Leviticus Chapter 14

54[All] this is the law for every lesion of tzara'ath, and for a nethek,   נדזֹ֖את הַתּוֹרָ֑ה לְכָל־נֶ֥גַע הַצָּרַ֖עַת וְלַנָּֽתֶק:
55And for tzara'ath of garments and houses,   נהוּלְצָרַ֥עַת הַבֶּ֖גֶד וְלַבָּֽיִת:
56And for a se'eith and for a sapachath and for a bahereth;   נווְלַשְׂאֵ֥ת וְלַסַּפַּ֖חַת וְלַבֶּהָֽרֶת:
57To render decisions regarding the day of uncleanness and the day of cleanness. This is the law of tzara'ath.   נזלְהוֹרֹ֕ת בְּי֥וֹם הַטָּמֵ֖א וּבְי֣וֹם הַטָּהֹ֑ר זֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת הַצָּרָֽעַת:
To render decisions regarding the day of uncleanness: [I.e., to determine] which day renders it clean and which day renders it unclean.   להורת ביום הטמא: איזה יום מטהרו ואיזה יום מטמאו:

Leviticus Chapter 15

1And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them, If any man has a discharge from his flesh, his discharge is unclean.   בדַּבְּרוּ֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אִ֣ישׁ אִ֗ישׁ כִּ֤י יִֽהְיֶה֙ זָ֣ב מִבְּשָׂר֔וֹ זוֹב֖וֹ טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא:
If [any man] has a discharge: One might think that if he had a discharge from any place [in the body], he becomes unclean. Scripture, therefore, says: “from his flesh,” meaning not all his flesh. Since Scripture made a distinction between flesh and flesh, I am entitled to reason: [Scripture] renders unclean a man who has a discharge, and it renders unclean a woman who has a discharge. Just as with a woman who has a discharge, from the very place [in her body] from which she becomes unclean with a minor degree of uncleanness, namely, נִדָּה, “menstrual uncleanness,” she becomes unclean with a major degree of uncleanness, namely, זִיבָה, a flow outside the menstrual period, likewise, in the case of a man who has a discharge, from the very place [in his body] from which he becomes unclean with a minor degree of uncleanness, namely, קֶרִי, a seminal emission, he becomes unclean with a major degree of uncleanness, namely, זִיבָה, an abnormal discharge. — [Torath Kohanim 15:122] [Menstruation and seminal emission both cause a minor degree of uncleanness, one that does not require seven clean days before purification, as opposed to the uncleanness of a discharge of a zav or zavah (gedolah), which do require this and are thus referred to as a major degree of uncleanness.]   כי יהיה זב: יכול זב מכל מקום יהא טמא, תלמוד לומר מבשרו ולא כל בשרו. אחר שחלק הכתוב בין בשר לבשר זכיתי לדין, טמא בזב וטמא בזבה, מה זבה ממקום שהיא מטמאה טומאה קלה, נדה, מטמאה טומאה חמורה, זיבה, אף הזב ממקום שמטמא טומאה קלה, קרי, מטמא טומאה חמורה, זיבה:
his discharge is unclean: [Apart from the discharge rendering the man unclean,] this teaches us that [the discharge itself is also unclean, i.e., that even] one drop defiles [other people, and vessels] (Torath Kohanim 15:123; Niddah 55a). [What is the difference between discharge and semen?] A [male] discharge resembles the moisture [that separates itself from and appears on] barley dough, and is a thin liquid, resembling the white of an unfertilized (מוּזֶרֶת) egg, whereas semen is thick, like the white of an egg which is מוּזֶרֶת [i.e., which has been fertilized by a male.]. — [Niddah 35b]   זובו טמא: למד על הטפה שהיא מטמאה. זוב דומה למי בצק של שעורין ודחוי, ודומה ללובן ביצה המוזרת. שכבת זרע קשור כלובן ביצה שאינה מוזרת:
3And this shall be [the nature of] his uncleanness due to his discharge: [if] his flesh runs with his discharge, or [if] his flesh is plugged up by his discharge, that is his uncleanness.   גוְזֹ֛את תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה טֻמְאָת֖וֹ בְּזוֹב֑וֹ רָ֣ר בְּשָׂר֞וֹ אֶת־זוֹב֗וֹ אֽוֹ־הֶחְתִּ֤ים בְּשָׂרוֹ֙ מִזּוֹב֔וֹ טֻמְאָת֖וֹ הִֽוא:
runs: Heb. רָר, an expression related to רִיר, saliva, which flows from his flesh.   רר: לשון ריר שזב את בשרו:
with his discharge: like saliva, which comes out clear.   את זובו: כמו ריר שיוצא צלול:
or [his flesh is] plugged up: that the discharge comes out thick, and thus seals up (חוֹתָם) the orifice of the member, so that his flesh is plugged up on account of a drop of his discharge. This is its simple meaning. The midrashic explanation, however, [is as follows]: The first verse (verse 2) counts two perceptions [of a discharge] and calls him unclean, as it says, “a discharge from his flesh, his discharge is unclean.” Then, the second verse (verse 3) counts out three perceptions [of a discharge] and calls him unclean, as it says, “And this shall be [the nature of] his uncleanness due to his discharge: [if] his flesh runs with his discharge, or [if] his flesh is plugged up by his discharge, that is his uncleanness.” Now, how is this so? Two are for uncleanness, and the third requires him to [bring] a sacrifice. — [Meg. 8a; Niddah 43b]   או החתים: שיוצא עב וסותם את פי האמה ונסתם בשרו מטפת זובו, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו מנה הכתוב הראשון ראיות שתים וקראו טמא, שנאמר זב מבשרו זובו טמא הוא, ומנה הכתוב השני ראיות שלש וקראו טמא, שנאמר טומאתו בזובו רר בשרו את זובו או החתים בשרו מזובו טומאתו היא. הא כיצד, שתים לטומאה והשלישית מזקיקתו לקרבן:
4Any bedding upon which the man with the discharge will lie, shall become unclean, and any object upon which he will sit, shall become unclean.   דכָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֗ב אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁכַּ֥ב עָלָ֛יו הַזָּ֖ב יִטְמָ֑א וְכָל־הַכְּלִ֛י אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁ֥ב עָלָ֖יו יִטְמָֽא:
Any bedding: Heb. כָּלהַמִּשְׁכָּב, anything fit for bedding. One might think [that this would include] even if it is designated for another purpose. Scripture, therefore, says, “upon which [the man…] will lie”; it does not say, “upon which [the man…] lay” [in the past tense,] but rather, [in the future tense,] “will lie,” which is always designated for this. It excludes this [object], about which they say to him, “Get up and let us do our work [for which purpose it was designated]!” - [Torath Kohanim 15:128]   כל המשכב: הראוי למשכב, יכול אפילו מיוחד למלאכה אחרת, תלמוד לומר אשר ישכב, אשר שכב לא נאמר, אלא אשר ישכב, המיוחד תמיד לכך, יצא זה שאומרים לו עמוד ונעשה מלאכתנו:
[And any object upon which] he will sit: [Just like the case above of the bedding,] It does not say “[upon which] he sat,” but, “upon which he will sit,” [thus referring to an article] that is always designated for this. — [Torath Kohanim 15:128; Shab. 59a]   אשר ישב: ישב לא נאמר אלא אשר ישב עליו הזב, במיוחד תמיד לכך:
5And a man who touches his bedding, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water and he remain unclean until evening.   הוְאִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִגַּ֖ע בְּמִשְׁכָּב֑וֹ יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And a man who touches his bedding: This teaches us that the [uncleanness of] bedding is more stringent than [the uncleanness caused by] touching [an object], insofar as this [a bedding or a seat] becomes an אַב הַטֻּמְאָה [a major source of uncleanness], which can defile a person to render his garments unclean, whereas, touching an object which is not bedding, this [object] becomes only a וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה [a secondary source of uncleanness, i.e., a degree less than אַב הַטֻּמְאָה], and it can defile only food and drink [but not people or objects].   ואיש אשר יגע במשכבו: לימד על המשכב שחמור מן המגע, שזה נעשה אב הטומאה לטמא אדם לטמא בגדים, והמגע שאינו משכב אינו אלא ולד הטומאה, ואינו מטמא אלא אוכלין ומשקין:
6And anyone who sits on an object, upon which the man with the discharge will sit, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   ווְהַיּשֵׁב֙ עַל־הַכְּלִ֔י אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁ֥ב עָלָ֖יו הַזָּ֑ב יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And anyone who sits on an object: Even if he did not touch it, even if there were ten objects one on top of the other [and the man with the discharge had sat on the top one]-they all [even the bottom seat] become defiled because of מוֹשָׁב [the law of uncleanness concerning seats. Thus, just as the man with the discharge defiles the bottom seat of the pile without touching it, so too, a clean man can become defiled by that bottom seat without touching it]. And the same [applies] to מִשְׁכָּב [defilement of beds]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:134]   והישב על הכלי: אפילו לא נגע, אפילו עשרה כלים זה על זה, כולן מטמאין משום מושב וכן במשכב:
7And anyone who touches the flesh of the man with a discharge, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   זוְהַנֹּגֵ֖עַ בִּבְשַׂ֣ר הַזָּ֑ב יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
8And if the man with the discharge spits upon a clean person, [that person] shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   חוְכִֽי־יָרֹ֥ק הַזָּ֖ב בַּטָּה֑וֹר וְכִבֶּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And if the man with the discharge spits upon a clean person: And he touches it or lifts it up [without touching it, for saliva defiles if lifted up [even without direct contact]. — [Niddah 55b]   וכי ירק הזב בטהור: ונגע בו או נשאו, שהרוק מטמא במשא:
9Any riding gear upon which the man with the discharge will ride, becomes unclean.   טוְכָל־הַמֶּרְכַּ֗ב אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִרְכַּ֥ב עָלָ֛יו הַזָּ֖ב יִטְמָֽא:
Any riding gear: Although he did not sit on it, for example, the saddlebow, called arcon [in French. It] becomes unclean because of מֶרְכָּב [riding gear]. [However], the saddle itself, called alves [in Old French], a board connecting the two uprights of a saddle,(according to Gukovitzki, or) saddle-girth, belly-band, (according to Greenberg,) becomes unclean because of מוֹשָׁב [a seat]. — [Eruvin 27a]   וכל המרכב: אף על פי שלא ישב עליו, כגון התפוס של סרגא שקורין ארצו"ן [שלד האוכף] טמא משום מרכב. והאוכף, שקורין אלוו"ש [אוכף] טמא טומאת מושב:
10And whoever touches anything what will be under him, becomes unclean until evening. And whoever lifts them up shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   יוְכָל־הַנֹּגֵ֗עַ בְּכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽהְיֶ֣ה תַחְתָּ֔יו יִטְמָ֖א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְהַנּוֹשֵׂ֣א אוֹתָ֔ם יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And whoever touches anything that will be under him: [i.e.,] [under] the man with the discharge (Torath Kohanim 15:139). [This verse] comes to teach us about riding gear, that anyone touching it becomes unclean; he is [however,] not required to immerse his garments. This is a feature of the stringency of מִשְׁכָּב as opposed to מֶרְכָּב.   וכל הנגע בכל אשר יהיה תחתיו: של זב. בא ולימד על המרכב, שיהא הנוגע בו טמא ואין טעון כבוס בגדים, והוא חומר במשכב מבמרכב:
And whoever lifts them up: [I.e.,] any of the items mentioned above in this passage discussing [the laws of] a man with a discharge, [namely:] his discharge, his saliva, his semen, his urine, the bedding, riding gear, [or seat (Reggio ed.)] [defiled by the man with the discharge]-if any of these items is lifted, it defiles the person [who lifted it, together] with his garments. — [Torath Kohanim 15: 140]   והנושא אותם: את כל האמור בענין הזב, זובו ורוקו ושכבת זרעו ומימי רגליו והמשכב והמרכב והמושב, שיהא משאן מטמא אדם לטמא בגדים:
11And whomever the man with the discharge touches, without [the latter] having rinsed his hands, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in the waters, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   יאוְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִגַּע־בּוֹ֙ הַזָּ֔ב וְיָדָ֖יו לֹֽא־שָׁטַ֣ף בַּמָּ֑יִם וְכִבֶּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
[And whomever the man with the discharge touches,] without [the latter] having rinsed his hands: While [the man with the discharge] has not yet immersed himself from his uncleanness. And even if the discharge has ceased, and the man counts seven [days], as long as he has not yet immersed himself [in a mikvah,] he defiles with all [the aspects] of his uncleanness. And the reason Scripture expresses the immersion of a man with a discharge as “rinsing hands,” is to teach you that the hidden parts of the body [e. g., the mouth,] are not required to be immersed, only the uncovered parts of the body, like the hands. — [Torath Kohanim 15:142]   וידיו לא שטף במים: בעוד שלא טבל מטומאתו, ואפילו פסק מזובו וספר שבעה ומחוסר טבילה, מטמא בכל טומאותיו. וזה שהוציא הכתוב טבילת גופו של זב בלשון שטיפת ידים, ללמדך שאין בית הסתרים טעון ביאת מים, אלא אבר הגלוי, כמו הידים:
12And an earthenware vessel which the man with the discharge will touch, shall be broken. And any wooden vessel shall be rinsed in water.   יבוּכְלִי־חֶ֛רֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּ֥וֹ הַזָּ֖ב יִשָּׁבֵ֑ר וְכָ֨ל־כְּלִי־עֵ֔ץ יִשָּׁטֵ֖ף בַּמָּֽיִם:
And an earthenware vessel which the man with the discharge will touch: One might think that even if he touches it from the outside [of the vessel, “it will also become unclean….” [However, the conclusion of the Midrash is that an earthenware vessel can become defiled only by the entry of an unclean object into its inner space], as is taught in Torath Kohanim (15:143), [where the passage there continues: “So if the verse indeed is referring to entry into the inner space of an earthenware vessel, why does it use the expression of touching?” And this passage] concludes: “Well, what touching is referred to here? When he touches the whole vessel. [And what does this mean?] When he moves it.” [I.e., in addition to the case of entry into the inner space, if a man with a discharge moves a vessel, it becomes unclean].   וכלי חרש אשר יגע בו הזב: יכול אפילו נגע בו מאחוריו וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים, עד איזהו מגעו שהוא בכולו הוי אומר זה הסיטו:
13When the man with the discharge is cleansed of his discharge, he shall count seven days for himself for his purification, and then immerse his garments and immerse his flesh in spring water, and he shall be clean.   יגוְכִֽי־יִטְהַ֤ר הַזָּב֙ מִזּוֹב֔וֹ וְסָ֨פַר ל֜וֹ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֛ים לְטָֽהֳרָת֖וֹ וְכִבֶּ֣ס בְּגָדָ֑יו וְרָחַ֧ץ בְּשָׂר֛וֹ בְּמַ֥יִם חַיִּ֖ים וְטָהֵֽר:
When…is cleansed: [I.e.,] when [the discharge] ceases. — [Torath Kohanim 15:146; Meg. 8a]   וכי יטהר: כשיפסוק:
seven days…for his purification: Seven clean days free of the uncleanness of a discharge, i.e., he must not see any discharge [during these seven days]. And all of them [must be] consecutive [i.e., without any interruption of a discharge during these seven days]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:150; Niddah 33b]   שבעת ימים לטהרתו: שבעת ימים טהורים מטומאת זיבה, שלא יראה זוב, וכולן רצופין:
14And on the eighth day, he shall take for himself two turtle doves or two young doves, and come before the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and give them to the kohen.   ידוּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֗י יִקַּח־לוֹ֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י תֹרִ֔ים א֥וֹ שְׁנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יוֹנָ֑ה וּבָ֣א | לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶל־פֶּ֨תַח֙ אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד וּנְתָנָ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
15And the kohen shall make them: one into a sin offering and one into a burnt offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for him from his discharge, before the Lord.   טווְעָשָׂ֤ה אֹתָם֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן אֶחָ֣ד חַטָּ֔את וְהָֽאֶחָ֖ד עֹלָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מִזּוֹבֽוֹ: