֲשִׂירִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ נִרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים, זֶה אָב, שֶׁהִיא עֲשִׂירִי לְמַרְחֶשְׁוָן לִירִידַת גְּשָׁמִים, וְהֵם הָיוּ גְבוֹהִים עַל הֶהָרִים חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה, וְחָסְרוּ מִיּוֹם אֶחָד בְּסִיוָן עַד אֶחָד בְּאָב חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה לְשִּׁשִּׁים יוֹם, הֲרֵי אַמָּה לְד' יָמִים, נִמְצָא, שֶׁבְּי"ו בְּסִיוָן לֹא חָסְרוּ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת וְנָחָה הַתֵּבָה לְיוֹם הַמָּחֳרָת; לָמַדְתָּ, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשֻׁקַּעַת י"א אַמָּה בַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים:
5And the waters constantly diminished until the tenth month; in the tenth [month], on the first of the month, the mountain peaks appeared.   הוְהַמַּ֗יִם הָיוּ֙ הָל֣וֹךְ וְחָס֔וֹר עַ֖ד הַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֑י בָּֽעֲשִׂירִי֙ בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֔דֶשׁ נִרְא֖וּ רָאשֵׁ֥י הֶֽהָרִֽים:
in the tenth [month], etc., the mountain peaks appeared: This refers to Av, which is the tenth [month] from Marcheshvan, when the rain commenced. Now if you say that it refers to Elul, which is the tenth [month] from Kislev, when the rain stopped, just as you say: “in the seventh month,” refers to Sivan, which is the seventh [month] after the cessation [of the rain]; [I will tell you that] it is impossible to say this. You must admit [that] the seventh month can be counted only from the time that the rain stopped, because there did not end the forty days of the rains and the one hundred fifty days when the water gained strength, until the first of Sivan. And if you say that it refers to the seventh [month] from the [beginning of the] rain, it would not come out to be Sivan. The tenth [month] can be counted only from the time the rain commenced to fall, for if you say [that it is counted] from the time when the rain stopped, which is Elul, you would not understand (verse 13): “In the first [month], on the first [day] of the month, the waters dried up from upon the earth,” for at the end of the forty days, from when the mountain peaks appeared, he sent forth the raven, and he waited twenty-one days with sending the dove, totalling sixty days from the time the mountain peaks appeared until the surface of the earth dried. And if you say that they appeared in Elul, it would mean that they dried up in Marcheshvan. Scripture, however, calls it the first [month] and that can refer only to Tishri, which is the first [month] from the creation of the world, and according to Rabbi Joshua, it is Nissan.   בָּֽעֲשִׂירִי נִרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶֽהָרִֽים: זֶה אָב, שֶׁהוּא עֲשִׂירִי לְמַרְחֶשְׁוָן שֶׁהִתְחִיל הַגֶּשֶׁם. וְאִם תֹּאמַר הוּא אֱלוּל, וַעֲשִׂירִי לְכִסְלֵו שֶׁפָּסַק הַגֶּשֶׁם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי סִיוָן, וְהוּא שְׁבִיעִי לַהַפְסָקָה – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר כֵּן, עַל כָּרְחֲךָ שְׁבִיעִי אִי אַתָּה מוֹנֶה אֶלָּא לַהַפְסָקָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא כָלוּ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם שֶׁל יְרִידַת גְּשָׁמִים, וּמֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁל תִּגְבֹּרֶת הַמַּיִם עַד אֶחָד בְּסִיוָן; וְאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר שְׁבִיעִי לַיְרִידָה, אֵין זֶה סִיוָן, וְהָעֲשִׂירִי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְנוֹת אֶלָּא לַיְרִידָה, שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר לַהַפְסָקָה וְהוּא אֱלוּל, אִי אַתָּה מוֹצֵא בָּרִאשׁוֹן בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ חָרְבוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ; שֶׁהֲרֵי מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם מִשֶׁנִּרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים שִׁלַּח אֶת הָעוֹרֵב וְכ"א יוֹם הוֹחִיל בִּשְׁלִיחוּת הַיּוֹנָה, הֲרֵי שִׁשִּׁים יוֹם מִשֶּׁנִּרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים עַד שֶׁחָרְבוּ פְנֵי הָאֲדָמָה. וְאִם תֹּאמַר בֶּאֱלוּל נִרְאוּ, נִמְצָא שֶׁחָרְבוּ בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וְהוּא קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ רִאשׁוֹן, וְאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא תִּשְׁרֵי, שֶׁהוּא רִאשׁוֹן לִבְרִיאַת עוֹלָם, וְלְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא נִיסָן:
6And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark that he had made.   ווַיְהִ֕י מִקֵּ֖ץ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֑וֹם וַיִּפְתַּ֣ח נֹ֔חַ אֶת־חַלּ֥וֹן הַתֵּבָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה:
at the end of forty days: since the mountain peaks appeared.   מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם: מִשֶּׁנִּרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים:
the window of the ark that he had made: for light, and this is not the opening of the ark, which was made for going in and out.   אֶת־חַלּוֹן הַתֵּבָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָֽׂה: לְצֹהַר, וְלֹא זֶה פֶּתַח הַתֵּבָה הֶעָשׂוּי לְבִיאָה וִיצִיאָה:
7And he sent forth the raven, and it went out, back and forth until the waters dried up off the earth.   זוַיְשַׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָֽעֹרֵ֑ב וַיֵּצֵ֤א יָצוֹא֙ וָשׁ֔וֹב עַד־יְב֥שֶׁת הַמַּ֖יִם מֵעַ֥ל הָאָֽרֶץ:
and it went out, back and forth: Going and encircling around the ark, but it did not go to fulfill its errand because it [the raven] suspected him [Noah] concerning its mate, as we find in the Aggadah of [chapter] “Chelek.” - [from Sanh. 108b]   יָצוֹא וָשׁוֹב: הוֹלֵךְ וּמַקִּיף סְבִיבוֹת הַתֵּבָה, וְלֹא הָלַךְ בִּשְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה חוֹשְׁדוֹ עַל בַּת זוּגוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְּאַגָּדַת חֵלֶק (סנה' ק"ח):
until the waters dried up: The simple explanation is its apparent meaning, but the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 33:5) [explains that] the raven was destined for another errand during the lack of rain in the time of Elijah, as it is said (I Kings 17:6): “and the ravens brought him bread and meat.”   עַד־יְבשֶׁת הַמַּיִם: פְּשׁוּטוֹ כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ. אֲבָל מִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה מוּכָן הָיָה הָעוֹרֵב לִשְׁלִיחוּת אַחֶרֶת בַּעֲצִירַת גְּשָׁמִים בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָעֹרְבִים מְבִאִים לוֹ לֶחֶם וּבָשָׂר (מ"א י"ז):
8And he sent forth the dove from with him, to see whether the waters had abated from upon the surface of the earth.   חוַיְשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָ֖ה מֵֽאִתּ֑וֹ לִרְאוֹת֙ הֲקַ֣לּוּ הַמַּ֔יִם מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
And he sent forth the dove: seven days later, for it is written: “And he waited again another seven days.” From this general statement you learn that the first time too he waited seven days. — [Gen. Rabbah 33:6]   וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה: לְסוֹף ז' יָמִים שֶׁהֲרֵי כְתִיב וַיָּחֶל עוֹד ז' יָמִים אֲחֵרִים, מִכְּלַל זֶה אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁאַף בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הוֹחִיל ז' יָמִים:
And he sent forth: Heb. וַיְשַׁלַּח. This is not an expression of sending on a mission, but an expression of sending away. He sent it forth to go on its way, and thereby he would see whether the waters had abated, for if it would find a resting place, it would not return to him.   וַיְשַׁלַּח: אֵין זֶה לְשׁוֹן שְׁלִיחוּת אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן שִׁלּוּח, שִׁלְּחָהּ לָלֶכֶת לְדַרְכָּה, וּבְזוֹ יִרְאֶה אִם קַלּוּ הַמַּיִם, שֶׁאִם תִּמְצָא מָנוֹחַ לֹא תָשׁוּב אֵלָיו:
9But the dove found no resting place for the sole of its foot; so it returned to him to the ark because there was water upon the entire surface of the earth; so he stretched forth his hand and took it, and he brought it to him to the ark.   טוְלֹא־מָֽצְאָה֩ הַיּוֹנָ֨ה מָנ֜וֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלָ֗הּ וַתָּ֤שָׁב אֵלָיו֙ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֔ה כִּי־מַ֖יִם עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יָדוֹ֙ וַיִּקָּחֶ֔הָ וַיָּבֵ֥א אֹתָ֛הּ אֵלָ֖יו אֶל־הַתֵּבָֽה:
10And he waited again another seven days, and he again sent forth the dove from the ark.   יוַיָּ֣חֶל ע֔וֹד שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וַיֹּ֛סֶף שַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָ֖ה מִן־הַתֵּבָֽה:
And he waited: Heb. וַיָּחֶל, an expression of waiting, and so (Job 29:21): “They listened to me and waited (וְיִחֵלּוּ),” and there are many such instances in Scripture.   וַיָּחֶל: לְשׁוֹן הַמְתָּנָה, וְכֵן לִי שָׁמְעוּ וְיִחֵלּוּ (איוב כ"ט), וְהַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ בַּמִּקְרָא:
11And the dove returned to him at eventide, and behold it had plucked an olive leaf in its mouth; so Noah knew that the water had abated from upon the earth.   יאוַתָּבֹ֨א אֵלָ֤יו הַיּוֹנָה֙ לְעֵ֣ת עֶ֔רֶב וְהִנֵּ֥ה עֲלֵה־זַ֖יִת טָרָ֣ף בְּפִ֑יהָ וַיֵּ֣דַע נֹ֔חַ כִּי־קַ֥לּוּ הַמַּ֖יִם מֵעַ֥ל הָאָֽרֶץ:
it had plucked…in its mouth: Heb. טָרָף, lit. he had plucked. [Rashi interprets טָרָף as a verb in the masculine form. According to his reading, there would be an inconsistency in the verse: “He had plucked an olive leaf in her mouth,” because the subject (which is masculine) would not agree with the final prepositional phrase (which is feminine).] I say that it was a male. Therefore, Scripture sometimes refers to it in the masculine gender and sometimes in the feminine, because every יוֹנָה in Scripture is in the feminine gender, like (Song 5:12): “like doves beside rivulets of water, bathing (רֹחֲצוֹת)” ; (Ezek. 7:16): “like doves of the valleys, they all moan (הֹמוֹת)” ; and like (Hos. 7:11): “like a silly (פוֹתָה) dove.”   טָרָף בְּפִיהָ: אוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁזָּכָר הָיָה, לְכֵן קוֹרְאוֹ פְעָמִים לְשׁוֹן זָכָר וּפְעָמִים לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל יוֹנָה שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, כְּמוֹ כְּיוֹנִים עַל אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת (שיר ה'), כְּיוֹנֵי הַגֵּאָיוֹת כֻּלָּם הֹמוֹת (יחז' ז') וּכְמוֹ כְּיוֹנָה פוֹתָה (הושע ז'):
it had plucked: Heb. טָרָף,“he plucked.” The Midrash Aggadah explains it טָרָף as an expression of food, and interprets בְּפִיהָ as an expression of speech. It [the dove] said: Let my food be as bitter as an olive in the hands of the Holy One, blessed be He, and not as sweet as honey in the hands of flesh and blood. — [Sanh. 108b]   טָרָף: חָטַף. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה (עיר' י"ח) לְשׁוֹן מָזוֹן; וְדָרְשׁוּ בְּפִיהָ לְשׁוֹן מַאֲמָר, אָמְרָה יִהְיוּ מְזוֹנוֹתַי מְרוֹרִין כְּזַיִת בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלֹא מְתוּקִין כִּדְבַשׁ בִּידֵי בָשָׂר וָדָם:
12And he again waited another seven days, and he sent forth the dove, and it no longer continued to return to him.   יבוַיִּיָּ֣חֶל ע֔וֹד שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וַיְשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הַיּוֹנָ֔ה וְלֹא־יָֽסְפָ֥ה שֽׁוּב־אֵלָ֖יו עֽוֹד:
And he…waited: Heb. וַיִּיָּחֶל. This has the same meaning as וַיָּחֶל, except that the latter is the וַיַּפְעֶל form (the קַל conjugation), and the former is in the וַיִּתְפָּעֵל form (the reflexive conjugation). וַיָּחֶל is equivalent to וַיַּמְתֵּן (and he waited); וַיִּיָּחֶל is equivalent to וַיִּתְמַתֵּן (and he was patient).   וַיִּיָּחֶל: הוּא לְשׁוֹן וַיָּחֶל, אֶלָּא שֶׁזֶּה לְשׁוֹן וַיִּפְעַל וְזֶה לְשׁוֹן וַיִּתְפַּעֵל, וַיָּחֶל – וַיַּמְתֵּן; וַיִּיָּחֶל – וַיִּתְמַתֵּן:
13And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first [month], on the first of the month, that the waters dried up from upon the earth, and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and he saw, and behold, the surface of the ground had dried up.   יגוַיְהִ֠י בְּאַחַ֨ת וְשֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֜וֹת שָׁנָ֗ה בָּֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֔דֶשׁ חָֽרְב֥וּ הַמַּ֖יִם מֵעַ֣ל הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיָּ֤סַר נֹ֨חַ֙ אֶת־מִכְסֵ֣ה הַתֵּבָ֔ה וַיַּ֕רְא וְהִנֵּ֥ה חָֽרְב֖וּ פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
in the first [month]: According to Rabbi Eliezer, it is Tishri, and according to Rabbi Joshua, it is Nissan. — [from Rashi R.H. 12b] See above 7:11, 8:5.   בָּֽרִאשׁוֹן: לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הוּא תִּשְׁרֵי וּלְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא נִיסָן (ר"ה י"א):
dried up: It [the earth] became a sort of clay, for its upper surface had formed a crust. — [Seder Olam ch. 4, Gen. Rabbah 33:7, according to Yalkut Shim’oni]   חָֽרְבוּ: נַעֲשָׂה כְמִין טִיט, שֶׁקָּרְמוּ פָנֶיהָ שֶׁל מַעְלָה:
14And in the second month, on the twenty seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.   ידוּבַחֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י בְּשִׁבְעָ֧ה וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים י֖וֹם לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ יָֽבְשָׁ֖ה הָאָֽרֶץ:
on the twenty-seventh: And they [the rains] started to fall in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month. These are the eleven days by which the solar year exceeds the lunar year, for the judgment of the Generation of the Flood was for a whole year. — [from Eduyoth 2:10]   בְּשִׁבְעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים: יְרִידָתָן בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְי"ז בַּחֹדֶשׁ, אֵלּוּ י"א יָמִים שֶׁהַחַמָּה יְתֵרָה עַל הַלְּבָנָה, שֶׁמִּשְׁפַּט דוֹר הַמַּבּוּל שָׁנָה תְמִימָה הָיָה:
the earth was dry: It became dry earth, as it should be.   יָֽבְשָׁה: נַעֲשָׂה גָּרִיד כְּהִלְכָתָהּ:

Fourth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 8

15And God spoke to Noah saying:   טווַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־נֹ֥חַ לֵאמֹֽר:
16"Go out of the ark, you and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.   טזצֵ֖א מִן־הַתֵּבָ֑ה אַתָּ֕ה וְאִשְׁתְּךָ֛ וּבָנֶ֥יךָ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנֶ֖יךָ אִתָּֽךְ:
you and your wife, etc.: A man and his wife. Here He permitted them to engage in marital relations. See above 6:18, 7:7.   אַתָּה וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וגו': אִישׁ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ, כָּאן הִתִּיר לָהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה:
17Every living thing that is with you of all flesh, of fowl, and of animals and of all the creeping things that creep on the earth, bring out with you, and they shall swarm upon the earth, and they shall be fruitful and multiply upon the earth."   יזכָּל־הַֽחַיָּ֨ה אֲשֶׁר־אִתְּךָ֜ מִכָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר בָּע֧וֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָ֛ה וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֛מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ הַיְצֵ֣א (כתיב הוצא) אִתָּ֑ךְ וְשָֽׁרְצ֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ וּפָר֥וּ וְרָב֖וּ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
bring out: It is written הוֹצֵא, but it is read הַיְצֵא הַיְצֵא means: tell them that they should come out. הוֹצֵא means: if they do not wish to come out, you take them out. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:8]   הוצא: הוֹצֵא כְּתִיב, הַיְצֵא קְרִי, הַיְצֵא – אֱמֹר לָהֶם שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ; הוֹצֵא – אִם אֵינָם רוֹצִים לָצֵאת הוֹצִיאֵם אַתָּה:
and they shall swarm upon the earth: But not in the ark. This tells us that even the animals and the fowl were prohibited from mating. — [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   וְשָֽׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ: וְלֹא בַּתֵּבָה, מַגִּיד שֶׁאַף הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף נֶאֱסְרוּ בְתַשְׁמִישׁ:
18So Noah went out, and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him.   יחוַיֵּ֖צֵא־נֹ֑חַ וּבָנָי֛ו וְאִשְׁתּ֥וֹ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנָ֖יו אִתּֽוֹ:
19Every beast, every creeping thing, and all fowl, everything that moves upon the earth, according to their families they went forth from the ark.   יטכָּל־הַֽחַיָּ֗ה כָּל־הָרֶ֨מֶשׂ֙ וְכָל־הָע֔וֹף כֹּ֖ל רוֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם יָֽצְא֖וּ מִן־הַתֵּבָֽה:
according to their families: They accepted upon themselves the condition that they cleave to their own species.   למשפחותיהם: קִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם עַל מְנָת לִדָּבֵק בְּמִינָן:
20And Noah built an altar to the Lord, and he took of all the clean animals and of all the clean fowl and brought up burnt offerings on the altar.   כוַיִּ֥בֶן נֹ֛חַ מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּקַּ֞ח מִכֹּ֣ל | הַבְּהֵמָ֣ה הַטְּהֹרָ֗ה וּמִכֹּל֙ הָע֣וֹף הַטָּה֔וֹר וַיַּ֥עַל עֹלֹ֖ת בַּמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
of all the clean animals: He said, “The Holy One, blessed be He, commanded me to take in seven pairs of these only in order to offer up a sacrifice from them.” - [from Tan. Vayakhel 6, Gen. Rabbah 34:9]   מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הטהורה: אָמַר לֹא צִוָּה לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַכְנִיס מֵאֵלּוּ ז' ז' אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן מֵהֶם:
21And the Lord smelled the pleasant aroma, and the Lord said to Himself, "I will no longer curse the earth because of man, for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth, and I will no longer smite all living things as I have done.   כאוַיָּ֣רַח יְהֹוָה֘ אֶת־רֵ֣יחַ הַנִּיחֹ֒חַ֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־לִבּ֗וֹ לֹ֣א אֹ֠סִ֠ף לְקַלֵּ֨ל ע֤וֹד אֶת־הָֽאֲדָמָה֙ בַּֽעֲב֣וּר הָֽאָדָ֔ם כִּ֠י יֵ֣צֶר לֵ֧ב הָֽאָדָ֛ם רַ֖ע מִנְּעֻרָ֑יו וְלֹֽא־אֹסִ֥ף ע֛וֹד לְהַכּ֥וֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַ֖י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִֽׂיתִי:
from his youth: This is written מִנְּעֻרָיו [i.e., without a “vav,” implying that] from the time that he [the embryo] shakes himself [נִנְעָר] to emerge from his mother’s womb, the evil inclination is placed in him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:10]   מִנְּעֻרָיו: מנעריו כְּתִיב, מִשֶּׁנִּנְעַר לָצֵאת מִמְּעֵי אִמּוֹ נִתַּן בּוֹ יֵצֶר הָרָע:
I will no longer…and I will no longer: He repeated the words to denote an oath. That is what is written (Isa. 54:9): “That I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth,” and we do not find an oath concerning this matter except in this [statement, in] which He repeated His words, and this [repetition denotes that it] is an oath. So did our Sages expound in Tractate Shevuoth (36a).   לֹא אֹסִף וְלֹֽא־אֹסִף: כָּפַל הַדָּבָר לִשְׁבוּעָה; הוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי נֹחַ, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ בָהּ שְׁבוּעָה, אֶלָּא זוֹ שֶׁכָּפַל דְּבָרָיו וְהִיא שְׁבוּעָה וְכֵן דָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים בְּמס' שְׁבוּעוֹת:
22So long as the earth exists, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."   כבעֹ֖ד כָּל־יְמֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ זֶ֡רַע וְ֠קָצִ֠יר וְקֹ֨ר וָחֹ֜ם וְקַ֧יִץ וָחֹ֛רֶף וְי֥וֹם וָלַ֖יְלָה לֹ֥א יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ:
So long as the earth exists… shall not cease: Each of these six seasons has two months, as we learned: Half of Tishri, Marcheshvan, and half of Kislev are “seedtime.” Half of Kislev, Teveth, and half of Shevat are the “cold” season, etc. in B.M. (106b). (Other editions add: So long as the earth exists — Heb. עֹד means “always,” like (Num. 19:13): “his uncleanness is permanently (עוֹד) upon him.”)   עוד כָּל־יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ וגו' לֹא יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ: ו' עִתִּים הַלָּלוּ שְׁנֵי חֳדָשִׁים לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ חֲצִי תִשְׁרֵי וּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וַחֲצִי כִסְלֵו זֶרַע, חֲצִי כִסְלֵו וְטֵבֵת וַחֲצִי שְׁבָט קֹר (חֹרֶף) (ב"מ ק"ו):
cold: is more severe than winter.   קור: קָשֶׁה מֵחֹרֶף:
winter: Heb. חֹרֶף, the time for sowing barley and beans, which are early (חֲרִיפִין) to ripen quickly. The winter period is half of Shevat, Adar, and half of Nissan.   חרף: עֵת זֶרַע שְׂעוֹרִים וְקִטְנִית הַחֲרִיפִין לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל מַהֵר, וְהוּא חֲצִי שְׁבָט וַאֲדָר וַחֲצִי נִיסָן:
harvest: Half of Nissan, Iyar, and half of Sivan.   קציר: חֲצִי נִיסָן וְאִיָּר וַחֲצִי סִיוָן:
summer: קַיִץ. This is half of Sivan, Tamuz, and half of Av, which is the time of the gathering of the figs and the time when they dry them in the fields, and it (the dried fig) is קַיִץ, as (II Sam. 16:2): “the bread and the dried fruits (וְהַקַּיִץ) for the young men to eat.”   קיץ: חֲצִי סִיוָן תַּמּוּז וַחֲצִי אָב, הוּא זְמַן לְקִיטַת תְּאֵנִים וּזְמַן שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁים אוֹתָן בַּשָּׂדוֹת, וּשְׁמוֹ קַיִץ, כְּמוֹ הַלֶּחֶם וְהַקַּיִץ לֶאֱכוֹל הַנְּעָרִים (ש"ב ט"ז):
heat: That is the end of the sunny season, half of Av, Elul, and half of Tishri, when the world is hottest, as we find in Tractate Yoma (29a): The end of the summer is more severe than the summer.   חום: הוּא סוֹף יְמוֹת הַחַמָּה, חֲצִי אָב וֶאֱלוּל וַחֲצִי תִשְׁרֵי, שֶׁהָעוֹלָם חַם בְּיוֹתֵר; כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְּמַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָא שִׁלְהֵי קַיְיטָא קָשֵׁי מִקַּיְיטָא:
and day and night shall not cease: From here we deduce that they ceased for the duration of the Flood: the planets did not function, and day was indistinguishable from night. — [from Gen. Rabbah 25:2, 34:11]   וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה לֹא יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ: מִכְּלָל שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ כָּל יְמוֹת הַמַּבּוּל, שֶׁלֹּא שִׁמְּשׁוּ הַמַּזָּלוֹת, וְלֹא נִכַּר בֵּין יוֹם וּבֵין לַיְלָה (ב"ר פכ"ה ופ' ל"ד):
shall not cease: All these shall not cease to perform according to their natural course.   לֹא יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ: לֹא יִפְסְקוּ כָּל אֵלֶה מִלְּהִתְנַהֵג כְּסִדְרָן:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 9

1And God blessed Noah and his sons, and He said to them: "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.   אוַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־נֹ֖חַ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֖וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
2And your fear and your dread shall be upon all the beasts of the earth and upon all the fowl of the heaven; upon everything that creeps upon the ground and upon all the fish of the sea, [for] they have been given into your hand[s].   בוּמוֹרַֽאֲכֶ֤ם וְחִתְּכֶם֙ יִֽהְיֶ֔ה עַ֚ל כָּל־חַיַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְעַ֖ל כָּל־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּרְמֹ֧שׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵ֥י הַיָּ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶ֥ם נִתָּֽנוּ:
and your dread: Heb. וְחִתְּכֶם, means “your fear,” like (Job 6:21):“You see terror (חֲתַת).” According to the Aggadah (Shab. 151b), however, it is an expression of life (חַיּוּת) , for as long as an infant [even] one day old is alive, there is no need to guard him from mice, but if Og, the king of Bashan is dead, he must be guarded from mice, as it is said: “And your fear and your life shall be.” When will your fear be upon the creatures? As long as you are alive.   וְחִתְּכֶם: וְאֵימַתְכֶם, כְּמוֹ תִּרְאוּ חֲתַת (איוב ו') וְאַגָּדָה לְשׁוֹן חַיּוּת שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁתִּינוֹק בֶּן יוֹמוֹ חַי אֵין אַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְשָׁמְרוֹ מִן הָעַכְבָּרִים; עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן מֵת, צָרִיךְ לְשָׁמְרוֹ מִן הָעַכְבָּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה, אֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה מוֹרַאֲכֶם עַל הַחַיּוֹת? כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאַתֶּם חַיִּים (שבת קנ"א):
3Every moving thing that lives shall be yours to eat; like the green vegetation, I have given you everything.   גכָּל־רֶ֨מֶשׂ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוּא־חַ֔י לָכֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאָכְלָ֑ה כְּיֶ֣רֶק עֵ֔שֶׂב נָתַ֥תִּי לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־כֹּֽל:
shall be yours to eat: (Sanhedrin 59b) For I did not permit the first man [Adam] to eat meat, but only vegetation, but for you, just as the green vegetation which I permitted for the first man, I have given you everything.   לָכֶם יִֽהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה: שֶׁלֹּא הִרְשֵׁיתִי לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּשָׂר אֶלָּא יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב; וְלָכֶם – כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב שֶׁהִפְקַרְתִּי לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת כֹּל (סנה' נ"ט):
4But, flesh with its soul, its blood, you shall not eat.   דאַךְ־בָּשָׂ֕ר בְּנַפְשׁ֥וֹ דָמ֖וֹ לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ:
flesh with its soul: He prohibited them [to eat] a limb [cut off from] a living creature; i.e., as long as its soul is in it, you shall not eat the flesh. — [from Sanh. ad loc.] [i.e., if the limb is cut from the animal while it is alive, it is forbidden to be eaten even after the animal expires.]   בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ: אָסַר לָהֶם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי, כְּלוֹמַר כָּל זְמַן שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ, לֹא תֹאכְלוּ הַבָּשָׂר:
with its soul, its blood: As long as its soul is within it.   בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ: בְעוֹד נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ
flesh with its soul…you shall not eat: This refers to a limb of a living creature. And also, its blood, you shall not eat-This refers to blood of a living creature. — [from above source]   בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵֽלוּ: הֲרֵי אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי, וְאַף בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ, הֲרֵי דָם מִן הַחַי:
5But your blood, of your souls, I will demand [an account]; from the hand of every beast I will demand it, and from the hand of man, from the hand of each man, his brother, I will demand the soul of man.   הוְאַ֨ךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶ֤ם לְנַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶם֙ אֶדְר֔שׁ מִיַּ֥ד כָּל־חַיָּ֖ה אֶדְרְשֶׁ֑נּוּ וּמִיַּ֣ד הָֽאָדָ֗ם מִיַּד֙ אִ֣ישׁ אָחִ֔יו אֶדְר֖שׁ אֶת־נֶ֥פֶשׁ הָֽאָדָֽם:
But your blood: Even though I permitted you to take the life of animals, your blood I will demand of one who sheds his own blood [i.e., who commits suicide]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:13, B.K. 91b]   וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתַּרְתִּי לָכֶם נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה בַּבְּהֵמָה, אֶת דִּמְכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מֵהַשּׁוֹפֵךְ דַּם עַצְמוֹ:
of your souls: Also one who strangles himself, even though no blood issued from him. — [Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   לְנַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶם: אַף הַחוֹנֵק עַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ דָם:
from the hand of every beast: Since the Generation of the Flood had sinned, and they were abandoned as prey for the wild beasts, which would have power over them, as it is said (Ps. 49:13, 21): “he is compared to the silenced animals” ; therefore, it was necessary to warn the beasts about them [not to kill them]. — [from unknown midrashic sources]   מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה: לְפִי שֶׁחָטְאוּ דוֹר הַמַּבּוּל וְהֻפְקְרוּ לְמַאֲכַל חַיּוֹת רָעוֹת לִשְׁלֹט בָּהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר נִמְשַׁל כַּבְּהֵמוֹת נִדְמוּ (תהלים מ"ט), לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לְהַזְהִיר עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַחַיּוֹת:
and from the hand of man: From the hand of one who kills intentionally, without witnesses, I will demand [his life]. Cf. Targum Jonathan , verse 6.   וּמִיַּד הָֽאָדָם: מִיַּד הַהוֹרֵג בְּמֵזִיד וְאֵין עֵדִים, אֲנִי אֶדְרֹשׁ:
from the hand of each man, his brother: From the hand of the one who loves him like a brother, and killed him unintentionally, I will demand [punishment], if he does not go into exile nor beg that his iniquity be forgiven. For even the inadvertent sinner requires atonement. If there are no witnesses to sentence him to exile, and he does not humble himself, the Holy One, blessed be He, will demand it of him, as our Rabbis expounded [on the verse] (Exod. 21:13): “And God placed him into his hand,” in Tractate Makkoth (10b): the Holy One, blessed be He, causes them to meet at the same inn, etc. [The passage reads: What is this verse speaking of? Of two men, each of whom had murdered a person; one had murdered intentionally and one had murdered unintentionally. This one had no witnesses, and that one had no witnesses. The Holy One, blessed be He, causes them to meet at the same inn; the one who murdered intentionally sits under a ladder, and the one who murdered unintentionally climbs down the ladder, and falls upon him, killing him. The one who murdered intentionally is killed, and the one who killed unintentionally is exiled.]   מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו: שֶׁהוּא אוֹהֵב לוֹ כְאָח וְהָרַג שׁוֹגֵג, אֲנִי אֶדְרֹשׁ אִם לֹא יִגְלֶה וִיבַקֵּשׁ עַל עֲוֹנוֹ לִמָּחֵל, שֶׁאַף הַשּׁוֹגֵג צָרִיךְ כַּפָּרָה, וְאִם אֵין עֵדִים לְחַיְּבוֹ גָלוּת וְהוּא אֵינוֹ נִכְנָע, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דוֹרֵש מִמֶּנוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁדָּרְשוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ "וְהָאֱלֹהִים אִנָּה לְיָדוֹ" – בְּמַסֶּכֶת מַכּוֹת – הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְזַמְּנָן לְפֻנְדָּק אֶחָד וְכוּ':
6Whoever sheds the blood of man through man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God He made man.   ושֹׁפֵךְ֙ דַּ֣ם הָֽאָדָ֔ם בָּֽאָדָ֖ם דָּמ֣וֹ יִשָּׁפֵ֑ךְ כִּ֚י בְּצֶ֣לֶם אֱלֹהִ֔ים עָשָׂ֖ה אֶת־הָֽאָדָֽם:
through man shall his blood be shed: If there are witnesses, you kill him. Why? “For in the image of God, etc.”   בָּֽאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ: אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים הֲמִיתוּהוּ אַתֶּם, לָמָּה? כִּי בְצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים וגו':
He made man: This is an elliptical verse. It should read: “the Maker made man,” and there are many such instances in Scripture.   עָשָׂה אֶת־הָֽאָדָם: זֶה מִקְרָא חָסֵר, וְצָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת עָשָׂה הָעוֹשֶׂה אֶת הָאָדָם וְכֵן הַרְבֵּה בַּמִּקְרָא:
7And you, be fruitful and multiply; swarm upon the earth and multiply thereon."   זוְאַתֶּ֖ם פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֑וּ שִׁרְצ֥וּ בָאָ֖רֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָֽהּ:
And you, be fruitful and multiply: According to its simple meaning: the first [mention of this expression] (verse 1) was a blessing, and this [mention] is a commandment. According to its midrashic interpretation, [it is written here] to compare one who does not engage in propagation to one who sheds blood. — [from Yev. 63b]   וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ: לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לִבְרָכָה וְכָאן לְצִוּוּי. וּלְפִי מִדְרָשׁוֹ לְהַקִּישׁ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹסֵק בִּפְרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה לְשׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים (יבמות ס"ג):

Fifth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 9

8And God said to Noah and to his sons with him, saying:   חוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־נֹ֔חַ וְאֶל־בָּנָי֥ו אִתּ֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
9"And I, behold I am setting up My covenant with you and with your seed after you.   טוַאֲנִ֕י הִֽנְנִ֥י מֵקִ֛ים אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתְּכֶ֑ם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶ֖ם אַֽחֲרֵיכֶֽם:
And I, behold I: Agree with you, for Noah was afraid to engage in propagation until the Holy One, blessed be He, promised him never to destroy the world again, and so He did. He ultimately said to him, “Behold I agree to make a confirmation and a strengthening of a covenant for My promise, and I will give you a sign.” - [from Tan. Buber, Noach 17]   וַאֲנִי הִֽנְנִי: מַסְכִּים אֲנִי עִמְּךָ, שֶׁהָיָה נֹחַ דוֹאֵג לַעֲסֹק בִּפְרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה עַד שֶׁהִבְטִיחוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁחֵת הָעוֹלָם עוֹד, וְכֵן עָשָׂה וּבָאַחֲרוֹנָה אָמַר לוֹ הִנְנִי מַסְכִּים לַעֲשׂוֹת קִיּוּם וְחִזּוּק בְּרִית לְהַבְטָחָתִי וְאֶתֵּן לְךָ אוֹת:
10And with every living creature that is with you, among the fowl, among the cattle, and among all the beasts of the earth with you, of all those who came out of the ark, of all the living creatures of the earth.   יוְאֵ֨ת כָּל־נֶ֤פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתְּכֶ֔ם בָּע֧וֹף בַּבְּהֵמָ֛ה וּבְכָל־חַיַּ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ אִתְּכֶ֑ם מִכֹּל֙ יֹֽצְאֵ֣י הַתֵּבָ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל חַיַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
and among all the beasts of the earth with you: These are the ones that walk with people.   חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם: הֵם הַמִּתְהַלְּכִים עִם הַבְּרִיּוֹת:
of all those who came out of the ark: to include abominable creatures and creeping animals.   מִכֹּל יוצאי הַתֵּבָה: לְהָבִיא שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים:
the living creatures of the earth: to include the demons, which are not included in “every living creature that is with you,” for they do not walk with human beings.   חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ: לְהָבִיא הַמַּזִּיקִין, שֶׁאֵינָן בִּכְלַל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם, שֶׁאֵין הִלּוּכָן עִם הַבְּרִיוֹת:
11And I will establish My covenant with you, and never again will all flesh be cut off by the flood waters, and there will never again be a flood to destroy the earth."   יאוַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִ֤י אֶת־בְּרִיתִי֙ אִתְּכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת כָּל־בָּשָׂ֛ר ע֖וֹד מִמֵּ֣י הַמַּבּ֑וּל וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ע֛וֹד מַבּ֖וּל לְשַׁחֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
And I will establish: I will make a confirmation for My covenant, and what is its confirmation? The rainbow, as it [Scripture] proceeds to conclude. [Note that the Oxford ms. and the Guadalajara ed. read: the sign of the rainbow. However, our edition coincides with other early editions.]   והקמותי: אֶעֱשֶׂה קִיּוּם לִבְרִיתִי. וּמַהוּ קִיּוּמוֹ? אוֹת הַקֶּשֶׁת כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּסַיֵּם וְהוֹלֵךְ:
12And God said: "This is the sign of the covenant, which I am placing between Me and between you, and between every living soul that is with you, for everlasting generations.   יבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים זֹ֤את אֽוֹת־הַבְּרִית֙ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֣י נֹתֵ֗ן בֵּינִי֙ וּבֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵ֛ין כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתְּכֶ֑ם לְדֹרֹ֖ת עוֹלָֽם:
for everlasting generations: It [the word דֹרֹת] is written defectively [without the letter “vav”] because there were generations that did not require the sign because they were completely righteous, such as the generation of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, and the generation of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai (Gen. Rabbah 35:2).   לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָֽם: נִכְתַּב חָסֵר, שֶׁיֵּשׁ דּוֹרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא הֻצְרְכוּ לְאוֹת לְפִי שֶׁצַּדִּיקִים גְּמוּרִים הָיוּ, כְּמוֹ דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי (ב"ר):
13My rainbow I have placed in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Myself and the earth.   יגאֶת־קַשְׁתִּ֕י נָתַ֖תִּי בֶּֽעָנָ֑ן וְהָֽיְתָה֙ לְא֣וֹת בְּרִ֔ית בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵ֥ין הָאָֽרֶץ:
14And it shall come to pass, when I cause clouds to come upon the earth, that the rainbow will appear in the cloud.   ידוְהָיָ֕ה בְּעַֽנְנִ֥י עָנָ֖ן עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְנִרְאֲתָ֥ה הַקֶּ֖שֶׁת בֶּֽעָנָֽן:
when I cause clouds to come: when it comes to My mind to bring darkness and destruction to the world. — [from Gen. Rabbah 35:3]   בְּעַֽנְנִי עָנָן: כְּשֶׁתַּעֲלֶה בְמַחֲשָׁבָה לְפָנַי לְהָבִיא חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲבַדּוֹן לָעוֹלָם:
15And I will remember My covenant, which is between Me and between you and between every living creature among all flesh, and the water will no longer become a flood to destroy all flesh.   טווְזָֽכַרְתִּ֣י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר בֵּינִי֙ וּבֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵ֛ין כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּ֖ה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂ֑ר וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה ע֤וֹד הַמַּ֨יִם֙ לְמַבּ֔וּל לְשַׁחֵ֖ת כָּל־בָּשָֽׂר:
16And the rainbow shall be in the cloud, and I will see it, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and between every living creature among all flesh, which is on the earth."   טזוְהָֽיְתָ֥ה הַקֶּ֖שֶׁת בֶּֽעָנָ֑ן וּרְאִיתִ֗יהָ לִזְכֹּר֙ בְּרִ֣ית עוֹלָ֔ם בֵּ֣ין אֱלֹהִ֔ים וּבֵין֙ כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֔ה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
between God and between every living creature: Between the Standard of Justice of Heaven and between you, for it should have stated, “Between Me and every living creature!” But the following is its midrashic interpretation: When the standard of justice comes to accuse you (to condemn you), I will see the aforementioned sign. — [Gen. Rabbah 35:3] Other editions read: I will see the sign, and it will be remembered.   בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה: בֵּין מִדַּת הַדִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב בֵּינִי וּבֵין כָּל נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה, אֶלָּא זֶהוּ מִדְרָשׁוֹ כְּשֶׁתָּבֹא מִדַּת הַדִּין לְקַטְרֵג עֲלֵיכֶם לְחַיֵּב אֶתְכֶם, אֲנִי רוֹאֶה אֶת הָאוֹת וְנִזְכָּר:
17And God said to Noah: "This is the sign of the covenant that I have set up, between Myself and between all flesh that is on the earth."   יזוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־נֹ֑חַ זֹ֤את אֽוֹת־הַבְּרִית֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֲקִמֹ֔תִי בֵּינִ֕י וּבֵ֥ין כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
This is the sign of the covenant: He showed him [Noah] the bow and said to him, “Here is the sign of which I spoke.” [The expression, “This is,” always denotes that the object is being pointed out by the speaker. Cf. Rashi , Exod. 12:2, 30:13, Lev. 8:5, 11:2.]   זֹאת אֽוֹת־הַבְּרִית: הֶרְאָהוּ הַקֶּשֶׁת וְאָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי הָאוֹת שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי:

Sixth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 9

18And the sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and Ham he was the father of Canaan.   יחוַיִּֽהְי֣וּ בְנֵי־נֹ֗חַ הַיֹּֽצְאִים֙ מִן־הַתֵּבָ֔ה שֵׁ֖ם וְחָ֣ם וָיָ֑פֶת וְחָ֕ם ה֖וּא אֲבִ֥י כְנָֽעַן:
and Ham-he was the father of Canaan: Why was it necessary to say this here? Because the chapter proceeds to deal with Noah’s drunkenness, in which Ham sinned, and because of him Canaan was cursed, and since the generations of Ham were not yet written, and we do not know that Canaan was his son, it was necessary to say here, “and Ham-he was the father of Canaan.”   וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָֽעַן: לָמָּה הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר כָּאן? לְפִי שֶׁהַפָּרָשָׁה עֲסוּקָה וּבָאָה בְּשִׁכְרוּתוֹ שֶׁל נֹחַ שֶׁקִּלְקֵל בָּה חָם וְעַל יָדוֹ נִתְקַלֵּל כְּנַעַן, וַעֲדַיִן לֹא כָתַב תּוֹלְדוֹת חָם, וְלֹא יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁכְּנַעַן בְּנוֹ – לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר כָּאן וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן:
19These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the entire earth spread out.   יטשְׁלשָׁ֥ה אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹ֑חַ וּמֵאֵ֖לֶּה נָֽפְצָ֥ה כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
20And Noah began to be a master of the soil, and he planted a vineyard.   כוַיָּ֥חֶל נֹ֖חַ אִ֣ישׁ הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וַיִּטַּ֖ע כָּֽרֶם:
[And Noah] began: Heb. וַיָּחֶל. [This can be understood as] “he made himself profane,” for he should have first engaged in planting something different. — [Gen. Rabbah 36:3. I.e., he should not have planted a vineyard, from which wine is produced, but other trees.]   וַיָּחֶל: עָשָׂה עַצְמוֹ חֻלִּין, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לַעֲסֹק תְּחִלָּה בִּנְטִיעָה אַחֶרֶת (ב"ר):
a master of the soil: אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה, the master of the earth, like (Ruth 1:3): “Naomi’s husband (אִישׁ).” Rashi explains that Elimelech was called אִישׁ נָעָמִי because of his mastery over her. Cf. Commentary Digest ad loc.   אִישׁ הָֽאֲדָמָה: אֲדוֹנֵי הָאֲדָמָה כְּמוֹ אִישׁ נָעֳמִי (רות א'):
and he planted a vineyard: When he entered the ark, he brought with him vine branches and shoots of fig trees. — [from Gen. Rabbah 36:3]   וַיִּטַּע כָּֽרֶם: כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַס לַתֵּבָה הִכְנִיס עִמּוֹ זְמוֹרוֹת וְיִחוּרֵי תְאֵנִים (ב"ר):
21And he drank of the wine and became drunk, and he uncovered himself within his tent.   כאוַיֵּ֥שְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּ֖יִן וַיִּשְׁכָּ֑ר וַיִּתְגַּ֖ל בְּת֥וֹךְ אָֽהֳלֹֽה:
his tent: it is written אָהֳלֹה [and not the usual אָהֳלוֹ]. This alludes to the Ten Tribes, who were referred to by the name of Samaria, which was called Oholah [אָהֳלָה] (Ez. 23:4), who were exiled on account of wine, as is written (Amos 6:6): “who drink from basins of wine.” - [from Tan. Buber, Noach 21]   וַיִּתְגַּל: לְשׁוֹן וַיִּתְפַּעֵל:
and he uncovered himself: Heb. וַיִּתְגַּל, the הִתְפָּעֵל conjugation [the reflexive].   אָֽהֳלֹֽה: אהלה כְּתִיב, רֶמֶז לְי' שְׁבָטִים שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם שׁוֹמְרוֹן, שֶׁנִּקְרֵאת אָהֳלָה שֶׁגָּלוּ עַל עִסְקֵי הַיַּיִן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן (עמוס ו'):
22And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father's nakedness, and he told his two brothers outside.   כבוַיַּ֗רְא חָ֚ם אֲבִ֣י כְנַ֔עַן אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יו וַיַּגֵּ֥ד לִשְׁנֵֽי־אֶחָ֖יו בַּחֽוּץ:
And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw: (Gen. Rabbah 36:7) Some of our Sages say: Canaan saw and told his father; therefore, he was mentioned regarding the matter, and he was cursed.   וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן: יֵשׁ מֵרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אוֹמְרִים כְּנַעַן רָאָה וְהִגִּיד לְאָבִיו, לְכָךְ הֻזְכַּר עַל הַדָּבָר וְנִתְקַלֵּל (ב"ר):
saw his father’s nakedness: Some say that he castrated him, and some say that he sodomized him. — [from Sanh. 70a]   וַיַּרְא אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו: יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים סֵרְסוֹ וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים רְבָעוֹ (סנה' ע'):
23And Shem and Japheth took the garment, and they placed [it] on both of their shoulders, and they walked backwards, and they covered their father's nakedness, and their faces were turned backwards, so that they did not see their father's nakedness.   כגוַיִּקַּח֩ שֵׁ֨ם וָיֶ֜פֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָ֗ה וַיָּשִׂ֨ימוּ֙ עַל־שְׁכֶ֣ם שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וַיְכַסּ֕וּ אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֑ם וּפְנֵיהֶם֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲבִיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ:
And Shem and Japheth took: Heb. וַיִּקַּח. It does not say וַיִּקְחוּ (the plural form), but וַיִּקַּח, the singular form. This teaches us about Shem, that he exerted himself to fulfill the commandment more than Japheth. Therefore, his sons merited a tallith with fringes, and Japheth merited burial for his sons, as it is said (Ezek. 39:11): “I will give Gog a place there as a grave in Israel.” But Ham, who disgraced his father—it is stated about his seed (Isa. 20:4): “So shall the king of Assyria lead the captivity of Egypt and the exile of Cush, youths and old men, naked and barefoot, with bare buttocks, etc.” - [from Tan Buber Noach 16, Gen. Rabbah 36:6]   וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת: אֵין כְּתִיב וַיִּקְחוּ, אֶלָּא וַיִּקַּח – לִמֵּד עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנִּתְאַמֵּץ בַּמִּצְוָה יוֹתֵר מִיֶּפֶת, לְכָךְ זָכוּ בָנָיו לְטַלִּית שֶׁל צִיצִית, וְיֶפֶת זָכָה לִקְבוּרָה לְבָנָיו, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר אֶתֵּן לְגוֹג מְקוֹם שָׁם קֶבֶר (יחזקאל ל"ט), וְחָם שֶׁבִּזָּה אֶת אָבִיו נֶאֱמַר בְּזַרְעוֹ כֵּן יִנְהַג מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר אֶת שְׁבִי מִצְרַיִם וְאֶת גָּלוּת כּוּשׁ נְעָרִים וּזְקֵנִים עָרוֹם וְיָחֵף וַחֲשׂוּפַי שֵׁת וְגוֹ' (ישעיהו כ'):
and their faces were turned backwards: Why is this stated a second time? This teaches that when they drew near to him and they had to turn around to cover him, they turned their faces backwards.   וּפְנֵיהֶם אחורנית: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכְּשֶׁקָּרְבוּ אֶצְלוֹ וְהֻצְרְכוּ לַהֲפֹךְ עַצְמָם לְכַסּוֹתוֹ הָפְכוּ פְנֵיהֶם אֲחוֹרַנִּית:
24And Noah awoke from his wine, and he knew what his small son had done to him.   כדוַיִּ֥יקֶץ נֹ֖חַ מִיֵּינ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֕דַע אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ בְּנ֥וֹ הַקָּטָֽן:
his small son: The worthless and despicable one, like (Jer. 49:15): “Behold I have made you small among the nations; despised among men.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 16:7]   בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָֽן: הַפָּסוּל וְהַבָּזוּי, כְּמוֹ הִנֵּה קָטֹן נְתַתִּיךָ בַּגּוֹיִם בָּזוּי בָּאָדָם (ירמיה מ"ט):
25And he said, "Cursed be Canaan; he shall be a slave among slaves to his brethren."   כהוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָר֣וּר כְּנָ֑עַן עֶ֥בֶד עֲבָדִ֖ים יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְאֶחָֽיו:
Cursed be Canaan: You have caused me to be incapable of begetting another fourth son (Gen. Rabbah , manuscripts, and early editions read: a fourth son) to serve me. Cursed be your fourth son, that he should minister to the children of these older ones [Shem and Japhet], upon whom the burden of serving me has been placed from now on (Gen. Rabbah 36:7). Now what did Ham see (what reason did he have) that he castrated him? He said to his brothers,“The first man [Adam] had two sons, and one killed the other so as to inherit the world, and our father has three sons, and he still desires a fourth son!” - [from Gen. Rabbah ibid. 5, 22:7]   אָרוּר כְּנָעַן: אַתָּה גָרַמְתָּ לִי שֶׁלֹּא אוֹלִיד בֵּן רְבִיעִי אַחֵר לְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, אָרוּר בִּנְךָ רְבִיעִי לִהְיוֹת מְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת זַרְעָם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים, שֶׁהוּטַל עֲלֵיהֶם טֹרַח עֲבוֹדָתִי מֵעַתָּה. וּמָה רָאָה חָם שֶׁסֵּרְסוֹ? אָמַר לָהֶם לְאֶחָיו אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שְׁנֵי בָנִים הָיוּ לוֹ, וְהָרַג זֶה אֶת זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל יְרֻשַּׁת הָעוֹלָם, וְאָבִינוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ ג' בָּנִים וְעוֹדֶנּוּ מְבַקֵּשׁ בֵּן רְבִיעִי:
26And he said, "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem, and may Canaan be a slave to them.   כווַיֹּ֕אמֶר בָּר֥וּךְ יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹ֣הֵי שֵׁ֑ם וִיהִ֥י כְנַ֖עַן עֶ֥בֶד לָֽמוֹ:
Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem: Who is destined to keep His promise to his seed to give them the land of Canaan.   בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם: שֶׁעָתִיד לִשְׁמֹר הַבְטָחָתוֹ לְזַרְעוֹ, לָתֵת לָהֶם אֶת אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן:
be: [and let] Canaan be to them a vassal paying tribute.   וִיהִי: לָהֶם כְּנַעַן לְמַס עוֹבֵד:
27May God expand Japheth, and may He dwell in the tents of Shem, and may Canaan be a slave to them."   כזיַ֤פְתְּ אֱלֹהִים֙ לְיֶ֔פֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּ֖ן בְּאָֽהֳלֵי־שֵׁ֑ם וִיהִ֥י כְנַ֖עַן עֶ֥בֶד לָֽמוֹ:
May God expand Japheth: Translated by the Targum as יַפְתֵּי, meaning: He will widen [or expand]. Cf. Targum Onkelos, Deut. 12:20,19:8.   יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת: מְתֻרְגָּם יַפְתֵּי, יַרְחִיב:
and may He dwell in the tents of Shem: May He cause His Presence to rest in Israel. The interpretation of the Sages, however is: Although God will beautify Japheth, insofar as Cyrus, who was of the sons of Japheth, built the Second Temple, the Shechinah did not rest therein. But where did it rest? In the First Temple, built by Solomon, who was of the sons of Shem. — [from Yoma 9b, 10a]   וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָֽהֳלֵי־שֵׁם: יַשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. וּמִדְרַשׁ חֲכָמִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת – שֶׁבָּנָה כֹּרֶשׁ, שֶׁהָיָה מִבְּנֵי יֶפֶת, בַּיִת שֵׁנִי – לֹא שָׁרְתָה בּוֹ שְׁכִינָה; וְהֵיכָן שָׁרְתָה? בְּמִקְדָשׁ רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבָּנָה שְׁלֹמֹה שֶׁהָיָה מִבְּנֵי שֵׁם:
and may Canaan be a slave: Even after the descendants of Shem are exiled, some of the descendants of Canaan will be sold to them as slaves.   וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָֽמוֹ: אַף מִשֶּׁיִּגְלוּ בְנֵי שֵׁם יִמָּכְרוּ לָהֶם עֲבָדִים מִבְּנֵי כְּנַעַן:
28And Noah lived after the Flood, three hundred and fifty years.   כחוַֽיְחִי־נֹ֖חַ אַחַ֣ר הַמַּבּ֑וּל שְׁל֤שׁ מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָֽה:
29And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.   כטוַֽיְהִי֙ כָּל־יְמֵי־נֹ֔חַ תְּשַׁ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 10

1And these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and sons were born to them after the Flood.   אוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ תּֽוֹלְדֹ֣ת בְּנֵי־נֹ֔חַ שֵׁ֖ם חָ֣ם וָיָ֑פֶת וַיִּוָּֽלְד֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם בָּנִ֖ים אַחַ֥ר הַמַּבּֽוּל:
2The sons of Japheth were Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal, and Meshech and Tiras.   בבְּנֵ֣י יֶ֔פֶת גֹּ֣מֶר וּמָג֔וֹג וּמָדַ֖י וְיָוָ֣ן וְתֻבָ֑ל וּמֶ֖שֶׁךְ וְתִירָֽס:
Tiras: This is Persia. — [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc., Yoma 10a]   וְתִירָֽס: זוֹ פָּרַס (ב"ר):
3And the sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah.   גוּבְנֵ֖י גֹּ֑מֶר אַשְׁכְּנַ֥ז וְרִיפַ֖ת וְתֹֽגַרְמָֽה:
4And the sons of Javan were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.   דוּבְנֵ֥י יָוָ֖ן אֱלִישָׁ֣ה וְתַרְשִׁ֑ישׁ כִּתִּ֖ים וְדֹֽדָנִֽים:
5From these, the islands of the nations separated in their lands, each one to his language, according to their families, in their nations.   המֵאֵ֠לֶּה נִפְרְד֞וּ אִיֵּ֤י הַגּוֹיִם֙ בְּאַרְצֹתָ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ לִלְשֹׁנ֑וֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם בְּגֽוֹיֵהֶֽם:
6And the sons of Ham were Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.   ווּבְנֵ֖י חָ֑ם כּ֥וּשׁ וּמִצְרַ֖יִם וּפ֥וּט וּכְנָֽעַן:
7And the sons of Cush were Seba and Havilah and Sabta and Raamah and Sabtecha, and the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.   זוּבְנֵ֣י כ֔וּשׁ סְבָא֙ וַֽחֲוִילָ֔ה וְסַבְתָּ֥ה וְרַעְמָ֖ה וְסַבְתְּכָ֑א וּבְנֵ֥י רַעְמָ֖ה שְׁבָ֥א וּדְדָֽן:
8And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty man in the land.   חוְכ֖וּשׁ יָלַ֣ד אֶת־נִמְרֹ֑ד ה֣וּא הֵחֵ֔ל לִֽהְי֥וֹת גִּבֹּ֖ר בָּאָֽרֶץ:
he began to be a mighty man: to cause the entire world to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He, with the plan of the Generation of the Dispersion. — [from Eruv. 53a, Chul. 89a]   לִֽהְיוֹת גבור: לְהַמְרִיד כָּל הָעוֹלָם עַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בַּעֲצַת דוֹר הַפַּלָּגָה:
9He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord."   טהֽוּא־הָיָ֥ה גִּבֹּֽר־צַ֖יִד לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה עַל־כֵּן֙ יֵֽאָמַ֔ר כְּנִמְרֹ֛ד גִּבּ֥וֹר צַ֖יִד לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
a mighty hunter: He ensnared people’s minds with his speech and misled them to rebel against the Omnipresent. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:2]   גִּבֹּֽר־צַיִד: צָד דַּעְתָּן שֶׁל בְּרִיוֹת בְּפִיו, וּמַטְעָן לִמְרֹד בַּמָּקוֹם:
before the Lord: He intended to provoke Him to His face. — [from Sifra Bechukkothai 2:2]   לִפְנֵי ה': מִתְכַּוֵן לְהַקְנִיטוֹ עַל פָּנָיו:
therefore it is said: About any man who is brazenly wicked, who recognizes his Master and intends to rebel [לִמְרֹד] against Him, it is said, “This one is like Nimrod [נִמְרֹד], a mighty hunter.”   עַל־כֵּן יֵֽאָמַר: עַל כָּל אָדָם מַרְשִׁיעַ בְּעַזּוּת פָּנִים, יוֹדֵע רִבּוֹנוֹ וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִמְרֹד בּוֹ, יֵאָמֵר זֶה כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד:
10And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.   יוַתְּהִ֨י רֵאשִׁ֤ית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ֙ בָּבֶ֔ל וְאֶ֖רֶךְ וְאַכַּ֣ד וְכַלְנֵ֑ה בְּאֶ֖רֶץ שִׁנְעָֽר:
11From that land emerged Asshur, and he built Nineveh and Rehoboth ir and Calah.   יאמִן־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַהִ֖וא יָצָ֣א אַשּׁ֑וּר וַיִּ֨בֶן֙ אֶת־נִ֣ינְוֵ֔ה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹ֥ת עִ֖יר וְאֶת־כָּֽלַח:
From that land: Since Asshur saw his sons obeying Nimrod and rebelling against the Omnipresent by building the tower, he departed from their midst. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:4]   מִן־הָאָרֶץ וגו': כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אַשּׁוּר אֶת בָּנָיו שׁוֹמְעִין לְנִמְרוֹד וּמוֹרְדִין בַּמָקוֹם לִבְנוֹת הַמִּגְדָּל יָצָא מִתּוֹכָם:
12And Resen, between Nineveh and between Calah; that is the great city.   יבוְאֶת־רֶ֕סֶן בֵּ֥ין נִֽינְוֵ֖ה וּבֵ֣ין כָּ֑לַח הִ֖וא הָעִ֥יר הַגְּדֹלָֽה:
the great city: This is Nineveh, as it is said (Jonah 3: 3): “Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city to God.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 37:4, Yoma 10a] [i.e., Scripture is referring to Nineveh, not to Resen or Calah.]   הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָֽה: הִיא נִינְוֵה שֶׁנֶּ' וְנִינְוֵה הָיְתָה עִיר גְּדוֹלָה לֵאלֹהִים (יונה ג'):
13And Mizraim begot the Ludim and the Anamim and the Lehabim and the Naphtuhim,   יגוּמִצְרַ֡יִם יָלַ֞ד אֶת־לוּדִ֧ים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִ֛ים וְאֶת־לְהָבִ֖ים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִֽים:
Lehabim: Heb. לְהָבִים [people] whose faces were like flames (לַהַב).   לְהָבִים: שֶׁפְּנֵיהֶם דּוֹמִים לְלַהַב:
14And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged, and the Caphtorim.   ידוְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִ֞ים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָֽצְא֥וּ מִשָּׁ֛ם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִֽים:
And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged: They [the Philistines] descended from them both, for the Pathrusim and the Casluhim exchanged the intimacy of their wives with each other, and the Philistines descended from them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:5]   פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָֽצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים: מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם יָצְאוּ, שֶׁהָיוּ פַּתְרוּסִים וְכַסְלוּחִים מַחֲלִיפִין מִשְׁכַּב נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם אֵלּוּ לָאֵלּוּ וְיָצְאוּ מֵהֶם פְּלִשְׁתִּים:
15And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn and Heth.   טווּכְנַ֗עַן יָלַ֛ד אֶת־צִידֹ֥ן בְּכֹר֖וֹ וְאֶת־חֵֽת:
16And the Jebusites and the Amorites and the Girgashites.   טזוְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י וְאֵ֖ת הַגִּרְגָּשִֽׁי:
17And the Hivvites and the Arkites and the Sinites.   יזוְאֶת־הַֽחִוִּ֥י וְאֶת־הָֽעַרְקִ֖י וְאֶת־הַסִּינִֽי:
18And the Arvadites and the Zemarites and the Hamathites, and afterwards the families of the Canaanites were scattered.   יחוְאֶת־הָֽאַרְוָדִ֥י וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִ֖י וְאֶת־הַֽחֲמָתִ֑י וְאַחַ֣ר נָפֹ֔צוּ מִשְׁפְּח֖וֹת הַכְּנַֽעֲנִֽי:
and afterwards…were scattered: From these were scattered many families.   וְאַחַר נפוצו: מֵאֵלֶּה נָפוֹצוּ מִשְׁפָּחוֹת הַרְבֵּה:
19And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon as you come to Gerar, until Gaza, as you come to Sodom and Gomorrah, and Admah and Zeboiim, until Lesha.   יטוַיְהִ֞י גְּב֤וּל הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ מִצִּידֹ֔ן בֹּֽאֲכָ֥ה גְרָ֖רָה עַד־עַזָּ֑ה בֹּֽאֲכָ֞ה סְדֹ֧מָה וַֽעֲמֹרָ֛ה וְאַדְמָ֥ה וּצְבוֹיִ֖ם (כתיב וּצְבֹיִ֖ם) עַד־לָֽשַׁע:
the border of the Canaanites: Heb. גְּבוּל, the end of his land. Every mention of גְּבוּל denotes an end and an edge.   גְּבוּל הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי: סוֹף אַרְצוֹ. כָּל גְּבוּל לְשׁוֹן סוֹף וְקָצֶה:
as you come: Heb. בֹּאֲכָה is a noun [i.e., the approach to]. And it appears to me that [it is an expression] as when a person says to his friend, “This border extends until you come to such and such a border.”   בֹּֽאֲכָה: שֵׁם דָּבָר. וְלִי נִרְאֶה כְּאָדָם הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, גְּבוּל זֶה מַגִּיעַ עַד אֲשֶׁר תָּבֹא לִגְבוּל פְּלוֹנִי:
20These are the sons of Ham according to their families, and their tongues, in their lands, in their nations.   כאֵ֣לֶּה בְנֵי־חָ֔ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לִלְשֹֽׁנֹתָ֑ם בְּאַרְצֹתָ֖ם בְּגֽוֹיֵהֶֽם:
according to…their tongues, in their lands: Although they were divided into tongues and lands, they are all the sons of Ham.   ללשונותם בארצותם: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ לִלְשׁוֹנוֹת וַאֲרָצוֹת, כֻּלָּם בְּנֵי חָם הֵם:
21And to Shem were also born [children; he was] the father of all the people of the other side [of the river], the brother of Japheth the elder.   כאוּלְשֵׁ֥ם יֻלַּ֖ד גַּם־ה֑וּא אֲבִי֙ כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵ֔בֶר אֲחִ֖י יֶ֥פֶת הַגָּדֽוֹל:
the father of all the people of the other side: of the river was Shem. See below 14:13.   אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר: הַנָּהָר הָיָה שֵׁם:
the brother of Japheth, the elder: I do not know [from the wording of the verse] whether Japheth is the elder or Shem. [The verse may be rendered: the elder brother of Japheth.] When Scripture says (11:10): “Shem was a hundred years old, etc.” two years after the Flood, you must say that Japheth was the elder, because Noah was five hundred years old when he first had children, and the Flood came to pass in the six hundredth year. Consequently, the eldest of his sons was a hundred years old [at the time of the Flood], and Shem did not reach [the age of] a hundred until two years after the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]   אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדֽוֹל: אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל אִם שֵׁם, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר שֵׁם בֶּן מְאַת שָׁנָה וְגוֹ' שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל, הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁהֲרֵי בֶּן ת"ק שָׁנָה הָיָה נֹחַ כְּשֶׁהִתְחִיל לְהוֹלִיד, וְהַמַּבּוּל הָיָה בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה, נִמְצָא שֶׁהַגָּדוֹל בְּבָנָיו הָיָה בֶן מֵאָה שָׁנָה, וְשֵׁם לֹא הִגִּיע לְמֵאָה עַד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל:
the brother of Japheth: But not the brother of Ham, for these two honored their father, and that one [Ham] disgraced him. [See Targum Jonathan, which renders: the brother of Japheth, who was great in the fear of the Lord. Perhaps this was Rashi’s source, but it is unlikely.]   אֲחִי יֶפֶת: וְלֹא אֲחִי חָם? שֶׁאֵלּוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כִּבְּדוּ אֶת אֲבִיהֶם, וְזֶה בִּזָּהוּ:
22The sons of Shem were Elam and Asshur and Arpachshad and Lud and Aram.   כבבְּנֵ֥י שֵׁ֖ם עֵילָ֣ם וְאַשּׁ֑וּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד וְל֥וּד וַֽאֲרָֽם:
23And the sons of Aram were Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash.   כגוּבְנֵ֖י אֲרָ֑ם ע֥וּץ וְח֖וּל וְגֶ֥תֶר וָמַֽשׁ:
24And Arpachshad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.   כדוְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד יָלַ֣ד אֶת־שָׁ֑לַח וְשֶׁ֖לַח יָלַ֥ד אֶת־עֵֽבֶר:
25And to Eber were born two sons: one was named Peleg, because in his days the earth was divided, and the name of his brother was Joktan.   כהוּלְעֵ֥בֶר יֻלַּ֖ד שְׁנֵ֣י בָנִ֑ים שֵׁ֣ם הָֽאֶחָ֞ד פֶּ֗לֶג כִּ֤י בְיָמָיו֙ נִפְלְגָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ וְשֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו יָקְטָֽן:
was divided: The tongues became confused, and they were scattered from the valley and were dispersed throughout the entire world. We learn that Eber was a prophet, since he named his son for a future event [i.e. פֶּלֶג resembles the word נִפְלְגָה meaning “dispersed”]. And we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 1) that at the end of his [Peleg’s] days, they were dispersed. For if you say that [they were dispersed] at the beginning of his days, behold his brother Joktan was his junior, and he begot many families before that, as it is said (verse 26): “And Joktan begot, etc.,” and [only] afterwards [is it written] (11:1): “And the whole earth was one language.” Now if you say [that they were dispersed] in the middle of his [Peleg’s] days, [this is not so, because] Scripture does not come to make things obscure but to explain. Hence, you learn that in the year of Peleg’s death, they were dispersed.   נִפְלְגָה: נִתְבַּלְבְּלוּ הַלְּשׁוֹנוֹת וְנָפוֹצוּ מִן הַבִּקְעָה וְנִתְפַּלְּגוּ בְכָל הָעוֹלָם. לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָיָה עֵבֶר נָבִיא, שֶׁקָּרָא שֵׁם בְּנוֹ עַל שֵׁם הֶעָתִיד; וְשָׁנִינוּ בְסֵדֶר עוֹלָם שֶׁבְּסוֹף יָמָיו נִתְפַּלְּגוּ, שֶׁאִם תֹּאמַר בִּתְחִלַּת יָמָיו, הֲרֵי יָקְטָן אָחִיו צָעִיר מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוֹלִיד כַּמָּה מִשְׁפָּחוֹת קֹדֶם לָכֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיָקְטָן יָלַד וְגוֹ' וְאַחַר כָּךְ וַיְהִי כָל הָאָרֶץ וְגוֹ'; וְאִם תֹּאמַר בְּאֶמְצַע יָמָיו, לֹא בָא הַכָּתוּב לִסְתֹּם אֶלָּא לְפָרֵשׁ, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁבִּשְׁנַת מוֹת פֶּלֶג נִתְפַּלְּגוּ:
Joktan: Because he was humble and considered himself small (קָטָן). Therefore, he merited to raise all these families. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]   ויקטן: שֶׁהָיָה עָנָו וּמַקְטִין עַצְמוֹ, לְכָךְ זָכָה לְהַעֲמִיד כָּל הַמִּשְׁפָּחוֹת הַלָּלוּ:
26And Joktan begot Almodad and Sheleph and Hazarmaveth and Jerah.   כווְיָקְטָ֣ן יָלַ֔ד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָ֖ד וְאֶת־שָׁ֑לֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָ֖וֶת וְאֶת־יָֽרַח:
Hazarmaveth: lit. yard of death, graveyard. He was so called because of his place. [These are] the words of the Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 37:8).   חֲצַרְמָוֶת: עַל שֵׁם מְקוֹמוֹ, דִּבְרֵי אַגָּדָה (ב"ר):
27And Hadoram and Uzal and Diklah.   כזוְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָ֥ם וְאֶת־אוּזָ֖ל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָֽה:
28And Obal and Abimael and Sheba.   כחוְאֶת־עוֹבָ֥ל וְאֶת־אֲבִֽימָאֵ֖ל וְאֶת־שְׁבָֽא:
29And Ophir and Havilah and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.   כטוְאֶת־אוֹפִ֥ר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָ֖ה וְאֶת־יוֹבָ֑ב כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י יָקְטָֽן:
30And their settlement was from Mesha, as you come to Sephar, the mountain of the east.   לוַיְהִ֥י מֽוֹשָׁבָ֖ם מִמֵּשָׁ֑א בֹּֽאֲכָ֥ה סְפָ֖רָה הַ֥ר הַקֶּֽדֶם:
31These are the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.   לאאֵ֣לֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁ֔ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לִלְשֹֽׁנֹתָ֑ם בְּאַרְצֹתָ֖ם לְגֽוֹיֵהֶֽם:
32These are the families of the sons of Noah according to their generations, in their nations, and from these, the nations were separated on the earth after the Flood.   לבאֵ֣לֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹ֧ת בְּנֵי־נֹ֛חַ לְתֽוֹלְדֹתָ֖ם בְּגֽוֹיֵהֶ֑ם וּמֵאֵ֜לֶּה נִפְרְד֧וּ הַגּוֹיִ֛ם בָּאָ֖רֶץ אַחַ֥ר הַמַּבּֽוּל:

Seventh Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 11

1Now the entire earth was of one language and uniform words.   אוַיְהִ֥י כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ שָׂפָ֣ה אֶחָ֑ת וּדְבָרִ֖ים אֲחָדִֽים:
one language: the Holy Tongue. — [from Tan. Buber, Noach 28]   שָׂפָה אֶחָת: לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶש:
and uniform words: Heb. דְבָרִים אֲחָדִים. They came with one scheme and said, “He had no right to select for Himself the upper regions. Let us ascend to the sky and wage war with Him.” Another explanation: [they spoke] against the Sole One of the world. Another explanation of דְבָרִים אֲחָדִים (other editions read: דְבָרִים חַדִּים, sharp words): They said, “Once every 1,656 years, the sky totters, as it did in the time of the Flood. Come and let us make supports for it.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 28:6, Tan. Buber Noach 24]   וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִֽים: בָּאוּ בְעֵצָה אַחַת וְאָמְרוּ לֹא כָּל הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁיָּבֹר לוֹ אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, נַעֲלֶה לָרָקִיעַ וְנַעֲשֶׂה עִמּוֹ מִלְחָמָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר עַל יְחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים – אָמְרוּ אַחַת לְאֶלֶף ותרנ"ו שָׁנִים הָרָקִיעַ מִתְמוֹטֵט כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעָשָׂה בִּימֵי הַמַּבּוּל, בֹּאוּ וְנַעֲשֶׂה לוֹ סְמִיכוֹת (ב"ר):
2And it came to pass when they traveled from the east, that they found a valley in the land of Shinar and settled there.   בוַיְהִ֖י בְּנָסְעָ֣ם מִקֶּ֑דֶם וַיִּמְצְא֥וּ בִקְעָ֛ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ שִׁנְעָ֖ר וַיֵּ֥שְׁבוּ שָֽׁם:
when they traveled from the east: where they had settled, as is written above (10:30): “And their dwelling place was, etc., the mountain of the east.” And they traveled from there to seek out a place that would accommodate them all, and they found only Shinar. — [from Gen. Rabbah 38:7]   בְּנָסְעָם מִקֶּדֶם: שֶׁהָיוּ יוֹשְׁבִים שָׁם, כְּדִכְתִיב לְמַעְלָה וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם וְגו' הַר הַקֶּדֶם וְנָסְעוּ מִשָּׁם לָתוּר לָהֶם מָקוֹם לְהַחֲזִיק אֶת כֻּלָּם וְלֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שִׁנְעָר:
3And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks and fire them thoroughly"; so the bricks were to them for stones, and the clay was to them for mortar.   גוַיֹּֽאמְר֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֗הוּ הָ֚בָה נִלְבְּנָ֣ה לְבֵנִ֔ים וְנִשְׂרְפָ֖ה לִשְׂרֵפָ֑ה וַתְּהִ֨י לָהֶ֤ם הַלְּבֵנָה֙ לְאָ֔בֶן וְהַ֣חֵמָ֔ר הָיָ֥ה לָהֶ֖ם לַחֹֽמֶר:
And they said to one another: One nation to another nation, Mizraim to Cush; and Cush to Put; and Put to Canaan. - [from Gen. Rabbah 38:8]   אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ: אֻמָּה לְאֻמָּה, מִצְרַיִם לְכוּשׁ, וְכוּשׁ לְפוּט וּפוּט לִכְנַעַן:
Come: Heb. הָבָה, prepare yourselves. Every הָבָה is an expression of preparation, meaning that they prepare themselves and join for work, or for counsel, or for [bearing] a load. הָבָה, prepare yourselves, aparicler in Old French, to get ready. — [from Zohar , vol. 1, 75a]   הָבָה: הַזְמִינוּ עַצְמְכֶם. כָּל הָבָה לְשׁוֹן הַזְמָנָה הוּא, שֶׁמְּכִינִים עַצְמָן וּמִתְחַבְּרִים לִמְלָאכָה אוֹ לְעֵצָה אוֹ לְמַשָּׂא. הָבָה הַזְמִינוּ, אפר"לייר בלע"ז:
bricks: Because there are no stones in Babylon, which is a valley. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 24]   לְבֵנִים: שֶׁאֵין אֲבָנִים בְּבָבֶל, שֶׁהִיא בִּקְעָה:
and fire them thoroughly: This is how they make bricks, which are called tivles in Old French (tuilles in modern French): They fire them in a kiln.   וְנִשְׂרְפָה לִשְׂרֵפָה: כָּךְ עוֹשִׂין הַלְּבֵנִים שֶׁקּוֹרִין טוויל"ש בל', שׂוֹרְפִים אוֹתָן בְּכִבְשָׁן:
for mortar: to plaster the wall.   לַחֹֽמֶר: לָטוּחַ הַקִּיר:
4And they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make ourselves a name, lest we be scattered upon the face of the entire earth."   דוַיֹּֽאמְר֞וּ הָ֣בָה | נִבְנֶה־לָּ֣נוּ עִ֗יר וּמִגְדָּל֙ וְרֹאשׁ֣וֹ בַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנַֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֖נוּ שֵׁ֑ם פֶּן־נָפ֖וּץ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
lest we be scattered: That He should not bring upon us any plague to scatter us from here. — [from Tan. Buber, Noach 28]   פֶּן־נָפוּץ: שֶׁלֹּא יָבִיא עָלֵינוּ שׁוּם מַכָּה לַהֲפִיצֵנוּ מִכָּאן:
5And the Lord descended to see the city and the tower that the sons of man had built.   הוַיֵּ֣רֶד יְהֹוָ֔ה לִרְאֹ֥ת אֶת־הָעִ֖יר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּ֑ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּנ֖וּ בְּנֵ֥י הָֽאָדָֽם:
And the Lord descended to see: He did not need to do this, except to teach judges not to condemn a defendant until they see [the case] and understand [it]. [This is] in the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma (Buber Noach 18).   וַיֵּרֶד ה' לראות: לֹא הֻצְרַךְ לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא בָא לְלַמֵּד לְדַיָּנִים שֶׁלֹּא יַרְשִׁיעוּ הַנִּדּוֹן עַד שֶׁיִּרְאוּ וְיָבִינוּ, מִדְרַשׁ רַבִּי תַנְחוּמָא:
the sons of man: But the sons of whom else [could they have been]? The sons of donkeys and camels? Rather, [this refers to] the sons of the first man, who was ungrateful and said (above 3: 12):“The woman whom You gave [to be] with me.” These, too, were ungrateful in rebelling against the One Who lavished goodness upon them, and saved them from the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 38:9]   בְּנֵי הָֽאָדָֽם: אֶלָּא בְנֵי מִי? שֶׁמָּא בְנֵי חֲמוֹרִים וּגְמַלִּים? אֶלָּא בְנֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁכָּפָה אֶת הַטּוֹבָה וְאָמַר הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ עִמָּדִי, אַף אֵלּוּ כָפוּ בַּטּוֹבָה לִמְרֹד בְּמִי שֶׁהִשְׁפִּיעָם טוֹבָה, וּמִלְּטָם מִן הַמַּבּוּל:
6And the Lord said, "Lo! [they are] one people, and they all have one language, and this is what they have commenced to do. Now, will it not be withheld from them, all that they have planned to do?   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֗ה הֵ֣ן עַ֤ם אֶחָד֙ וְשָׂפָ֤ה אַחַת֙ לְכֻלָּ֔ם וְזֶ֖ה הַֽחִלָּ֣ם לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת וְעַתָּה֙ לֹֽא־יִבָּצֵ֣ר מֵהֶ֔ם כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָֽזְמ֖וּ לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
Lo! [they are] one people: All this goodness they have: that they are one people, and that they all have one language, and they have commenced to do this!- [from Seder Eliyahu Rabbah, ch. 31]   הֵן עַם אֶחָד: כָּל טוֹבָה זוֹ יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶן, שֶׁעַם אֶחָד הֵם, וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּן וְדָבָר זֶה הֵחֵלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת:
they have commenced: Heb. הַחִלָּם, lit. their beginning, like אָמְרָם, their saying; עֲשׂוֹתָם, their doing; they have commenced to do.   הַֽחִלָּם: כְּמוֹ אָמְרָם, עֲשׂוֹתָם – לְהַתְחִיל הֵם לַעֲשׂוֹת:
will it not be withheld: This is a question. The word יִבָּצֵר means withholding, as its Aramaic translation (יִתְמְנַע). And similar to it (Ps. 76:13): “He will withhold (יִבְצֹר) the spirit of princes.”   לֹֽא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם וגו' לַֽעֲשׂוֹת: בִּתְמִיהָ. יִבָּצֵר לְשׁוֹן מְנִיעָה, כְתַרְגּוּמוֹ; וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ יִבְצֹר רוּחַ נְגִידִים (תה' ע"ו):
7Come, let us descend and confuse their language, so that one will not understand the language of his companion."   זהָ֚בָה נֵֽרְדָ֔ה וְנָֽבְלָ֥ה שָׁ֖ם שְׂפָתָ֑ם אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יִשְׁמְע֔וּ אִ֖ישׁ שְׂפַ֥ת רֵעֵֽהוּ:
Come, let us descend: He took counsel with His tribunal due to His extraordinary humility. — [from Sanh. 38b]   הָבָה נֵֽרְדָה: בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ נִמְלַךְ מֵעַנְוְתָנוּתוֹ יְתֵרָה:
Come: Measure for measure. They said, “Come, let us build,” and He meted corresponding [punishment] out to them by countering with, “Come, let us descend.” - [from Tan. Buber, Noach 25]   הָבָה: מִדָּה כְנֶגֶד מִדָּה – הֵם אָמְרוּ הָבָה נִבְנֶה, וְהוּא כְנֶגֶדָּם מָדַד וְאָמַר הָבָה נֵרְדָה:
and confuse: [The word וְנָבְלָה means] וּנְבַלְבֵּל, and let us confuse. The “nun” is used for the [prefix for the first person] plural, and the final “hey” is superfluous like the “hey” of נֵרְדָה, let us descend. — [from Targum Onkelos]   וְנָֽבְלָה: וּנְבַלְבֵּל; נוּ"ן מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, וְהֵ"א אַחֲרוֹנָה יְתֵרָה, כְהֵ"א שֶׁל נֵרְדָה:
will not understand: This one requests a brick, and that one brings mortar; this [first] one stands and cracks his skull. — [from Gen. Rabbah 38:10]   לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ: זֶה שׁוֹאֵל לְבֵנָה וְזֶה מֵבִיא טִיט, וְזֶה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו וּפוֹצֵעַ אֶת מֹחוֹ:
8And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of the entire earth, and they ceased building the city.   חוַיָּ֨פֶץ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֹתָ֛ם מִשָּׁ֖ם עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיַּחְדְּל֖וּ לִבְנֹ֥ת הָעִֽיר:
And the Lord scattered them from there: in this world. That which they said, “lest we be scattered” (verse 4) was fulfilled upon them. This is what Solomon said, (Prov. 10:24): “The dread of a wicked man-that will befall him.” - [from Tan. Buber, Noach 28]   וַיָּפֶץ ה' אֹתָם מִשָּׁם: בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה; מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ פֶּן נָפוּץ, נִתְקַיֵּם עֲלֵיהֶם, הוּא שֶׁאָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה מְגוֹרַת רָשָׁע הִיא תְבוֹאֶנּוּ (משלי י'):
9Therefore, He named it Babel, for there the Lord confused the language of the entire earth, and from there the Lord scattered them upon the face of the entire earth.   טעַל־כֵּ֞ן קָרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ בָּבֶ֔ל כִּי־שָׁ֛ם בָּלַ֥ל יְהֹוָ֖ה שְׂפַ֣ת כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וּמִשָּׁם֙ הֱפִיצָ֣ם יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־פְּנֵ֖י כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
and from there… scattered them: This teaches [us] that they have no share in the world to come (Mishnah Sanh. 107b). Now which [sins] were worse, those of the Generation of the Flood or those of the Generation of the Dispersion? The former did not stretch forth their hands against God, whereas the latter did stretch forth their hands against God, to wage war against Him. Nevertheless, the former were drowned, while the latter did not perish from the world. That is because the Generation of the Flood were robbers and there was strife between them, and therefore they were destroyed. But these behaved with love and friendship among themselves, as it is said (verse 1): “one language and uniform words.” Thus you learn that discord is hateful, and that peace is great. — [from Gen. Rabbah 38:6]   וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם: לִמֵּד שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא; וְכִי אֵיזוֹ קָשָׁה, שֶׁל דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל אוֹ שֶׁל דּוֹר הַפַּלָּגָה? אֵלּוּ לֹא פָשְׁטוּ יָד בָּעִקָּר וְאֵלּוּ פָשְׁטוּ יָד בָּעִקָּר לְהִלָּחֵם בּוֹ, וְאֵלּוּ נִשְׁטְפוּ וְאֵלּוּ לֹא נֶאֱבְדוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם? אֶלָּא שֶׁדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל הָיוּ גַּזְלָנִים וְהָיְתָה מְרִיבָה בֵינֵיהֶם, לְכָךְ נֶאֱבְדוּ; וְאֵלּוּ הָיוּ נוֹהֲגִים אַהֲבָה וְרֵעוּת בֵּינֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּ' שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים, לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁשָּׂנְאוּי הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת וְגָדוֹל הַשָּׁלֹום:
10These are the generations of Shem: Shem was one hundred years old, and he begot Arpachshad, two years after the Flood.   יאֵ֚לֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹ֣ת שֵׁ֔ם שֵׁ֚ם בֶּן־מְאַ֣ת שָׁנָ֔ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁ֑ד שְׁנָתַ֖יִם אַחַ֥ר הַמַּבּֽוּל:
Shem was one hundred years old: when he begot Arpachshad two years after the Flood. — [from Targum Jonathan]   שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה: כְּשֶׁהוֹלִיד אֶת אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל:
11And Shem lived after he had begotten Arpachshad five hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יאוַֽיְחִי־שֵׁ֗ם אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁ֔ד חֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
12And Arpachshad lived thirty five years, and he begot Shelah.   יבוְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֣ד חַ֔י חָמֵ֥שׁ וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־שָֽׁלַח:
13And Arpachshad lived after he had begotten Shelah four hundred and three years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יגוַיְחִ֣י אַרְפַּכְשַׁ֗ד אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־שֶׁ֔לַח שָׁל֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
14And Shelah lived thirty years, and he begot Eber.   ידוְשֶׁ֥לַח חַ֖י שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־עֵֽבֶר:
15And Shelah lived after he had begotten Eber, four hundred and three years, and he begot sons and daughters.   טווַֽיְחִי־שֶׁ֗לַח אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־עֵ֔בֶר שָׁל֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
16And Eber lived thirty four years, and he begot Peleg.   טזוַֽיְחִי־עֵ֕בֶר אַרְבַּ֥ע וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־פָּֽלֶג:
17And Eber lived after he had begotten Peleg, four hundred and thirty years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יזוַֽיְחִי־עֵ֗בֶר אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־פֶּ֔לֶג שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
18And Peleg lived thirty years, and he begot Reu.   יחוַֽיְחִי־פֶ֖לֶג שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־רְעֽוּ:
19And Peleg lived after he had begotten Reu, two hundred and nine years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יטוַֽיְחִי־פֶ֗לֶג אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־רְע֔וּ תֵּ֥שַׁע שָׁנִ֖ים וּמָאתַ֣יִם שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
20And Reu lived thirty two years, and he begot Serug.   כוַיְחִ֣י רְע֔וּ שְׁתַּ֥יִם וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־שְׂרֽוּג:
21And Reu lived after he had begotten Serug two hundred and seven years, and he begot sons and daughters.   כאוַיְחִ֣י רְע֗וּ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־שְׂר֔וּג שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים וּמָאתַ֣יִם שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
22And Serug lived thirty years, and he begot Nahor.   כבוַיְחִ֥י שְׂר֖וּג שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־נָחֽוֹר:
23And Serug lived after he had begotten Nahor, two hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters.   כגוַיְחִ֣י שְׂר֗וּג אַֽחֲרֵ֛י הֽוֹלִיד֥וֹ אֶת־נָח֖וֹר מָאתַ֣יִם שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
24And Nahor lived twenty nine years, and he begot Terah.   כדוַיְחִ֣י נָח֔וֹר תֵּ֥שַׁע וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־תָּֽרַח:
25And Nahor lived after he had begotten Terah one hundred and nineteen years, and he begot sons and daughters.   כהוַיְחִ֣י נָח֗וֹר אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־תֶּ֔רַח תְּשַׁע־עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה שָׁנָ֖ה וּמְאַ֣ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
26And Terah lived seventy years, and he begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran.   כווַֽיְחִי־תֶ֖רַח שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֨וֹלֶד֙ אֶת־אַבְרָ֔ם אֶת־נָח֖וֹר וְאֶת־הָרָֽן:
27And these are the generations of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran, and Haran begot Lot.   כזוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ תּֽוֹלְדֹ֣ת תֶּ֔רַח תֶּ֚רַח הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אַבְרָ֔ם אֶת־נָח֖וֹר וְאֶת־הָרָ֑ן וְהָרָ֖ן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־לֽוֹט:
28And Haran died during the lifetime of Terah his father in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldees.   כחוַיָּ֣מָת הָרָ֔ן עַל־פְּנֵ֖י תֶּ֣רַח אָבִ֑יו בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מֽוֹלַדְתּ֖וֹ בְּא֥וּר כַּשְׂדִּֽים:
during the lifetime of Terah his father: lit. on the face of Terah his father. During his father’s lifetime (Tan. Acharei 7). And the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 38:13) tells us that he died on account of his father. For Terah complained about Abram his son before Nimrod for crushing his idols; so he [Nimrod] cast him [Abram] into a fiery furnace, and Haran sat and thought, “If Abram is victorious, I am on his side, and if Nimrod is victorious, I am on his side.” When Abram was saved, they said to Haran, “Whose side are you on?” Haran said to them, “I am on Abram’s side!” They cast him into the fiery furnace and he was burned. This is the meaning of אוּר כַּשְׂדִּים, the fire of the Chaldees. Menachem (Machbereth, p. 32), however, explains אוּר as a valley, and so (Isa. 24:15): “in the crevices (בָּאוּרִים) honor the Lord,” and so, (ibid. 11:8): “over the hole of (מְאוּרַת) an old snake.” Any hole or deep crevice is called אוּר.   עַל־פְּנֵי תֶּרַח אָבִיו: בְּחַיֵי אָבִיו. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה אוֹמֵר שֶׁעַל יְדֵי אָבִיו מֵת; שֶׁקָּבַל תֶּרַח עַל אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ לִפְנֵי נִמְרוֹד עַל שֶׁכִּתֵּת אֶת צְלָמָיו, וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לְכִבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ, וְהָרָן יוֹשֵׁב וְאוֹמֵר בְּלִבּוֹ אִם אַבְרָם נוֹצֵחַ אֲנִי מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, וְאִם נִמְרוֹד נוֹצֵחַ אֲנִי מִשֶּׁלּוֹ; וּכְשֶׁנִּצַּל אַבְרָם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְהָרָן מִשֶּׁל מִי אַתָּה? אָמַר לָהֶם הָרָן מִשֶּׁל אַבְרָם אֲנִי, הִשְׁלִיכוּהוּ לְכִבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ וְנִשְׂרַף, וְזֶהוּ אוּר כַּשְׂדִים (ב"ר). וּמְנַחֵם פֵּרֵשׁ אוּר – בִּקְעָה; וְכֵן בָּאֻרִים כַּבְּדוּ ה' (ישעיה כ"ד), וְכֵן מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי (שם י"א) כָּל חֹר וּבֶקַע עָמֹק קָרוּי אוּר:
29And Abram and Nahor took themselves wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and the father of Iscah.   כטוַיִּקַּ֨ח אַבְרָ֧ם וְנָח֛וֹר לָהֶ֖ם נָשִׁ֑ים שֵׁ֤ם אֵֽשֶׁת־אַבְרָם֙ שָׂרָ֔י וְשֵׁ֤ם אֵֽשֶׁת־נָחוֹר֙ מִלְכָּ֔ה בַּת־הָרָ֥ן אֲבִֽי־מִלְכָּ֖ה וַֽאֲבִ֥י יִסְכָּֽה:
Iscah: This is Sarah [called Iscah] because she would see (סוֹכָה) through Divine inspiration, and because all gazed (סוֹכִין) at her beauty. Alternatively, יִסְכָּה is an expression denoting princedom, (נְסִיכוּת), just as Sarah is an expression of dominion (שְׂרָרָה) . - [from Meg. 14a]   יִסְכָּֽה: זוֹ שָׂרָה, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁסּוֹכָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁהַכֹּל סוֹכִין בְיָפְיָהּ; וְעוֹד יִסְכָּה לְשׁוֹן נְסִיכוּת, כְּמוֹ שָׂרָה לְשׁוֹן שְׂרָרָה:
30And Sarai was barren; she had no child.   לוַתְּהִ֥י שָׂרַ֖י עֲקָרָ֑ה אֵ֥ין לָ֖הּ וָלָֽד:
31And Terah took Abram his son and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter in law, the wife of Abram his son, and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees to go to the land of Canaan, and they came as far as Haran and settled there.   לאוַיִּקַּ֨ח תֶּ֜רַח אֶת־אַבְרָ֣ם בְּנ֗וֹ וְאֶת־ל֤וֹט בֶּן־הָרָן֙ בֶּן־בְּנ֔וֹ וְאֵת֙ שָׂרַ֣י כַּלָּת֔וֹ אֵ֖שֶׁת אַבְרָ֣ם בְּנ֑וֹ וַיֵּֽצְא֨וּ אִתָּ֜ם מֵא֣וּר כַּשְׂדִּ֗ים לָלֶ֨כֶת֙ אַ֣רְצָה כְּנַ֔עַן וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ עַד־חָרָ֖ן וַיֵּ֥שְׁבוּ שָֽׁם:
and they went forth with them: And Terah and Abram went forth with Lot and Sarai.   וַיֵּֽצְאוּ אִתָּם: וַיֵּצְאוּ תֶּרַח וְאַבְרָם עִם לוֹט וְשָׂרַי:
32And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years, and Terah died in Haran.   לבוַיִּֽהְי֣וּ יְמֵי־תֶ֔רַח חָמֵ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים וּמָאתַ֣יִם שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּ֥מָת תֶּ֖רַח בְּחָרָֽן:
and Terah died in Haran: [This happened] after Abram had left Haran and had come to the land of Canaan, and had been there for over sixty years, for it is written (below 12:4): “And Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran,” and Terah was seventy years old when Abram was born, making Terah one hundred and forty-five years old when Abram left Haran. Accordingly, many of his [Terah’s] years were left. Why then did Scripture relate Terah’s death before Abram’s departure? So that the matter should not be publicized to all, whereby they would say: “Abram did not fulfill [the commandment of] honoring his father, for he left him in his old age and went away.” Therefore, Scripture calls him dead, for the wicked, even in their lifetime, are called dead, whereas the righteous, even in their death, are called living, as it is said (II Sam. 23:20): “And Benayahu the son of Jehoiada, the son of a living man.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 39:7, Ber. 18b. Note that the keri is בֶּן אִישׁ חַיִל, a valiant man. The Rabbis here expound on the kethib: בֶּן אִישׁ חַי].   וַיָּמָת תֶרַח בְּחָרָֽן: לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּצָא אַבְרָם מֵחָרָן וּבָא לְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, וְהָיָה שָׁם יוֹתֵר מִשִּׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה; שֶׁהֲרֵי כָתוּב וְאַבְרָם בֶּן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵחָרָן וְתֶרַח בֶּן שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד אַבְרָם, הֲרֵי קמ"ה לְתֶרַח; כְּשֶׁיָּצָא אַבְרָם מֵחָרָן עֲדַיִן נִשְׁאֲרוּ מִשְּׁנוֹתָיו הַרְבֵּה, וְלָמָּה הִקְדִּים הַכָּתוּב מִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל תֶּרַח לִיצִיאָתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָם? שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַדָּבָר מְפֻרְסָם לַכֹּל וְיֹאמְרוּ לֹא קִיֵּם אַבְרָם אֶת כְּבוֹד אָבִיו, שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ זָקֵן וְהָלַךְ לוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ קְרָאוֹ הַכָּתוּב מֵת, שֶׁהָרְשָׁעִים אַף בְּחַיֵּיהֶם קְרוּיִים מֵתִים, וְהַצַּדִּיקִים אַף בְּמִיתָתָן קְרוּיִים חַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָדָע בֶּן אִישׁ חי (שְׁמוּאֵל ב' כ"ג):
in Haran: The “nun” of חָרָן is inverted, to tell you that until Abram [appeared], the wrath of the Omnipresent was kindled (חֲרוֹן). [The inverted “nun” symbolizes the change from Divine anger to Divine mercy.] — [based on Sifrei, Ha’azinu 311]   בְּחָרָֽן: הַנּוּ"ן הֲפוּכָה לוֹמַר לְךָ, עַד אַבְרָם חֲרוֹן אַף שֶׁל מָקוֹם):

Maftir Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 11

29And Abram and Nahor took themselves wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and the father of Iscah.   כטוַיִּקַּ֨ח אַבְרָ֧ם וְנָח֛וֹר לָהֶ֖ם נָשִׁ֑ים שֵׁ֤ם אֵֽשֶׁת־אַבְרָם֙ שָׂרָ֔י וְשֵׁ֤ם אֵֽשֶׁת־נָחוֹר֙ מִלְכָּ֔ה בַּת־הָרָ֥ן אֲבִֽי־מִלְכָּ֖ה וַֽאֲבִ֥י יִסְכָּֽה:
Iscah: This is Sarah [called Iscah] because she would see (סוֹכָה) through Divine inspiration, and because all gazed (סוֹכִין) at her beauty. Alternatively, יִסְכָּה is an expression denoting princedom, (נְסִיכוּת), just as Sarah is an expression of dominion (שְׂרָרָה) . - [from Meg. 14a]   יִסְכָּֽה: זוֹ שָׂרָה, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁסּוֹכָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁהַכֹּל סוֹכִין בְיָפְיָהּ; וְעוֹד יִסְכָּה לְשׁוֹן נְסִיכוּת, כְּמוֹ שָׂרָה לְשׁוֹן שְׂרָרָה:
30And Sarai was barren; she had no child.   לוַתְּהִ֥י שָׂרַ֖י עֲקָרָ֑ה אֵ֥ין לָ֖הּ וָלָֽד:
31And Terah took Abram his son and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter in law, the wife of Abram his son, and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees to go to the land of Canaan, and they came as far as Haran and settled there.   לאוַיִּקַּ֨ח תֶּ֜רַח אֶת־אַבְרָ֣ם בְּנ֗וֹ וְאֶת־ל֤וֹט בֶּן־הָרָן֙ בֶּן־בְּנ֔וֹ וְאֵת֙ שָׂרַ֣י כַּלָּת֔וֹ אֵ֖שֶׁת אַבְרָ֣ם בְּנ֑וֹ וַיֵּֽצְא֨וּ אִתָּ֜ם מֵא֣וּר כַּשְׂדִּ֗ים לָלֶ֨כֶת֙ אַ֣רְצָה כְּנַ֔עַן וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ עַד־חָרָ֖ן וַיֵּ֥שְׁבוּ שָֽׁם:
and they went forth with them: And Terah and Abram went forth with Lot and Sarai.   וַיֵּֽצְאוּ אִתָּם: וַיֵּצְאוּ תֶּרַח וְאַבְרָם עִם לוֹט וְשָׂרַי:
32And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years, and Terah died in Haran.   לבוַיִּֽהְי֣וּ יְמֵי־תֶ֔רַח חָמֵ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים וּמָאתַ֣יִם שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּ֥מָת תֶּ֖רַח בְּחָרָֽן:
and Terah died in Haran: [This happened] after Abram had left Haran and had come to the land of Canaan, and had been there for over sixty years, for it is written (below 12:4): “And Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran,” and Terah was seventy years old when Abram was born, making Terah one hundred and forty-five years old when Abram left Haran. Accordingly, many of his [Terah’s] years were left. Why then did Scripture relate Terah’s death before Abram’s departure? So that the matter should not be publicized to all, whereby they would say: “Abram did not fulfill [the commandment of] honoring his father, for he left him in his old age and went away.” Therefore, Scripture calls him dead, for the wicked, even in their lifetime, are called dead, whereas the righteous, even in their death, are called living, as it is said (II Sam. 23:20): “And Benayahu the son of Jehoiada, the son of a living man.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 39:7, Ber. 18b. Note that the keri is בֶּן אִישׁ חַיִל, a valiant man. The Rabbis here expound on the kethib: בֶּן אִישׁ חַי].   וַיָּמָת תֶרַח בְּחָרָֽן: לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּצָא אַבְרָם מֵחָרָן וּבָא לְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, וְהָיָה שָׁם יוֹתֵר מִשִּׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה; שֶׁהֲרֵי כָתוּב וְאַבְרָם בֶּן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵחָרָן וְתֶרַח בֶּן שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד אַבְרָם, הֲרֵי קמ"ה לְתֶרַח; כְּשֶׁיָּצָא אַבְרָם מֵחָרָן עֲדַיִן נִשְׁאֲרוּ מִשְּׁנוֹתָיו הַרְבֵּה, וְלָמָּה הִקְדִּים הַכָּתוּב מִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל תֶּרַח לִיצִיאָתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָם? שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַדָּבָר מְפֻרְסָם לַכֹּל וְיֹאמְרוּ לֹא קִיֵּם אַבְרָם אֶת כְּבוֹד אָבִיו, שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ זָקֵן וְהָלַךְ לוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ קְרָאוֹ הַכָּתוּב מֵת, שֶׁהָרְשָׁעִים אַף בְּחַיֵּיהֶם קְרוּיִים מֵתִים, וְהַצַּדִּיקִים אַף בְּמִיתָתָן קְרוּיִים חַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָדָע בֶּן אִישׁ חי (שְׁמוּאֵל ב' כ"ג):
in Haran: The “nun” of חָרָן is inverted, to tell you that until Abram [appeared], the wrath of the Omnipresent was kindled (חֲרוֹן). [The inverted “nun” symbolizes the change from Divine anger to Divine mercy.] — [based on Sifrei, Ha’azinu 311]   בְּחָרָֽן: הַנּוּ"ן הֲפוּכָה לוֹמַר לְךָ, עַד אַבְרָם חֲרוֹן אַף שֶׁל מָקוֹם):


Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 54

1"Sing you barren woman who has not borne; burst out into song and jubilate, you who have not experienced birth pangs, for the children of the desolate one are more than the children of the married woman," says the Lord.   ארָנִּ֥י עֲקָרָ֖ה לֹ֣א יָלָ֑דָה פִּצְחִ֨י רִנָּ֚ה וְצַֽהֲלִי֙ לֹא־חָ֔לָה כִּֽי־רַבִּ֧ים בְּֽנֵי־שֽׁוֹמֵמָ֛ה מִבְּנֵ֥י בְעוּלָ֖ה אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
Sing, you barren woman: Jerusalem, who was as though she had not borne.   רני עקרה: ירושלים אשר היתה כלא ילדה:
you who have not experienced birth pangs: Heb. חָלָה, an expression of childbirth, for the woman in confinement gives birth with pains and writhing.   לא חלה: ל' לידה הוא שהיולדת על ידי חיל וחבלי' יולדת:
for the children of the desolate one: The daughter of Edom.   מבני בעולה: בת אדום:
2Widen the place of your tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of your habitations, do not spare; lengthen your cords and strengthen your stakes.   בהַרְחִ֣יבִי | מְק֣וֹם אָהֳלֵ֗ךְ וִֽירִיע֧וֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַ֛יִךְ יַטּ֖וּ אַל־תַּחְשׂ֑כִי הַֽאֲרִ֙יכִי֙ מֵֽיתָרַ֔יִךְ וִיתֵֽדֹתַ֖יִךְ חַזֵּֽקִי:
and let them stretch forth: far off.   יטו: למרחוק:
lengthen your cords: These are thin ropes that hang at the bottom of tents, and that are tied to stakes called ‘chevills’ in French, which are thrust into the ground.   מיתריך: הם חבלים דקים התלוים בשולי אהלים וקושרי' ביתדות שקורין קביל"ס בלע"ז ותוקעין בארץ:
3For right and left shall you prevail, and your seed shall inherit nations and repeople desolate cities.   גכִּי־יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹ֖אול תִּפְרֹ֑צִי וְזַרְעֵךְ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם יִירָ֔שׁ וְעָרִ֥ים נְשַׁמּ֖וֹת יוֹשִֽׁיבוּ:
shall you prevail: Heb. תִּפְרֹצִי, shall you prevail.   תפרוצי: תגברו:
4Fear not, for you shall not be ashamed, and be not embarrassed for you shall not be put to shame, for the shame of your youth you shall forget, and the disgrace of your widowhood you shall no longer remember.   דאַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ כִּי־לֹ֣א תֵב֔וֹשִׁי וְאַל־תִּכָּֽלְמִ֖י כִּי־לֹ֣א תַחְפִּ֑ירִי כִּ֣י בֹ֚שֶׁת עֲלוּמַ֙יִךְ֙ תִּשְׁכָּ֔חִי וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת אַלְמְנוּתַ֖יִךְ לֹ֥א תִזְכְּרִי־עֽוֹד:
your youth: Heb. עֲלוּמַיִךְ, your youth.   עלומיך: נעוריך:
5For your Master is your Maker, the Lord of Hosts is His name, and your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, shall be called the God of all the earth.   הכִּ֚י בֹֽעֲלַ֙יִךְ֙ עֹשַׂ֔יִךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ וְגֹֽאֲלֵךְ֙ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יִקָּרֵֽא:
6For, like a wife who is deserted and distressed in spirit has the Lord called you, and a wife of one's youth who was rejected, said your God.   וכִּֽי־כְאִשָּׁ֧ה עֲזוּבָ֛ה וַֽעֲצ֥וּבַת ר֖וּחַ קְרָאָ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֵ֧שֶׁת נְעוּרִ֛ים כִּ֥י תִמָּאֵ֖ס אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
who was rejected: When she is rejected at times that her husband is a little wroth with her.   כי תמאס: כשתמאס פעמים שכועס עליה מעט:
7"For a small moment have I forsaken you, and with great mercy will I gather you.   זבְּרֶ֥גַע קָטֹ֖ן עֲזַבְתִּ֑יךְ וּבְרַֽחֲמִ֥ים גְּדֹלִ֖ים אֲקַבְּצֵֽךְ:
8With a little wrath did I hide My countenance for a moment from you, and with everlasting kindness will I have compassion on you," said your Redeemer, the Lord.   חבְּשֶׁ֣צֶף קֶ֗צֶף הִסְתַּ֨רְתִּי פָנַ֥י רֶ֙גַע֙ מִמֵּ֔ךְ וּבְחֶ֥סֶד עוֹלָ֖ם רִֽחַמְתִּ֑יךְ אָמַ֥ר גֹּֽאֲלֵ֖ךְ יְהֹוָֽה:
With a little wrath: Heb. שֶׁצֶף. Menahem (Machbereth p. 179) interprets this as, “with kindling of wrath,” and Dunash (Teshuvoth p. 20) states, “with a little wrath,” paralleling “For a small moment have I forsaken you,” and so did Jonathan render.   בשצף קצף: מנחם פתר חרי אף ודונש אמר במעט קצף כמו ברגע קטן עזבתיך וכן ת"י:
and with everlasting kindness: that will exist forever.   ובחסד עולם: שיתקיים עד עולם:
9"For this is to Me [as] the waters of Noah, as I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth, so have I sworn neither to be wroth with you nor to rebuke you.   טכִּי־מֵ֥י נֹ֙חַ֙ זֹ֣את לִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבַּ֗עְתִּי מֵֽעֲבֹ֥ר מֵי־נֹ֛חַ ע֖וֹד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כֵּ֥ן נִשְׁבַּ֛עְתִּי מִקְּצֹ֥ף עָלַ֖יִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּֽךְ:
For this is to Me [as] the waters of Noah: [i.e.,] it is an oath in My hand, and He proceeds to explain His words, “as I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth, etc.”   כי מי נח זאת לי: שבועה בידי והולך ומפרש דברו כאשר נשבעתי מעבור מי נח וגו':
10For the mountains shall depart and the hills totter, but My kindness shall not depart from you, neither shall the covenant of My peace totter," says the Lord, Who has compassion on you.   יכִּ֚י הֶֽהָרִים֙ יָמ֔וּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָע֖וֹת תְּמוּטֶ֑ינָה וְחַסְדִּ֞י מֵאִתֵּ֣ךְ לֹֽא־יָמ֗וּשׁ וּבְרִ֚ית שְׁלוֹמִי֙ לֹ֣א תָמ֔וּט אָמַ֥ר מְרַֽחֲמֵ֖ךְ יְהֹוָֽה:
For the mountains shall depart: Even if the merit of the Patriarchs and the Matriarchs is depleted, My kindness shall not depart from you.   כי ההרים ימושו: אף אם תכלה זכות אבות ואמהות חסדי מאתך לא ימוש:
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