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ב"ה

Torah Reading for Shemini Atzeret

Shemini Atzeret
Tuesday, 22 Tishrei, 5782
28 September, 2021
Select a portion:
Complete: (Deuteronomy 14:22 - 16:17; Numbers 29:35 - 30:1; Kings I 8:54-66)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 14

22You shall tithe all the seed crop that the field gives forth, year by year.   כבעַשֵּׂ֣ר תְּעַשֵּׂ֔ר אֵ֖ת כָּל־תְּבוּאַ֣ת זַרְעֶ֑ךָ הַיֹּצֵ֥א הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה שָׁנָ֥ה שָׁנָֽה:
You shall tithe [all the seed crop]: What has one matter to do with the other [i.e., the prohibition of cooking a kid, and tithing]? The Holy One, blessed is He, said to Israel: Do not cause Me to destroy the [developing] kernels (גְּדָיִים) of grain, while they are yet in their “mother’s womb” [i.e., in the husks], for if you do not tithe your produce properly, when it is near ripening I will bring forth an easterly wind, which will blast them, as it is said, “and blast before becoming standing grain” (II Kings 19:26) (Tanchuma). [And just as cooking the kid in its mother’s milk and the tithes are juxtaposed,] so is the topic of the first fruits (בִּכּוּרִים) [juxtaposed to cooking the kid in its mother’s milk (see Exod. 23:19, 34:26), to teach us that, if you do not bring your first fruits to the Temple as commanded, your fruit produce will wither].   עשר תעשר: מה ענין זה אצל זה, אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל, לא תגרמו לי לבשל גדיים של תבואה עד שהן במעי אמותיהן, שאם אין אתם מעשרים מעשרות כראוי, כשהוא סמוך להתבשל אני מוציא רוח קדים והיא משדפתן. שנאמר (מלכים ב' יט, כא) ושדפה לפני קמה, וכן לענין בכורים:
[You shall tithe…] year by year: From here, we derive [the ruling] that one may not give tithes from the new [crop] for the old [i.e., from this year’s crop for last year’s]. — [Sifrei]   שנה שנה: מכאן שאין מעשרין מן החדש על הישן:
23And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, in the place He chooses to establish His Name therein, the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil, and the firstborn of your cattle and of your sheep, so that you may learn to fear the Lord, your God, all the days.   כגוְאָֽכַלְתָּ֞ לִפְנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בַּמָּק֣וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר֘ לְשַׁכֵּ֣ן שְׁמ֣וֹ שָׁם֒ מַעְשַׂ֤ר דְּגָֽנְךָ֙ תִּֽירשְׁךָ֣ וְיִצְהָרֶ֔ךָ וּבְכֹרֹ֥ת בְּקָֽרְךָ֖ וְצֹאנֶ֑ךָ לְמַ֣עַן תִּלְמַ֗ד לְיִרְאָ֛ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
And you shall eat [before the Lord your God, in the place He chooses… the tithes of your grain…]: This refers to ma’aser sheini , “the second tithe,” for we have already learned to give ma’aser rishon , “the first tithe,” to the Levites, as it is said, “[Speak to the Levites…] when you take from the children of Israel [the tithe]… ” (Num. 18:26), and it gives them permission to eat it anywhere [not only in Jerusalem], as it is said,“and you may eat it in any place” (Num. 18:31). Thus you must conclude that this one [which may be eaten by its owners and must be eaten in Jerusalem,] is another tithe [namely, the second tithe].   ואכלת וגו': זה מעשר שני. שכבר למדנו ליתן מעשר ראשון ללוים, שנאמר (במדבר יח, כו) כי תקחו מאת בני ישראל וגו', ונתן להם רשות לאכלו בכל מקום, שנאמר (שם יח, לא) ואכלתם אותו בכל מקום, על כרחך זה מעשר אחר הוא:
24And if the way be too long for you, that you are unable to carry it, for the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name therein, is too far from you, for the Lord, your God, will bless you   כדוְכִֽי־יִרְבֶּ֨ה מִמְּךָ֜ הַדֶּ֗רֶךְ כִּ֣י לֹ֣א תוּכַל֘ שְׂאֵתוֹ֒ כִּֽי־יִרְחַ֤ק מִמְּךָ֙ הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִבְחַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לָשׂ֥וּם שְׁמ֖וֹ שָׁ֑ם כִּ֥י יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
For [the Lord your God] will bless you: so that your produce will be too much to carry.   כי יברכך: שתהא התבואה מרובה לשאת:
25Then you shall turn it into money, and bind up the money in your hand, and you shall go to the place the Lord, your God, will choose.   כהוְנָֽתַתָּ֖ה בַּכָּ֑סֶף וְצַרְתָּ֤ הַכֶּ֨סֶף֙ בְּיָ֣דְךָ֔ וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּֽוֹ:
26And you shall turn that money into whatever your soul desires; cattle, sheep, new wine or old wine, or whatever your soul desires, and you shall eat there before the Lord, your God, and you shall rejoice, you and your household.   כווְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה הַכֶּ֡סֶף בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּ֨ה נַפְשְׁךָ֜ בַּבָּקָ֣ר וּבַצֹּ֗אן וּבַיַּ֨יִן֙ וּבַשֵּׁכָ֔ר וּבְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּשְׁאָֽלְךָ֖ נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וְאָכַ֣לְתָּ שָּׁ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֖ אַתָּ֥ה וּבֵיתֶֽךָ:
[And you will turn that money] into whatever your soul desires: This is a כְּלָל, a general statement [not limited to anything in particular. Whereas the next expression,]   בכל אשר תאוה נפשך: כלל:
cattle, or sheep, new wine or old wine: [represents a] פְּרָט, a“specification” [that is, it details particular things, limiting the matter to those things. After this, the verse continues,]   בבקר ובצאן וביין ובשכר: פרט:
or whatever your soul desires: [The verse] again reverts to a כְּלָל, a“general statement.” [Now we have learned that when a verse expresses a כְּלָל, a פְּרָט, and then a כְּלָל again, as in this case, we apply the characteristics of the פְּרָט to the whole matter. That is,] just as the items listed in the פְּרָט 1) are products of things themselves produced by the earth [e.g., wine comes from grapes], and 2) are fitting to be food for man, [so must the money replacing them be used to purchase such products]. — [Eruvin 27a]   ובכל אשר תשאלך נפשך: חזר וכלל. מה הפרט מפורש ולד ולדות הארץ וראוי למאכל אדם וכו':
27And [as for] the Levite who is in your cities you shall not forsake him, for he has neither portion nor inheritance with you.   כזוְהַלֵּוִ֥י אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַֽעַזְבֶ֑נּוּ כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין ל֛וֹ חֵ֥לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֖ה עִמָּֽךְ:
And [as for] the Levite… - you shall not forsake him: By not giving him the first tithe.   והלוי וגו' לא תעזבנו: מליתן לו מעשר ראשון:
for he has neither portion nor inheritance with you: This excludes gleanings (Lev. 19:9), forgotten sheaves (Deut. 24:19), the end of the field (Lev. 19:9), [all of which are left for the poor,] and ownerless things, for the Levite does have a portion in these things, just as you do, and [consequently,] they are not subject to tithing.   כי אין לו חלק ונחלה עמך: יצאו לקט שכחה ופאה והפקר, שאף הוא יש לו חלק עמך בהן כמוך, ואינן חייבין במעשר:
28At the end of three years, you shall take out all the tithe of your crop in that year and place it in your cities.   כחמִקְצֵ֣ה | שָׁל֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים תּוֹצִיא֙ אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר֙ תְּבוּאָ֣תְךָ֔ בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הַהִ֑וא וְהִנַּחְתָּ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
At the end of three years [you shall take out all the tithe of your crop in that year]: This comes to teach us that if one kept his tithes from the first and the second year of the shemitah [cycle], he has to remove them from his house in the third [year].   מקצה שלש שנים: בא ולמד שאם השהה מעשרותיו של שנה ראשונה ושנייה לשמטה, שיבערם מן הבית בשלישית:
29And the Levite because he has no portion or inheritance with you and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are in your cities, will come and eat and be satisfied; so that the Lord, your God, will bless you in all the work of your hand that you will do.   כטוּבָ֣א הַלֵּוִ֡י כִּ֣י אֵין־לוֹ֩ חֵ֨לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֜ה עִמָּ֗ךְ וְ֠הַגֵּ֠ר וְהַיָּת֤וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ וְאָֽכְל֖וּ וְשָׂבֵ֑עוּ לְמַ֤עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָֽדְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
And the Levite… will come: And take the first tithe.   ובא הלוי: ויטול מעשר ראשון:
and the stranger, and the orphan… [will come]: And take the second tithe, which this year [the third in the seven year cycle], belongs to the poor, and you [yourself] may not eat it in Jerusalem, in the manner you were required to eat the second tithe in the [first] two years [of this cycle].   והגר והיתום: ויטלו מעשר שני, שהוא של עני של שנה זו, ולא תאכלנו אתה בירושלים כדרך שנזקקת לאכול מעשר שני של שתי שנים:
will come and eat and be satisfied: Give them enough to satisfy them. From here [our Rabbis] said: One must not give the poor from the threshing floor less [than half a kav of wheat, or a kav of barley] (Sifrei). And you go up to Jerusalem with the [second] tithe of the first and the second years which you have delayed [to bring], and you shall confess: “I have removed the sanctified things from the house” (see Deut. 26:13), as is stated in [the section beginning with]“When you have finished tithing…” (Deut. 26:12).   ואכלו ושבעו: תן להם כדי שביעה. מכאן אמרו אין פוחתין לעני בגורן וכו'. ואתה הולך לירושלים למעשר של שנה ראשונה ושנייה שהשהית ומתודה (דברים כו, יג) בערתי הקדש מן הבית, כמו שמפורש (שם כו, יב) בכי תכלה לעשר:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 15

1At the end of seven years you will make a release.   אמִקֵּ֥ץ שֶֽׁבַע־שָׁנִ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה שְׁמִטָּֽה:
At the end of seven years [you shall make a release]: One might think that this means seven years [starting from the transaction] of each loan. Scripture, therefore, states, “The seventh year [i.e., the year of release] has approached…” (verse 9). But if you say [that] “seven years” [means] for each loan, after each individual loan, how has it approached? [No loan was yet transacted.] Consequently, you learn [that Scripture means] seven years according to the counting of the Shemitha [cycle]. — [Sifrei]   מקץ שבע שנים: יכול שבע שנים לכל מלוה ומלוה, תלמוד לומר (פסוק ט) קרבה שנת השבע. ואם אתה אומר שבע שנים לכל מלוה ומלוה להלואת כל אחד ואחד, היאך היא קרבה, הא למדת שבע שנים למנין השמיטות:
2And this is the manner of the release; to release the hand of every creditor from what he lent his friend; he shall not exact from his friend or his brother, because time of the release for the Lord has arrived.   בוְזֶה֘ דְּבַ֣ר הַשְּׁמִטָּה֒ שָׁמ֗וֹט כָּל־בַּ֨עַל֙ מַשֵּׁ֣ה יָד֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַשֶּׁ֖ה בְּרֵעֵ֑הוּ לֹֽא־יִגֹּ֤שׂ אֶת־רֵעֵ֨הוּ֙ וְאֶת־אָחִ֔יו כִּֽי־קָרָ֥א שְׁמִטָּ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
to release the hand of every creditor: Heb. שָׁמוֹט כָּל-בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ, [lit. to release every master the loan of his hand, which makes no sense. Therefore, Rashi interprets the verse to mean] to release the hand of every creditor [from reclaiming the loan].   שמוט כל בעל משה ידו: שמוט את ידו של כל בעל משה:
3From the foreigner you may exact; but what is yours with your brother, your hand shall release.   גאֶת־הַנָּכְרִ֖י תִּגֹּ֑שׂ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ אֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ תַּשְׁמֵ֥ט יָדֶֽךָ:
From the foreigner you may exact: This is a positive command (See Ramban.). - [Sifrei]   את הנכרי תיגוש: זו מצות עשה:
4However, there will be no needy among you, for the Lord will surely bless you in the land the Lord, your God, is giving you for an inheritance to possess.   דאֶ֕פֶס כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־בְּךָ֖ אֶבְי֑וֹן כִּֽי־בָרֵ֤ךְ יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵֽן־לְךָ֥ נַֽחֲלָ֖ה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
However, there will be no needy among you: But further on it says,“For there will never cease to be needy [within the land]” (verse 11). [These two verses seem to contradict each other. However, the explanation is:] When you perform the will of the Omnipresent, there will be needy among others but not among you. If, however, you do not perform the will of the Omnipresent, there will be needy among you. - [Sifrei]   אפס כי לא יהיה בך אביון: ולהלן הוא אומר (פסוק יא) כי לא יחדל אביון, אלא בזמן שאתם עושים רצונו של מקום, אביונים באחרים ולא בכם, וכשאין אתם עושים רצונו של מקום אביונים בכם:
needy: Heb. אֶבְיוֹן, [denoting someone who is] poorer than an ע ָנִי. The term אֶבְיוֹן means“to yearn for” (תָּאֵב) , i.e., one who yearns for everything [because he has nothing]. — [Vayikra Rabbah 34:6, see B.M. 111b]   אביון: דל מעני, ולשון אביון שהוא תאב לכל דבר:
5However, if you hearken to the voice of the Lord, your God, to be careful to do all this commandment, which I am commanding you today.   הרַ֚ק אִם־שָׁמ֣וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֔ע בְּק֖וֹל יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֤ר לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּֽוֹם:
However, if you hearken [to the voice of the Lord, your God]: then “there will be no needy among you” (verse 4).   רק אם שמוע תשמע: אז לא יהיה בך אביון:
you hearken: Heb. שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע. [The repetition of the verb form suggests:] If one listens a little, he will be granted the opportunity to listen much [i.e., he will be taught much Torah as a reward]. — [Sifrei]   שמוע תשמע: שמע קמעא משמיעין אותו הרבה:
6For the Lord, your God, has blessed you, as He spoke to you, and you will lend to many nations, but you will not borrow; and you will rule over many nations, but they will not rule over you.   וכִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ בֵּֽרַכְךָ֔ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־לָ֑ךְ וְהַֽעֲבַטְתָּ֞ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֗ים וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א תַֽעֲבֹ֔ט וּמָֽשַׁלְתָּ֙ בְּגוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים וּבְךָ֖ לֹ֥א יִמְשֹֽׁלוּ:
[For the Lord, your God, has blessed you,] as He has spoken to you: And where did He speak about this?“Blessed are you in the city…” (Deut. 28:3). - [Sifrei]   כאשר דבר לך: והיכן דבר, (דברים כח, ג) ברוך אתה בעיר:
and you will lend: Heb. וְהַעֲבַטְתָּ. Whenever an expression denoting lending refers to a lender [of money], it adopts the hiph’il [causative] form. For example, וְהִלְוִיתָ, or וְהַעֲבַטְתָּ, you will lend. However, if it would have said וְעָבַטְתָּ,[in the kal, simple conjugation,] it would be referring to the borrower, like וְלָוִיתָ, you will borrow .   והעבטת: כל לשון הלואה כשנופל על המלוה, נופל בלשון מפעיל. כגון והלוית, והעבטת. ואם היה אומר ועבטת היה נופל על הלוה, כמו ולוית:
and you will lend to [many] nations: One might think that you will borrow from this one and lend that one. Therefore, Scripture states, “but you will not borrow.”   והעבטת גוים: יכול שתהא לוה מזה ומלוה לזה, תלמוד לומר ואתה לא תעבוט:
and you will rule over many nations: One might think that [at the same time] other nations will rule over you. Therefore, Scripture states, “but they will not rule over you.” - [Sifrei]   ומשלת בגוים רבים: יכול גוים אחרים מושלים עליך, תלמוד לומר ובך לא ימשולו:
7If there will be among you a needy person, from one of your brothers in one of your cities, in your land the Lord, your God, is giving you, you shall not harden your heart, and you shall not close your hand from your needy brother.   זכִּי־יִֽהְיֶה֩ בְךָ֨ אֶבְי֜וֹן מֵֽאַחַ֤ד אַחֶ֨יךָ֙ בְּאַחַ֣ד שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ בְּאַ֨רְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ לֹ֧א תְאַמֵּ֣ץ אֶת־לְבָֽבְךָ֗ וְלֹ֤א תִקְפֹּץ֙ אֶת־יָ֣דְךָ֔ מֵֽאָחִ֖יךָ הָֽאֶבְיֽוֹן:
If there will be among you a needy person: The most needy person has priority. - [Sifrei]   כי יהיה בך אביון: התאב תאב קודם:
from one of your brothers: Your brother on your father’s side has priority over your brother on your mother’s side. — [Sifrei]   מאחד אחיך: אחיך מאביך, קודם לאחיך מאמך:
[in one of] your cities: The poor of your city have priority over the poor of another city. - [Sifrei]   שעריך: עניי עירך קודמים לעניי עיר אחרת:
you shall not harden [your heart]: Some people suffer [as they deliberate] whether they should give [to the needy] or they should not give; therefore it says: “you shall not harden [your heart].” Some people stretch out their hand [to give], but then close it; therefore it says: “nor close your hand.” - [Sifrei]   לא תאמץ: יש לך אדם שמצטער אם יתן אם לא יתן, לכך נאמר לא תאמץ. יש לך אדם שפושט את ידו וקופצה, לכך נאמר ולא תקפוץ:
[nor close your hand] from your needy brother: If you do not give him, you will ultimately become a“brother of the needy” [i.e., becoming needy yourself]. — [Sifrei]   מאחיך האביון: אם לא תתן לו, סופך להיות אחיו של אביון [בעניות]:
8Rather, you shall open your hand to him, and you shall lend him sufficient for his needs, which he is lacking.   חכִּֽי־פָתֹ֧חַ תִּפְתַּ֛ח אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ ל֑וֹ וְהַֽעֲבֵט֙ תַּֽעֲבִיטֶ֔נּוּ דֵּ֚י מַחְסֹר֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֶחְסַ֖ר לֽוֹ:
[Rather] you shall open [your hand]: Even many times.   פתח תפתח: אפילו כמה פעמים:
[Rather] you shall open [your hand]: Heb. כִּי-פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח. Here, the word כִּי has the meaning of “rather” [whereas in verse 7 it means “if,” and in verse 10, “because”].   כי פתח תפתח: הרי כי משמש בלשון אלא:
and you shall lend: If he does not want [your money] as a [charitable] gift, give it to him as a loan. — [Sifrei ; Keth. 67b]   והעבט תעביטנו: אם לא רצה במתנה, תן לו בהלואה:
[lend him] sufficient for his needs: However, you are not commanded to make him wealthy. — [Sifrei]   די מחסורו: ואי אתה מצווה להעשירו:
[sufficient for his needs,] what he is lacking: Even a horse to ride on and a servant to run before him [if he is accustomed to this type of lifestyle]. - [Sifrei; Keth. 67b]   אשר יחסר לו: אפילו סוס לרכוב עליו ועבד לרוץ לפניו:
he [is lacking]: Heb. יֶחְסַר לוֹ, lit. what is lacking for him. This refers to a wife [i.e., you should help him marry a wife]. Similarly, it is stated: “I shall make for him (לוֹ) a helpmate opposite him” (Gen. 2:18). - [Keth. 66b]   לו: זו אשה. וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ב, יח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו:
9Beware, lest there be in your heart an unfaithful thought, saying, "The seventh year, the year of release has approached," and you will begrudge your needy brother and not give him, and he will cry out to the Lord against you, and it will be a sin to you.   טהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֡ פֶּן־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה דָבָר֩ עִם־לְבָבְךָ֨ בְלִיַּ֜עַל לֵאמֹ֗ר קָֽרְבָ֣ה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁ֘בַע֘ שְׁנַ֣ת הַשְּׁמִטָּה֒ וְרָעָ֣ה עֵֽינְךָ֗ בְּאָחִ֨יךָ֙ הָֽאֶבְי֔וֹן וְלֹ֥א תִתֵּ֖ן ל֑וֹ וְקָרָ֤א עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
and he will cry out [to the Lord] against you: One might think this is a requirement [namely, that this poor man is obliged to “cry out… against you”]. Therefore, Scripture says, “[On his day you shall give him his payment…] so that he will not cry against you [to the Lord]” (Deut. 24:15). - [Sifrei 15:138]   וקרא עליך: יכול מצוה, תלמוד לומר (דברים כד, טו) ולא יקרא:
and it will be a sin to you: in any case, even if he does not cry [against you]. If so, why does it say,“and he will cry out… against you?” [It means that God says:] I hasten to punish in response to the one who cries out more than to the one who does not cry out. — [Sifrei]   והיה בך חטא: מכל מקום, אפילו לא יקרא. אם כן למה נאמר וקרא עליך, ממהר אני ליפרע על ידי הקורא יותר ממי שאינו קורא:
10You shall surely give him, and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him; for because of this thing the Lord, your God, will bless you in all your work and in all your endeavors.   ינָת֤וֹן תִּתֵּן֙ ל֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יֵרַ֥ע לְבָֽבְךָ֖ בְּתִתְּךָ֣ ל֑וֹ כִּ֞י בִּגְלַ֣ל | הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־מַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ךָ וּבְכֹ֖ל מִשְׁלַ֥ח יָדֶֽךָ:
You shall surely give him: Even a hundred times. — [Sifrei]   נתון תתן לו: אפילו מאה פעמים:
him: [meaning] between him and you [i.e., privately]. - [Sifrei]   לו: בינו ובינך:
for because of this thing: Heb. דָּבָר, lit. word. Even if you said [i.e., gave him your“word”] that you would give, you will receive a reward for the saying along with the reward for the deed. — [Sifrei]   כי בגלל הדבר: אפילו אמרת ליתן, אתה נוטל שכר האמירה עם שכר המעשה:
11For there will never cease to be needy within the land. Therefore, I command you, saying, you shall surely open your hand to your brother, to your poor one, and to your needy one in your land.   יאכִּ֛י לֹֽא־יֶחְדַּ֥ל אֶבְי֖וֹן מִקֶּ֣רֶב הָאָ֑רֶץ עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר פָּ֠תֹ֠חַ תִּפְתַּ֨ח אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֜ לְאָחִ֧יךָ לַּֽעֲנִיֶּ֛ךָ וּלְאֶבְיֹֽנְךָ֖ בְּאַרְצֶֽךָ:
Therefore: Heb. עַל-כֵּן, here meaning מִפְּנֵי כֵן, [i.e.,] “because of this,” or“therefore.”   על כן: מפני כן:
saying: I offer you advice for your own good. — [Sifrei]   לאמר: עצה לטובתך אני משיאך:
[You shall surely open your hand] to your brother, to your poor one: To which brother? To your poor one.   לאחיך לעניך: לאיזה אח, לעני:
to your poor one: Heb. לַעֲנִיֶּךָ, [spelled] with one“yud,” [singular form,] means one poor person, but עֲנִיֶּיךָ‏ with two “yud”s [the second “yud” denoting the plural form,] means two poor people. [Here, since it is written with one “yud,” meaning one poor person, thus modifying אָחִיךָ‏, your brother, which is in the singular]. See Yosef Hallel, Leket Bahir, Chavel.   לעניך: ביו"ד אחד, לשון עני אחד הוא. אבל ענייך בשני יודי"ן, שני עניים:
12If your brother, a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman, is sold to you, he shall serve you for six years, and in the seventh year you shall send him forth free from you.   יבכִּֽי־יִמָּכֵ֨ר לְךָ֜ אָחִ֣יךָ הָֽעִבְרִ֗י א֚וֹ הָֽעִבְרִיָּ֔ה וַֽעֲבָֽדְךָ֖ שֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֑ים וּבַשָּׁנָה֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔ת תְּשַׁלְּחֶ֥נּוּ חָפְשִׁ֖י מֵֽעִמָּֽךְ:
If [your brother…] is sold to you: By others [but not one who sells himself because of poverty]. Scripture is speaking here of one whom the court sold [for a theft that he had committed]. But has it not already been stated, “If you buy a Hebrew servant” (Exod. 21:2) and there, too, Scripture is referring to one whom the court sold (Mechilta)? Nevertheless, [it is repeated here] because of two points which are new here: The first is that it is written [here] “or a Hebrew woman,” that she, too, [like a manservant,] goes free at the end of six [years]. This does not mean a woman whom the court has sold, for a woman is not sold [by the court] on account of a theft, since it is stated [that the thief will be sold] “for his theft” (Exod. 22:2), not for her theft. Thus, [we are referring here to] a minor whom her father sold [as a handmaid], and it teaches you here that if six years terminate before she shows signs [of puberty], she goes free (Exod. 21:7-11). The second new point here is:“You shall surely provide him.”   כי ימכר לך: על ידי אחרים, שמכרוהו בית דין בגנבתו הכתוב מדבר. והרי כבר נאמר (שמות כא, ב) כי תקנה עבד עברי, ובמכרוהו בית דין הכתוב מדבר. אלא מפני שני דברים שנתחדשו כאן. אחד שכתוב או העבריה, אף היא תצא בשש. ולא שמכרוה בית דין, שאין האשה נמכרת בגנבתה, שנאמר בגנבתו ולא בגנבתה, אלא בקטנה שמכרה אביה, ולמד כאן שאם יצאו שש שנים קודם שתביא סימנין תצא. ועוד חידש כאן (פסוק יד) העניק תעניק:
13And when you send him forth free from you, you shall not send him forth empty-handed.   יגוְכִֽי־תְשַׁלְּחֶ֥נּוּ חָפְשִׁ֖י מֵֽעִמָּ֑ךְ לֹ֥א תְשַׁלְּחֶ֖נּוּ רֵיקָֽם:
14You shall surely provide him from your flock, from your threshing floor, and from your vat, you shall give him from what the Lord, your God, has blessed you   ידהַֽעֲנֵ֤יק תַּֽעֲנִיק֙ ל֔וֹ מִצֹּ֣אנְךָ֔ וּמִגָּרְנְךָ֖ וּמִיִּקְבֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֧ר בֵּֽרַכְךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ תִּתֶּן־לֽוֹ:
You shall surely provide him: Heb. הַעֲנֵיק תַּעֲנִיק. [The root ענק] denotes an ornament worn high [on the upper portion of the body] within view of the eye. [Thus, this verse means that you should give him] something through which it will be recognized that you have benefited him. Others explain [the word הַעֲנֵיק] as an expression of loading on his neck [meaning that you should load him with gifts].   העניק תעניק: לשון עדי בגובה ובמראית העין, שיהא ניכר שהטיבות לו. ויש מפרשים לשון הטענה על צוארו:
[You shall surely provide him] from your flock, from your threshing floor, and from your vat: One might think that I must [give him] only these things [listed in the verse here]. Therefore, Scripture states,“from what the Lord, your God, has blessed you,” meaning, from everything with which your Creator has blessed you. Then why are these mentioned? Just as these particular things are within the realm of blessing, so too, you should provide him only with what falls within the realm of blessing. This [therefore] excludes mules, [which are sterile, and are thus not considered within the realm of blessing] (Kid. 17a). In tractate Kiddushin (17a)our Rabbis derived by means of a gezerah shavah how much one must give the servant of each kind.   מצאנך ומגרנך ומיקבך: יכול אין לי אלא אלו בלבד, תלמוד לומר אשר ברכך, מכל מה שברכך בוראך. ולמה נאמרו אלו, מה אלו מיוחדים שהם בכלל ברכה אף כל שהוא בכלל ברכה, יצאו פרדות. ולמדו רבותינו במסכת קידושין (יז א) בגזרה שוה כמה נותן לו מכל מין ומין:
15And you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you; therefore, I am commanding you this thing today.   טווְזָֽכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֨יתָ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה הַיּֽוֹם:
And you shall remember that you were a slave [in the land of Egypt]: And I loaded you up [with booty], and then did so a second time, from the spoil of Egypt and from the spoil at the Sea [of Reeds]; so too should you load him up, and then do so a second time. — [Sifrei]   וזכרת כי עבד היית: והענקתי ושניתי לך מביזת מצרים וביזת הים, אף אתה הענק ושנה לו:
16And it will be, if he says to you, "I will not leave you," because he loves you and your household, for it is good for him with you,   טזוְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־יֹאמַ֣ר אֵלֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א אֵצֵ֖א מֵֽעִמָּ֑ךְ כִּ֤י אֲהֵֽבְךָ֙ וְאֶת־בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ כִּי־ט֥וֹב ל֖וֹ עִמָּֽךְ:
17Then you shall take an awl and put it through his ear and into the door, and he shall be a servant to you forever; and also to your maidservant you shall do likewise.   יזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֣ אֶת־הַמַּרְצֵ֗עַ וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ה בְאָזְנוֹ֙ וּבַדֶּ֔לֶת וְהָיָ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֶ֣בֶד עוֹלָ֑ם וְאַ֥ף לַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ֖ תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־כֵּֽן:
[And he shall be] a servant [to you] forever: Heb. לְעוֹלָם. One might think that [לְעוֹלָם, “forever”] is to be interpreted literally. Therefore, Scripture states:“[And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It will be a Jubilee for you;] and you shall return, every man to his property, and you shall return, every man to his family” (Lev. 25:10). Consequently, you learn that the term לְעוֹלָם here can mean only the period until the Jubilee. [This period is also called לְעוֹלָם.]- [Mechilta 21:6]   עבד עולם: יכול כמשמעו, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כה, י) ושבתם איש אל אחזתו ואיש אל משפחתו תשובו, הא למדת שאין זה, אלא עולמו של יובל:
and also to your maidservant you will do likewise: to provide her. One might think that Scripture includes her concerning the piercing [of the ear] as well. Therefore, it states,“And if the manservant (הָעֶבֶד) will clearly say, [I love my master…then…his master shall bore his ear with an awl]” (Exod. 21:5-6); [i.e.,] a manservant (עֶבֶד) must have his ear pierced, but not a maidservant. — [Sifrei]   ואף לאמתך תעשה כן: הענק לה. יכול אף לרציעה השוה הכתוב אותה, תלמוד לומר (שמות כא, ה) ואם אמור יאמר העבד, עבד נרצע, ואין אמה נרצעת:
18You shall not be troubled when you send him free from you, for twice as much as a hired servant, he has served you six years, and the Lord, your God, will bless you in all that you shall do.   יחלֹֽא־יִקְשֶׁ֣ה בְעֵינֶ֗ךָ בְּשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ֙ אֹת֤וֹ חָפְשִׁי֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ כִּ֗י מִשְׁנֶה֙ שְׂכַ֣ר שָׂכִ֔יר עֲבָֽדְךָ֖ שֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֑ים וּבֵֽרַכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
for twice as much as a hired servant: From here our Rabbis said: A Hebrew slave serves both by day and by night, and that is double the amount of labor of a man hired only for day work. And what is his service during the night? That his master gives him a Canaanite maidservant [as a wife], and the [resultant] children [belong] to the master. — [Sifrei , Kid. 15a]   כי משנה שכר שכיר: מכאן אמרו עבד עברי עובד בין ביום ובין בלילה. וזהו כפלים שבעבודת שכירי יום. ומהו עבודתו בלילה, רבו מוסר לו שפחה כנענית והולדות לאדון:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 15

19Every firstborn male that is born of your cattle or of your flock you shall sanctify to the Lord, your God. You shall neither work with the firstborn of your ox, nor shear the firstborn of your flock.   יטכָּל־הַבְּכ֡וֹר אֲשֶׁר֩ יִוָּלֵ֨ד בִּבְקָֽרְךָ֤ וּבְצֹֽאנְךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר תַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹ֤א תַֽעֲבֹד֙ בִּבְכֹ֣ר שׁוֹרֶ֔ךָ וְלֹ֥א תָגֹ֖ז בְּכ֥וֹר צֹאנֶֽךָ:
Every firstborn male… you shall sanctify [to the Lord]: But elsewhere (Lev. 27:26) it says, “[But the firstborn which will be a firstborn for the Lord of the livestock,] no man shall sanctify it.” How is this [reconciled]? [The verse in Leviticus means that] one may not sanctify [the firstborn] to be another sacrifice [but only as a firstborn sacrifice]. And our verse here teaches us that it is a duty to proclaim [over the firstborn animal], “You are hereby sanctified as a firstborn.” Another explanation: It is impossible to say “sanctify [this firstborn animal],” because [Scripture] already says, “no man must shall sanctify it” (Lev. 27:26). And yet it is impossible to say that we shall not sanctify it, for [here] it already says, “you shall sanctify.” So how [can these two verses be reconciled]? [The answer is that we are dealing with an indirect sanctification, namely:] One may sanctify the value of the privilege [i.e., the owner of the firstborn animal has the privilege of choosing to which kohen he will give it. This privilege has a market value, namely how much an Israelite will pay so that the owner of the firstborn will give it to his grandson who is a kohen . The verse, therefore, means:] one may dedicate the value of this privilege according to its benefit and give it to the Temple [treasury]. — [Ar . 29a]   כל הבכור וגו' תקדיש: ובמקום אחר הוא אומר לא יקדיש, שנאמר (ויקרא כז, כו) אך בכור אשר יבכר לה' וגו', הא כיצד, אינו מקדישו לקרבן אחר, וכאן למד שמצוה לומר הרי אתה קדוש לבכורה. דבר אחר אי אפשר לומר תקדיש שכבר נאמר לא יקדיש, ואי אפשר לומר לא יקדיש שהרי כבר נאמר תקדיש, הא כיצד, מקדישו אתה הקדש עלוי, ונותן להקדש כפי טובת הנאה שבו:
You shall neither work with the firstborn of your ox, nor shear [the firstborn of your flock]: The Rabbis derived that also the the converse [i.e., shearing your ox and working the flock] is prohibited. Scripture is merely speaking [here] of the usual manner [in which these animals are used]. — [Bech. 25a]   לא תעבוד בבכור שורך ולא תגוז וגו': אף החלוף למדו רבותינו שאסור, אלא שדבר הכתוב בהווה:
20You shall eat it before the Lord, your God, year by year, in the place the Lord chooses-you and your household.   כלִפְנֵי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֤יךָ תֹֽאכְלֶ֨נּוּ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה בְשָׁנָ֔ה בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה אַתָּ֖ה וּבֵיתֶֽךָ:
You shall eat it before the Lord, your God: [Scripture] is addressing the kohen , for we have already found [a statement to the effect] that it [the firstborn] is part of the dues given to kohanim , whether the animal is unblemished or whether it is blemished. For it is stated, “and their flesh [i.e., of the firstborn animals] shall be yours [i.e., the kohen 's]” (Num. 18:18). - [Bech. 28a] [In both cases, the kohen is entitled to eat the entire animal. The difference between the blemished and the unblemished animals is that the blemished animal is slaughtered outside the Temple, and its flesh may be eaten anywhere by anyone invited by the kohen . The unblemished animal, however, must be slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, its blood dashed on the altar, and its fat burned on the altar. The flesh must be eaten by the kohen and his household within the time allotted for eating it.]   לפני ה' אלהיך תאכלנו: לכהן הוא אומר, שכבר מצינו שהוא ממתנות כהונה אחד תם ואחד בעל מום, שנאמר (במדבר יח, יח) ובשרם יהיה לך וגו':
[You shall eat it before the Lord…] year by year: From here we derive the law that one should not delay it [i.e., from sacrificing it] beyond its first year (Bech. 28a). [If so, however,] one might think that it becomes unfit [as a sacrifice] when the first year has elapsed. [Therefore, the Torah tells us that] it [the firstborn animal] has already been compared to ma’aser [sheini], as it is said,“And you shall eat before the Lord, your God… the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil, and the firstborn of your cattle and of your sheep” (Deut. 14:23). Just as ma’aser sheini does not become unfit [when it is left over] from one year to the next, neither does the firstborn animal become unfit. However, [this verse means] that the proper way to fulfill this commandment [of the firstborn animal] is during its first year.   שנה בשנה: מכאן שאין משהין אותו יותר על שנתו. יכול יהא פסול משעברה שנתו, כבר הוקש למעשר, שנאמר (לעיל יד כג) ואכלת לפני ה' אלהיך מעשר דגנך תירושך ויצהרך ובכורות בקרך וצאנך, מה מעשר שני אינו נפסל משנה לחברתה, אף בכור אינו נפסל, אלא שמצוה תוך שנתו:
year by year: If one slaughtered it at the end of its first year [on the last day], he may eat it on that day and one day of the next year. This teaches [us] that it [a firstborn animal] may be eaten for two days and one [intervening] night. — [Bech. 27b]   שנה בשנה: אם שחטו בסוף שנתו אוכלו אותו היום ויום אחד משנה אחרת. למד שנאכל לשני ימים ולילה אחד:
21And if there be any blemish in it, whether it be lame, or blind, or any ill blemish, you shall not sacrifice it to the Lord, your God.   כאוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה ב֜וֹ מ֗וּם פִּסֵּ֨חַ֙ א֣וֹ עִוֵּ֔ר כֹּ֖ל מ֣וּם רָ֑ע לֹ֣א תִזְבָּחֶ֔נּוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
[And if there be any] blemish [in it]: [This is] a כְּלָל, a general statement [not limiting itself to anything in particular].   מום: כלל:
lame, or blind: [This is] a פְּרָט, particular things, [limiting the matter to these things].   פסח או עור: פרט:
any ill blemish: [Once again the verse] reverts to כְּלָל, a general statement. [Now we have learned that when a verse expresses a כְּלָל, then a פְּרָט, and then a כְּלָל again, just as in this case, we apply the characteristics of the פְּרָט to the whole matter.] Just as the blemishes detailed [lame or blind] are externally visible blemishes that do not heal, so too, any externally visible blemish that does not heal [renders a firstborn animal unfit for sacrifice and may be eaten as ordinary flesh]. — [Bech. 37a]   כל מום רע: חזר וכלל. מה הפרט מפורש מום הגלוי ואינו חוזר, אף כל מום שבגלוי ואינו חוזר:
22You shall eat it within your cities, the unclean and the clean together, as the deer, and as the gazelle.   כבבִּשְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ הַטָּמֵ֤א וְהַטָּהוֹר֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כַּצְּבִ֖י וְכָֽאַיָּֽל:
23However, you shall not eat its blood; you shall pour it on the ground, as water.   כגרַ֥ק אֶת־דָּמ֖וֹ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑ל עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶ֖נּוּ כַּמָּֽיִם:
However, you shall not eat its blood: [Although eating the blood of any animal is prohibited, this prohibition is mentioned here] so that you should not say: “Since this [blemished firstborn animal] is entirely permitted [to be eaten now after its blemish, even though] it started out from a forbidden status, since it was sanctified, [and now it is permitted] for it is slaughtered outside [the Temple] without having to be redeemed, and [it may be] eaten. I might [therefore] think that its blood is permitted as well!” Therefore, Scripture states,“However, you shall not eat its blood.”   רק את דמו לא תאכל: שלא תאמר הואיל וכולו היתר הבא מכלל איסור הוא, שהרי קדוש ונשחט בחוץ בלא פדיון ונאכל, יכול יהא אף הדם מותר, תלמוד לומר רק את דמו לא תאכל:

Deuteronomy Chapter 16

1Keep the month of spring, and make the Passover offering to the Lord, your God, for in the month of spring, the Lord, your God, brought you out of Egypt at night.   אשָׁמוֹר֙ אֶת־חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ פֶּ֔סַח לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּ֞י בְּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֗יב הוֹצִ֨יאֲךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם לָֽיְלָה:
Keep the month of spring: Heb. אָבִיב. Before it [Nissan] arrives, watch that it should be fit for the אָבִיב, ripening [capable of producing ripe ears of barley by the sixteenth of the month], to offer up in it the omer meal offering. And if not, proclaim it a leap year [thereby enabling you to wait another month, until the barley ripens]. — [San. 11b]   שמור את חדש האביב: מקודם בואו שמור, שיהא ראוי לאביב להקריב בו את מנחת העומר, ואם לאו, עבר את השנה:
[for in the month of spring the Lord, your God, brought you] out of Egypt at night: But did they not go out by day, as it is said, “on the morrow of the Passover the children of Israel went out…” (Num. 33:3)? However, since during the night Pharaoh gave them permission to leave, as it is said, “So he called for Moses and Aaron at night [and said, ‘Rise up, go out from among my people…]’ ” (Exod. 12:31), [therefore, here it says “at night”]. — [Ber. 9a]   ממצרים לילה: והלא ביום יצאו, שנאמר (במדבר לג, ג) ממחרת הפסח יצאו בני ישראל וגו', אלא לפי שבלילה נתן להם פרעה רשות לצאת, שנאמר (שמות יב, לא) ויקרא למשה ולאהרן לילה וגו':
2You shall slaughter the Passover sacrifice to the Lord, your God, [of the] flock, and [the Festival sacrifices of the] cattle, in the place which the Lord will choose to establish His Name therein.   בוְזָבַ֥חְתָּ פֶּ֛סַח לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ צֹ֣אן וּבָקָ֑ר בַּמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה לְשַׁכֵּ֥ן שְׁמ֖וֹ שָֽׁם:
You shall slaughter the Passover sacrifice to the Lord, your God, [of the] flock: As it is said, “You may take [it] either from the sheep or from the goats” (Exod. 12:5).   וזבחת פסח לה' אלהיך צאן: שנאמר (שמות יב ה) מן הכבשים ומן העזים תקחו:
and…cattle: These are slaughtered as the chagigah [Festival offering]. If a large group was formed for the Passover offering, they bring a Festival offering along with it, so that the Passover sacrifice will be eaten [after a sufficient meal, and therefore] after the required satiation. [Everyone had to designate himself to a particular company of people, which was then relevant to one particular Passover offering (Pes. 69a-70b).] Our Rabbis also derived many other things from this verse. — [Sifrei ; Pes. 70a]   ובקר: תזבח לחגיגה. שאם נמנו על הפסח חבורה מרובה מביאים עמו חגיגה כדי שיהא נאכל על השובע, ועוד למדו רבותינו דברים הרבה מפסוק זה:
3You shall not eat leaven with it; for seven days you shall eat with it matzoth, the bread of affliction, for in haste you went out of the land of Egypt, so that you shall remember the day when you went out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life.   גלֹֽא־תֹאכַ֤ל עָלָיו֙ חָמֵ֔ץ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֛ים תֹּֽאכַל־עָלָ֥יו מַצּ֖וֹת לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי כִּ֣י בְחִפָּז֗וֹן יָצָ֨אתָ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לְמַ֣עַן תִּזְכֹּ֗ר אֶת־י֤וֹם צֵֽאתְךָ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י חַיֶּֽיךָ:
the bread of affliction: [I.e.,] bread that brings to mind the affliction they suffered in Egypt. — [Sifrei]   לחם עני: לחם שמזכיר את העוני שנתענו במצרים:
for in haste you went out of the land of Egypt: And the dough [that you had prepared for eating] did not have time to become leavened, so this [matzah] will be for you as a reminder. And the haste [here] is not on your part, but on the part of the Egyptians, for so it says, “So the Egyptians took hold of the people [to hasten to send them out of the land]” (Exod. 12:33). - [Sifrei; Ber. 9a]   כי בחפזון יצאת: ולא הספיק בצק להחמיץ וזה יהיה לך לזכרון. וחפזון לא שלך היה אלא של מצרים, שכן הוא אומר (שמות יב, לג) ותחזק מצרים על העם וגו':
so that you shall remember: By eating the Passover sacrifice and the matzah, the day you went out [of the land of Egypt].   למען תזכור: על ידי אכילת הפסח והמצה, את יום צאתך:

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 16

4And no leaven shall be seen with you within all your border for seven days; neither shall any of the flesh you slaughter on the preceding day in the afternoon, remain all night until the morning.   דוְלֹא־יֵֽרָאֶ֨ה לְךָ֥ שְׂאֹ֛ר בְּכָל־גְּבֻֽלְךָ֖ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֣ין מִן־הַבָּשָׂ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּזְבַּ֥ח בָּעֶ֛רֶב בַּיּ֥וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן לַבֹּֽקֶר:
neither shall any of the flesh you slaughter on the preceding day in the afternoon, remain all night until the morning: This is an admonition regarding leaving over the flesh of the Passover sacrifice, offered up by future generations, because [so far this prohibition] had been mentioned only with regard to the Passover sacrifice offered in Egypt (see Exod. 12:10). And יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן stated here is the fourteenth of Nissan [the preceding day, and not the fifteenth, which is the first day of Passover], just as it says:“but on the preceding day (בַּיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן) you shall clear away leaven from your houses” (Exod. 12:15). Now since Scripture digressed from the subject of the Passover sacrifice and began to speak of the rules pertaining to the seven days [of the Festival]-such as, “seven days you shall eat with it matzoth ” (verse 3); “And no leaven shall be seen with you within all your border for seven days” (verse 4)-it was necessary to specify to which slaughtering [Scripture] is admonishing. For had it written only “neither shall any of the flesh you slaughter in the afternoon, remain all night until the morning” [without saying “the preceding day”], I might have thought that the peace offerings slaughtered during all the seven days are also subject to [the prohibition of] “And you shall not leave any of it until the morning,” (Exod. 12:10), and may be eaten only for [one] day and a night. Therefore, it is written:“on the preceding day in the evening,” [thereby clarifying that the verse is referring to the Passover sacrifice]. Another explanation: Scripture is referring to the Festival offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan [and not to the specific Passover sacrifice], and it teaches with reference to it that it may be eaten for two days [and the intervening night]. Now the רִאשׁוֹן mentioned here [according to this explanation], is the first day of the Festival [i.e., the fifteenth of Nissan, rather than the preceding day]. And this is the meaning of the verse: The flesh of the Festival offering, which you slaughtered in the afternoon, shall not remain overnight after the first day of the Festival until the morning of the second day [the sixteenth of Nissan], but rather, it is to be eaten on the fourteenth and the fifteenth [and the intervening night]. And thus it is taught in tractate Pes. (71b).   ולא ילין מן הבשר אשר תזבח בערב ביום הראשון לבקר: אזהרה למותיר בפסח דורות, לפי שלא נאמר אלא בפסח מצרים, ויום ראשון האמור כאן הוא י"ד בניסן, כמה דאת אמר (שמות יב, טו) אך ביום הראשון תשביתו שאור מבתיכם. ולפי שנסתלק הכתוב מענינו של פסח והתחיל לדבר בחקות שבעת ימים, כגון שבעת ימים תאכל עליו מצות ולא יראה לך שאור בכל גבולך, הוצרך לפרש באיזו זביחה הוא מזהיר, שאם כתב ולא ילין מן הבשר אשר תזבח בערב לבקר הייתי אומר שלמים הנשחטים כל שבעה כולן בבל תותירו ואינן נאכלין אלא ליום ולילה, לכך כתב בערב ביום הראשון. דבר אחר בחגיגת י"ד הכתוב מדבר, ולמד עליה שנאכלת לשני ימים. והראשון האמור כאן, ביום טוב הראשון הכתוב מדבר. וכן משמעות המקרא, בשר חגיגה אשר תזבח בערב, לא ילין ביום טוב הראשון עד בקרו של שני, אבל נאכלת היא בארבעה עשר ובחמשה עשר, כך היא שנויה במסכת פסחים (עא ב):
5You shall not sacrifice the Passover offering within any of your cities, which the Lord, your God, is giving you.   הלֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לִזְבֹּ֣חַ אֶת־הַפָּ֑סַח בְּאַחַ֣ד שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
6Except at the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name-there you shall slaughter the Passover offering in the afternoon, as the sun sets, at the appointed time that you went out of Egypt.   וכִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ לְשַׁכֵּ֣ן שְׁמ֔וֹ שָׁ֛ם תִּזְבַּ֥ח אֶת־הַפֶּ֖סַח בָּעָ֑רֶב כְּב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ מוֹעֵ֖ד צֵֽאתְךָ֥ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
in the afternoon, as the sun sets, at the appointed time that you went out of Egypt: These are three separate times. Towards evening---after six hours slaughter it. At sunset eat it. At the time you left you burn it, meaning that it is disqualified as notar, and must be removed to the burning site.   בערב כבוא השמש מועד צאתך ממצרים: הרי שלשה זמנים חלוקים; בערב משש שעות ולמעלה זבחהו, וכבוא השמש תאכלהו, ומועד צאתך, אתה שורפהו. כלומר, נעשה נותר ויצא לבית השרפה:
7And you shall roast [it] and eat [it] in the place which the Lord, your God, will choose, and you shall turn away in the morning and go to your dwellings.   זוּבִשַּׁלְתָּ֙ וְאָ֣כַלְתָּ֔ בַּמָּק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּ֑וֹ וּפָנִ֣יתָ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֖ לְאֹֽהָלֶֽיךָ:
And you shall roast [it]: Heb. וּבִשַּׁלְתָּ. [Here] this term means“roasted in fire” (צְלִי אֵשׁ) (see Exod. 12:9), for roasting is also included in the general term of בִּשּׁוּל, “cooking.”   ובשלת: זהו צלי אש, שאף הוא קרוי בשול:
and you shall turn away in the morning [and go to your dwellings]: [i.e.,] the morning of the second day [of Passover]. This teaches that [the pilgrim] is required to remain [in Jerusalem] the night when the Festival terminates. — [Sifrei ; Pes. 95b; Chag. 17a-b]   ופנית בבקר: לבקרו של שני, מלמד שטעון לינה ליל של מוצאי יום טוב:
8For six days you shall eat matzoth, and on the seventh day there shall be a halt to the Lord, your God. You shall not do any work [on it].   חשֵׁ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים תֹּאכַ֣ל מַצּ֑וֹת וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י עֲצֶ֨רֶת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה מְלָאכָֽה:
For six days you shall eat matzoth: But elsewhere it says, “For seven days [you shall eat matzoth]!” (Exod. 12:15). [The solution is:] For seven days you shall eat matzoth from the old [produce] and six days [i.e., the last six days, after the omer has been offered] you may eat matzoth prepared from the new [crop]. Another explanation: It teaches that the eating of matzoh on the seventh day of Passover is not obligatory, and from here you learn [that the same law applies] to the other six days [of the Festival], For the seventh day was included in a general statement [in the verse “For seven days you shall eat matzoth ,” but in the verse: “Six days you shall eat matzoth ”] it has been taken out of this general [statement], to teach us that eating matzoh [on the seventh day] is not obligatory, but optional. [Now we have aready learned that if something is singled out of a general statement, we apply the relevant principle not only to itself but to every thing included in the general category. Thus the seventh day] is excluded here not to teach regarding itself, rather to teach regarding the entire generalization [i.e., the entire seven days of the Festival]. Just as on the seventh day the eating of matzah is optional, so too, on all the other days, the eating of matzah is optional. The only exception is the first night [of Passover], which Scripture has explicitly established as obligatory, as it is said, “in the evening, you shall eat matzoth” (Exod. 12:18). - [Mechilta on Exod 12:18; Pes. 120a]   ששת ימים תאכל מצות: ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (שמות יב, טו) שבעת ימים, שבעה מן הישן וששה מן החדש. דבר אחר למד על אכילת מצה בשביעי, שאינה חובה, ומכאן אתה למד לששת ימים. שהרי שביעי בכלל היה ויצא מן הכלל ללמד, שאין אכילת מצה בו חובה אלא רשות, ולא ללמד על עצמו יצא אלא ללמד על הכלל כולו יצא, מה שביעי רשות אף כולם רשות, חוץ מלילה הראשון שהכתוב קבעו חובה, שנאמר (שמות יב, יח) בערב תאכלו מצות:
[and on the seventh day there shall be] a halt to the Lord your God: עִצֶרֶת. Keep yourself back from work. Another explanation: [עִצֶרֶת means] a gathering for eating and drinking, as the expression,“Let us detain (נַעַצְרָה) you” (Judg. 13:15).   עצרת לה' אלהיך: עצור עצמך מן המלאכה. דבר אחר כנופיא של מאכל ומשתה, לשון (שופטים יג, טו) נעצרה נא אותך:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 16

9You shall count seven weeks for yourself; from[the time] the sickle is first put to the standing crop, you shall begin to count seven weeks.   טשִׁבְעָ֥ה שָֽׁבֻעֹ֖ת תִּסְפָּר־לָ֑ךְ מֵֽהָחֵ֤ל חֶרְמֵשׁ֙ בַּקָּמָ֔ה תָּחֵ֣ל לִסְפֹּ֔ר שִׁבְעָ֖ה שָֽׁבֻעֽוֹת:
from [the time] the sickle is first put to the standing crop, [you shall begin to count seven weeks]: [I.e.,] from the time the omer is harvested [on the sixteenth of Nissan], which is the beginning of the harvest. — [see Lev . 23:10, Sifrei ; Men. 71a]   מהחל חרמש בקמה: משנקצר העומר שהוא ראשית הקציר:
10And you shall perform the Festival of Weeks to the Lord, your God, the donation you can afford to give, according to how the Lord, your God, shall bless you.   יוְעָשִׂ֜יתָ חַ֤ג שָֽׁבֻעוֹת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ מִסַּ֛ת נִדְבַ֥ת יָֽדְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתֵּ֑ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
the donation you can afford to give: [I.e.,] sufficient generous donation from you; according to the blessing [that God bestows upon you], bring peace offerings of happiness [these are extra peace offerings in addition to the Festival offerings] and invite guests to eat [with you].   מסת נדבת ידך: די נדבת ידך, הכל לפי הברכה, הבא שלמי שמחה, וקדש קרואים לאכול:
11And you shall rejoice before the Lord, your God, -you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite who is within your cities, and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are among you, in the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name therein.   יאוְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֞ לִפְנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אַתָּ֨ה וּבִנְךָ֣ וּבִתֶּ֘ךָ֘ וְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וַֽאֲמָתֶ֒ךָ֒ וְהַלֵּוִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ וְהַגֵּ֛ר וְהַיָּת֥וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ בַּמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִבְחַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לְשַׁכֵּ֥ן שְׁמ֖וֹ שָֽׁם:
the Levite… the stranger, the orphan, and the widow: [God says:] These are My four, corresponding to your four, [namely,] “Your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant.” If you shall gladden Mine, I will gladden yours. — [Midrash Aggadah , Midrash Hagadol . Compare Tanchuma 18, Pesikta d’Rav Kahana p.100a. Note that in incunabula editions, this comment of Rashi is connected to the preceding one: and invite guests to eat [with you]: the Levite… the stranger, the orphan, and the widow. [God says:] These are My four…]   והלוי והגר והיתום והאלמנה: ארבעה שלי כנגד ארבעה שלך, בנך ובתך ועבדך ואמתך, אם אתה משמח את שלי, אני משמח את שלך:
12And you shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and you shall keep and perform these statutes.   יבוְזָ֣כַרְתָּ֔ כִּי־עֶ֥בֶד הָיִ֖יתָ בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֣ וְעָשִׂ֔יתָ אֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
And you shall remember that you were a slave [in Egypt]: On this condition did I redeem you [from Egypt], that you keep and perform these statutes.   וזכרת כי עבד היית וגו': על מנת כן פדיתיך, שתשמור ותעשה את החוקים האלה:
13You shall make yourself the Festival of Sukkoth for seven days, when you gather in [the produce] from your threshing floor and your vat.   יגחַ֧ג הַסֻּכֹּ֛ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בְּאָ֨סְפְּךָ֔ מִגָּרְנְךָ֖ וּמִיִּקְבֶֽךָ:
You shall make yourself the Festival of Sukkoth…] when you gather in [the produce]-: [i.e.,] at the time of the ingathering, when you bring the summer fruits into the house. Another explanation:“when you gather in [the produce] from your threshing floor and your vat” (‏בְּאָסְפְּךָ מִגָּרְנְ‏ךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ) teaches that we should cover the sukkah [only] with the waste products that come from the threshing floor and the vat [i.e., with things that have grown from the ground, have become detached, and are not susceptible to ritual uncleanness. Since they are not foods and are not vessels, they are not susceptible to spiritual uncleanness. - R.H. 13a; Suk. 12a]   באספך: בזמן האסיף שאתה מכניס לבית פירות הקיץ. דבר אחר באספך מגרנך ומיקבך, למד שמסככין את הסוכה בפסולת גורן ויקב:
14And you shall rejoice in your Festival-you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are within your cities.   ידוְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֖ בְּחַגֶּ֑ךָ אַתָּ֨ה וּבִנְךָ֤ וּבִתֶּ֨ךָ֙ וְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְהַלֵּוִ֗י וְהַגֵּ֛ר וְהַיָּת֥וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
15Seven days you shall celebrate the Festival to the Lord, your God, in the place which the Lord shall choose, because the Lord, your God, will bless you in all your produce, and in all the work of your hands, and you will only be happy.   טושִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים תָּחֹג֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֣י יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֞ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹ֤ל תְּבוּאָֽתְךָ֙ וּבְכֹל֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֔יךָ וְהָיִ֖יתָ אַ֥ךְ שָׂמֵֽחַ:
and you will only be happy: According to its simple meaning, this is not an expression denoting a command, but rather an expression of an assurance [i.e., I promise you that you will be happy]. But according to its oral interpretation, [our Rabbis] learned from this to include the night before the last day of the Festival for the obligation of rejoicing. — [see Suk. 48a; Sifrei]   והיית אך שמח: לפי פשוטו אין זה לשון צווי אלא לשון הבטחה, ולפי תלמודו למדו מכאן לרבות לילי יום טוב האחרון לשמחה:
16Three times in the year, every one of your males shall appear before the Lord, your God, in the place He will choose: on the Festival of Matzoth and on the Festival of Weeks, and on the Festival of Sukkoth, and he shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed.   טזשָׁל֣וֹשׁ פְּעָמִ֣ים | בַּשָּׁנָ֡ה יֵֽרָאֶה֩ כָל־זְכ֨וּרְךָ֜ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בַּמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחָ֔ר בְּחַ֧ג הַמַּצּ֛וֹת וּבְחַ֥ג הַשָּֽׁבֻע֖וֹת וּבְחַ֣ג הַסֻּכּ֑וֹת וְלֹ֧א יֵֽרָאֶ֛ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה רֵיקָֽם:
and he shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed: But bring burnt-offerings of appearance (עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה) [which are obligatory when appearing before the Lord in Jerusalem on the Festivals] and Festival peace-offerings. - [Chag. 8b]   ולא יראה את פני ה' ריקם: אלא הבא עולות ראייה ושלמי חגיגה:
17[Every] man [shall bring] as much as he can afford, according to the blessing of the Lord, your God, which He has given you.   יזאִ֖ישׁ כְּמַתְּנַ֣ת יָד֑וֹ כְּבִרְכַּ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתַן־לָֽךְ:
[Every] man [shall bring] as much as he can afford: One who has many eaters [i.e., a large family] and many possessions should bring many burnt-offerings and many peace-offerings. — [Sifrei; Chag. 8b]   איש כמתנת ידו: מי שיש לו אוכלין הרבה ונכסים מרובין יביא עולות מרובות ושלמים מרובים:

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 29

35The eighth day shall be a time of restriction for you; you shall not perform any mundane work.   להבַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י עֲצֶ֖רֶת תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
A time of restriction for you: עֲצֶרֶת, restricted from working (Chagigah 18a). Another interpretation: Restrain yourselves from leaving. This teaches that they were required to remain [in Jerusalem] overnight (Sifrei Pinchas 55). This [word עֲצֶרֶת] is expounded in the Aggadah : (Sukkah 55b) [as follows]: For throughout the days of the festival they brought offerings symbolizing the seventy nations, and when they came to leave, the Omnipresent said to them, “Please make Me a small feast, so that I can have some pleasure from you [alone].”   עצרת תהיה לכם: עצורים בעשיית מלאכה. דבר אחר עצרת עצרו מלצאת, מלמד שטעון לינה. ומדרשו באגדה לפי שכל ימות הרגל הקריבו כנגד שבעים אומות וכשבאין ללכת, אמר להם המקום בבקשה מכם עשו לי סעודה קטנה כדי שאהנה מכם:
36You shall offer up a burnt offering, a fire offering for a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord: one bull, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   לווְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם עֹלָ֜ה אִשֵּׁ֨ה רֵ֤יחַ נִיחֹ֨חַ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה פַּ֥ר אֶחָ֖ד אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֑ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:
one bull, one ram: These correspond to Israel. [God said,] “Remain with Me a little longer.” It expresses [His] affection [for Israel]. It is like children taking leave of their father, who says to them, “It is difficult for me to part with you; stay one more day.” It is analogous to a king who made a banquet, etc. [and on the last day, his closest friend makes a small banquet for the king] as is stated in Tractate Sukkah [55b]. In the Midrash of R. Tanchuma (Pinchas 16) [it says]: The Torah teaches common courtesy. Someone who has a guest, [and wants him to feel at home,] on the first day, he should serve him fattened poultry, on the following day he should serve him fish, on the following day beef, on the following day pulses, and on the following day vegetables, progressively diminishing, as in the case of the festival bulls.   פר אחד איל אחד: אלו כנגד ישראל, התעכבו לי מעט עוד. ולשון חבה הוא זה, כבנים הנפטרים מאביהם והוא אומר להם קשה עלי פרידתכם עכבו עוד יום אחד. משל למלך שעשה סעודה וכו', כדאיתא במס' סוכה (דף נה ב) ובמדרש רבי תנחומא למדה תורה דרך ארץ, שמי שיש לו אכסנאי יום ראשון יאכילו פטומות, למחר מאכילו דגים, למחר מאכילו בשר בהמה, למחר מאכילו קטניות, למחר מאכילו ירק, פוחת והולך כפרי החג:
37Their meal offerings and their libations, for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, as prescribed.   לזמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם לַפָּ֨ר לָאַ֧יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
38And one young male goat for a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its meal offering and its libation.   לחוּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:
39These you shall offer up for the Lord on your festivals, besides your vows and voluntary offerings, for your burnt offerings, for your meal offerings, for your libations, and for your peace offerings.   לטאֵ֛לֶּה תַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בְּמֽוֹעֲדֵיכֶ֑ם לְבַ֨ד מִנִּדְרֵיכֶ֜ם וְנִדְבֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם לְעֹלֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ וּלְמִנְחֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וּלְנִסְכֵּיכֶ֖ם וּלְשַׁלְמֵיכֶֽם:
These you shall offer up for the Lord on your festivals: A matter fixed as an obligation.   אלה תעשו לה' במועדיכם: דבר הקצוב לחובה:
besides your vows: If you wish to pledge offerings during a festival, it is considered a mitzvah [virtuous deed] for you [to fulfill your vows during the festival] (Sifrei Pinchas 56). Alternatively, vows or voluntary offerings which you have pledged throughout the year should be brought on the festival, lest one find it difficult to return to Jerusalem to offer up his vows, with the result that he will transgress the prohibition of“you shall not delay [in paying your vows and pledges]” (Deut. 23:22).   לבד מנדריכם: אם באתם לידור קרבנות ברגל, מצוה היא בידכם או נדרים או נדבות שנדרתם כל השנה תקריבום ברגל, שמא יקשה לו לחזור ולעלות לירושלים ולהקריב נדריו, ונמצא עובר בבל תאחר:

Numbers Chapter 30

1Moses spoke to the children of Israel in accordance with all that the Lord had commanded Moses.   אוַיֹּ֥אמֶר משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כְּכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
Moses spoke to the children of Israel: [This verse is written] to make a pause; [these are] the words of R. Ishmael. Since up to this point the words of the Omnipresent [were stated], and the [following] chapter dealing with vows begins with the words of Moses, it was necessary to make a break first and say that Moses repeated this chapter [of offerings] to Israel, for if not so, it would imply that he did not tell this to them, but began his address with the chapter discussing vows. — [Sifrei Pinchas 57]   ויאמר משה אל בני ישראל: להפסיק הענין, דברי רבי ישמעאל, לפי שעד כאן דבריו של מקום ופרשת נדרים מתחלת בדבורו של משה, הוצרך להפסיק תחלה ולומר שחזר משה ואמר פרשה זו לישראל, שאם לא כן יש במשמע שלא אמר להם זו אלא בפרשת נדרים התחיל דבריו:

Haftarah

I Kings Chapter 8

54And it was, as Solomon finished praying all this prayer and supplication to the Lord, that he arose from before the altar of the Lord, from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread out toward heaven.   נדוַיְהִ֣י | כְּכַלּ֣וֹת שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֛ת כָּל־הַתְּפִלָּ֥ה וְהַתְּחִנָּ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את קָ֞ם מִלִּפְנֵ֨י מִזְבַּ֚ח יְהֹוָה֙ מִכְּרֹ֣עַ עַל־בִּרְכָּ֔יו וְכַפָּ֖יו פְּרֻשֹ֥וֹת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
55And he stood, and blessed the entire congregation of Israel (with) a loud voice, saying,   נהוַֽיַּעֲמֹ֕ד וַיְבָ֕רֶךְ אֵ֖ת כָּל־קְהַ֣ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל ק֥וֹל גָּד֖וֹל לֵאמֹֽר:
56"Blessed (be) the Lord, Who has given rest to His people Israel, according to all that He spoke; there has not failed one word of all his good word, that He spoke through Moses His servant.   נובָּר֣וּךְ יְהֹוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֚ן מְנוּחָה֙ לְעַמּ֣וֹ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֵּ֑ר לֹֽא־נָפַ֞ל דָּבָ֣ר אֶחָ֗ד מִכֹּל֙ דְּבָר֣וֹ הַטּ֔וֹב אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֔ר בְּיַ֖ד משֶׁ֥ה עַבְדּֽוֹ:
According to all that he spoke: And where did he speak this? [As it is written], “And He shall give you rest from all your enemies [round about]” (Deuteronomy 12:10).  
57May the Lord our God be with us, as He was with our forefathers; let Him not leave us, nor forsake us.   נזיְהִ֨י יְהֹוָ֚ה אֱלֹהֵ֙ינוּ֙ עִמָּ֔נוּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה עִם־אֲבֹתֵ֑ינוּ אַל־יַעַזְבֵ֖נוּ וְאַֽל־יִטְּשֵֽׁנוּ:
58That He may incline our hearts to Him, to go in all His ways, and to keep His commandments, and His statutes, and His judgments, which He commanded our forefathers.   נחלְהַטּ֥וֹת לְבָבֵ֖נוּ אֵלָ֑יו לָלֶ֣כֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָ֗יו וְלִשְׁמֹ֨ר מִצְו‍ֹתָ֚יו וְחֻקָּיו֙ וּמִשְׁפָּטָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖ה אֶת־אֲבֹתֵֽינוּ:
59And may these words of mine, with which I have made supplication before the Lord, be close to the Lord our God, day and night, that He sustain the cause of His servant and the cause of His people Israel, each day's need granted on its day.   נטוְיִֽהְי֨וּ דְבָרַ֜י אֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֚ר הִתְחַנַּ֙נְתִּי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה קְרֹבִ֛ים אֶל־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יוֹמָ֣ם וָלָ֑יְלָה לַעֲשֹ֣וֹת | מִשְׁפַּ֣ט עַבְדּ֗וֹ וּמִשְׁפַּ֛ט עַמּ֥וֹ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל דְּבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ:
that He sustain the cause of His servant and the cause of His people Israel: to avenge their humiliation from their adversaries.  
60So that all the peoples of the earth may know that the Lord is God: there is none else.   סלְמַ֗עַן דַּעַת כָּל־עַמֵּ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה ה֣וּא הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֖ין עֽוֹד:
61Let your heart, [therefore], be whole with the Lord our God, to follow His statutes and to keep His precepts as of this day.   סאוְהָיָ֚ה לְבַבְכֶם֙ שָׁלֵ֔ם עִ֖ם יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ לָלֶ֧כֶת בְּחֻקָּ֛יו וְלִשְׁמֹ֥ר מִצְו‍ֹתָ֖יו כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
62And the King and all Israel with him slaughtered sacrifices before the Lord.   סבוְֽהַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עִמּ֑וֹ זֹבְחִ֥ים זֶ֖בַח לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
63And Solomon slaughtered the peace- offerings that he slaughtered to the Lord, twenty-two thousand oxen, and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep. [With this] the King and all the children of Israel inaugurated the Temple of the Lord.   סגוַיִּזְבַּ֣ח שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה אֵ֣ת זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר זָבַ֣ח לַיהֹוָה֒ בָּקָ֗ר עֶשְׂרִ֚ים וּשְׁנַ֙יִם֙ אֶ֔לֶף וְצֹ֕אן מֵאָ֥ה וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים אָֽלֶף וַֽיַּחְנְכוּ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֔ה הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וְכָל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
64On that day the King consecrated the middle of the court that was before the Temple of the Lord, for there he offered the burnt-offerings (and) the meal-offerings and the fat of the peace-offerings, for the copper altar that was before the Lord was too small to contain the burnt-offerings (and) the meal- offerings and the fat of the peace-offerings.   סדבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא קִדַּ֨שׁ הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־תּ֣וֹךְ הֶחָצֵ֗ר אֲשֶׁר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י בֵית־יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּי־עָ֣שָׂה שָׁ֗ם אֶת־הָֽעֹלָה֙ וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְאֵ֖ת חֶלְבֵ֣י הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים כִּֽי־מִזְבַּ֚ח הַנְּח֙שֶׁת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה קָטֹ֗ן מֵֽהָכִיל֙ אֶת־הָעֹלָ֣ה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְאֵ֖ת חֶלְבֵ֥י הַשְּׁלָמִֽים:
The same day the king consecrated the middle of the courtyard: These words are to be taken literally. This is Rabbi Yehudah’s view. [Solomon] hallowed the pavement of the court with the sanctity of the altar, in order to offer sacrifices on the pavement.  
For the copper altar: [i.e., the stone altar] that Solomon constructed in lieu of the copper altar [of Moses].  
was too small to contain the burnt offerings and the meal offerings: for they brought very many. Rabbi Jose said to him, Is it not already written (Kings 1:3), “One thousand burnt offerings Solomon offered on that altar which Moses had made,” and when one computes the number of cubits and the number of burnt offerings, [he will find that] this one of stones was larger than Moses’, for on Moses’ altar the place of the ‘maarachah,’ the place usually used for the sacrifice, was but one cubit by one cubit, whereas on this one the place of its ‘maarachah’ was twenty- four cubits by twenty-four cubits. Hence Solomon’s was 576 times as large as that of Moses. If so, what is the meaning of “the king consecrated the middle of the court?” It means that he set the stone altar into it, fastened to the floor.  
was too small to contain: [According to Rabbi Jose] he is referring to that of Moses, like one who says to his friend, ‘So-and-so is a dwarf,’ meaning that he is disqualified to perform the sacrificial service.  
65Now Solomon observed the Feast at that time and all Israel with him, a great assemblage from the entrance of Hamath to the brook of Egypt, before the Lord our God, seven days and seven days, [totalling] fourteen days.   סהוַיַּ֣עַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה בָֽעֵת־הַהִ֣יא | אֶת־הֶחָ֡ג וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עִמּוֹ֩ קָהָ֨ל גָּד֜וֹל מִלְּב֥וֹא חֲמָ֣ת | עַד־נַ֣חַל מִצְרַ֗יִם לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים וְשִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָֹ֖ר יֽוֹם:
from the entrance to Hamath: which is in the north of Eretz Israel.  
to the Brook of Egypt: which is opposite it in the south, as is delineated in the section entitled אֵלֶה מַסְעֵי (Num. 34:5-8).  
seven days: of the inauguration  
and seven days: of Succoth. It is found that they ate and drank on Yom Kippur.  
66On the eighth day he dismissed the people, and they blessed the King and went to their homes, rejoicing and delighted of heart for all the goodness that the Lord had wrought for David His servant and for Israel His people.   סובַּיּ֚וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי֙ שִׁלַּ֣ח אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיְבָרֲכ֖וּ אֶת־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֵּלְכ֣וּ לְאָהֳלֵיהֶ֗ם שְׂמֵחִים֙ וְט֣וֹבֵי לֵ֔ב עַ֣ל כָּל־הַטּוֹבָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָֹ֚ה יְהֹוָה֙ לְדָוִ֣ד עַבְדּ֔וֹ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַמּֽוֹ:
for David His servant: to make known that He had forgiven him his sins, as we find in Moed Katan (9a): When Solomon wished [to bring] the Ark into the Holy of Holies, the gates clung to one another.  
and for Israel His people: that He forgave them the sin of Yom Kippur, and a Bath-Kol [heavenly voice] emanated and declared: All of you are prepared for the life of the World to Come.  
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