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Torah Reading for Vayeishev

Parshat Vayishlach
Shabbat, 19 Kislev, 5784
2 December, 2023
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Complete: (Genesis 32:4 - 36:43; Obadiah 1:1-21)
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First Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 32

4Jacob sent angels ahead of him to his brother Esau, to the land of Seir, the field of Edom.   דוַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח יַֽעֲקֹ֤ב מַלְאָכִים֙ לְפָנָ֔יו אֶל־עֵשָׂ֖ו אָחִ֑יו אַ֥רְצָה שֵׂעִ֖יר שְׂדֵ֥ה אֱדֽוֹם:
Jacob sent angels: Heb. מַלְאָכִים, literally angels (Gen. Rabbah 75:4).   וַיִּשְׁלַח יַֽעֲקֹב מַלְאָכִים: מַלְאָכִים מַמָּשׁ (בראשית רבה):
to the land of Seir: Heb. אַרְצָה שֵׂעִיר [like] לְאֶרֶץ שֵׂעִיר, to the land of Seir. [In] every word that requires the prefix “lammed” [to] at the beginning, Scripture placed a “heh” at the end. — [from Yev. 13b]   אַרְצָה שֵׂעִיר: לְאֶרֶץ שֵׂעִיר כָּל תֵּבָה שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לָמֶ"ד בִּתְּחִלָּתָהּ הֵטִיל לָהּ הַכָּתוּב הֵ"א בְּסוֹפָהּ:
5And he commanded them, saying, "So shall you say to my master to Esau, 'Thus said your servant Jacob, "I have sojourned with Laban, and I have tarried until now.   הוַיְצַ֤ו אֹתָם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֣ה תֹֽאמְר֔וּן לַֽאדֹנִ֖י לְעֵשָׂ֑ו כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ עַבְדְּךָ֣ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב עִם־לָבָ֣ן גַּ֔רְתִּי וָֽאֵחַ֖ר עַד־עָֽתָּה:
I have sojourned: Heb. גַּרְתִּי. I did not become an officer or a dignitary, but a stranger (גֵּר). It is not worthwhile for you to hate me on account of your father’s blessing, [with] which he blessed me (27:29): “You shall be a master over your brothers,” for it was not fulfilled in me (Tanchuma Buber Vayishlach 5). Another explanation: גַּרְתִּי has the numerical value of 613. That is to say: I lived with the wicked Laban, but I kept the 613 commandments, and I did not learn from his evil deeds.   גַּרְתִּי: לֹא נַעֲשֵׂיתִי שַׂר וְחָשׁוּב אֶלָּא גֵּר, אֵינְךָ כְּדַאי לִשְׂנֹא אוֹתִי עַל בִּרְכַּת אָבִיךָ שֶׁבֵּרְכַנִי הֱוֵה גְבִיר לְאַחֶיךָ, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְקַיְּמָה בִי. דָּבָר אַחֵר גַּרְתִּי בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא תרי"ג, כְּלוֹמַר, עִם לָבָן גַּרְתִּי וְתַרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת שָׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא לָמַדְתִּי מִמַּעֲשָׂיו הָרָעִים:
6And I have acquired oxen and donkeys, flocks, manservants, and maidservants, and I have sent to tell [this] to my master, to find favor in your eyes.' "   ווַֽיְהִי־לִי֙ שׁ֣וֹר וַֽחֲמ֔וֹר צֹ֖אן וְעֶ֣בֶד וְשִׁפְחָ֑ה וָֽאֶשְׁלְחָה֙ לְהַגִּ֣יד לַֽאדֹנִ֔י לִמְצֹא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ:
And I have acquired oxen and donkeys: My father said to me, (27:28): “of the dew of the heavens and [of] the fatness of the earth,” but this is neither from the heavens nor from the earth. — [from Tanchuma Buber Vayishlach 5]   וַֽיְהִי־לִי שׁוֹר וַֽחֲמוֹר: אַבָּא אָמַר לִי מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם וּמִשְׁמַנֵּי הָאָרֶץ, זוֹ אֵינָהּ לֹא מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא מִן הָאָרֶץ:
oxen and donkeys: Heb. שׁוֹר וַחִמוֹר, lit., an ox and a donkey. It is customary to call many oxen “ox.” A person says to his companion at night, “The rooster has crowed,” but does not say, “The roosters have crowed.” - [from Tanchuma Buber Vayishlach 5]   שׁוֹר וַֽחֲמוֹר: דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ לוֹמַר עַל שְׁוָרִים הַרְבֵּה שׁוֹר – אָדָם אוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה קָרָא הַתַּרְנְגוֹל וְאֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר קָרְאוּ הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים:
and I have sent to tell [this] to my master: to let [you] know that I am coming to you. —   וָֽאֶשְׁלְחָה לְהַגִּיד לַֽאדֹנִי: לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁאֲנִי בָא אֵלֶיךָ:
to find favor in your eyes: That I am at peace with you and seek your love. —   לִמְצֹא־חֵן בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ: שֶׁאֲנִי שָׁלֵם עִמְּךָ וּמְבַקֵּשׁ אַהֲבָתְךָ:
7The angels returned to Jacob, saying, "We came to your brother, to Esau, and he is also coming toward you, and four hundred men are with him."   זוַיָּשֻׁ֨בוּ֙ הַמַּלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב לֵאמֹ֑ר בָּ֤אנוּ אֶל־אָחִ֨יךָ֙ אֶל־עֵשָׂ֔ו וְגַם֙ הֹלֵ֣ךְ לִקְרָֽאתְךָ֔ וְאַרְבַּע־מֵא֥וֹת אִ֖ישׁ עִמּֽוֹ:
We came to your brother, to Esau: Concerning whom you said, “He is my brother,” but he still behaves toward you like the wicked Esau. He still has hatred (Genesis Rabbah 75:7).   בָּאנוּ אֶל־אָחִיךָ אֶל־עֵשָׂו: שֶׁהָיִיתָ אוֹמֵר אָחִי הוּא, אֲבָל הוּא נוֹהֵג עִמְּךָ כְּעֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע, עוֹדֶנּוּ בְּשִׂנְאָתוֹ (בראשית רבה פ'):
8Jacob became very frightened and was distressed; so he divided the people who were with him and the flocks and the cattle and the camels into two camps.   חוַיִּירָ֧א יַֽעֲקֹ֛ב מְאֹ֖ד וַיֵּ֣צֶר ל֑וֹ וַיַּ֜חַץ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֗וֹ וְאֶת־הַצֹּ֧אן וְאֶת־הַבָּקָ֛ר וְהַגְּמַלִּ֖ים לִשְׁנֵ֥י מַֽחֲנֽוֹת:
Jacob became…frightened, and…distressed: He was frightened lest he be killed (Gen. Rabbah 75:2, Tanchuma, Vayishlach 4), and he was distressed that he might kill others.   וַיִּירָא וַיֵּצֶר: וַיִּירָא שֶׁמָּא יֵהָרֵג, וַיֵּצֶר לוֹ אִם יַהֲרֹג הוּא אֶת אֲחֵרִים (בראשית רבה ותנחומא):
9And he said, "If Esau comes to one camp and strikes it down, the remaining camp will escape."   טוַיֹּ֕אמֶר אִם־יָב֥וֹא עֵשָׂ֛ו אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֥ה הָאַחַ֖ת וְהִכָּ֑הוּ וְהָיָ֛ה הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֥ה הַנִּשְׁאָ֖ר לִפְלֵיטָֽה:
one camp and strikes it down: Heb. וְהִכָּהוּ הַמַחִנֶה הָאַחַת. [The word] מַחִנֶה is used both in the masculine and feminine genders. [Other examples are:] (Ps. 27:3): “If a camp encamps (תַּחִנֶה) against me.” This is feminine. (Below, 33: 8) “this (הַזֶה) camp.” That is masculine. Likewise, there are other things (nouns) that are used both in the masculine and feminine genders, e.g. (above 19:23): “The sun (הַשֶׁמֶשׁ) came out (יָצָא) upon the earth;” (Ps. 19:7): “From the end of the heavens is its source (מוֹצָאוֹ).” These are masculine. (II Kings 3:22): “the sun shone (זָרְחָה) on the water.” This is feminine. And likewise, רוּחַ, wind (Job 1:19): “when, behold, a great (גְדוֹלָה) wind came (בָּאָה).” This is feminine; “and struck (וַיִגַע) the four corners of the house.” This is masculine. [Another instance is] (I Kings 19:11): “and a great (גְדוֹלָה) and strong (וְחָזָק) wind, splitting (מְפָרֵק) mountains.” This is both masculine and feminine. Likewise, אֵשׁ, fire, as (Num. 16:35): “And fire went forth (יָצְאָה) from before the Lord,” feminine gender; (Ps. 104:4): "burning (לֹהֵט) fire, masculine gender.   הַמַּֽחֲנֶה הָאַחַת וְהִכָּהוּ: מַחֲנֶה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְשׁוֹן זָכָר וּלְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, אִם תַּחֲנֶה עָלַי מַחֲנֶה (תהלים כ"ז), הֲרֵי נְקֵבָה, הַמַּחֲנֶה הַזֶּה (בראשית ל"ג), זָכָר, וְכֵן יֵשׁ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים מְשַׁמְּשִׁים לְשׁוֹן זָכָר וּלְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָצָא עַל הָאָרֶץ (בראשית י״ט:כ״ג), מִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם מוֹצָאוֹ (תהלים י"ט), הֲרֵי לְשׁוֹן זָכָר; וְהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זָרְחָה עַל הַמָּיִם (מלכים ב ג'), הֲרֵי לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה. וְכֵן רוּחַ, וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה בָּאָה, הֲרֵי לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, וַיִּגַּע בְּאַרְבַּע פִּנּוֹת הַבַּיִת (איוב א'), הֲרֵי לְשׁוֹן זָכָר, וְרוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה וְחָזָק מְפָרֵק הָרִים (מלכים א' י"ט), הֲרֵי לְשׁוֹן זָכָר וּלְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה. וְכֵן אֵשׁ, וְאֵשׁ יָצְאָה מֵאֵת ה' (במדבר ט"ז), לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, אֵשׁ לֹהֵט (תהילים ק"ד), לְשׁוֹן זָכָר:
the remaining camp will escape: Against his will, for I will wage war with him. He (Jacob) prepared himself for three things: for a gift, for war, and for prayer. For a gift, [as Scripture says] (verse 22): “So the gift passed on before him.” For prayer, [as Scripture says] (verse 10): “God of my father Abraham…” For war, [as Scripture says]: “the remaining camp will escape.” - [from Tanchuma Buber, Vayishlach 6]   וְהָיָה הַמַּֽחֲנֶה הַנִּשְׁאָר לִפְלֵיטָֽה: עַל כָּרְחוֹ, כִּי אֶלָּחֵם עִמּוֹ. הִתְקִין עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים, לְדוֹרוֹן, לִתְפִלָּה וּלְמִלְחָמָה. לְדוֹרוֹן, וַתַּעֲבֹר הַמִּנְחָה עַל פָּנָיו; לִתְפִלָּה, אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי אַבְרָהָם; לְמִלְחָמָה, וְהָיָה הַמַּחֲנֶה הַנִּשְׁאָר לִפְלֵיטָה:
10And Jacob said, "O God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac, the Lord, Who said to me, 'Return to your land and to your birthplace, and I will do good to you.'   יוַיֹּ֘אמֶר֘ יַֽעֲקֹב֒ אֱלֹהֵי֙ אָבִ֣י אַבְרָהָ֔ם וֵֽאלֹהֵ֖י אָבִ֣י יִצְחָ֑ק יְהֹוָ֞ה הָֽאֹמֵ֣ר אֵלַ֗י שׁ֧וּב לְאַרְצְךָ֛ וּלְמֽוֹלַדְתְּךָ֖ וְאֵיטִ֥יבָה עִמָּֽךְ:
and God of my father Isaac: But elsewhere (31:42), it says: and the Fear of Isaac. Moreover, why did he repeat the Tetragrammaton? Scripture should have written: “Who said to me, ‘Return to your land, etc.’ ” Rather, so did Jacob say before the Holy One, blessed be He: You gave me two promises: one when I left my father’s house from Beer-sheba, when You said to me (28: 13): “I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac,” and there You said to me, (ibid., verse 15): “and I will guard you wherever you go.” And in Laban’s house You said to me (31:3), “Return to the land of your forefathers and to your birthplace, and I will be with you.” There You revealed Yourself to me with the Tetragrammaton alone, for it is said: “And the Lord (יהוה) said to Jacob, ‘Return to the land of your forefathers, etc.’” With these two promises I am coming before You.   וֵֽאלֹהֵי אָבִי יִצְחָק: וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר וּפַחַד יִצְחָק? וְעוֹד וּמַהוּ שֶׁחָזַר וְהִזְכִּיר שֵׁם הַמְיֻחָד? הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב הָאוֹמֵר אֵלַי שׁוּב לְאַרְצְךָ וְגוֹ'. אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר יַעֲקֹב לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שְׁתֵּי הַבְטָחוֹת הִבְטַחְתַּנִי, אַחַת בְּצֵאתִי מִבֵּית אָבִי מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע, שֶׁאָמַרְתָּ לִי אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק, וְשָׁם אָמַרְתָּ לִי וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵךְ, וּבְבֵית לָבָן אָמַרְתָּ לִי (בראשית ל"א) שׁוּב אֶל אֶרֶץ אֲבוֹתֶיךָ וּלְמוֹלַדְתֶּךָ וְאֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ, וְשָׁם נִגְלֵיתָ אֵלַי בַּשֵּׁם הַמְיֻחָד לְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל יַעֲקֹב שׁוּב אֶל אֶרֶץ אֲבוֹתֶיךָ וְגוֹ', בִּשְׁתֵּי הַבְטָחוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲנִי בָא לְפָנֶיךָ:
11I have become small from all the kindnesses and from all the truth that You have rendered Your servant, for with my staff I crossed this Jordan, and now I have become two camps.   יאקָטֹ֜נְתִּי מִכֹּ֤ל הַֽחֲסָדִים֙ וּמִכָּל־הָ֣אֱמֶ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֖יתָ אֶת־עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ כִּ֣י בְמַקְלִ֗י עָבַ֨רְתִּי֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֣ן הַזֶּ֔ה וְעַתָּ֥ה הָיִ֖יתִי לִשְׁנֵ֥י מַֽחֲנֽוֹת:
I have become small: My merits have diminished because of the kindnesses and the truth that You have rendered me. Therefore, I fear lest I have became sullied with sin since [the time that] You promised me, and it will cause me to be delivered into Esau’s hand[s]. — [from Shab. 32a, Ta’anith 20b, Ber. 41]   קָטֹנְתִּי מִכֹּל הַֽחֲסָדִים: נִתְמַעֲטוּ זְכֻיּוֹתַי עַל יְדֵי הַחֲסָדִים וְהָאֱמֶת שֶׁעָשִׂיתָ עִמִּי, לְכָךְ אֲנִי יָרֵא, שֶׁמָּא מִשֶּׁהִבְטַחְתַּנִי נִתְקַלְקַלְתִּי בְחֵטְא וְיִגְרֹם לִי לְהִמָּסֵר בְּיַד עֵשָׂו (שבת ל"ב):
and from all the truth: The realization of Your words, that You kept for me all the promises that You made to me.   וּמִכָּל־הָאֱמֶת: אֲמִתַּת דְּבָרֶיךָ, שֶׁשָּׁמַרְתָּ לִי כָּל הַבְטָחוֹת שֶׁהִבְטַחְתַּנִי:
for with my staff: I had with me neither silver nor gold nor livestock, but only my staff. The Midrash Aggadah states: He placed his staff into the Jordan, and the Jordan split. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Vayetze 3; Aggadath Bereishith 45:2]   כִּי בְמַקְלִי: לֹא הָיָה עִמִּי לֹא כֶסֶף וְלֹא זָהָב וְלֹא מִקְנֶה אֶלָּא מַקְלִי לְבַדּוֹ. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה נָתַן מַקְלוֹ בַּיַּרְדֵּן וְנִבְקַע הַיַּרְדֵּן:
12Now deliver me from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I am afraid of him, lest he come and strike me, [and strike] a mother with children.   יבהַצִּילֵ֥נִי נָ֛א מִיַּ֥ד אָחִ֖י מִיַּ֣ד עֵשָׂ֑ו כִּֽי־יָרֵ֤א אָֽנֹכִי֙ אֹת֔וֹ פֶּן־יָב֣וֹא וְהִכַּ֔נִי אֵ֖ם עַל־בָּנִֽים:
from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau: From the hand of my brother, who does not behave toward me like a brother, but like the wicked Esau. — [apparently from Gen. Rabbah 75:7]   מִיַּד אָחִי מִיַּד עֵשָׂו: מִיַּד אָחִי שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֵג עִמִּי כְאָח אֶלָּא כְעֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע:
13And You said, 'I will surely do good with you, and I will make your seed [as numerous] as the sand of the sea, which cannot be counted because of multitude.'"   יגוְאַתָּ֣ה אָמַ֔רְתָּ הֵיטֵ֥ב אֵיטִ֖יב עִמָּ֑ךְ וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ כְּח֣וֹל הַיָּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יִסָּפֵ֖ר מֵרֹֽב:
I will surely do good: Heb. הֵיטֵב אֵיטִיב. [The double expression denotes:] הֵיטֵב, [I will do good] in your merit; אֵיטִיב, [I will do good] in the merit of your forefathers (Gen. Rabbah 76:7).   הֵיטֵב אֵיטִיב: הֵיטֵב בִּזְכוּתְךָ, אֵיטִיב בִּזְכוּת אֲבוֹתֶיךָ (בראשית רבה):
and I will make your seed [as numerous] as the sand of the sea: Now where did He tell him this? Is it not so that He said to him only (28:14): “And your seed shall be like the dust of the earth?” But He said to him (ibid. 15): “for I will not forsake you until I have done for you what I have spoken concerning you,” and to Abraham He said (22:17): “I will surely bless you, and I will surely multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand that is on the seashore.”   וְשַׂמְתִּי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ כְּחוֹל הַיָּם: וְהֵיכָן אָמַר לוֹ כֵן, וַהֲלֹא לֹא אָמַר לוֹ אֶלָּא וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ (שם כ"ח)? אֶלָּא שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ (שם), וּלְאַבְרָהָם אָמַר וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת זַרְעֲךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכַחוֹל אֲשֶׁר עַל שְׂפַת הַיָּם:

Second Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 32

14So he lodged there on that night, and he took from what came into his hand a gift for his brother Esau:   ידוַיָּ֥לֶן שָׁ֖ם בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֑וּא וַיִּקַּ֞ח מִן־הַבָּ֧א בְיָד֛וֹ מִנְחָ֖ה לְעֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִֽיו:
what came into his hand: Into his possession. And similarly, (Num. 21:26): “and he took all his land from his possession (מִיָדוֹ).” [According to the] Midrash Aggadah, “what came into his hand” means precious stones and pearls, which a person binds in a packet and carries in his hand. Another explanation: “what came into his hand” signifies ordinary animals [which have no sanctity], for he had already tithed them, as it is stated (28:22): “I will surely tithe to You.” And then he took [animals for] a gift.   הַבָּא בְיָדוֹ: בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, וְכֵן וַיִּקַּח אֶת כָּל אַרְצוֹ מִיָּדוֹ (במדבר כ"א). וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה מִן הַבָּא בְיָדוֹ – אֲבָנִים טוֹבוֹת וּמַרְגָלִיּוֹת, שֶׁאָדָם צָר בִּצְרוֹר וְנוֹשְׂאָם בְּיָדוֹ (דָּבָר אַחֵר מִן הַבָּא בְיָדוֹ, מִן הַחֻלִּין, שֶׁנָּטַל מַעֲשֵׂר, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר עַשֵּׂר אֲעַשְּׂרֶנּוּ לָךְ, וַהֲדַר לָקַח מִנְחָה):
15Two hundred she goats and twenty he goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams,   טועִזִּ֣ים מָאתַ֔יִם וּתְיָשִׁ֖ים עֶשְׂרִ֑ים רְחֵלִ֥ים מָאתַ֖יִם וְאֵילִ֥ים עֶשְׂרִֽים:
Two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats: Two hundred she-goats require twenty he-goats, and so all of them, the males according to what are required by the females. In Genesis Rabbah (76:7) the Rabbis derive from here the conjugal duties stated in the Torah: Men of leisure, every day; laborers, twice a week; donkey-drivers, once a week; camel-drivers, once in thirty days; sailors, once in six months. I do not know, however, how this midrash arrives at exactly these requirements. Nevertheless, it appears to me that we learn from here that conjugal duties are not uniform with every person, but according to the burden he must bear, for we find here that he (Jacob) gave each he-goat ten she-goats, and so for each ram. Since they are free from work, they generally mate frequently and [each male] can impregnate ten females, for as soon as an animal conceives, she does not accept a male [and he is compelled to seek another mate]. With the bulls, however, since they are occupied with work, he gave each male only four females, and for a donkey, which goes long distances, two females for a male, and for camels, which go longer distances, one female for a male.   עִזִּים מָאתַיִם וּתְיָשִׁים עֶשְׂרִים: מָאתַיִם עִזִּים צְרִיכוֹת עֶשְׂרִים תְּיָשִׁים, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם, הַזְּכָרִים כְּדֵי צֹרֶךְ הַנְּקֵבוֹת; וּבּבְּרֵאשִׁית רַבָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִכָּאן לָעוֹנָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה, הַטַּיָּלִים בְּכָל יוֹם, הַפּוֹעֲלִים שְׁתַּיִם בְּשַׁבָּת, הַחַמָּרִים אַחַת בְּשַׁבָּת, הַגַּמָּלִים אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, הַסַּפָּנִים אַחַת לְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים; וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ לְכַוֵּן הַמִּדְרָשׁ הַזֶּה בְּכִוּוּן, אַךְ נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי שֶׁלָּמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין הָעוֹנָה שָׁוָה בְּכָל אָדָם אֶלָּא לְפִי טֹרַח הַמֻּטָּל עָלָיו, שֶׁמָּצִינוּ כָּאן שֶׁמָּסַר לְכָל תַּיִשׁ עֶשֶׂר עִזִּים וְכֵן לְכָל אַיִל; לְפִי שֶׁהֵם פְּנוּיִים מִמְּלָאכָה דַּרְכָּם לְהַרְבּוֹת תַּשְׁמִישׁ וּלְעַבֵּר עֶשֶׂר נְקֵבוֹת, וּבְהֵמָה מִשֶּׁנִּתְעַבְּרָה אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת זָכָר, וּפָרִים שֶׁעוֹסְקִין בִּמְלָאכָה, לֹא מָסַר לְזָכָר אֶלָּא אַרְבַּע נְקֵבוֹת, וְלַחֲמוֹר שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בְּדֶרֶךְ רְחוֹקָה שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת לְזָכָר, וְלַגְּמַלִּים שֶׁהוֹלְכִים דֶּרֶךְ יוֹתֵר רְחוֹקָה נְקֵבָה אַחַת לְזָכָר:
16Thirty nursing camels with their young, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty she donkeys and ten he donkeys.   טזגְּמַלִּ֧ים מֵֽינִיק֛וֹת וּבְנֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁלשִׁ֑ים פָּר֤וֹת אַרְבָּעִים֙ וּפָרִ֣ים עֲשָׂרָ֔ה אֲתֹנֹ֣ת עֶשְׂרִ֔ים וַעְיָרִ֖ם עֲשָׂרָֽה:
Thirty nursing camels with their young: Heb. וּבְנֵיהֶם. And their young with them. According to the Midrash Aggadah, the word וּבְנֵיהֶם means בַּנָאֵיהֶם, their builders [those who impregnate them], a male corresponding to a female, but since it (the camel) is discreet in mating, Scripture did not publicize it (Gen. Rabbah 76:7).   גְּמַלִּים מֵֽינִיקוֹת שְׁלשִׁים וּבְנֵיהֶם: עִמָּהֶם: וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה: וּבְנֵיהֶם – בַּנָּאֵיהֶם, זָכָר כְּנֶגֶד נְקֵבָה, וּלְפִי שֶׁצָּנוּעַ בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ לֹא פִרְסְמוֹ הַכָּתוּב (בראשית רבה):
and…he-donkeys: Heb. וַעְיָרִם, male donkeys.   וַעְיָרִם: חֲמוֹרִים זְכָרִים:
17And he gave into the hands of his servants each herd individually, and he said to his servants, "Pass on ahead of me and make a space between one herd and another herd."   יזוַיִּתֵּן֙ בְּיַד־עֲבָדָ֔יו עֵ֥דֶר עֵ֖דֶר לְבַדּ֑וֹ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֶל־עֲבָדָיו֙ עִבְר֣וּ לְפָנַ֔י וְרֶ֣וַח תָּשִׂ֔ימוּ בֵּ֥ין עֵ֖דֶר וּבֵ֥ין עֵֽדֶר:
each herd individually: Each species by itself.   עֵדֶר עֵדֶר לְבַדּוֹ: כָּל מִין וָמִין לְעַצְמוֹ:
Pass on ahead of me: a day’s journey or less, and I will come after you.   עִבְרוּ לְפָנַי: דֶּרֶךְ יוֹם אוֹ פָּחוֹת וַאֲנִי אָבֹא אַחֲרֵיכֶם:
and make a space: One herd before the next [within] the distance the eye can see, in order to satisfy the eye of the wicked man and bewilder him with the enormity of the gift. — [from Gen. Rabbah 76:8]   וְרֶוַח תָּשִׂימוּ: עֵדֶר לִפְנֵי חֲבֵרוֹ מְלֹא עַיִן, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׂבִּיעַ עֵינוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע וּלְתַוֵּהוּ עַל רִבּוּי הַדּוֹרוֹן:
18And he commanded the first one, saying, "When my brother Esau meets you, and asks you, saying, 'To whom do you belong, and where are you going, and for whom are these before you?'   יחוַיְצַ֥ו אֶת־הָֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן לֵאמֹ֑ר כִּ֣י יִפְגָֽשְׁךָ֞ עֵשָׂ֣ו אָחִ֗י וּשְׁאֵֽלְךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְמִי־אַ֨תָּה֙ וְאָ֣נָה תֵלֵ֔ךְ וּלְמִ֖י אֵ֥לֶּה לְפָנֶֽיךָ:
To whom do you belong: Heb. לְמִי. To whom do you belong? Who is sending you? The Targum, therefore, renders: דְמַאן אַתְּ, whose are you?   לְמִי־אַתָּה: שֶׁל מִי אַתָּה, מִי שׁוֹלְחֲךָ, וְתַרְגּוּם דְּמָאן אַתְּ?
and for whom are these before you: To whom is this gift being sent? The “lammed” serves at the beginning of the word in lieu of “shel,” “of,” like (above 31:43), “and all that you see is mine;” it is mine. [Similarly, we find,] (Ps. 24:1): “The land and the fullness thereof are the Lord’s;” of the Lord.   וּלְמִי אֵלֶּה לְפָנֶֽיךָ: וְאֵלֶּה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיךָ שֶׁל מִי הֵם; לְמִי הַמִּנְחָה הַזֹּאת שְׁלוּחָה? לָמֶ"ד מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּרֹאשׁ הַתֵּבָה בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁל, כְּמוֹ: וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה רֹאֶה לִי הוּא (בראשית ל״א:מ״ג) – שֶׁלִּי הוּא; לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ (תהילים כ"ד) – שֶׁל ה':
19You shall say, '[I belong] to your servant Jacob; it is a gift sent to my master, to Esau, and behold, he himself is behind us.'"   יטוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ לְעַבְדְּךָ֣ לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מִנְחָ֥ה הִוא֙ שְׁלוּחָ֔ה לַֽאדֹנִ֖י לְעֵשָׂ֑ו וְהִנֵּ֥ה גַם־ה֖וּא אַֽחֲרֵֽינוּ:
You shall say, ‘[I belong] to your servant Jacob…’: He replied first to the first question and last to the last question. [In reference to] what you asked, “To whom do you belong?” [the answer is:] I belong to your servant Jacob, and the Targum renders: דְּעַבְדּ‏ךָ דְּיַעִקֹב, of your servant, of Jacob, and [in reference to] what you asked, “and for whom are these before you?” it is a gift sent, etc. — [from Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan, ch. 37]   וְאָֽמַרְתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לְיַֽעֲקֹב: עַל רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן וְעַל אַחֲרוֹן אַחֲרוֹן; שֶׁשָּׁאַלְתָּ לְמִי אַתָּה? לְעַבְדְּךָ לְיַעֲקֹב אֲנִי – וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ דְּעַבְדָּךְ דְּיַעֲקֹב – וְשֶׁשָּׁאַלְתָּ וּלְמִי אֵלֶּה לְפָנֶיךָ, מִנְחָה הִיא שְׁלוּחָה וְגוֹ':
and behold, he himself: Jacob.   וְהִנֵּה גַם־הוּא: יַעֲקֹב:
20And he commanded also the second one, also the third one, also all those who followed the herds, saying, "In this manner shall you speak to Esau when you meet him.   כוַיְצַ֞ו גַּ֣ם אֶת־הַשֵּׁנִ֗י גַּ֚ם אֶת־הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י גַּ֚ם אֶת־כָּל־הַהֹ֣לְכִ֔ים אַֽחֲרֵ֥י הָֽעֲדָרִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר כַּדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ תְּדַבְּר֣וּן אֶל־עֵשָׂ֔ו בְּמֹצַֽאֲכֶ֖ם אֹתֽוֹ:
21And you shall say, 'Also, behold, your servant Jacob is behind us.' " For he said, "I will appease his anger with the gift that is going before me, and afterwards I will see his face, perhaps he will favor me."   כאוַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם גַּ֗ם הִנֵּ֛ה עַבְדְּךָ֥ יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב אַֽחֲרֵ֑ינוּ כִּֽי־אָמַ֞ר אֲכַפְּרָ֣ה פָנָ֗יו בַּמִּנְחָה֙ הַֽהֹלֶ֣כֶת לְפָנָ֔י וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵן֙ אֶרְאֶ֣ה פָנָ֔יו אוּלַ֖י יִשָּׂ֥א פָנָֽי:
I will appease his anger: Heb. אֲכַפְּרָה פָנָיו, I will do away with his anger (Targum Onkelos). Similarly (Isa. 28:18): “And your treaty with death shall be nullified (וְכֻפַּר);” (ibid., 47:11) “you shall not be able to rid yourself of it (כַּפְּרָה).” It appears to my eyes that any כַּפְּרָה near to sin or transgression or near the word countenance are terms of wiping away or removal. This is Aramaic, and there are many instances of it in the Talmud, e.g. (B.M. 24a): “and he wiped (וְכָפַר) his hands;” (Gittin 56a): “He wishes to wipe (לִכְפוּרֵי) His hands on this person.” In biblical Hebrew also, the sacred sprinkling basins are called כְּפוֹרֵי זָהָב (Ezra 1:10) because the priest wipes his hands on them at the edge of the sprinkling basin.   אֲכַפְּרָה פָנָיו: אֲבַטֵּל רָגְזוֹ; וְכֵן וְכֻפַּר בְּרִיתְכֶם אֶת מָוֶת (ישעיהו כ"ח), לֹא תוּכְלִי כַּפְּרָהּ (שם מ"ז). וְנִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי שֶׁכָּל כַּפָּרָה שֶׁאֵצֶל עָוֹן וְחֵטְא וְאֵצֶל פָּנִים כֻּלָּן לְשׁוֹן קִנּוּחַ וְהַעֲבָרָה הֵן, וְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי הוּא, וְהַרְבֵּה בַּתַּלְמוּד וְכַפֵּר יְדֵיהּ, בָּעֵי לְכַפּוּרֵי יְדֵי בְּהַהוּא גַבְרָא, וְגַם בִּלְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא נִקְרָאִים הַמִּזְרָקִים שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ כְּפוֹרֵי זָהָב (עזרא א'), עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהַכֹּהֵן מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו בָּהֶן בִּשְׂפַת הַמִּזְרָק:
22So the gift passed on before him, and he lodged that night in the camp.   כבוַתַּֽעֲבֹ֥ר הַמִּנְחָ֖ה עַל־פָּנָ֑יו וְה֛וּא לָ֥ן בַּלַּֽיְלָה־הַה֖וּא בַּמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
before him: Heb. עַל-פָּנָיו, lit., on his face, like לְפָנָיו, before him, and similarly (Jer. 6:7): “violence and spoil is heard therein before Me (עַל-פָּנַי) continually,” and so (Isa. 65:3): “who vex Me to My face עַל-פָּנַי.” He (Jacob) too was in an angry mood that he required all this. — [from Gen. Rabbah 75:8]   עַל־פָּנָיו: כְּמוֹ לְפָנָיו, וְכֵן חָמָס וָשֹׁד יִשָּׁמַע בָּהּ עַל פָּנַי תָּמִיד (ירמיהו ו'), וְכֵן הַמַּכְעִסִים אֹתִי עַל פָּנַי (ישעיהו ס"ה); וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר עַל פָּנָיו, אַף הוּא שָׁרוּי בְּכַעַס, שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לְכָל זֶה (בראשית רבה):
23And he arose during that night, and he took his two wives and his two maidservants and his eleven children, and he crossed the ford of [the] Jabbok.   כגוַיָּ֣קָם | בַּלַּ֣יְלָה ה֗וּא וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֤י נָשָׁיו֙ וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י שִׁפְחֹתָ֔יו וְאֶת־אַחַ֥ד עָשָׂ֖ר יְלָדָ֑יו וַיַּֽעֲבֹ֕ר אֵ֖ת מַֽעֲבַ֥ר יַבֹּֽק:
and his eleven children: But where was Dinah? [Benjamin was not yet born, but Dinah should have been counted.] He put her into a chest and locked her in, so that Esau should not set eyes on her. Therefore, Jacob was punished for withholding her from his brother- [because had he married her,] perhaps she would cause him to improve his ways-and she fell into the hands of Shechem. — [from Gen. Rabbah 75:9]   וְאֶת־אַחַד עָשָׂר יְלָדָיו: וְדִינָה הֵיכָן הָיְתָה? נְתָנָהּ בְּתֵבָה וְנָעַל בְּפָנֶיהָ, שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן בָּהּ עֵשָׂו עֵינָיו, וּלְכָךְ נֶעֱנַשׁ יַעֲקֹב שֶׁמְּנָעָהּ מֵאָחִיו, שֶׁמָּא תַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לַמּוּטָב, וְנָפְלָה בְּיַד שְׁכֶם (בראשית רבה):
Jabbok: The name of the river.   יַבֹּֽק: שֵׁם הַנָּהָר:
24And he took them and brought them across the stream, and he took across what was his.   כדוַיִּ֨קָּחֵ֔ם וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֖ם אֶת־הַנָּ֑חַל וַיַּֽעֲבֵ֖ר אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־לֽוֹ:
what was his: The animals and the movables. He made himself like a ferry-man, כְּגַשָׁר, taking from here and depositing there. — [from Gen. Rabbah 75:9]   אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־לֽוֹ: הַבְּהֵמָה וְהַמִּטַּלְטְלִים; עָשָׂה עַצְמוֹ כְּגַשָּׁר נוֹטֵל מִכָּאן וּמַנִּיחַ כָּאן (בראשית רבה):
25And Jacob was left alone, and a man wrestled with him until the break of dawn.   כהוַיִּוָּתֵ֥ר יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב לְבַדּ֑וֹ וַיֵּֽאָבֵ֥ק אִישׁ֙ עִמּ֔וֹ עַ֖ד עֲל֥וֹת הַשָּֽׁחַר:
And Jacob was left: He had forgotten small bottles and returned for them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 77:2, Chullin 91a]   וַיִּוָּתֵר יַֽעֲקֹב: שָׁכַח פַּכִּים קְטַנִּים וְחָזַר עֲלֵיהֶם (חולין צ"א):
and a man wrestled: Heb. וַיֵאָבֵק. Menachem (p. 14) explains: And a man became covered with dust, derived from אָבָק, dust, for they were raising dust with their feet through their movements. I believe, however, that it is a term meaning that he attached himself, and it is an Aramaic expression [found in the Talmud] (Sanh. 63b): “After they became attached (דָּאִבִיקוּ) to it,” “and he would tie it (וְאָבִיק לֵיהּ מֵיבַק),” for so is the habit of two people who make strong efforts to throw each other down, that one embraces the other and attaches himself to him with his arms. Our Rabbis explained (Gen. Rabbah 77:3, 78:3) that this was the prince (guardian angel) of Esau.   וַיֵּֽאָבֵק אִישׁ: מְנַחֵם פֵּי' וַיִּתְעַפֵּר אִישׁ, לְשׁוֹן אָבָק, שֶׁהָיוּ מַעֲלִים עָפָר בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם עַ"י נִעְנוּעָם. וְלִי נִרְאֶה שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן וַיִּתְקַשֵּׁר, וְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי הוּא, בָּתַר דַּאֲבִיקוּ בֵיהּ, וַאֲבֵיק לֵיהּ מֵיבַק – לְשׁוֹן עֲנִיבָה, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ שְׁנַיִם שֶׁמִּתְעַצְּמִים לְהַפִּיל אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ, שֶׁחוֹבְקוֹ וְאוֹבְקוֹ בִּזְרוֹעוֹתָיו. וּפֵרְשׁוּ רבותינו זִכָּרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה שֶׁהוּא שָׂרוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו (בראשית רבה):
26When he saw that he could not prevail against him, he touched the socket of his hip, and the socket of Jacob's hip became dislocated as he wrestled with him.   כווַיַּ֗רְא כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָכֹל֙ ל֔וֹ וַיִּגַּ֖ע בְּכַף־יְרֵכ֑וֹ וַתֵּ֨קַע֙ כַּף־יֶ֣רֶךְ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב בְּהֵאָֽבְק֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ:
he touched the socket of his hip: The upper thigh bone that is thrust into the hip bone is called the כַּף, lit., ladle, because the flesh on it is like a sort of pot ladle.   וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ: קוּלִית הַיָּרֵךְ הַתָּקוּעַ בְּקַּלְבּוּסִית קָרוּי כַּף, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר שֶׁעָלֶיהָ כְּמִין כַּף שֶׁל קְדֵרָה:
became dislocated: Heb. וַתִּקַע. It became dislocated from its joint, and similar to this (Jer. 6:8): “lest My soul be alienated (תֵּקַע) from you,” and in the Mishnah: לְקַעִקֵע ַבִּיצָתָן, to tear out their roots. — [from Gen. Rabbah 77:3]   וַתֵּקַע: נִתְקַעְקְעָה מִמְּקוֹם מַחְבַּרְתָּהּ, וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ פֶּן תֵּקַע נַפְשִׁי מִמֵּךְ (ירמיהו ו'), לְשׁוֹן הֲסָרָה. וּבְמִשְׁנָה לְקַעְקֵעַ בֵּיצָתָן – לְשָׁרֵשׁ שָׁרְשֵׁיהֶן:
27And he (the angel) said, "Let me go, for dawn is breaking," but he (Jacob) said, "I will not let you go unless you have blessed me."   כזוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שַׁלְּחֵ֔נִי כִּ֥י עָלָ֖ה הַשָּׁ֑חַר וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֲשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ֔ כִּ֖י אִם־בֵּֽרַכְתָּֽנִי:
for dawn is breaking: And I must recite a song [of praise] (Gen. Rabbah 78:1, Chullin 91a).   כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר: וְצָרִיךְ אֲנִי לוֹמַר שִׁירָה בַּיּוֹם (חולין צ"א):
unless you have blessed me: Acknowledge for me the blessings [with] which my father blessed me, which Esau is contesting.   בֵּֽרַכְתָּֽנִי: הוֹדֵה לִי עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁבֵּרְכַנִי אָבִי, שֶׁעֵשָׂו מְעַרְעֵר עֲלֵיהֶן:
28So he said to him, "What is your name?" and he said, "Jacob."   כחוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו מַה־שְּׁמֶ֑ךָ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
29And he said, "Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, because you have commanding power with [an angel of] God and with men, and you have prevailed."   כטוַיֹּ֗אמֶר לֹ֤א יַֽעֲקֹב֙ יֵֽאָמֵ֥ר עוֹד֙ שִׁמְךָ֔ כִּ֖י אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּֽי־שָׂרִ֧יתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִ֛ים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁ֖ים וַתּוּכָֽל:
no… Jacob: It shall no longer be said that the blessings came to you through trickery (עָקְבָה) and deceit, but with nobility and openness, and ultimately, the Holy One, blessed be He, will reveal Himself to you in Beth-el and change your name, and there He will bless you, and I will be there.“ He then acknowledged them (the blessings) as being his (Jacob’s). This is [the meaning of] what is written (Hos. 12:5): ”He strove with an angel and prevailed over him; he wept and supplicated him,“ [meaning that] the angel wept and supplicated him. With what did he supplicate him? ”In Beth-el he will find Him, and there He will speak with us“ (ibid). Wait for me until He speaks with us there. Jacob, however, did not consent, [to release the angel] and, against his (the angel’s) will, he (the angel) acknowledged them (the blessings) as being his (Jacob’s). This is [the meaning of] ”And he blessed him there," that he entreated him to wait, but he did not wish [to do so]. — [from Zohar, vol. 3, 45a]   לֹא יַֽעֲקֹב: לֹא יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שֶׁהַבְּרָכוֹת בָּאוּ לְךָ בְעָקְבָּה וּרְמִיָּה כִּי אִם בִשְׂרָרָה וְגִלּוּי פָּנִים, וְסוֹפְךָ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִגְלֶה אֵלֶיךָ בְּבֵית אֵל וּמַחֲלִיף שִׁמְךָ וְשָׁם הוּא מְבָרֶכְךָ, וַאֲנִי שָׁם אֶהְיֶה וְאוֹדֶה לְךָ עֲלֵיהֶן, וְזֶה שֶׁכָּתוּב וַיָּשַׂר אֶל מַלְאָךְ וַיֻּכָל בָּכָה וַיִּתְחַנֶּן לוֹ (הושע י"ב) – בָּכָה הַמַּלְאָךְ וַיִּתְחַנֶּן לוֹ, וּמַה נִּתְחַנֵּן לוֹ? בֵּית אֵל יִמְצָאֶנּוּ וְשָׁם יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ, הַמְתֵּן לִי עַד שֶׁיְּדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ שָׁם; וְלֹא רָצָה יַעֲקֹב, וְעַל כָּרְחוֹ הוֹדָה לוֹ עֲלֵיהֶן, וְזֶהוּ וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתוֹ שָׁם, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְחַנֵּן לְהַמְתִּין לוֹ וְלֹא רָצָה:
and with men: Esau and Laban.   וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים: עֵשָׂו וְלָבָן:
and you have prevailed: over them. — [from Targum Jonathan]   וַתּוּכָֽל: לָהֶם:
30And Jacob asked and said, "Now tell me your name," and he said, "Why is it that you ask for my name?" And he blessed him there.   לוַיִּשְׁאַ֣ל יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הַגִּֽידָה־נָּ֣א שְׁמֶ֔ךָ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה תִּשְׁאַ֣ל לִשְׁמִ֑י וַיְבָ֥רֶךְ אֹת֖וֹ שָֽׁם:
Why is it that you ask: (Gen. Rabbah 78:4) We have no permanent name. Our names change, (all) according to the service we are commanded [to do] in the mission upon which we are sent.   לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל: אֵין לָנוּ שֵׁם קָבוּעַ, מִשְׁתַּנִּים שְׁמוֹתֵנוּ, הַכֹּל לְפִי מִצְוַת עֲבוֹדַת הַשְּׁלִיחוּת שֶׁאָנוּ מִשְׁתַּלְּחִים (בראשית רבה):

Third Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 32

31And Jacob named the place Peniel, for [he said,] "I saw an angel face to face, and my soul was saved."   לאוַיִּקְרָ֧א יַֽעֲקֹ֛ב שֵׁ֥ם הַמָּק֖וֹם פְּנִיאֵ֑ל כִּֽי־רָאִ֤יתִי אֱלֹהִים֙ פָּנִ֣ים אֶל־פָּנִ֔ים וַתִּנָּצֵ֖ל נַפְשִֽׁי:
32And the sun rose for him when he passed Penuel, and he was limping on his thigh.   לבוַיִּזְרַח־ל֣וֹ הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָבַ֖ר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵ֑ל וְה֥וּא צֹלֵ֖עַ עַל־יְרֵכֽוֹ:
And the sun rose for him: This is a common expression: When we arrived at such-and-such a place, the dawn broke for us. This is the simple explanation. The Midrashic Aggadah (Tanchuma Buber, Vayishlach 10; Gen. Rabbah 68:10) [explains]: And the sun rose for him-to heal his limp, as it is said: (Mal. 3:20): “the sun of mercy, with healing in its wings”; and those hours that it hastened to set for him when he left Beer-sheba, it hastened to rise for him.   וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ: לְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם הוּא כְּשֶׁהִגַּעְנוּ לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי הֵאִיר לָנוּ הַשַּׁחַר, זֶהוּ פְשׁוּטוֹ; וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר ויזרח לו לְצָרְכּוֹ – לְרַפְּאוֹת אֶת צָלַעְתּוֹ, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא שֶׁמֶשׁ צְדָקָה וּמַרְפֵּא בִּכְנָפֶיהָ (מלאכי ג'); וְאוֹתָן שָׁעוֹת שֶׁמִּהֲרָה לִשְׁקֹעַ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ כְּשֶׁיָּצָא מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע מִהֲרָה לִזְרֹחַ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ:
and he was limping on his thigh: He was limping on his thigh when the sun rose.   וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ: הָיָה צוֹלֵעַ כְּשֶׁזָּרְחָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ:
33Therefore, the children of Israel may not eat the displaced tendon, which is on the socket of the hip, until this day, for he touched the socket of Jacob's hip, in the hip sinew.   לגעַל־כֵּ֡ן לֹא־יֹֽאכְל֨וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־גִּ֣יד הַנָּשֶׁ֗ה אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל־כַּ֣ף הַיָּרֵ֔ךְ עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֤י נָגַע֙ בְּכַף־יֶ֣רֶךְ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב בְּגִ֖יד הַנָּשֶֽׁה:
the hip sinew: Heb. גִיד הַנָשֶׁה. Now why was it named גִיד הַנָשֶׁה Because it sprang (נָשָׁה) out of its place and rose, and that [root] is a term for springing. Similarly (Jer. 51:30): “their might has failed (נָשְׁתָּה),” and similarly (below 41:51): “for God has caused me to forget (נַשַׁנִי) all my toil.”-[from Chullin 91a]   גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה: לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה? לְפִי שֶׁנָּשָׁה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְעָלָה, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן קְפִיצָה, וְכֵן נָשְׁתָה גְבוּרָתָם (ירמיהו נ"א), וְכֵן כִּי נַשַּׁנִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת כָּל עֲמָלִי (בראשית מ"א):

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 33

1Jacob lifted his eyes and saw, and behold, Esau was coming, and with him were four hundred men; so he divided the children with Leah and with Rachel and with the two maidservants.   אוַיִּשָּׂ֨א יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ וְהִנֵּ֣ה עֵשָׂ֣ו בָּ֔א וְעִמּ֕וֹ אַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת אִ֑ישׁ וַיַּ֣חַץ אֶת־הַיְלָדִ֗ים עַל־לֵאָה֙ וְעַל־רָחֵ֔ל וְעַ֖ל שְׁתֵּ֥י הַשְּׁפָחֽוֹת:
2And he placed the maidservants and their children first and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and her Joseph last.   בוַיָּ֧שֶׂם אֶת־הַשְּׁפָח֛וֹת וְאֶת־יַלְדֵיהֶ֖ן רִֽאשֹׁנָ֑ה וְאֶת־לֵאָ֤ה וִֽילָדֶ֨יהָ֙ אַֽחֲרֹנִ֔ים וְאֶת־רָחֵ֥ל וְאֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף אַֽחֲרֹנִֽים:
and Leah and her children after: The further back the more beloved. — [from Gen. Rabbah 78:8]   וְאֶת־לֵאָה וִֽילָדֶיהָ אַֽחֲרֹנִים: אַחֲרוֹן אַחֲרוֹן חָבִיב:
3And he went ahead of them and prostrated himself to the ground seven times, until he came close to his brother.   גוְה֖וּא עָבַ֣ר לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּשְׁתַּ֤חוּ אַ֨רְצָה֙ שֶׁ֣בַע פְּעָמִ֔ים עַד־גִּשְׁתּ֖וֹ עַד־אָחִֽיו:
went ahead of them: He said, “If that scoundrel comes to fight, let him fight with me first.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 78:8]   עָבַר לִפְנֵיהֶם: אָמַר אִם יָבֹא אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע לְהִלָּחֵם יִלָּחֵם בִּי תְּחִלָּה:
4And Esau ran toward him and embraced him, and he fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept.   דוַיָּ֨רָץ עֵשָׂ֤ו לִקְרָאתוֹ֙ וַיְחַבְּקֵ֔הוּ וַיִּפֹּ֥ל עַל־צַוָּארָ֖יו (כתיב צוארו ) וַֹיִֹשָֹׁקֵֹ֑הֹוֹּ וַיִּבְכּֽוּ:
and embraced him: His compassion was moved when he saw him prostrate himself all those times. — [from Gen. Rabbah 78:8]   וַיְחַבְּקֵהוּ: נִתְגַּלְגְּלוּ רַחֲמָיו, כְּשֶׁרָאָהוּ מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה כָּל הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאוֹת הַלָּלוּ:
and kissed him: Heb. וֹיֹשֹקֹהֹוּ. There are dots over the word. There is controversy concerning this matter in a Baraitha of Sifrei (Beha’alothecha 69). Some interpret the dots to mean that he did not kiss him wholeheartedly. Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai said: It is a well known tradition that Esau hated Jacob, but his compassion was moved at that time, and he kissed him wholeheartedly.   וַֹיִֹשָֹׁקֵֹהֹוֹּ: נָקוּד עָלָיו; וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה בַּבָּרַיְתָא דְּסִפְרֵי, יֵשׁ שֶׁדָּרְשׁוּ נְקֻדָּה זוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נְשָׁקוֹ בְּכָל לִבּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי, הֲלָכָה הִיא בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁעֵשָׂו שׂוֹנֵא לְיַעֲקֹב, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכְמְרוּ רַחֲמָיו בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה וּנְשָׁקוֹ בְּכָל לִבּוֹ (ספרי במדבר):
5And he lifted his eyes and saw the women and the children, and he said, "Who are these to you?" And he said, "The children with whom God has favored your servant."   הוַיִּשָּׂ֣א אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּ֤רְא אֶת־הַנָּשִׁים֙ וְאֶת־הַיְלָדִ֔ים וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מִי־אֵ֣לֶּה לָּ֑ךְ וַיֹּאמַ֕ר הַיְלָדִ֕ים אֲשֶׁר־חָנַ֥ן אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־עַבְדֶּֽךָ:
“Who are these to you?”: Who are these to be yours?   מִי־אֵלֶּה לָּךְ: מִי אֵלֶּה לִהְיוֹת שֶׁלְּךָ:

Fourth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 33

6And the maidservants and their children drew near and prostrated themselves.   ווַתִּגַּ֧שְׁןָ הַשְּׁפָח֛וֹת הֵ֥נָּה וְיַלְדֵיהֶ֖ן וַתִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶֽיןָ:
7And Leah and her children drew near and prostrated themselves, and after [them], Joseph and Rachel drew near and prostrated themselves.   זוַתִּגַּ֧שׁ גַּם־לֵאָ֛ה וִֽילָדֶ֖יהָ וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲו֑וּ וְאַחַ֗ר נִגַּ֥שׁ יוֹסֵ֛ף וְרָחֵ֖ל וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ:
Joseph and Rachel drew near: In all cases, the mothers drew near before the sons, but in Rachel’s case, Joseph preceded her. He said, “My mother has a pretty figure. Perhaps that scoundrel will set his eyes on her. I will stand in front of her and prevent him from gazing upon her.” Because of this deed, Joseph merited the blessing (below 49:22), “over the eye” [meaning that he stood up in front of Esau’s eyes]. — [from Pesikta Rabbathi , ch. 12; Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   נִגַּשׁ יוֹסֵף וְרָחֵל: בְּכֻלָּן הָאִמָּהוֹת נִגָּשׁוֹת לִפְנֵי הַבָּנִים, אֲבָל בְּרָחֵל יוֹסֵף נִגַּשׁ לְפָנֶיהָ, אָמַר אִמִּי יְפַת תֹּאַר, שֶׁמָּא יִתְלֶה בָהּ עֵינָיו אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע, אֶעֱמֹד כְּנֶגְדָהּ וַאֲעַכְּבֶנּוּ מִלְּהִסְתַּכֵּל בָּהּ; מִכָּאן זָכָה יוֹסֵף לְבִרְכַּת עֲלֵי עַיִן:
8And he said, "What is to you [the purpose of] all this camp that I have met?" And he said, "To find favor in my master's eyes."   חוַיֹּ֕אמֶר מִ֥י לְךָ֛ כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֥ה הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר פָּגָ֑שְׁתִּי וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לִמְצֹא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי:
What is to you [the purpose of] all this camp: Who is all this camp that I have met, which is yours? That is to say, why is it yours? The simple meaning of the verse is [that Esau asked] about those who brought the gift. Its midrashic interpretation is that he (Esau) encountered groups of angels, who were shoving him and his men and asking them, “To whom do you belong?” and they responded, “We belong to Esau.” They (the angels) said [to one another], “Hit [them], hit [them]!” These [men of Esau] would say, “Leave them alone! He is Isaac’s son.” But [the angels] would pay this no heed. [Esau’s men then retorted,] “He is Abraham’s grandson.” But they (the angels) would pay this no heed. [Esau’s men again retorted,] “He is Jacob’s brother.” [The angels] then said to them, “If so, he is one of ours.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 78: 11]   מִי לְךָ כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶה: מִי כָּל הַמַּחֲנֶה אֲשֶׁר פָּגַשְׁתִּי, שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלְּךָ? כְּלוֹמַר לָמָּה הוּא לְךָ? פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא עַל מוֹלִיכֵי הַמִּנְחָה, וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ כִּתּוֹת שֶׁל מַלְאָכִים פָּגַע, שֶׁהָיוּ דּוֹחֲפִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת אֲנָשָׁיו וְאוֹמְרִים לָהֶם שֶׁל מִי אַתֶּם? וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים הַכּוּ, הַכּוּ, וְאֵלּוּ אוֹמְרִים הַנִּיחוּ, בְּנוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק הוּא, וְלֹא הָיוּ מַשְׁגִּיחִים עָלָיו; בֶּן בְּנוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם הוּא, וְלֹא הָיוּ מַשְׁגִּיחִין; אָחִיו שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הוּא, אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם אִם כֵּן, מִשֶּׁלָּנוּ אַתֶּם:
9But Esau said, "I have plenty, my brother; let what you have remain yours."   טוַיֹּ֥אמֶר עֵשָׂ֖ו יֶשׁ־לִ֣י רָ֑ב אָחִ֕י יְהִ֥י לְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁר־לָֽךְ:
let what you have remain yours: Here he acknowledged his (Jacob’s) right to the blessings (Gen. Rabbah 78:11).   יְהִי לְךָ אֲשֶׁר־לָֽךְ: כָּאן הוֹדָה לוֹ עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת (בראשית רבה):
10Thereupon Jacob said, "Please no! If indeed I have found favor in your eyes, then you shall take my gift from my hand, because I have seen your face, which is like seeing the face of an angel, and you have accepted me.   יוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב אַל־נָא֙ אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ֥ מִנְחָתִ֖י מִיָּדִ֑י כִּ֣י עַל־כֵּ֞ן רָאִ֣יתִי פָנֶ֗יךָ כִּרְאֹ֛ת פְּנֵ֥י אֱלֹהִ֖ים וַתִּרְצֵֽנִי:
Please no!: Please do not say this to me. [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   אַל־נָא: אַל נָא תֹאמַר לִי כֵּן:
If indeed I have found favor…shall take my gift from my hand, because I have seen your face, etc.: It is worthy and proper for you to accept my gift, because I have seen your face, and to me this is tantamount to seeing the face of the angel, for I saw your prince [guardian angel], and furthermore [you should take my gift], because you have consented to forgive my offense. Why did he (Jacob) mention that he saw the angel? In order that he [should] fear him and say, “He saw angels and was saved. From now on, I will not be able to prevail against him.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 75:10]   אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ מִנְחָתִי מִיָּדִי כִּי עַל־כֵּן רָאִיתִי פָנֶיךָ וגו': כִּי כְּדַאי וְהָגוּן לְךָ שֶׁתְּקַבֵּל מִנְחָתִי עַל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי פָנֶיךָ, וְהֵן חֲשׁוּבִין לִי כִּרְאִיַּת פְּנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ, שֶׁרָאִיתִי שַׂר שֶׁלְּךָ, וְעוֹד עַל שֶׁנִּתְרַצֵּיתָ לִמְחֹל עַל סֻרְחָנִי. וְלָמָּה הִזְכִּיר לוֹ רְאִיַּת הַמַּלְאָךְ? כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְיָרֵא הֵימֶנּוּ וְיֹאמַר רָאָה מַלְאָכִים וְנִצַּל, אֵינִי יָכוֹל לוֹ מֵעַתָּה:
and you have accepted me: You have become reconciled with me. Likewise, every [instance of] רָצוֹן in Scripture is an expression of appeasement, apayement in Old French, e.g., “for it will not be for an appeasement (לְרָצוֹן) for you” (Lev. 22:20), “The lips of a righteous man know רָצוֹן. They know how to placate and appease (לְרַצוֹת)” (Prov. 10:32). [from Targum Onkelos]   וַתִּרְצֵֽנִי: נִתְפַּיַּסְתָּ לִי, וְכֵן כָּל רָצוֹן שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא לְשׁוֹן פִּיּוּס, אפייצימנ"טו בְּלַעַז, כִּי לֹא לְרָצוֹן יִהְיֶה לָכֶם (ויקרא כ"ב) – הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת בָּאוֹת לְפַיֵּס וּלְרַצּוֹת, וְכֵן שִׂפְתֵי צַדִּיק יֵדְעוּן רָצוֹן (משלי י') – יוֹדְעִים לְפַיֵּס וּלְרַצּוֹת:
11Now take my gift, which has been brought to you, for God has favored me [with it], and [because] I have everything." He prevailed upon him, and he took [it].   יאקַח־נָ֤א אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֻבָ֣את לָ֔ךְ כִּֽי־חַנַּ֥נִי אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְכִ֣י יֶשׁ־לִי־כֹ֑ל וַיִּפְצַר־בּ֖וֹ וַיִּקָּֽח:
my gift: Heb. בָּרְכָתִי. This gift, which is given for an audience and after an interval [of not seeing a person], is intended only as a greeting, as is every [instance of] בְּרָכָה for an audience. It is similar to: “And Jacob blessed (וַיְבָרךְ‏ֶ) Pharaoh” (Gen. 47:7); “Make peace (בְרָכָה) with me” (II Kings 18:31), mentioned in connection with Sennacherib, and, “to greet him and to bless him וּלְבָרְכוֹ” (II Sam. 8:10), mentioned in connection with Toi, king of Hamath. All are expressions of greeting, called in Old French saluder. This, too, viz. בִּרְכָתִי means mon salud, my greeting.   בִּרְכָתִי: מִנְחָתִי, מִנְחָה זוֹ הַבָּאָה עַל רְאִיַּת פָּנִים וְלִפְרָקִים אֵינָה בָאָה אֶלָּא לִשְׁאֵלַת שָׁלוֹם, וְכָל בְּרָכָה שֶׁהִיא לִרְאִיַּת פָּנִים – כְּגוֹן וַיְבָרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב אֶת פַּרְעֹה (בראשית מ״ז:ז׳), עֲשׂוּ אִתִּי בְרָכָה דְּסַנְחֵרִיב (מלכים ב י"ח), וְכֵן לִשְׁאָל לוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם וּלְבָרְכוֹ דְּתֹעִי מֶלֶךְ חֲמָת (שמואל ב ח') – כֻּלָּם לְשׁוֹן בִּרְכַּת שָׁלוֹם הֵן, שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלַעַז שלו"איר, אַף זוֹ בִּרְכָתִי מו"ן שלו"ד:
which has been brought to you: You had no trouble with it, but I have toiled to bring it until it came into your hand. — [from Gen. Rabbah 78:12]   אֲשֶׁר הֻבָאת לָךְ: לֹא טָרַחְתָּ בָּהּ וַאֲנִי יָגַעְתִּי לְהַגִּיעָהּ עַד שֶׁבָּאָה לְיָדְךָ (בראשית רבה):
has favored me: Heb. חַנַנִי. The first “nun” has a “dagesh,” because it serves instead of two “nuns”. It should have been חִנָנַנִי since there is no instance of the root חנן without two “nuns.” The third one is a suffix, similar to “He [did not] make me (עָשָׂנִי)” (Isa. 29:16), “has given me (זְבָדַנִי)” (above 30:20).   חַנַּנִי: נוּ"ן רִאשׁוֹנָה מֻדְגֶּשֶׁת, לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בִּמְקוֹם שְׁתֵּי נוּנִי"ן, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר חֲנָנַנִי, שֶׁאֵין חָנֹן בְּלֹא שְׁתֵּי נוּנִי"ן, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית לְשִׁמּוּשׁ, כְּמוֹ עָשַׂנִי, זְבָדַנִי:
I have everything: All my necessities. Esau, however, spoke haughtily, “I have plenty,” [meaning] much more than I need. — [from Tanchuma Vayishlach 3]   יֶשׁ־לִי־כֹל: כָּל סִפּוּקִי; וְעֵשָׂו דִּבֵּר בִּלְשׁוֹן גַּאֲוָה יֶשׁ לִי רָב, יוֹתֵר וְיוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי צָרְכִּי:
12Thereupon, he said, "Travel and we will go, and I will go alongside you."   יבוַיֹּ֖אמֶר נִסְעָ֣ה וְנֵלֵ֑כָה וְאֵֽלְכָ֖ה לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ:
Travel: Heb. נִסְעָה, similar to: “hear (שְׁמָעָה), forgive (סְלָחָה)” (Dan. 9:19), like שְׁמַע, סְלַח. Here, too, נִסְעָה is like נְסַע, and the “nun” is part of the radical. Therefore, Onkelos renders: טוּל וּנְהךְ‏ַ. Esau said to Jacob, “[You] travel from here and we will go.”   נִסְעָה: כְּמוֹ שִׁמְעָה, סִלְחָה, שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ שְׁמַע, סְלַח, אַף כָּאן נִסְעָה כְּמוֹ נְסַע, וְהַנּוּ"ן יְסוֹד בַּתֵּבָה, וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס טוּל וּנְהָךְ, עֵשָׂו אָמַר לְיַעֲקֹב נְסַע מִכָּאן וְנֵלֵךְ:
and I will go alongside you: Even with you. I will do you a favor and I will lengthen my traveling time to go as slowly as you require. That is the meaning of “alongside you,” even with you.   וְאֵֽלְכָה לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ: בְּשָׁוֶה לְךָ; טוֹבָה זוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂה לְךָ, שֶׁאַאֲרִיךְ יְמֵי מַהֲלַכְתִּי, לָלֶכֶת לְאַט כַּאֲשֶׁר אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, וְזֶהוּ לְנֶגְדֶּךָ – בְּשָׁוֶה לְךָ:
13And he said to him, "My master knows that the children are tender, and the flocks and the cattle, which are raising their young, depend upon me, and if they overdrive them one day, all the flocks will die.   יגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו אֲדֹנִ֤י יֹדֵ֨עַ֙ כִּֽי־הַיְלָדִ֣ים רַכִּ֔ים וְהַצֹּ֥אן וְהַבָּקָ֖ר עָל֣וֹת עָלָ֑י וּדְפָקוּם֙ י֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד וָמֵ֖תוּ כָּל־הַצֹּֽאן:
which are raising their young, depend upon me: The sheep and cattle, which are raising their young, depend on me to lead them slowly.   עָלוֹת עָלָי: הַצֹּאן וְהַבָּקָר, שֶׁהֵן עָלוֹת, מֻטָּלוֹת עָלַי לְנַהֲלָן לְאַט:
which are raising their young: Heb. עָלוֹת raising their young (עוֹלָלֵיהֶן), an expression of “infant (עוֹלֵל) and suckling” (Lam. 2:11), “a youth (עוּל יָמִים)” (Isa. 65:20), “and two nursing (עָלוֹת) cows” (I Sam 6:7), and in French, enfantes, rearing, suckling.   עָלוֹת: מְגַדְּלוֹת עוֹלְלֵיהֶן, לְשׁוֹן עוֹלֵל וְיוֹנֵק (איכה ב'), עוּל יָמִים (ישעיהו ס"ה), וּשְׁתֵּי פָרוֹת עָלוֹת (שמואל א ו') וּבְלַעַז אנפנטיי"ש:
and if they overdrive them one day: to tire them on the road by running, all the flocks will die.   וּדְפָקוּם יוֹם אֶחָד: לְיַגְּעָם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בִּמְרוּצָה ומתו כל הצאן:
and if they overdrive them: Heb. וּדְפָקוּם, lit., and if they knock them, like “Hark! My beloved is knocking (דוֹפֵק)” (Song 5:2), knocking at the door.   וּדְפָקוּם: כְּמוֹ קוֹל דּוֹדִי דּוֹפֵק (שיר השירים), נוֹקֵשׁ בַּדֶּלֶת:
14Now, let my master go ahead before his servant, and I will move [at] my own slow pace, according to the pace of the work that is before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my master, to Seir."   ידיַֽעֲבָר־נָ֥א אֲדֹנִ֖י לִפְנֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲנִ֞י אֶתְנַֽהֲלָ֣ה לְאִטִּ֗י לְרֶ֨גֶל הַמְּלָאכָ֤ה אֲשֶׁר־לְפָנַי֙ וּלְרֶ֣גֶל הַיְלָדִ֔ים עַ֛ד אֲשֶׁר־אָבֹ֥א אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֖י שֵׂעִֽירָה:
Now, let my master go ahead: Please, do not lengthen the days of your traveling. Go ahead according to your speed, even if you will distance yourself [from me].   יַֽעֲבָר־נָא אֲדֹנִי: אַל נָא תַאֲרִיךְ יְמֵי הֲלִיכָתְךָ, עֲבֹר כְּפִי דַּרְכְּךָ וְאַף אִם תִּתְרַחֵק:
and I will move: Heb. אֶתְנַהִלָה, [like] אֶתְנַהֵל, the “hey” is superfluous, like “I will descend (אֵרְדָה)” (above 18:21), “I shall hear (אֶשְׁמְעָה)” (Ps. 85:9).   אֶתְנַֽהֲלָה: אֶתְנַהֵל, הֵ"א יְתֵירָה, כְּמוֹ אֵרְדָה, אֶשְׁמְעָה:
my own slow pace: Heb. לְאִטִי, my slow pace, a term denoting gentleness, [like] “that flow gently (לְאַט)” (Isa. 8:6), “Deal gently (לְאַט) with the lad for my sake” (II Sam. 18:5). [In the word] לְאִטִי, the “lammed” is a radical, [meaning] my slow pace, and it is not a prefix. I will move [at] my own slow pace.   לְאִטִּי: לְאַט שֶׁלִּי, לְשׁוֹן נַחַת, הַהוֹלְכִים לְאַט, לְאַט לִי לַנַּעַר (שמואל ב י"ח). לְאִטִּי הַלָּמֶ"ד מִן הַיְסוֹד, וְאֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת – אֶתְנַהֵל נַחַת שֶׁלִּי:
according to…the work: According to the need made by the pace of the feet of the work [cattle] that I am obliged to lead.   לְרֶגֶל הַמְּלָאכָה: לְפִי צֹרֶךְ הֲלִיכַת רַגְלֵי הַמְּלָאכָה הַמֻּטֶּלֶת עָלַי לְהוֹלִיךְ:
and according to the pace of the children: Heb. וּלְרֶגֶל, according to their feet, how [fast] they can walk.   וּלְרֶגֶל הַיְלָדִים: לְפִי רַגְלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֵם יְכוֹלִים לֵילֵךְ:
until I come to my master, to Seir: He told him of a longer journey, although he intended to go only as far as Succoth. He said [to himself], “If he intends to harm me, he will wait until I come to him,” but he did not go [to Seir]. (Gen. Rabbah 78:14) So when will he go? In the days of the Messiah, as it is said (Obadiah 1:21): “And saviors shall ascend Mt. Zion to judge the mountain of Esau.” There are [also] many midrashic interpretations to this section.   עַד אֲשֶׁר־אָבֹא אֶל־אֲדֹנִי שֵׂעִֽירָה: הִרְחִיב לוֹ הַדֶּרֶךְ, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לָלֶכֶת אֶלָּא עַד סֻכּוֹת; אָמַר אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לִי רָעָה, יַמְתִּין עַד בּוֹאִי אֶצְלוֹ, וְהוּא לֹא הָלַךְ; וְאֵימָתַי יֵלֵךְ? בִּימֵי הַמָּשִׁיחַ (בראשית רבה), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו (עובדיה א'); וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר יֵשׁ לְפָרָשָׁה זוֹ רַבִּים:
15Thereupon Esau said, "Let me leave with you some of the people who are with me." But he said, "Why [do] that? May I find favor in my master's eyes."   טווַיֹּ֣אמֶר עֵשָׂ֔ו אַצִּֽיגָה־נָּ֣א עִמְּךָ֔ מִן־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתִּ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לָ֣מָּה זֶּ֔ה אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי:
But he said, “Why [do] that…”: [Why] should you do me a favor that I do not need?   וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה: תַעֲשֶׂה לִי טוֹבָה זוֹ שֶׁאֵינִי צָרִיךְ לָהּ:
May I find favor in my master’s eyes: And now you shall not pay me any reward.   אֶמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנִֽי: וְלֹא תְשַׁלֵּם לִי עַתָּה שׁוּם גְּמוּל:
16So Esau returned on that day on his way to Seir.   טזוַיָּ֩שָׁב֩ בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֥וּא עֵשָׂ֛ו לְדַרְכּ֖וֹ שֵׂעִֽירָה:
Esau returned on…his way: (Gen. Rabbah 78:15) Esau alone, the four hundred men slipped away one by one. Where did the Holy One, blessed be He, recompense them? In the days of David, as it is said: “[and none of them escaped] except four hundred young men who rode on the camels” (I Sam. 30:17).   וַיָּשָׁב בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא עֵשָׂו לְדַרְכּוֹ: עֵשָׂו לְבַדּוֹ, וְד' מֵאוֹת אִישׁ שֶׁהָלְכוּ עִמּוֹ נִשְׁמְטוּ מֵאֶצְלוֹ אֶחָד אֶחָד, וְהֵיכָן פָּרַע לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא? בִּימֵי דָוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כִּי אִם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ נַעַר אֲשֶׁר רָכְבוּ עַל הַגְּמַלִּים (שמואל א ל') (בראשית רבה):
17And Jacob traveled to Succoth and built himself a house, and for his cattle he made booths; therefore he named the place Succoth.   יזוְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ נָסַ֣ע סֻכֹּ֔תָה וַיִּ֥בֶן ל֖וֹ בָּ֑יִת וּלְמִקְנֵ֨הוּ֙ עָשָׂ֣ה סֻכֹּ֔ת עַל־כֵּ֛ן קָרָ֥א שֵֽׁם־הַמָּק֖וֹם סֻכּֽוֹת:
and built himself a house: He stayed there eighteen months: summer, winter, and summer. “Succoth” denotes summer. “A house” denotes winter, and [again] “succoth” denotes summer. — [from Gen. Rabbah 78:16]   וַיִּבֶן לוֹ בָּיִת: שָׁהָה שָׁם י"ח חֹדֶשׁ, קַיִץ וְחֹרֶף וְקַיִץ (מגילה י"ז), סֻכּוֹת – קַיִץ; בַּיִת – חֹרֶף, סֻכּוֹת – קַיִץ:
18And Jacob came safely [to] the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan aram, and he encamped before the city.   יחוַיָּבֹא֩ יַֽעֲקֹ֨ב שָׁלֵ֜ם עִ֣יר שְׁכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן בְּבֹא֖וֹ מִפַּדַּ֣ן אֲרָ֑ם וַיִּ֖חַן אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י הָעִֽיר:
And Jacob came safely: Heb. שָׁלֵם, lit., whole, unimpaired in his body, for he was cured of his limp and whole with his money. He did not lose anything because of that entire gift that he had given Esau. [He was also] whole with his Torah, for he had not forgotten [any of] his studies in Laban’s house. — [from Gen. Rabbah 79:5, Shab. 33b]   שָׁלֵם: שָׁלֵם בְּגוּפוֹ, שֶׁנִּתְרַפֵּא מִצָּלַעְתּוֹ; שָׁלֵם בְּמָמוֹנוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא חָסַר כְּלוּם מִכָּל אוֹתוֹ דּוֹרוֹן; שָׁלֵם בְּתוֹרָתוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא שָׁכַח תַּלְמוּדוֹ בְּבֵית לָבָן (שבת ל"ג):
the city of Shechem: Heb. עִיר, [meaning] the city of Shechem, like לְעִיר, to the city, and similar to this, “until they came to Bethlehem (בֵּית לֶחֶם)” (Ruth 1:19).   עִיר שְׁכֶם: כְּמוֹ לְעִיר, וְכָמוֹהוּ עַד בּוֹאָנָה בֵּית לָחֶם (רות א'):
when he came from Padan-aram: Like a person who says to his companion, “So-and-so came out from between the teeth of lions and returned safely.” Here too, he came whole from Padan-aram, from Laban and from Esau, who had come to attack him on the way.   בְּבֹאוֹ מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם: כְּאָדָם הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ יָצָא פְּלוֹנִי מִבֵּין שִׁנֵּי אֲרָיוֹת וּבָא שָׁלֵם, אַף כָּאן וַיָּבֹא שָׁלֵם מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם, מִלָּבָן וּמֵעֵשָׂו שֶׁנִזְדַּוְּגוּ לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ:
19And he bought the part of the field where he had pitched his tent from the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for a hundred kesitas.   יטוַיִּ֜קֶן אֶת־חֶלְקַ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָֽטָה־שָׁם֙ אָהֳל֔וֹ מִיַּ֥ד בְּנֵֽי־חֲמ֖וֹר אֲבִ֣י שְׁכֶ֑ם בְּמֵאָ֖ה קְשִׂיטָֽה:
kesitas: [This is a coin known as] a ma’ah. Rabbi Akiva said, “When I traveled to the cities by the sea, they called a ma’ah, kesita.” (The Targum renders it חוּרְפָן, good, acceptable everywhere, like [above 23:16] “accepted by the merchant”). [from Rosh Hashanah 26a]   קְשִׂיטָֽה: מָעָה. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא כְּשֶׁהָלַכְתִּי לִכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם הָיוּ קוֹרִין לְמָעָה קְשִׂיטָה (וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ חוּרְפָן – טוֹבִים, חֲרִיפִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם, כְּגוֹן עוֹבֵר לַסּוֹחֵר):
20There he erected an altar, and he named it "God is the God of Israel."   כוַיַּצֶּב־שָׁ֖ם מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּ֨קְרָא־ל֔וֹ אֵ֖ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and he named it, “God is the God of Israel.”: Not that the altar is called “the God of Israel,” but since the Holy One, blessed be He, had been with him and saved him, he named the altar because of the miracle, in-order that the praise of G-d be mentioned when it was called by its name. That is to say: He Who is God that is the Holy One, blessed be He-He is God to me, whose name is Israel. We find something similar in connection with Moses: “and he named it Hashem Nissi” (Exod. 17:15). Not that the altar was called Hashem, but because of the miracle he named the altar thus, to mention the praise of the Holy One, blessed be He: “The Lord is my miracle.” Our Rabbis (Meg. 18a) interpreted it to mean that the Holy One, blessed be He, called Jacob God [rendering: and the God of Israel called him God]. The words of Torah are “like a hammer that shatters a rock” (Jer. 23:29). They divide into many meanings, but I have come to establish the simple meaning of the verse.   וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ אֵל אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עִמּוֹ וְהִצִּילוֹ קָרָא שֵׁם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל שֵׁם הַנֵּס, לִהְיוֹת שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם נִזְכָּר בִּקְרִיאַת הַשֵּׁם, כְּלוֹמַר מִי שֶׁהוּא אֵל, הוּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא לֵאלֹהִים לִי, שֶׁשְּׁמִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן מָצִינוּ בְּמֹשֶׁה וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ ה' נִסִּי (שמות י"ז), לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי ה', אֶלָּא עַל שֵׁם הַנֵּס קָרָא שֵׁם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְהַזְכִּיר שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, ה' הוּא נִסִּי. וְרַבּוֹתֵנוּ דָּרְשׁוּ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קְרָאוֹ לְיַעֲקֹב אֵל (מגילה י"ח); וְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּפַטִּישׁ יְפֹצֵץ סָלַע (ע' שבת פ"ח) – מִתְחַלְּקִים לְכַמָּה טְעָמִים, וַאֲנִי לְיַשֵּׁב פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא בָּאתִי:

Fifth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 34

1Dinah, the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to look about among the daughters of the land.   אוַתֵּצֵ֤א דִינָה֙ בַּת־לֵאָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָֽלְדָ֖ה לְיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב לִרְא֖וֹת בִּבְנ֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ:
the daughter of Leah: And not the daughter of Jacob? However, because of her going out she was called the daughter of Leah, since she (Leah) too was in the habit of going out, as it is said: “and Leah came forth toward him” (above 30:16). [from Tanchuma Vayishlach 7] (And concerning her, they devise the proverb: Like mother like daughter.) - [Gen. Rabbah 80:1]   בַּת־לֵאָה: וְלֹא בַת יַעֲקֹב? אֶלָּא עַל שֵׁם יְצִיאָתָהּ נִקְרֵאת בַּת לֵאָה, שֶׁאַף הִיא יַצְאָנִית הָיְתָה (בראשית רבה), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַתֵּצֶא לֵאָה לִקְרָאתוֹ (וְעָלֶיהָ מָשְׁלוּ הַמָּשָׁל כְּאִמָּהּ כְּבִתָּהּ):
2And Shechem the son of Hamor, the Hivvite, the prince of the land, saw her, and he took her, lay with her, and violated her.   בוַיַּ֨רְא אֹתָ֜הּ שְׁכֶ֧ם בֶּן־חֲמ֛וֹר הַֽחִוִּ֖י נְשִׂ֣יא הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּקַּ֥ח אֹתָ֛הּ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב אֹתָ֖הּ וַיְעַנֶּֽהָ:
lay with her: in a natural way. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:5]   וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֹתָהּ: כְּדַרְכָּהּ:
and violated her: Heb. וַיְעַנֶהָ, lit., and afflicted her. [I.e. he was intimate with her] in an unnatural way. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80: 5]   וַיְעַנֶּֽהָ: שֶׁלֹּא כְדַרְכָּהּ (בראשית רבה):
3And his soul cleaved to Dinah the daughter of Jacob; he loved the girl and spoke to the girl's heart.   גוַתִּדְבַּ֣ק נַפְשׁ֔וֹ בְּדִינָ֖ה בַּת־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וַיֶּֽאֱהַב֙ אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָה֔ (כתיב הנער) וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לֵ֥ב הַנַּֽעֲרָֽה (כתיב הנער) :
and spoke to the girl’s heart: [I.e. he spoke] seductive words, “Look how much money your father squandered for a small parcel of land. I will marry you, and you will acquire the city and all its fields.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 80:7]   עַל־לֵב הנערה: דְּבָרִים הַמִּתְיַשְּׁבִים עַל הַלֵּב; רְאִי, אָבִיךְ בְּחֶלְקַת שָׂדֶה קְטַנָּה כַּמָּה מָמוֹן בִּזְבֵּז, אֲנִי אַשִּׂיאֵךְ וְתִקְנֶה הָעִיר וְכָל שְׂדוֹתֶיהָ:
4And Shechem spoke to his father Hamor saying, "Take this girl for me as a wife."   דוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁכֶ֔ם אֶל־חֲמ֥וֹר אָבִ֖יו לֵאמֹ֑ר קַח־לִ֛י אֶת־הַיַּלְדָּ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לְאִשָּֽׁה:
5Jacob had heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah, but his sons were with his livestock in the field, and Jacob kept silent until they came [home].   הוְיַֽעֲקֹ֣ב שָׁמַ֗ע כִּ֤י טִמֵּא֙ אֶת־דִּינָ֣ה בִתּ֔וֹ וּבָנָ֛יו הָי֥וּ אֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וְהֶֽחֱרִ֥שׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב עַד־בֹּאָֽם:
6And Hamor, the father of Shechem, went out to Jacob to speak with him.   ווַיֵּצֵ֛א חֲמ֥וֹר אֲבִֽי־שְׁכֶ֖ם אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב לְדַבֵּ֖ר אִתּֽוֹ:
7And Jacob's sons had come from the field when they heard, and the men were grieved, and they burned fiercely, because he had committed a scandalous act in Israel, to lie with a daughter of Jacob, and such ought not to be done.   זוּבְנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב בָּ֤אוּ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה֙ כְּשָׁמְעָ֔ם וַיִּתְעַצְּבוּ֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיִּ֥חַר לָהֶ֖ם מְאֹ֑ד כִּ֣י נְבָלָ֞ה עָשָׂ֣ה בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־בַּת־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְכֵ֖ן לֹ֥א יֵֽעָשֶֽׂה:
and such ought not to be done: to violate virgins, for the nations (the general population) had refrained from illicit relationships because of the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:7]   וְכֵן לֹא יֵֽעָשֶֽׂה: לְעַנּוֹת אֶת הַבְּתוּלוֹת, שֶׁהָאֻמּוֹת גָּדְרוּ עַצְמָן מִן הָעֲרָיוֹת עַל יְדֵי הַמַּבּוּל (בראשית רבה):
8And Hamor spoke with them, saying, "My son Shechem his soul has a liking for your daughter. Please give her to him for a wife.   חוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר חֲמ֖וֹר אִתָּ֣ם לֵאמֹ֑ר שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנִ֗י חָֽשְׁקָ֤ה נַפְשׁוֹ֙ בְּבִתְּכֶ֔ם תְּנ֨וּ נָ֥א אֹתָ֛הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
has a liking: He desires.   חָֽשְׁקָה: חָפְצָה:
9And intermarry with us; you shall give us your daughters, and you shall take our daughters for yourselves.   טוְהִתְחַתְּנ֖וּ אֹתָ֑נוּ בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ תִּתְּנוּ־לָ֔נוּ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֖ינוּ תִּקְח֥וּ לָכֶֽם:
10And you shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you; remain, do business there and settle there."   יוְאִתָּ֖נוּ תֵּשֵׁ֑בוּ וְהָאָ֨רֶץ֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם שְׁבוּ֙ וּסְחָר֔וּהָ וְהֵאָֽחֲז֖וּ בָּֽהּ:
11And Shechem said to her father and to her brothers, "May I find favor in your eyes. Whatever you tell me I will give.   יאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁכֶם֙ אֶל־אָבִ֣יהָ וְאֶל־אַחֶ֔יהָ אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵֽינֵיכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲשֶׁ֧ר תֹּאמְר֛וּ אֵלַ֖י אֶתֵּֽן:
12Impose upon me a large marriage settlement and gifts, and I will give as [much as] you ask of me, but give me the girl for a wife."   יבהַרְבּ֨וּ עָלַ֤י מְאֹד֙ מֹ֣הַר וּמַתָּ֔ן וְאֶ֨תְּנָ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תֹּֽאמְר֖וּ אֵלָ֑י וּתְנוּ־לִ֥י אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָ֖ (כתיב הנער) לְאִשָּֽׁה:
marriage settlement: Kethubah. — [from Mechilta Mishpatim, Nezikin 17]   מֹהַר: כְּתֻבָּה:
13Thereupon, Jacob's sons answered Shechem and his father Hamor with cunning, and they spoke, because [after all] he had defiled their sister Dinah.   יגוַיַּֽעֲנ֨וּ בְנֵי־יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶת־שְׁכֶ֨ם וְאֶת־חֲמ֥וֹר אָבִ֛יו בְּמִרְמָ֖ה וַיְדַבֵּ֑רוּ אֲשֶׁ֣ר טִמֵּ֔א אֵ֖ת דִּינָ֥ה אֲחֹתָֽם:
with cunning: Heb. בְּמִרְמָה, with cunning. — [from Targum Onkelos]   בְּמִרְמָה: בְּחָכְמָה:
because [after all] he had defiled: Scripture states that this was not trickery because [after all] he had defiled their sister Dinah. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:8]   אֲשֶׁר טִמֵּא: הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה רְמִיָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי טִמֵּא אֶת דִּינָה אֲחֹתָם (בראשית רבה):
14And they said to them, "We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin, for that is a disgrace to us.   ידוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם לֹ֤א נוּכַל֙ לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה לָתֵת֙ אֶת־אֲחֹתֵ֔נוּ לְאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־ל֣וֹ עָרְלָ֑ה כִּֽי־חֶרְפָּ֥ה הִ֖וא לָֽנוּ:
for that is a disgrace to us: To us, it is a defect. If someone wishes to insult another person, he says, “You are uncircumcised,” or “[You are] the son of an uncircumcised person.” Wherever חֶרְפָּה is mentioned, it is an [expression of] insult.   חֶרְפָּה הִוא: שֶׁמֶץ פְּסוּל הוּא אֶצְלֵנוּ; הַבָּא לְחָרֵף חֲבֵרוֹ הוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ עָרֵל אַתָּה אוֹ בֶּן עָרֵל. חֶרְפָּה בְּכָל מָקוֹם גִּדּוּף:
15But with this, however, we will consent to you, if you will be like us, that every male will be circumcised.   טואַךְ־בְּזֹ֖את נֵא֣וֹת לָכֶ֑ם אִ֚ם תִּֽהְי֣וּ כָמֹ֔נוּ לְהִמֹּ֥ל לָכֶ֖ם כָּל־זָכָֽר:
we will consent to you: Heb. נֵאוֹת. We will consent to you, an expression like (וַיֵאֹתוּ הַכֹּהִנִים), “And (the priests) consented,” (in connection with Jehoiada) (II Kings 12:9).   נֵאוֹת לָכֶם: נִתְרַצֶּה לָכֶם, לְשׁוֹן וַיֵּאֹתוּ (מלכים ב י"ב):
will be circumcised: Heb. לְהִמֹל, lit., to be circumcised. This is not in the active voice but in the passive.   להמול: לִהְיוֹת נִמּוֹל. אֵינוֹ לְשׁוֹן לִפְעֹל אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן לְהִפָּעֵל:
16Then we will give you our daughters, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we will dwell with you and become one people.   טזוְנָתַ֤נּוּ אֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֨ינוּ֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶת־בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם נִקַּח־לָ֑נוּ וְיָשַׁ֣בְנוּ אִתְּכֶ֔ם וְהָיִ֖ינוּ לְעַ֥ם אֶחָֽד:
Then we will give: Heb. וְנָתַנוּ. The second “nun” is punctuated with a “dagesh,” because it serves instead of two “nuns,” [like] וְנָתַנְנוּ.   וְנָתַנּוּ: נוּ"ן שְׁנִיָּה מֻדְגֶּשֶׁת לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בִּמְקוֹם שְׁתֵּי נוּנִי"ן, וְנָתַנְנוּ:
and we will take your daughters for ourselves: You find in the stipulation that Hamor suggested to Jacob, and in the reply of Jacob’s sons to Hamor, that they [Hamor and Shechem] attached importance to Jacob’s sons, [allowing them] to take whomever of the daughters of Shechem they would choose for themselves, and their daughters they would give to them [the people of Shechem], as they (the sons of Jacob) wished, for it is written: “Then we will give you our daughters,” as we wish, “and we will take your daughters for ourselves,” however we wish. But, when Hamor and his son Shechem spoke to their townsmen, they reversed the matter, [and said (verse 21),] “We will take their daughters for ourselves as wives, and our daughters we will give them,” in order to appease them (the townsmen), that they would consent to be circumcised.   וְאֶת־בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶם נִקַּח־לָנוּ: אַתָּה מוֹצֵא בַּתְּנַאי שֶׁאָמַר חֲמוֹר לְיַעֲקֹב וּבִתְשׁוּבַת בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב לַחֲמוֹר, שֶׁתָּלוּ הַחֲשִׁיבוּת בִּבְנֵי יַעֲקֹב לִקַּח בְּנוֹת שְׁכֶם אֶת שֶׁיִּבְחֲרוּ לָהֶם, וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם יִתְּנוּ לָהֶם לְפִי דַעְתָּם, דִּכְתִיב וְנָתַנּוּ אֶת בְּנֹתֵינוּ – לְפִי דַעְתֵּנוּ, וְאֶת בְּנֹתֵיכֶם נִקַּח לָנוּ – כְּכָל אֲשֶׁר נַחְפֹּץ; וּכְשֶׁדִּבְּרוּ חֲמוֹר וּשְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ אֶל יוֹשְׁבֵי עִירָם הָפְכוּ הַדְּבָרִים, אֶת בְּנֹתָם נִקַּח לָנוּ לְנָשִׁים וְאֶת בְּנֹתֵינוּ נִתֵּן לָהֶם, כְּדֵי לְרַצּוֹתָם שֶׁיֵּאוֹתוּ לְהִמּוֹל:
17But if you do not listen to us to be circumcised, we will take our daughter and go."   יזוְאִם־לֹ֧א תִשְׁמְע֛וּ אֵלֵ֖ינוּ לְהִמּ֑וֹל וְלָקַ֥חְנוּ אֶת־בִּתֵּ֖נוּ וְהָלָֽכְנוּ:
18Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem, the son of Hamor.   יחוַיִּֽיטְב֥וּ דִבְרֵיהֶ֖ם בְּעֵינֵ֣י חֲמ֑וֹר וּבְעֵינֵ֖י שְׁכֶ֥ם בֶּן־חֲמֽוֹר:
19And the young man did not delay to do the thing because he desired Jacob's daughter, and he was the most honored in all his father's household.   יטוְלֹֽא־אֵחַ֤ר הַנַּ֨עַר֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת הַדָּבָ֔ר כִּ֥י חָפֵ֖ץ בְּבַת־יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְה֣וּא נִכְבָּ֔ד מִכֹּ֖ל בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיו:
20And Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city, and they spoke to the people of their city, saying,   כוַיָּבֹ֥א חֲמ֛וֹר וּשְׁכֶ֥ם בְּנ֖וֹ אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר עִירָ֑ם וַיְדַבְּר֛וּ אֶל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י עִירָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
21"These men are peaceful with us, and they will dwell in the land and do business there, and the land behold it is spacious enough for them. We will take their daughters for ourselves as wives, and we will give them our daughters.   כאהָֽאֲנָשִׁ֨ים הָאֵ֜לֶּה שְׁלֵמִ֧ים הֵ֣ם אִתָּ֗נוּ וְיֵֽשְׁב֤וּ בָאָ֨רֶץ֙ וְיִסְחֲר֣וּ אֹתָ֔הּ וְהָאָ֛רֶץ הִנֵּ֥ה רַֽחֲבַת־יָדַ֖יִם לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם אֶת־בְּנֹתָם֙ נִקַּח־לָ֣נוּ לְנָשִׁ֔ים וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֖ינוּ נִתֵּ֥ן לָהֶֽם:
These men are peaceful with us: Heb. שְׁלֵמִים. With peace and sincerity.   שְׁלֵמִים: בְּשָׁלוֹם וּבְלֵב שָׁלֵם:
and the land-behold it is spacious enough: [The metaphor is that of] a person whose hand is wide and generous. That is to say: You will not lose anything [if they trade here]. Plenty of merchandise comes here, and there is no one to purchase it.   וְהָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה רַֽחֲבַת־יָדַיִם: כְּאָדָם שֶׁיָּדוֹ רְחָבָה וּוַתְרָנִית; כְּלוֹמַר, אַל תַּפְסִידוּ כְּלוּם – פְּרַקְמַטְיָא הַרְבֵּה בָּאָה לְכָאן וְאֵין לָהּ קוֹנִים:
22However, [only] with this [condition] will the men consent to dwell with us, to become one people, by every male among us being circumcised, just as they are circumcised.   כבאַךְ־בְּ֠זֹ֠את יֵאֹ֨תוּ לָ֤נוּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אִתָּ֔נוּ לִֽהְי֖וֹת לְעַ֣ם אֶחָ֑ד בְּהִמּ֥וֹל לָ֨נוּ֙ כָּל־זָכָ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר הֵ֥ם נִמֹּלִֽים:
by…being circumcised: Heb. בְּהִמוֹל, by being circumcised.   בְּהִמּוֹל: בִּהְיוֹת נִמּוֹל:
23Then shall not their cattle, their property, and all their beasts be ours? But let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us."   כגמִקְנֵהֶ֤ם וְקִנְיָנָם֙ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתָּ֔ם הֲל֥וֹא לָ֖נוּ הֵ֑ם אַ֚ךְ נֵא֣וֹתָה לָהֶ֔ם וְיֵֽשְׁב֖וּ אִתָּֽנוּ:
But let us consent to them: regarding this matter, and thereby, they will dwell with us.   אַךְ נֵאוֹתָה לָהֶם: לְדָבָר זֶה, וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן יֵשְׁבוּ אִתָּנוּ:
24And all those coming out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and his son Shechem, and every male, all who went out of the gate of his city, became circumcised.   כדוַיִּשְׁמְע֤וּ אֶל־חֲמוֹר֙ וְאֶל־שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנ֔וֹ כָּל־יֹֽצְאֵ֖י שַׁ֣עַר עִיר֑וֹ וַיִּמֹּ֨לוּ֙ כָּל־זָכָ֔ר כָּל־יֹֽצְאֵ֖י שַׁ֥עַר עִירֽוֹ:
25Now it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that Jacob's two sons, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, each took his sword, and they came upon the city with confidence, and they slew every male.   כהוַיְהִי֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֜י בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֣ם כֹּֽאֲבִ֗ים וַיִּקְח֣וּ שְׁנֵֽי־בְנֵֽי־יַֽ֠עֲקֹ֠ב שִׁמְע֨וֹן וְלֵוִ֜י אֲחֵ֤י דִינָה֙ אִ֣ישׁ חַרְבּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ עַל־הָעִ֖יר בֶּ֑טַח וַיַּֽהַרְג֖וּ כָּל־זָכָֽר:
Jacob’s two sons: They were his sons, but nevertheless, Simeon and Levi conducted themselves like other people, who were not his sons, for they did not take counsel with him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:10]   שְׁנֵֽי־בְנֵֽי־יַֽעֲקֹב: בָּנָיו הָיוּ, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נָהֲגוּ עַצְמָן שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי כִּשְׁאָר אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁאֵינָם בָּנָיו, שֶׁלֹּא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה הֵימֶנּוּ (בראשית רבה):
Dinah’s brothers: Since they risked their lives for her, they were called her brothers. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:10]   אֲחֵי דִינָה: לְפִי שֶׁמָּסְרוּ עַצְמָן עָלֶיהָ נִקְרְאוּ אַחֶיהָ:
with confidence: Because they (the townsmen) were in pain. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 80:10) says: They were confident in the strength of the elder (Jacob).   בֶּטַח: שֶׁהָיוּ כוֹאֲבִים וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן (בראשית רבה):
26And Hamor and his son Shechem they slew with the edge of the sword, and they took Dinah out of Shechem's house and left.   כווְאֶת־חֲמוֹר֙ וְאֶת־שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנ֔וֹ הָֽרְג֖וּ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב וַיִּקְח֧וּ אֶת־דִּינָ֛ה מִבֵּ֥ית שְׁכֶ֖ם וַיֵּצֵֽאוּ:
27Jacob's sons came upon the slain and plundered the city that had defiled their sister.   כזבְּנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב בָּ֚אוּ עַל־הַ֣חֲלָלִ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖זּוּ הָעִ֑יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר טִמְּא֖וּ אֲחוֹתָֽם:
upon the slain: to strip the slain. [from Targum Onkelos]   עַל־הַחֲלָלִים: לְפַשֵּׁט הַחֲלָלִים:
28Their flocks and their cattle and their donkeys, and whatever was in the city and whatever was in the field they took.   כחאֶת־צֹאנָ֥ם וְאֶת־בְּקָרָ֖ם וְאֶת־חֲמֹֽרֵיהֶ֑ם וְאֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִ֛יר וְאֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֖ה לָקָֽחוּ:
29And all their wealth and all their infants and their wives they captured and plundered, and all that was in the house.   כטוְאֶת־כָּל־חֵילָ֤ם וְאֶת־כָּל־טַפָּם֙ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁיהֶ֔ם שָׁב֖וּ וַיָּבֹ֑זּוּ וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּבָּֽיִת:
And all their wealth: Heb. חֵילָם, their money, and similarly; “amassed this wealth (הַחַיִל) for me” (Deut. 8:17); “and Israel amasses wealth (חָיִל)” (Num. 24: 18); “and leave over their possessions (חֵילָם) to others” (Ps. 49:11).   חֵילָם: מָמוֹנָם וְכֵן עָשָׂה לִי אֶת הַחַיִל הַזֶּה (דברים ח'), וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֹשֶׂה חָיִל (במדבר כ"ד), וְעָזְבוּ לַאֲחֵרִים חֵילָם (תהילים מ"ט):
they captured: Heb. שָׁבוּ, a term denoting captivity. Therefore, the accent is on the latter syllable. — [from Targum Onkelos]   שָׁבוּ: לְשׁוֹן שְׁבִיָּה, לְפִיכָךְ טַעֲמוֹ מִלְּרָע:
30Thereupon, Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, "You have troubled me, to discredit me among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and among the Perizzites, and I am few in number, and they will gather against me and attack me, and I and my household will be destroyed."   לוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶל־שִׁמְע֣וֹן וְאֶל־לֵוִי֘ עֲכַרְתֶּ֣ם אֹתִי֒ לְהַבְאִישֵׁ֨נִי֙ בְּישֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֔רֶץ בַּכְּנַֽעֲנִ֖י וּבַפְּרִזִּ֑י וַֽאֲנִי֙ מְתֵ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר וְנֶֽאֶסְפ֤וּ עָלַי֙ וְהִכּ֔וּנִי וְנִשְׁמַדְתִּ֖י אֲנִ֥י וּבֵיתִֽי:
You have troubled me: Heb. עִכַרְתֶּם, an expression denoting murky water [meaning that] now my mind is not clear [without worry]. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 80: 12) [explains]: The barrel was clear, but you have made it murky. (I.e., I saw our way clear to co-exist with the Canaanites, but now you have spoiled the possibility to do so.) The Canaanites had a tradition that they would fall into the hands of Jacob’s sons, but they said [that this would only happen], “Until you are fruitful and inherit the land” (Exod. 23:30). Therefore, they have been silent.   עֲכַרְתֶּם: לְשׁוֹן מַיִם עֲכוּרִים, אֵין דַּעְתִּי צְלוּלָה עַכְשָׁו (ברכות כ"ה). וְאַגָּדָה, צְלוּלָה הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית וַעֲכַרְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ (בראשית רבה) – מָסֹרֶת הָיְתָה בְּיַד כְּנַעֲנִים שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ בְּיַד בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים עַד אֲשֶׁר תִּפְרֶה וְנָחַלְתָּ אֶת הָאָרֶץ (שמות כ"ג), לְפִיכָךְ הָיוּ שׁוֹתְקִין:
few in number: few men.   מְתֵי מִסְפָּר: אֲנָשִׁים מוּעָטִים:
31And they said, "Shall he make our sister like a harlot?"   לאוַֽיֹּאמְר֑וּ הַֽכְזוֹנָ֕ה יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־אֲחוֹתֵֽנוּ:
like a harlot: Abandoned. — [from Gen. Rabbah 80:12]   הַֽכְזוֹנָה: הֶפְקֵר:
our sister: [Onkelos renders] יָת לַאֲחָתָנָא, our sister.   אֶת־אֲחוֹתֵֽנוּ: יָת אֲחָתָנָא:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 35

1And God said to Jacob, "Arise and go up to Beth el and abide there, and make there an altar to the God Who appeared to you when you fled from your brother Esau."   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב ק֛וּם עֲלֵ֥ה בֵֽית־אֵ֖ל וְשֶׁב־שָׁ֑ם וַֽעֲשֵׂה־שָׁ֣ם מִזְבֵּ֔חַ לָאֵל֙ הַנִּרְאֶ֣ה אֵלֶ֔יךָ בְּבָ֨רְחֲךָ֔ מִפְּנֵ֖י עֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִֽיךָ:
Arise and go up: (Tanchuma Vayishlach 8) Since you tarried on the way, you were punished, and this trouble with your daughter has befallen you.   קוּם עֲלֵה: לְפִי שֶׁאֵחַרְתָּ בַּדֶּרֶךְ נֶעֱנַשְׁתָּ וּבָא לְךָ זֹאת מִבִּתְּךָ (תנחומא):
2Thereupon Jacob said to his household and to all those who were with him, "Remove the deities of the foreign nations, which are in your midst, purify yourselves and change your clothes.   בוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וְאֶ֖ל כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ הָסִ֜רוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַנֵּכָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּתֹֽכְכֶ֔ם וְהִטַּֽהֲר֔וּ וְהַֽחֲלִ֖יפוּ שִׂמְלֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
the foreign nations: That you have in your possession from the spoils of Shechem. — from Zohar, vol. 1, 173a]   הַנֵּכָר: שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיֶדְכֶם מִשָּׁלָל שֶׁל שְׁכֶם:
purify yourselves: from idolatry.   וְהִטַּֽהֲרוּ: מֵעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
and change your clothes: Perhaps you have the clothing of idols in your possession. — [from Gen. Rabbah 81:3]   וְהַֽחֲלִיפוּ שִׂמְלֹֽתֵיכֶֽם: שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ בְּיֶדְכֶם כְּסוּת שֶׁל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
3And we will arise and go up to Beth el, and I will make an altar to the God Who answered me on the day of my distress, and was with me on the way that I went."   גוְנָק֥וּמָה וְנַֽעֲלֶ֖ה בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־שָּׁ֣ם מִזְבֵּ֗חַ לָאֵ֞ל הָֽעֹנֶ֤ה אֹתִי֙ בְּי֣וֹם צָֽרָתִ֔י וַֽיְהִי֙ עִמָּדִ֔י בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽכְתִּי:
4And they gave Jacob all the deities of the nations that were in their possession and the earrings that were in their ears, and Jacob hid them under the terebinth that was near Shechem.   דוַיִּתְּנ֣וּ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב אֵ֣ת כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַנֵּכָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיָדָ֔ם וְאֶת־הַנְּזָמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּאָזְנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּטְמֹ֤ן אֹתָם֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב תַּ֥חַת הָֽאֵלָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִם־שְׁכֶֽם:
under the terebinth: Heb. אֵלָה, a species of tree that bears no fruit.   הָֽאֵלָה: מִין אִילַן סְרָק:
near Shechem: Heb. עִם-שְׁכֶם, lit., with Shechem, [meaning] next to Shechem. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   עִם־שְׁכֶֽם: אֵצֶל שְׁכֶם:
5Then they traveled, and the fear of God was upon the cities that were around them, so that they did not pursue Jacob's sons.   הוַיִּסָּ֑עוּ וַיְהִ֣י | חִתַּ֣ת אֱלֹהִ֗ים עַל־הֶֽעָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיב֣וֹתֵיהֶ֔ם וְלֹ֣א רָֽדְפ֔וּ אַֽחֲרֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
and the fear: terror.   חִתַּת: פַּחַד:
6And Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan that is Beth el he and all the people who were with him.   ווַיָּבֹ֨א יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב ל֗וּזָה אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן הִ֖וא בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל ה֖וּא וְכָל־הָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־עִמּֽוֹ:
7He built there an altar, and he called the place El Beth el, for there God had been revealed to him when he fled from before his brother Esau.   זוַיִּ֤בֶן שָׁם֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ וַיִּקְרָא֙ לַמָּק֔וֹם אֵ֖ל בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל כִּ֣י שָׁ֗ם נִגְל֤וּ אֵלָיו֙ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים בְּבָרְח֖וֹ מִפְּנֵ֥י אָחִֽיו:
El Beth-el: Heb. בֵּית-אֵל אֵל, The Holy One, blessed be He, is in Beth-el (בְּבֵית-אֵל) the manifestation of His presence is in Beth-el. Some words lack the prefix “beth,” [meaning “in,”] like “Behold, he is in the house of (בֵּית) Machir, the son of Ammiel” (II Sam. 9:4), [Which is equivalent to] מָכִיר בְּבֵית [Also,] “in your father’s house (בֵּית אָבִיךָ‏),” [equivalent to] בְּבֵית אָבִיךָ‏ [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   אֵל בֵּֽית־אֵל: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּבֵית אֵל, גִּלּוּי שְׁכִינָתוֹ בְּבֵית אֵל. יֵשׁ תֵּבָה חֲסֵרָה בֵּי"ת הַמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּרֹאשָׁהּ, כְּמוֹ הִנֵּה הוּא בֵּית מָכִיר בֶּן עַמִּיאֵל (שמואל ב ט') – כְּמוֹ בְּבֵית מָכִיר; בֵּית אָבִיךְ (בראשית ל״ח:י״א) – כְּמוֹ בְּבֵית אָבִיךְ:
had been revealed to him: Heb. נִגְלוּ, the plural form. In many places, the noun referring to godliness or mastership appears in the plural form, like “Joseph’s master (אִדוֹנֵי יוֹסֵף)” (Gen. 39:20), “if its owner (בְּעָלָיו) is with him” (Exod. 22:14), and it does not say בַּעִלוֹ. Likewise, אֱלָהוּת (godliness), an expression of judgment and lordship, is mentioned in the plural form, but none of the other names [of the Deity] are found in the plural form. — [from Sanh. 38b]   נִגְלוּ אֵלָיו הָֽאֱלֹהִים: בִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ שֵׁם אֱלֹהוּת וְאַדְנוּת בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, כְּמוֹ אֲדֹנֵי יוֹסֵף (שם ל"ט), אִם בְּעָלָיו עִמּוֹ (שמות כ'), וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר בַּעֲלוֹ, וְכֵן אֱלֹהוּת שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן שׁוֹפֵט וּמָרוּת נִזְכָּר בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, אֲבָל אֶחָד מִכָּל שְׁאָר הַשֵּׁמוֹת לֹא תִמְצָא בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים:
8And Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, died, and she was buried beneath Beth el, beneath the plain; so he named it Allon Bachuth.   חוַתָּ֤מָת דְּבֹרָה֙ מֵינֶ֣קֶת רִבְקָ֔ה וַתִּקָּבֵ֛ר מִתַּ֥חַת לְבֵֽית־אֵ֖ל תַּ֣חַת הָֽאַלּ֑וֹן וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ אַלּ֥וֹן בָּכֽוּת:
And Deborah…died: What connection does Deborah have with Jacob’s household? However, since Rebecca said to Jacob, “and I will send and take you from there” (above 27:45), [it was] Deborah [whom] she sent to him, to Padan-aram [to instruct him] to leave from there, and she died on the way. I learned this from the words of Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi, p. 113]   וַתָּמָת דבורה: מָה עִנְיַן דְּבוֹרָה בְּבֵית יַעֲקֹב? אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁאָמְרָה רִבְקָה לְיַעֲקֹב וְשָׁלַחְתִּי וּלְקַחְתִּיךָ מִשָּׁם, שָׁלְחָה דְבוֹרָה אֶצְלוֹ לְפַדַּן אֲרָם לָצֵאת מִשָּׁם, וּמֵתָה בַדֶּרֶךְ; מִדִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן לְמַדְתִּיהָ:
beneath Beth-el: The city was situated on a mountain, and she was buried at the foot of the mountain.   מִתַּחַת לְבֵֽית־אֵל: הָעִיר יוֹשֶׁבֶת בָּהָר וְנִקְבְּרָה בְּרַגְלֵי הָהָר:
beneath the plain: [Onkelos renders:] at the bottom of the plain, for there was a plain above, on the incline of the mountain, and the grave was below, and the plain of Beth-el was called Allon. The Aggadah [tells us that] he was informed there of another mourning, for he was told about his mother, who died (Gen. Rabbah 81:5), and Allon in Greek means “another.” For the following reason, the day of her death was concealed, viz. so that people should not curse the womb whence Esau had emerged. Therefore, neither did Scripture publicize it.   תַּחַת הָֽאַלּוֹן: בְּשִׁפּוּלֵי מֵישְׁרָא, שֶׁהָיָה מִישׁוֹר מִלְמַעְלָה בְּשִׁפּוּעַ הָהָר וְהַקְּבוּרָה מִלְּמַטָּה, וּמִישׁוֹר שֶׁל בֵּית אֵל הָיוּ קוֹרִין לוֹ אַלּוֹן. וְאַגָּדָה, נִתְבַּשֵּׂר שָׁם בְּאֵבֶל שֵׁנִי, שֶׁהֻגַּד לוֹ עַל אִמּוֹ שֶׁמֵּתָה (בראשית רבה), וְאַלּוֹן בִּלְשׁוֹן יְוָנִי אַחֵר, וּלְפִי שֶׁהֶעֱלִימוּ אֶת יוֹם מוֹתָהּ שֶׁלֹּא יְקַלְּלוּ הַבְּרִיּוֹת כֶּרֶס שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ עֵשָׂו, אַף הַכָּתוּב לֹא פִרְסְמָהּ:
9And God appeared again to Jacob when he came from Padan aram, and He blessed him.   טוַיֵּרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹב֙ ע֔וֹד בְּבֹא֖וֹ מִפַּדַּ֣ן אֲרָ֑ם וַיְבָ֖רֶךְ אֹתֽוֹ:
again: The second time in this place: once when he went away and once when he returned.   עוֹד: פַּעַם שֵׁנִי בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, אֶחָד בְּלֶכְתּוֹ וְאֶחָד בְּשׁוּבוֹ:
and He blessed him: [with] the blessing of [the consolation bestowed upon] mourners. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:3]   וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתֽוֹ: בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים (בראשית רבה):
10God said to him, "Your name is Jacob. Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name." And He named him Israel.   יוַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים שִׁמְךָ֣ יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵא֩ שִׁמְךָ֨ ע֜וֹד יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב כִּ֤י אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה שְׁמֶ֔ךָ וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Your name shall no longer be called Jacob: Heb. יַעִקֹב, an expression of a man who comes with stealth and guile (עָקְבָה), but [יִשְׂרָאֵל], a term denoting a prince (שַׂר) and a chief. — [from Zohar vol. 1, 1712, vol. 3, 45a, and Chullin 92a]   לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵא שִׁמְךָ עוֹד יַֽעֲקֹב: לְשׁוֹן אָדָם הַבָּא בְּמַאֲרָב וְעָקְבָּה, אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן שַׂר וְנָגִיד:
11And God said to him, "I am the Almighty God; be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a multitude of nations shall come into existence from you, and kings shall come forth from your loins.   יאוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ ל֨וֹ אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֲנִ֨י אֵ֤ל שַׁדַּי֙ פְּרֵ֣ה וּרְבֵ֔ה גּ֛וֹי וּקְהַ֥ל גּוֹיִ֖ם יִֽהְיֶ֣ה מִמֶּ֑ךָּ וּמְלָכִ֖ים מֵֽחֲלָצֶ֥יךָ יֵצֵֽאוּ:
I am the Almighty God: Heb. שַׁדַּי. For I have the power (כְּדַי) to bless, because the blessings are Mine.   אֲנִי אֵל שַׁדַּי: שֶׁאֲנִי כְדַי לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁהַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁלִּי:
be fruitful and multiply: [God bestowed this blessing upon Jacob] because Benjamin was not yet born, although (Rachel) was already pregnant with him.   פְּרֵה וּרְבֵה: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נוֹלַד בִּנְיָמִין, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְעַבְּרָה מִמֶּנּוּ:
a nation: Benjamin. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:4]   גּוֹי: בִּנְיָמִין:
nations: Manasseh and Ephraim, who were destined to emanate from Joseph, and [were counted] in the number of the tribes. — [from Gen. Rabbah loc. cit.]   גּוֹיִם: מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם, שֶׁעֲתִידִים לָצֵאת מִיּוֹסֵף, וְהֵם בְּמִנְיַן הַשְּׁבָטִים (בראשית רבה):
and kings: Saul and Ishbosheth, who were of the tribe of Benjamin, who had not yet been born. (Abner interpreted this verse [in this sense] when he crowned Ishbosheth, and the tribes too interpreted it [in this sense] and became friendly again with Benjamin, as it is written: “No man from us shall give his daughter to Benjamin for a wife” (Jud. 21:1)-they retracted this and said, “Were he (Benjamin) not to be counted among the tribes, the Holy One, blessed be He, would not have said to Jacob, ‘and kings shall come forth from your loins.’”) [Old Rashi manuscript from Tanchuma Buber Vayishlach 29]   וּמְלָכִים: שָׁאוּל וְאִישׁ בֹּשֶׁת, שֶׁהָיוּ מִשֵּׁבֶט בִּנְיָמִין (בראשית רבה), שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נוֹלְדוּ (וּפָסוּק זֶה דְּרָשׁוֹ אַבְנֵר כְּשֶׁהִמְלִיךְ אִישׁ בֹּשֶׁת, וְאַף הַשְּׁבָטִים דְּרָשׁוּהוּ וְקֵרְבוּ בִּנְיָמִין, דִּכְתִיב אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא יִתֵּן אֶת בִּתּוֹ לְבִנְיָמִן לְאִשָּׁה (שופטים כ"א), וְחָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ אִלְמָלֵא הָיָה עוֹלֶה מִן הַשְּׁבָטִים לֹא הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר לְיַעֲקֹב וּמְלָכִים מֵחֲלָצֶיךָ יֵצֵאוּ:
a nation and a multitude of nations: This means that his children are destined to be like [the foreign] nations, according to the number of the nations, who are the seventy nations. Likewise, the entire Sanhedrin is [composed of] seventy [members. When Jacob and his household migrated to Egypt, they numbered seventy, as it is stated in Gen. 46:27]. Another explanation: This means that his sons are destined to offer up sacrifices at the time of the prohibition of the high places, just as the gentile nations [did] in the days of Elijah. — [Old Rashi manuscript from Gen. Rabbah 82:5]   גּוֹי וּקְהַל גּוֹיִם: שֶׁגּוֹיִם עֲתִידִים בָּנָיו לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כְּמִנְיַן הַגּוֹיִם, שֶׁהֵם ע' אֻמּוֹת, וְכֵן כָּל הַסַּנְהֶדְרִין שִׁבְעִים; דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁעֲתִידִים בָּנָיו לְהַקְרִיב אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת כַּגּוֹיִם בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ):

Sixth Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 35

12And the land that I gave to Abraham and to Isaac, I will give to you and to your seed after you will I give the land."   יבוְאֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֛תִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם וּלְיִצְחָ֖ק לְךָ֣ אֶתְּנֶ֑נָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֥ אַֽחֲרֶ֖יךָ אֶתֵּ֥ן אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
13And God went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him.   יגוַיַּ֥עַל מֵֽעָלָ֖יו אֱלֹהִ֑ים בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ:
14Now Jacob had erected a monument in the place where He had spoken with him, a stone monument, and he poured a libation upon it, and [then] he poured oil upon it.   ידוַיַּצֵּ֨ב יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב מַצֵּבָ֗ה בַּמָּק֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ מַצֶּ֣בֶת אָ֑בֶן וַיַּסֵּ֤ךְ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ נֶ֔סֶךְ וַיִּצֹ֥ק עָלֶ֖יהָ שָֽׁמֶן:
in the place where He had spoken with him: I do not know what this teaches us.   בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אִתּוֹ: אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה מְּלַמְּדֵנוּ:
15Jacob named the place where God had spoken with him Beth el.   טווַיִּקְרָ֨א יַֽעֲקֹ֜ב אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבֶּ֨ר אִתּ֥וֹ שָׁ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בֵּֽית־אֵֽל:
16And they journeyed from Beth el, and there was still some distance to come to Ephrath, and Rachel gave birth, and her labor was difficult.   טזוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית אֵ֔ל וַֽיְהִי־ע֥וֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָ֖רֶץ לָב֣וֹא אֶפְרָ֑תָה וַתֵּ֥לֶד רָחֵ֖ל וַתְּקַ֥שׁ בְּלִדְתָּֽהּ:
some distance: Heb. הָאָרֶץ כִּבְרַת. Menachem (Machbereth Menachem p. 102) explained [כִּבְרַת] as an expression of כַּבָּיר, meaning “much” -in this case, a long distance. The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 82:7) explains it as: during the time [when] the ground is riddled like a sieve, when plowed fields are common, when the winter has passed, and the heat has not yet come. This, however, is not the simple meaning of the verse, for we find concerning Na’aman, “and he went some distance (כִּבְרַת אָרֶץ) from him” (II Kings 5:19). I therefore believe that it is the name of a land measure, like the distance of a parasang or more. Just as you say [in measuring an area], “yokes of a vineyard (צִמְדֵי כֶּרֶם)” (Isa. 5:10),“ a plot of land (חֶלְקַת הַשָׂדֶה)” (above 33: 19), so with a man’s journey (land approximately the journey of a mil), one calls the measure כִּבְרַת אָרֶץ.   כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ: מְנַחֵם פֵּרֵשׁ לְשׁוֹן כַּבִּיר, רִבּוּי, מַהֲלָךְ רַב. וְאַגָּדָה, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָאָרֶץ חֲלוּלָה וּמְנֻקֶּבֶת כִּכְבָרָה (בראשית רבה), שֶׁהַנִּיר מָצוּי, הַסְּתָו עָבַר וְהַשָּׁרָב עֲדַיִן לֹא בָא (שם ז), וְאֵין זֶה פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּנַעֲמָן מָצִינוּ וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאִתּוֹ כִּבְרַת אָרֶץ (מלכים ב ה'). וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם מִדַּת קַרְקַע, כְּמוֹ מַהֲלַךְ פַּרְסָה אוֹ יוֹתֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר צֶמֶד כֶּרֶם (ישעיהו ה'), חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה (בראשית ל"ג), כָּךְ בְּמַהֲלַךְ אָדָם נוֹתֵן שֵׁם מִדָּה כִּבְרַת אֶרֶץ:
17It came to pass when she had such difficulty giving birth, that the midwife said to her, "Do not be afraid, for this one, too, is a son for you."   יזוַיְהִ֥י בְהַקְשֹׁתָ֖הּ בְּלִדְתָּ֑הּ וַתֹּ֨אמֶר לָ֤הּ הַֽמְיַלֶּ֨דֶת֙ אַל־תִּ֣ירְאִ֔י כִּֽי־גַם־זֶ֥ה לָ֖ךְ בֵּֽן:
for this one, too, is: Added to Joseph for you. Our Sages interpreted [גַם as intimating that] with each tribe a twin sister was born, and with Benjamin, an extra twin sister was born. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:8]   כִּֽי־גַם־זֶה: נוֹסַף לְךָ עַל יוֹסֵף; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ: עִם כָּל שֵׁבֶט נוֹלְדָה תְּאוֹמָה, וְעִם בִּנְיָמִין נוֹלְדָה תְאוֹמָה יְתֵרָה:
18And it came to pass, when her soul departed for she died that she named him Ben oni, but his father called him Benjamin.   יחוַיְהִ֞י בְּצֵ֤את נַפְשָׁהּ֙ כִּ֣י מֵ֔תָה וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בֶּן־אוֹנִ֑י וְאָבִ֖יו קָֽרָא־ל֥וֹ בִנְיָמִֽין:
Ben-oni: The son of my pain.   בֶּן־אוֹנִי: בֶּן צַעֲרִי:
Benjamin: It seems to me that since he was the only one who was born in the land of Canaan, which is in the South for a person [who is] coming from [the direction of] Aram-naharaim, as it is said: “in the South, in the land of Canaan” (Num. 33: 40); “continually traveling southward” (Gen. 12:9).   בִנְיָמִֽין: נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לְבַדּוֹ נוֹלַד בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן שֶׁהוּא בַּנֶּגֶב כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא מֵאֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּנֶּגֶב בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן (במדבר ל"ג), הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ הַנֶּגְבָּה (בראשית י"ב):
Benjamin: The son of the South, an expression of “North and South (וְיָמִין) You created them” (Ps. 89:13). For this reason, it is [written here] plene, [with a “yud” after the “mem”]. (Another explanation: Benjamin means “the son of days” (בֶּן יָמִים), because he was born in his (Jacob’s) old age, and it is spelled with a “nun” like“at the end of the days (הַיָמִין)” (Dan. 12:13).   בִנְיָמִֽין: בֶּן יָמִין, לְשׁוֹן צָפוֹן וְיָמִין אַתָּה בְרָאתָם (תהילים פ"ט), לְפִיכָךְ הוּא מָלֵא:
19So Rachel died, and she was buried on the road to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem.   יטוַתָּ֖מָת רָחֵ֑ל וַתִּקָּבֵר֙ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ אֶפְרָ֔תָה הִ֖וא בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם:
20And Jacob erected a monument on her grave; that is the tombstone of Rachel until this day.   כוַיַּצֵּ֧ב יַֽעֲקֹ֛ב מַצֵּבָ֖ה עַל־קְבֻֽרָתָ֑הּ הִ֛וא מַצֶּ֥בֶת קְבֻֽרַת־רָחֵ֖ל עַד־הַיּֽוֹם:
21Israel journeyed, and he pitched his tent at some distance past the Tower of Eder.   כאוַיִּסַּ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֣ט אָֽהֳלֹ֔ה מֵהָ֖לְאָה לְמִגְדַּל־עֵֽדֶר:
22And it came to pass when Israel sojourned in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father's concubine, and Israel heard [of it], and so, the sons of Jacob were twelve.   כבוַיְהִ֗י בִּשְׁכֹּ֤ן יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַהִ֔וא וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ רְאוּבֵ֔ן וַיִּשְׁכַּ֕ב֙ אֶת־בִּלְהָ֖ה֙ פִּילֶ֣גֶשׁ אָבִ֑֔יו וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵֽ֑ל פ וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ בְנֵי־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב שְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָֽׂר:
when Israel sojourned in that land: Before he came to Hebron, to Isaac, all these [incidents] befell him.   בִּשְׁכֹּן יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָרֶץ ההיא: עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָא לְחֶבְרוֹן אֵצֶל יִצְחָק אֵרְעוּהוּ כָל אֵלֶּה:
and lay: Since he (Reuben) disarranged his (Jacob’s) bed, Scripture considers it as if he had lain with her. Now why did he disarrange and profane his bed? [It was] because when Rachel died, Jacob took his bed, which had been regularly placed in Rachel’s tent and not in the other tents, and moved it into Bilhah’s tent. Reuben came and protested his mother’s humiliation. He said,“If my mother’s sister was a rival to my mother, should my mother’s sister’s handmaid [now also] be a rival to my mother?” For this reason, he disarranged it. — [from Shab. 55b]   וַיִּשְׁכַּב: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁבִּלְבֵּל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ שְׁכָבָהּ; וְלָמָּה בִלְבֵּל וְחִלֵּל יְצוּעָיו? שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֵּתָה רָחֵל נָטַל יַעֲקֹב מִטָּתוֹ, שֶׁהָיְתָה נְתוּנָה תָּדִיר בְּאֹהֶל רָחֵל וְלֹא בִּשְׁאָר אֹהָלִים, וּנְתָנָהּ בְּאֹהֶל בִּלְהָה; בָּא רְאוּבֵן וְתָבַע עֶלְבּוֹן אִמּוֹ, אָמַר אִם אֲחוֹת אִמִּי הָיְתָה צָרָה לְאִמִּי, שִׁפְחַת אֲחוֹת אִמִּי תְּהֵא צָרָה לְאִמִּי? לְכָךְ בִּלְבֵּל (שבת נ"ה):
and so, the sons of Jacob were twelve: [Scripture] commences with the previous topic (i.e. the birth of Benjamin). When Benjamin was born, the marriage bed (i.e. the destined number of sons) was completed, and from then on, it was proper that they be counted, and [so] it (Scripture) counted them. Our Sages, however, interpreted that these words are intended to teach us that all of them (Jacob’s sons) were equal, and all of them were righteous, for Reuben had not sinned. — [from Shab. 55b]   וַיִּֽהְיוּ בְנֵי־יַֽעֲקֹב שְׁנֵים עָשָֽׂר: מַתְחִיל לְעִנְיָן רִאשׁוֹן, מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד בִּנְיָמִין נִשְׁלְמָה הַמִּטָּה וּמֵעַתָּה רְאוּיִים לְהִמָּנוֹת, וּמְנָאָן; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ, לְלַמְּדֵנוּ בָא, שֶׁכֻּלָּן שָׁוִין וְכֻלָּן צַדִּיקִים, שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא רְאוּבֵן:
23The sons of Leah [were] Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.   כגבְּנֵ֣י לֵאָ֔ה בְּכ֥וֹר יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב רְאוּבֵ֑ן וְשִׁמְעוֹן֙ וְלֵוִ֣י וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר וּזְבֻלֽוּן:
Jacob’s firstborn: Even at the time of [Reuben’s] error, [Scripture] calls him the firstborn [with all its honors]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:11]   בְּכוֹר יַֽעֲקֹב: אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַקַּלְקָלָה קְרָאוֹ בְּכוֹר:
Jacob’s firstborn: Firstborn in regard to inheritance, firstborn to perform the service, firstborn regarding the counting (when the names of the tribes were enumerated, he was always counted first.) The birthright was given to Joseph only in respect to the tribes, in that he founded two tribes (Ephraim and Manasseh).   בְּכוֹר יַֽעֲקֹב: בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה, בְּכוֹר לָעֲבוֹדָה, בְּכוֹר לְמִנְיָן, וְלֹא נִתְּנָה בְכוֹרָה לְיוֹסֵף אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן הַשְּׁבָטִים – שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לִשְׁנֵי שְׁבָטִים:
24The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin.   כדבְּנֵ֣י רָחֵ֔ל יוֹסֵ֖ף וּבִנְיָמִֽן:
25The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maidservant: Dan and Naphtali.   כהוּבְנֵ֤י בִלְהָה֙ שִׁפְחַ֣ת רָחֵ֔ל דָּ֖ן וְנַפְתָּלִֽי:
26The sons of Zilpah, Leah's maidservant: Gad and Asher. These are Jacob's sons who were born to him in Padan aram.   כווּבְנֵ֥י זִלְפָּ֛ה שִׁפְחַ֥ת לֵאָ֖ה גָּ֣ד וְאָשֵׁ֑ר אֵ֚לֶּה בְּנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֻלַּד־ל֖וֹ בְּפַדַּ֥ן אֲרָֽם:
27And Jacob came to his father Isaac, to Mamre, Kiriath arba, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac dwelt.   כזוַיָּבֹ֤א יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֔יו מַמְרֵ֖א קִרְיַ֣ת הָֽאַרְבַּ֑ע הִ֣וא חֶבְר֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־גָּֽר־שָׁ֥ם אַבְרָהָ֖ם וְיִצְחָֽק:
Mamre: The name of the plain.   מַמְרֵא: שֵׁם הַמִּישׁוֹר:
Kiriath-arba: The name of the city. [Therefore,] מַמְרֵא קִרְיַת הָאַרְבָּע means “the plain of Kiriath-arba.” If you say that it should have been written: מַמְרֵא הַקִרְיַת אַרְבָּע, [the answer is that] this is biblical style. In every case of a compound name such as this (קִרְיַת הָאַרְבָּע), and such as בֵּית-לֶחֶם, אִבִי עֶזֶר, בֵּית-אֵל, when a “hey” needs to be added, it is prefixed to the second word: “the Bethlehemite (בֵּיתהַלַחְמִי)” (I Sam. 16:1); “in Ophrah of the Abiezrites (אַבִי הָעֶזְרִי)” (Jud. 6:24); “Hiel the Bethelite (בֵּית-הָאֱלִי) built” (I Kings 16:34).   קִרְיַת הָֽאַרְבַּע: שֵׁם הָעִיר מַמְרֵא קִרְיַת הָֽאַרְבַּע אֶל מִישׁוֹר שֶׁל קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע. וְאִם תֹּאמַר הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתּוֹב מַמְרֵא הַקִּרְיַת אַרְבַּע? כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָא בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ כָּפוּל, כְּגוֹן זֶה, וּכְגוֹן בֵּית לֶחֶם, אֲבִי עֶזֶר, בֵּית אֵל, אִם הֻצְרַךְ לְהַטִּיל בּוֹ הֵ"א, נוֹתְנָהּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַתֵּבָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה – בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי (שמואל א ט"ז), בְּעָפְרָת אֲבִי הָעֶזְרִי (שופטים ו'), בָּנָה חִיאֵל בֵּית הָאֱלִי (מלכים א ט"ז):
28The days of Isaac were a hundred and eighty years.   כחוַיִּֽהְי֖וּ יְמֵ֣י יִצְחָ֑ק מְאַ֥ת שָׁנָ֖ה וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה:
29And Isaac expired and died and was gathered in to his peoples, old and sated with days, and his sons, Esau and Jacob, buried him.   כטוַיִּגְוַ֨ע יִצְחָ֤ק וַיָּ֨מָת֙ וַיֵּאָ֣סֶף אֶל־עַמָּ֔יו זָקֵ֖ן וּשְׂבַ֣ע יָמִ֑ים וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ עֵשָׂ֥ו וְיַֽעֲקֹ֖ב בָּנָֽיו:
And Isaac expired: There is no order of earlier and later events (chronological order) in the [narrative of] Torah. The selling of Joseph [actually] preceded Isaac’s demise by 12 years, for when Jacob was born, Isaac was 60 years old, and Isaac died in Jacob’s 120th year, for it is stated: “and Isaac was sixty years old” (Gen. 25:26)-if you subtract 60 from 180 [Isaac’s age at his death], you have 120 left. Joseph was 17 years old when he was sold, and that year was Jacob’s 108th year. How so? He was blessed at the age of 63 [as Rashi explains Gen. 28: 9], for 14 years he hid in the academy of Eber, totaling 77. He worked 14 years for a wife, and at the end of the 14 years, Joseph was born, as it is said: “Now it came to pass when Rachel had borne Joseph, etc.” (Gen. 30:25). The total is 91. [Add to this] the 17 [years] until Joseph was sold, and it totals 108. (Moreover, it is explicit that from when Joseph was sold until Jacob came to Egypt, 22 years had passed, as it is said: “And Joseph was thirty years old, etc.” (Gen. 41:46), and the seven years of plenty and two years of [the] famine [had elapsed before Jacob’s arrival.] This totals 22. And it is written: “The days of the years of my sojournings are one hundred thirty years” (Gen. 47:9). [Since Jacob arrived in Egypt at age 130, 22 years after Joseph had been sold,] it follows that Jacob was 108 when he (Joseph) was sold.) [from Seder Olam, ch. 2]   וַיִּגְוַע יִצְחָק: אֵין מֻקְדָּם וּמְאֻחָר בַּתּוֹרָה; מְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף קָדְמָה לְמִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק י"ב שָׁנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד יַעֲקֹב הָיָה יִצְחָק בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְיִצְחָק בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְגוֹ', וְיִצְחָק מֵת בִּשְׁנַת ק"כ לְיַעֲקֹב – אִם תּוֹצִיא שִׁשִּׁים מִמֵּאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה נִשְׁאֲרוּ ק"כ – וְיוֹסֵף נִמְכַּר בֶּן י"ז שָׁנָה, וְאוֹתָהּ שָׁנָה שְׁנַת מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנֶה לְיַעֲקֹב, כֵּיצַד? בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים וְשָׁלוֹשׁ נִתְבָּרֵךְ, אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה נִטְמַן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים וְשֶׁבַע, וְאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה עָבַד בְּאִשָּׁה, וּבְסוֹף אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה נוֹלַד יוֹסֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה רָחֵל אֶת יוֹסֵף וְגוֹ', הֲרֵי תִּשְׁעִים וְאַחַת, וְי"ז עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִמְכַּר יוֹסֵף, הֲרֵי מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנֶה (עוֹד מְפֹרָשׁ מִן הַמִּקְרָא מִשֶּׁנִּמְכַּר יוֹסֵף עַד שֶׁבָּא יַעֲקֹב מִצְרַיִמָה כ"ב שָׁנָה שֶׁנֶּ', וְיוֹסֵף בֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְגוֹ', וְז' שָׁנִים שָׂבָע וּשְׁנָתַיִם רָעָב, הֲרֵי כ"ב, וּכְתִיב יְמֵי שְׁנֵי מְגוּרַי שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה, נִמְצָא יַעֲקֹב בִּמְכִירָתוֹ ק"ח):

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 36

1And these are the generations of Esau, that is, Edom.   אוְאֵ֛לֶּה תֹּֽלְד֥וֹת עֵשָׂ֖ו ה֥וּא אֱדֽוֹם:
2Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite; and Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon the Hivvite;   בעֵשָׂ֛ו לָקַ֥ח אֶת־נָשָׁ֖יו מִבְּנ֣וֹת כְּנָ֑עַן אֶת־עָדָ֗ה בַּת־אֵילוֹן֙ הַֽחִתִּ֔י וְאֶת־אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ בַּת־עֲנָ֔ה בַּת־צִבְע֖וֹן הַֽחִוִּֽי:
Adah daughter of Elon: This is [actually] Basemath the daughter of Elon (mentioned above 26:34). She was called Basemath because she burnt incense (בְּשָׂמִים) to idols.   עָדָה בַּת־אֵילוֹן: הִיא בָּשְׂמַת בַּת אֵילוֹן, וְנִקְרֵאת בָּשְׂמַת עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיְתָה מְקַטֶּרֶת בְּשָׂמִים לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:
Oholibamah: She is [identical to] Judith (mentioned above 26:34). He (Esau) nicknamed her Judith (יְהוּדִית) to imply that she denied the validity of idolatry, so that he might deceive his father.   אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה: הִיא יְהוּדִית, וְהוּא כִנָּה שְׁמָהּ יְהוּדִית לוֹמַר שֶׁהִיא כּוֹפֶרֶת בְּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה כְּדֵי לְהַטְעוֹת אֶת אָבִיו:
daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon: If she was the daughter of Anah, she could not have been the daughter of Zibeon: Anah was the son of Zibeon, as it is said: “And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah” (below verse 24). [This] teaches [us] that Zibeon was intimate with his daughter-in-law, the wife of Anah, and Oholibamah emerged from between them both [i.e., from Zibeon and Anah]. Scripture teaches us that they were all mamzerim (illegitimate), products of adultery and incest. — [from Tanchuma Vayeshev 1]   בַּת־עֲנָה בַּת־צִבְעוֹן: אִם בַּת עֲנָה לֹא בַּת צִבְעוֹן? עֲנָה בְּנוֹ שֶׁל צִבְעוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאֵלֶּה בְנֵי צִבְעוֹן וְאַיָּה וַעֲנָה? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבָּא צִבְעוֹן עַל כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת עֲנָה, וְיָצְאָה אָהֳלִיבָמָה מִבֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם, וְהוֹדִיעֲךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁכֻּלָּן בְּנֵי מַמְזֵרוּת הָיוּ:
3also Basemath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.   גוְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַ֥ת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל אֲח֥וֹת נְבָיֽוֹת:
Basemath, daughter of Ishmael: Elsewhere [Scripture] calls her Mahalath (above 28:9). I found in the Aggadah of the midrash on the Book of Samuel (ch. 17): There are three people whose iniquities are forgiven (מוֹחֲלִים): One who converts to Judaism, one who is promoted to a high position, and one who marries. The proof [of the last one] is derived from here (28:9). For this reason she was called Mahalath (מָחֲלַת), because his (Esau’s) sins were forgiven (נְמְחֲלוּ).   בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל: וּלְהַלָּן קוֹרֵא לָהּ מָחֲלַת? מָצִינוּ בְּאַגָּדַת מִדְרַשׁ סֵפֶר שְׁמוּאֵל ג' מוֹחֲלִים לָהֶן עֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן, גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר, וְהָעוֹלֶה לִגְדֻלָּה, וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה. וְלָמַד הַטַּעַם מִכָּאן – לְכָךְ נִקְרֵאת מָחֲלַת, שֶׁנִּמְחֲלוּ עֲוֹנוֹתָיו:
sister of Nebaioth: Since he (Nebaioth) gave her hand in marriage after Ishmael died, she was referred to by his name. — [from Meg. 17a]   אֲחוֹת נְבָיֽוֹת: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהוּא הִשִּׂיאָהּ לוֹ מִשֶּׁמֵּת יִשְׁמָעֵאל נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ:
4Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau and Basemath bore Reuel.   דוַתֵּ֧לֶד עָדָ֛ה לְעֵשָׂ֖ו אֶת־אֱלִיפָ֑ז וּבָ֣שְׂמַ֔ת יָלְדָ֖ה אֶת־רְעוּאֵֽל:
5Oholibamah bore Jeush and Jalam and Korah; these are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.   הוְאָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ יָֽלְדָ֔ה אֶת־יְע֥וּשׁ (כתיב את־יעיש) וְאֶת־יַעְלָ֖ם וְאֶת־קֹ֑רַח אֵ֚לֶּה בְּנֵ֣י עֵשָׂ֔ו אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֻלְּדוּ־ל֖וֹ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
Oholibamah bore…and Korah: This Korah was illegitimate. He was the son of Eliphaz, who had been intimate with his father’s wife, Oholibamah, the wife of Esau. This is evidenced by the fact that he [Korah] is [also] listed among the chieftains of Eliphaz at the end of this chapter. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:12]   וְאָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה יָֽלְדָה וגו': קֹרַח זֶה מַמְזֵר הָיָה, וּבֶן אֱלִיפַז הָיָה, שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו, אֶל אָהֳלִיבָמָה אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מָנוּי עִם אַלּוּפֵי אֱלִיפַז בְּסוֹף הָעִנְיָן (בראשית רבה):
6And Esau took his wives, his sons, and his daughters and all the people of his household, and his cattle and all his animals and all his property that he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and he went to a[nother] land, because of his brother Jacob.   ווַיִּקַּ֣ח עֵשָׂ֡ו אֶת־נָ֠שָׁ֠יו וְאֶת־בָּנָ֣יו וְאֶת־בְּנֹתָיו֘ וְאֶת־כָּל־נַפְשׁ֣וֹת בֵּיתוֹ֒ וְאֶת־מִקְנֵ֣הוּ וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּהֶמְתּ֗וֹ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־קִנְיָנ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר רָכַ֖שׁ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֶל־אֶ֔רֶץ מִפְּנֵ֖י יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב אָחִֽיו:
and he went to a[nother] land: to dwell wherever he would find.   וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֶרֶץ: לָגוּר בַּאֲשֶׁר יִמְצָא:
7For their possessions were too numerous for them to dwell together, and the land of their sojournings could not support them because of their livestock.   זכִּֽי־הָיָ֧ה רְכוּשָׁ֛ם רָ֖ב מִשֶּׁ֣בֶת יַחְדָּ֑ו וְלֹ֨א יָֽכְלָ֜ה אֶ֤רֶץ מְגֽוּרֵיהֶם֙ לָשֵׂ֣את אֹתָ֔ם מִפְּנֵ֖י מִקְנֵיהֶֽם:
and the land of their sojournings could not: provide [sufficient] pasture for their animals. The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 82:13), however, explains “because of his brother Jacob,” [as follows:] Because of the note of obligation of the decree: “that your seed will be strangers” (Gen. 15: 13), which was put upon the descendants of Isaac. He (Esau) said, “I will get out of here. I have neither a share in the gift-for the land has been given to him-nor in the payment of the debt.” [He left] also on account of the shame that [he felt because] he had sold his birthright. — [from Gen. Rabbah 82:13]   וְלֹא יָֽכְלָה אֶרֶץ מְגֽוּרֵיהֶם: לְהַסְפִּיק מִרְעֶה לַבְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם (ב"ר). וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה מִפְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב אָחִיו מִפְּנֵי שְׁטַר חוֹב שֶׁל גְּזֵרַת "כִּי גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ" הַמֻּטָּל עַל זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק, אָמַר אֵלֵךְ לִי מִכָּאן, אֵין לִי חֵלֶק לֹא בַּמַּתָּנָה, שֶׁנִּתְּנָה לוֹ הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת, וְלֹא בְּפִרְעוֹן הַשְּׁטָר, וּמִפְּנֵי הַבּוּשָׁה שֶׁמָּכַר בְּכוֹרָתוֹ:
8So Esau dwelt on Mount Seir Esau, that is Edom.   חוַיֵּ֤שֶׁב עֵשָׂו֙ בְּהַ֣ר שֵׂעִ֔יר עֵשָׂ֖ו ה֥וּא אֱדֽוֹם:
9And these are the generations of Esau the progenitor of Edom, on Mount Seir.   טוְאֵ֛לֶּה תֹּֽלְד֥וֹת עֵשָׂ֖ו אֲבִ֣י אֱד֑וֹם בְּהַ֖ר שֵׂעִֽיר:
And these are: the generations that his sons begot after he went to Seir.   וְאֵלֶּה: הַתּוֹלָדוֹת שֶׁהוֹלִידוּ בָנָיו עַכְשָׁו מִשֶּׁהָלַךְ לְשֵׂעִיר:
10These are the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz, son of Adah, the wife of Esau, Reuel, son of Basemath, the wife of Esau.   יאֵ֖לֶּה שְׁמ֣וֹת בְּנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֑ו אֱלִיפַ֗ז בֶּן־עָדָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת עֵשָׂ֔ו רְעוּאֵ֕ל בֶּן־בָּשְׂמַ֖ת אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
11The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gaatam, and Kenaz.   יאוַיִּֽהְי֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י אֱלִיפָ֑ז תֵּימָ֣ן אוֹמָ֔ר צְפ֥וֹ וְגַעְתָּ֖ם וּקְנַֽז:
12And Timna was a concubine to Eliphaz, son of Esau, and she bore to Eliphaz, Amalek. These are the sons of Adah, the wife of Esau.   יבוְתִמְנַ֣ע | הָֽיְתָ֣ה פִילֶ֗גֶשׁ לֶֽאֱלִיפַז֙ בֶּן־עֵשָׂ֔ו וַתֵּ֥לֶד לֶאֱלִיפַ֖ז אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק אֵ֕לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י עָדָ֖ה אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
And Timna was a concubine: [This passage is here] to proclaim the greatness of Abraham-how much [people] longed to attach themselves to his descendants. This Timna was a daughter of chieftains, as it is said: “and the sister of Lotan was Timna” (below verse 22). Lotan was one of the chieftains of the inhabitants of Seir, from the Horites, who had dwelt there before. She said, “I may not be worthy of marrying you, but if only I could be [your] concubine” (Gen. Rabbah 82:14). In (I) Chronicles (1:36) [the Chronicler] enumerates her among the children of Eliphaz [here she is counted as the daughter of Seir the Horite, and the concubine of Eliphaz]. This teaches [us] that he (Eliphaz) was intimate with the wife of Seir, and Timna emerged from between them (Seir’s wife and Eliphaz), and when she grew up, she became his (Eliphaz’s) concubine. That is the meaning of “and the sister of Lotan was Timna.” [Scripture] did not count her with the sons of Seir, because she was his (Lotan’s) sister through his mother but not through his father. — [from Tanchuma Vayeshev 1]   וְתִמְנַע הָֽיְתָה פִילֶגֶשׁ: לְהוֹדִיעַ גְּדֻלָּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם, כַּמָּה הָיוּ תְאֵבִים לִדַּבֵּק בְּזַרְעוֹ. תִּמְנַע זוֹ בַּת אַלּוּפִים הָיְתָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַאֲחוֹת לוֹטָן תִּמְנָע, וְלוֹטָן מֵאַלּוּפֵי יוֹשְׁבֵי שֵׂעִיר הָיָה מִן הַחוֹרִים שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בָהּ לְפָנִים, אָמְרָה אֵינִי זוֹכָה לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְךָ, הַלְוַאי וְאֶהְיֶה פִּילֶגֶשׁ. וּבְדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים מוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּבָנָיו שֶׁל אֱלִיפַז, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל שֵׂעִיר וְיָצְאָה תִּמְנָע מִבֵּינֵיהֶם, וּכְשֶׁגָּדְלָה נַעֲשֵׂית פִּילַגְשׁוֹ, וְזֶהוּ וַאֲחוֹת לוֹטָן תִּמְנָע, וְלֹא מְנָאָהּ עִם בְּנֵי שֵׂעִיר שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲחוֹתוֹ מִן הָאֵם וְלֹא מִן הָאָב:
13And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These are the sons of Basemath, the wife of Esau.   יגוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ בְּנֵ֣י רְעוּאֵ֔ל נַ֥חַת וָזֶ֖רַח שַׁמָּ֣ה וּמִזָּ֑ה אֵ֣לֶּה הָי֔וּ בְּנֵ֥י בָשְׂמַ֖ת אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
14And these are the sons of Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, the wife of Esau; she bore to Esau: Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah.   ידוְאֵ֣לֶּה הָי֗וּ בְּנֵ֨י אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֧ה בַת־עֲנָ֛ה בַּת־צִבְע֖וֹן אֵ֣שֶׁת עֵשָׂ֑ו וַתֵּ֣לֶד לְעֵשָׂ֔ו אֶת־יְע֥וּשׁ (כתיב את־יעיש) וְאֶת־יַעְלָ֖ם וְאֶת־קֹֽרַח:
15These became the chieftains of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz, Esau's firstborn: Chief Teman, Chief Omar, Chief Zepho, Chief Kenaz,   טואֵ֖לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֑ו בְּנֵ֤י אֱלִיפַז֙ בְּכ֣וֹר עֵשָׂ֔ו אַלּ֤וּף תֵּימָן֙ אַלּ֣וּף אוֹמָ֔ר אַלּ֥וּף צְפ֖וֹ אַלּ֥וּף קְנַֽז:
These became the chieftains of the sons of Esau: The heads of the clans.   אֵלֶּה אַלּוּפֵי בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂו: רָאשֵׁי מִשְׁפָּחוֹת:
16Chief Korah, Chief Gaatam, Chief Amalek. These are the chieftains of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah.   טזאַלּ֥וּף קֹ֛רַח אַלּ֥וּף גַּעְתָּ֖ם אַלּ֣וּף עֲמָלֵ֑ק אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֤י אֱלִיפַז֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֱד֔וֹם אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י עָדָֽה:
17And these are the sons of Reuel the son of Esau: Chief Nahath, Chief Zerah, Chief Shammah, and Chief Mizzah. These are the chieftains of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Basemath, the wife of Esau.   יזוְאֵ֗לֶּה בְּנֵ֤י רְעוּאֵל֙ בֶּן־עֵשָׂ֔ו אַלּ֥וּף נַ֨חַת֙ אַלּ֣וּף זֶ֔רַח אַלּ֥וּף שַׁמָּ֖ה אַלּ֣וּף מִזָּ֑ה אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֤י רְעוּאֵל֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֱד֔וֹם אֵ֕לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י בָֽשְׂמַ֖ת אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
18And these are the sons of Oholibamah, the wife of Esau: Chief Jeush, Chief Jaalam, Chief Korah. These are the chieftains of Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, the wife of Esau.   יחוְאֵ֗לֶּה בְּנֵ֤י אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת עֵשָׂ֔ו אַלּ֥וּף יְע֛וּשׁ אַלּ֥וּף יַעְלָ֖ם אַלּ֣וּף קֹ֑רַח אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֞י אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֛ה בַּת־עֲנָ֖ה אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו:
19These are the sons of Esau and these are their chieftains, he is Edom.   יטאֵ֧לֶּה בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֛ו וְאֵ֥לֶּה אַלּֽוּפֵיהֶ֖ם ה֥וּא אֱדֽוֹם:

Seventh Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 36

20These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, and Anah;   כאֵ֤לֶּה בְנֵֽי־שֵׂעִיר֙ הַֽחֹרִ֔י יֽשְׁבֵ֖י הָאָ֑רֶץ לוֹטָ֥ן וְשׁוֹבָ֖ל וְצִבְע֥וֹן וַֽעֲנָֽה:
the inhabitants of the land: They were its inhabitants before Esau came there. Our Rabbis explain [that they were called, “inhabitants of the land”] (Shab. 85a) because they were skilled in making the land habitable. [They would say,] “The length of this [measuring] stick is [good] for [planting] olives; the length of this [measuring] stick is [good] for [planting] grapevines,” for they would taste [the soil] and know what was suitable to plant in it.   יֽשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ: שֶׁהָיוּ יוֹשְׁבֶיהָ קֹדֶם שֶׁבָּא עֵשָׂו לְשָׁם. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ (שבת פ"ה) שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקִיאִין בְּיִשּׁוּבָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ; מְלֹא קָנֶה זֶה לְזֵיתִים, מְלֹא קָנֶה זֶה לִגְפָנִים, שֶׁהָיוּ טוֹעֲמִין הֶעָפָר וְיוֹדְעִין אֵי זוֹ נְטִיעָה רְאוּיָה לוֹ:
21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These are the chieftains of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom.   כאוְדִשׁ֥וֹן וְאֵ֖צֶר וְדִישָׁ֑ן אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֧י הַֽחֹרִ֛י בְּנֵ֥י שֵׂעִ֖יר בְּאֶ֥רֶץ אֱדֽוֹם:
22The sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam, and the sister of Lotan was Timna.   כבוַיִּֽהְי֥וּ בְנֵֽי־לוֹטָ֖ן חֹרִ֣י וְהֵימָ֑ם וַֽאֲח֥וֹת לוֹטָ֖ן תִּמְנָֽע:
23And these are the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho and Onam.   כגוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ בְּנֵ֣י שׁוֹבָ֔ל עַלְוָ֥ן וּמָנַ֖חַת וְעֵיבָ֑ל שְׁפ֖וֹ וְאוֹנָֽם:
24And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah he is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness when he pastured the donkeys for his father Zibeon.   כדוְאֵ֥לֶּה בְנֵֽי־צִבְע֖וֹן וְאַיָּ֣ה וַֽעֲנָ֑ה ה֣וּא עֲנָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר מָצָ֤א אֶת־הַיֵּמִם֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר בִּרְעֹת֥וֹ אֶת־הַֽחֲמֹרִ֖ים לְצִבְע֥וֹן אָבִֽיו:
Aiah and Anah: Heb. וִעִנָה וְאַיָה. The “vav” is superfluous. It is equivalent to וְאַיָה וִעִנָה. There are many [such instances] in the Scriptures, [e.g.] “permitting the Sanctuary (תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ) and the host to be trampled” (Dan. 8:13); “chariot and horse were stunned (נִרְדָּם וְרֶכֶב וָסוּס)” (Ps. 76:7).   וְאַיָּה וַֽעֲנָה: וָי"ו יְתֵרָה, וְהוּא כְּמוֹ אַיָּה וַעֲנָה, וְהַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ בַּמִּקְרָא, תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס (דניאל ח'), נִרְדָּם וְרֶכֶב וָסוּס (תהילים ע"ו):
he is Anah: Who is mentioned above (verse 20) to be the brother of Zibeon, but here [Scripture] calls him his son. This teaches us that Zibeon was intimate with his mother, and fathered Anah. — [from Pes. 54a]   הוּא עֲנָה: הָאָמוּר לְמַעְלָה שֶׁהוּא אָחִיו שֶׁל צִבְעוֹן וְכָאן הוּא קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בְּנוֹ? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבָּא צִבְעוֹן עַל אִמּוֹ וְהוֹלִיד אֶת עֲנָה:
who found the mules in the wilderness: Heb. הַיֵמִם, mules. He mated a donkey with a mare (female horse), and it gave birth to a mule. He (Anah) was illegitimate, and he brought illegitimate offspring into the world (Gen. Rabbah 82:15). Why were they called יֵמִם (signifying “dreaded beings”)? Because their dread (אֵימָתָן) was cast upon people; Rabbi Hanina said, “In all my days no one has ever recovered from a wound from a white female mule.” (But we see that [those bitten by white female mules] do live. Do not read: “who has lived (וְהָיָה) ,” but “that was healed (וְחָיתָה) ,” because [such a] wound will never heal. — [from an old Rashi manuscript]) It was unnecessary to list the genealogy of the Horites except to mention Timna, and thereby inform us of the greatness of Abraham, as I explained above (verse 12). [from Chullin 7b]   אֶת־הַיֵּמִם: פְּרָדִים, הִרְבִּיעַ חֲמוֹר עַל סוּס נְקֵבָה וְיָלְדָה פֶּרֶד, וְהוּא הָיָה מַמְזֵר וְהֵבִיא פְסוּלִין לָעוֹלָם; וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָם יֵמִים? שֶׁאֵימָתָן מֻטֶּלֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא מִיָּמַי לֹא שְׁאָלַנִי אָדָם עַל מַכַּת פִּרְדָּה לְבָנָה וְחָיָה (חולין ז') (וַהֲלֹא קָא חֲזִינָן דְּחָיָה? אַל תִּקְרֵי וְחָיָה אֶלָּא וְחָיְתָה, כִּי הַמַּכָּה לֹא תֵּרָפֵא לְעוֹלָם, בְרַשִׁ"י יָשָׁן) וְלֹא הֻזְקַק לִכְתֹּב לָנוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַחוֹרִי אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי תִּמְנָע, וּלְהוֹדִיעַ גְּדֻלַּת אַבְרָהָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי לְמַעְלָה:
25And these are the sons of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.   כהוְאֵ֥לֶּה בְנֵֽי־עֲנָ֖ה דִּשֹׁ֑ן וְאָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֖ה בַּת־עֲנָֽה:
26And these are the sons of Dishan: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.   כווְאֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֣י דִישָׁ֑ן חֶמְדָּ֥ן וְאֶשְׁבָּ֖ן וְיִתְרָ֥ן וּכְרָֽן:
27These are the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.   כזאֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵי־אֵ֑צֶר בִּלְהָ֥ן וְזַעֲוָ֖ן וַֽעֲקָֽן:
28These are the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.   כחאֵ֥לֶּה בְנֵֽי־דִישָׁ֖ן ע֥וּץ וַֽאֲרָֽן:
29These are the chieftains of the Horites: Chief Lotan, Chief Shobal, Chief Zibeon, Chief Anah,   כטאֵ֖לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֣י הַֽחֹרִ֑י אַלּ֤וּף לוֹטָן֙ אַלּ֣וּף שׁוֹבָ֔ל אַלּ֥וּף צִבְע֖וֹן אַלּ֥וּף עֲנָֽה:
30Chief Dishon, Chief Ezer, and Chief Dishan; these are the chieftains of the Horites according to their chieftains in the land of Seir.   לאַלּ֥וּף דִּשֹׁ֛ן אַלּ֥וּף אֵ֖צֶר אַלּ֣וּף דִּישָׁ֑ן אֵ֣לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֧י הַֽחֹרִ֛י לְאַלֻּֽפֵיהֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ שֵׂעִֽיר:
31And these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel:   לאוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ הַמְּלָכִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר מָלְכ֖וּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֱד֑וֹם לִפְנֵ֥י מְלָךְ־מֶ֖לֶךְ לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And these are the kings, etc.: They were eight, and, corresponding to them, Jacob set up [eight kings] and nullified the kingdom of Esau during their time. They are the following (kings): Saul, Ish-bosheth, David, Solomon, Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, and Jehoshaphat. During the days of his (Jehoshaphat’s) son Joram, however, it is written: “In his days, Edom revolted from under the power of Judah, and they appointed a king over themselves” (II Kings 8:20), [whereas] during Saul’s days it is written: “There was no king in Edom; a governor was king” (I Kings 22:48). [from Gen. Rabbah 83:2]   וְאֵלֶּה הַמְּלָכִים וגו': שְׁמוֹנָה הָיוּ וּכְנֶגְדָּן הֶעֱמִיד יַעֲקֹב וּבִטֵּל מַלְכוּת עֵשָׂו בִּימֵיהֶם, אֵלּוּ הֵן, שָׁאוּל וְאִישׁ בֹּשֶׁת, דָּוִד וּשְׁלֹמֹה, רְחַבְעָם, אֲבִיָּה, אָסָא, יְהוֹשָׁפָט; וּבִימֵי יוֹרָם בְּנוֹ כָּתוּב בְּיָמָיו פָּשַׁע אֱדוֹם מִתַּחַת יַד יְהוּדָה וַיַּמְלִכוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מֶלֶךְ (מלכים ב ח'), וּבִימֵי שָׁאוּל כָּתוּב וּמֶלֶךְ אֵין בֶּאֱדוֹם נִצָּב מֶלֶךְ (מלכים א כ"ב):
32Bela, son of Beor reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.   לבוַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ בֶּֽאֱד֔וֹם בֶּ֖לַע בֶּן־בְּע֑וֹר וְשֵׁ֥ם עִיר֖וֹ דִּנְהָֽבָה:
33Bela died, and Jobab, son of Zerah of Bozrah, reigned in his stead.   לגוַיָּ֖מָת בָּ֑לַע וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו יוֹבָ֥ב בֶּן־זֶ֖רַח מִבָּצְרָֽה:
Jobab, son of Zerah of Bozrah: Bozrah was [one] of the Moabite cities, as it is said: “And to Kerioth and to Bozrah, etc.” (Jer. 48:24). Since it (Bozrah) appointed a king for Edom, it is destined to be punished with them (the Edomites), as it is said: “for the Lord has a slaughter in Bozrah” (Isa. 34:6). [from Gen. Rabbah 83:3]   יוֹבָב בֶּן־זֶרַח מִבָּצְרָֽה: בָּצְרָה מֵעָרֵי מוֹאָב הִיא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְעַל קְרִיּוֹת וְעַל בָּצְרָה וגו' (ירמיהו מ"ח); וּלְפִי שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה מֶלֶךְ לֶאֱדוֹם, עֲתִידָה לִלְקוֹת עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כִּי זֶבַח לַה' בְּבָצְרָה (ישעיהו ל"ד):
34And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his stead.   לדוַיָּ֖מָת יוֹבָ֑ב וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו חֻשָׁ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ הַתֵּֽימָנִֽי:
35Husham died, and Hadad, son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead. The name of his city was Avith.   להוַיָּ֖מָת חֻשָׁ֑ם וַיִּמְלֹ֨ךְ תַּחְתָּ֜יו הֲדַ֣ד בֶּן־בְּדַ֗ד הַמַּכֶּ֤ה אֶת־מִדְיָן֙ בִּשְׂדֵ֣ה מוֹאָ֔ב וְשֵׁ֥ם עִיר֖וֹ עֲוִֽית:
who defeated Moab in the field of Midian: For Midian came against Moab to wage war, and the king of Edom went to aid Moab. From here we learn that Midian and Moab were quarreling with one another, and in the days of Balaam they made peace, [in order] to band together against Israel. — [from Tanchuma Balak 3]   הַמַּכֶּה אֶת־מִדְיָן בִּשְׂדֵה מוֹאָב: שֶׁבָּאוּ מִדְיָן עַל מוֹאָב לַמִּלְחָמָה, וְהָלַךְ מֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם לַעֲזֹר אֶת מוֹאָב; וּמִכָּאן אָנוּ לְמֵדִים, שֶׁהָיוּ מִדְיָן וּמוֹאָב מְרִיבִים זֶה עִם זֶה, וּבִימֵי בִלְעָם עָשׂוּ שָׁלוֹם לְהִתְקַשֵּׁר עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
36Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.   לווַיָּ֖מָת הֲדָ֑ד וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו שַׂמְלָ֖ה מִמַּשְׂרֵקָֽה:
37Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.   לזוַיָּ֖מָת שַׂמְלָ֑ה וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו שָׁא֖וּל מֵֽרְחֹב֥וֹת הַנָּהָֽר:
38Saul died, and Baal Hanan, son of Achbor, reigned in his stead.   לחוַיָּ֖מָת שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו בַּ֥עַל חָנָ֖ן בֶּן־עַכְבּֽוֹר:
39Baal Hanan, son of Achbor died, and Hadar reigned in his stead. The name of his city was Pau; his wife's name was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me zahab.   לטוַיָּ֘מָת֘ בַּ֣עַל חָנָ֣ן בֶּן־עַכְבּוֹר֒ וַיִּמְלֹ֤ךְ תַּחְתָּיו֙ הֲדַ֔ר וְשֵׁ֥ם עִיר֖וֹ פָּ֑עוּ וְשֵׁ֨ם אִשְׁתּ֤וֹ מְהֵֽיטַבְאֵל֙ בַּת־מַטְרֵ֔ד בַּ֖ת מֵ֥י זָהָֽב:
the daughter of Me-zahab: [מִי זָהָב denotes:] What is gold? He was rich, and gold was of no importance to him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 83:4]   בַּת־מֵי זָהָֽב: מַהוּ זָהָב? עָשִׁיר הָיָה, וְאֵין זָהָב חָשׁוּב בְּעֵינָיו לִכְלוּם:
40And these are the names of the chieftains of Esau, according to their clans, according to their places, by their names: Chief Timna, Chief Alvah, Chief Jetheth;   מוְאֵ֠לֶּה שְׁמ֞וֹת אַלּוּפֵ֤י עֵשָׂו֙ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֔ם לִמְקֹֽמֹתָ֖ם בִּשְׁמֹתָ֑ם אַלּ֥וּף תִּמְנָ֛ע אַלּ֥וּף עַלְוָ֖ה אַלּ֥וּף יְתֵֽת:
And these are the names of the chieftains of Esau: who were called by the names of their provinces after Hadar died and their kingdom had ceased. The first ones mentioned above (verses 15-19) are the names of their generations, and so it is delineated in (I Chronicles 1: 51): And Hadar [sic] died, and the chiefs of Edom were Chief Timna, etc."   וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת אַלּוּפֵי עֵשָׂו: שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מְדִינוֹתֵיהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁמֵּת הֲדַר וּפָסְקָה מֵהֶם מַלְכוּת, וְהָרִאשׁוֹנִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְמַעְלָה הֵם שְׁמוֹת תּוֹלְדוֹתָם; וְכֵן מְפֹרָשׁ בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וַיָּמָת הֲדָד וַיִּהְיוּ אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם אַלּוּף תִּמְנָע וְגוֹמֵר:
41Chief Oholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinon,   מאאַלּ֧וּף אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֛ה אַלּ֥וּף אֵלָ֖ה אַלּ֥וּף פִּינֹֽן:
42Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar,   מבאַלּ֥וּף קְנַ֛ז אַלּ֥וּף תֵּימָ֖ן אַלּ֥וּף מִבְצָֽר:
43Chief Magdiel, Chief Iram. These are the chieftains of Edom according to their dwelling places in the land of their possession. That is Esau, progenitor of the Edomites.   מגאַלּ֥וּף מַגְדִּיאֵ֖ל אַלּ֣וּף עִירָ֑ם אֵ֣לֶּה | אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֗וֹם לְמֽשְׁבֹתָם֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֲחֻזָּתָ֔ם ה֥וּא עֵשָׂ֖ו אֲבִ֥י אֱדֽוֹם:
Magdiel: This is Rome. — [From Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 38]   מַגְדִּיאֵל: הִיא רוֹמִי:

Maftir Portion

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 36

40And these are the names of the chieftains of Esau, according to their clans, according to their places, by their names: Chief Timna, Chief Alvah, Chief Jetheth;   מוְאֵ֠לֶּה שְׁמ֞וֹת אַלּוּפֵ֤י עֵשָׂו֙ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֔ם לִמְקֹֽמֹתָ֖ם בִּשְׁמֹתָ֑ם אַלּ֥וּף תִּמְנָ֛ע אַלּ֥וּף עַלְוָ֖ה אַלּ֥וּף יְתֵֽת:
And these are the names of the chieftains of Esau: who were called by the names of their provinces after Hadar died and their kingdom had ceased. The first ones mentioned above (verses 15-19) are the names of their generations, and so it is delineated in (I Chronicles 1: 51): And Hadar [sic] died, and the chiefs of Edom were Chief Timna, etc."   וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת אַלּוּפֵי עֵשָׂו: שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מְדִינוֹתֵיהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁמֵּת הֲדַר וּפָסְקָה מֵהֶם מַלְכוּת, וְהָרִאשׁוֹנִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְמַעְלָה הֵם שְׁמוֹת תּוֹלְדוֹתָם; וְכֵן מְפֹרָשׁ בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וַיָּמָת הֲדָד וַיִּהְיוּ אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם אַלּוּף תִּמְנָע וְגוֹמֵר:
41Chief Oholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinon,   מאאַלּ֧וּף אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֛ה אַלּ֥וּף אֵלָ֖ה אַלּ֥וּף פִּינֹֽן:
42Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar,   מבאַלּ֥וּף קְנַ֛ז אַלּ֥וּף תֵּימָ֖ן אַלּ֥וּף מִבְצָֽר:
43Chief Magdiel, Chief Iram. These are the chieftains of Edom according to their dwelling places in the land of their possession. That is Esau, progenitor of the Edomites.   מגאַלּ֥וּף מַגְדִּיאֵ֖ל אַלּ֣וּף עִירָ֑ם אֵ֣לֶּה | אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֗וֹם לְמֽשְׁבֹתָם֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֲחֻזָּתָ֔ם ה֥וּא עֵשָׂ֖ו אֲבִ֥י אֱדֽוֹם:
Magdiel: This is Rome. — [From Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 38]   מַגְדִּיאֵל: הִיא רוֹמִי:


Ovadiah (Obadiah) Chapter 1

1The vision of Obadiah; So said the Lord God concerning Edom; We have heard tidings from the Lord, and a messenger has been sent among the nations, "Arise and let us rise up against them in war!"   א חֲז֖וֹן עֹֽבַדְיָ֑ה כֹּֽה־אָמַר֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י יֱהֹוִ֜ה לֶֽאֱד֗וֹם שְׁמוּעָ֨ה שָׁמַ֜עְנוּ מֵאֵ֚ת יְהֹוָה֙ וְצִיר֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֣ם שֻׁלָּ֔ח ק֛וּמוּ וְנָק֥וּמָה עָלֶ֖יהָ לַמִּלְחָמָֽה:
The vision of Obadiah: Why is Obadiah different that he was chosen to prophesy concerning Edom and did not prophesy any other prophecy? Our Sages of blessed memory stated: Obadiah was an Edomite proselyte. Said the Holy One, blessed be He: From them and in them will I bring upon them. Let Obadiah, who dwelt between two wicked people, Ahab and Jezebel, and did not learn from their deeds, come and impose retribution upon Esau, who dwelt between two righteous people, Isaac and Rebecca, and did not learn from their deeds. [from Sanhedrin 39b]   חזון עובדיה: מאי שנא עובדיה לאדום ולא ניבא נבואה אחרת אמרו חכמי' עובדיה גר אדומי היה אמר הקב"ה מהם ובהם אביא עליהם יבא עובדיה שדר בין שני רשעים אחאב ואיזבל ולא למד ממעשיהם ויפרע מעשו הרשע שדר בין שני צדיקים יצחק ורבק' ולא למד ממעשיה':
2Behold I have made you small among the nations; you are very despised.   בהִנֵּ֥ה קָטֹ֛ן נְתַתִּ֖יךָ בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם בָּז֥וּי אַתָּ֖ה מְאֹֽד:
Behold I have made you small: In contrast with what his father called him, his big son, and his mother called him her big son, the Holy One, blessed be He, says: In My eyes, he is small (Pesikta d’Rav Kahana p. 56; Pesikta Rabbathi, ed. Meir Ish Shalom p. 79a; Pesikta Rabbathi ed. Warsaw p. 144; Gen. Rabbah 65:11). And our Sages (Avodah Zarah 10a) expounded: small for they have neither script nor language. [from Avodah Zarah 10a]   הנה קטן נתתיך: כלפי שקראו אביו בנו הגדול ואמו בנה הגדול אמר הקב"ה לפני קטן הוא רבותינו דרשו קטן שלא היה להם לא כתב ולא לשון:
despised: That they did not crown a king the son of a king.   בזוי: שלא היו מעמידין מלך בן מלך:
3The wickedness of your heart enticed you, who dwell in the clefts of the rock, whose habitation is high, who says to himself, "Who will bring me down to the earth?"   גזְד֚וֹן לִבְּךָ֙ הִשִּׁיאֶ֔ךָ שֹֽׁכְנִ֥י בְחַגְוֵי־סֶ֖לַע מְר֣וֹם שִׁבְתּ֑וֹ אֹמֵ֣ר בְּלִבּ֔וֹ מִ֥י יֽוֹרִידֵ֖נִי אָֽרֶץ:
who dwell in the clefts of the rock: Who relies on the support of his ancestors, Abraham and Isaac, but they shall not avail him.   שוכני בחגוי סלע: סומך על משענת אבותיו אברהם ויצחק והם לא יועילו לו:
the clefts: Heb. חַגְוֵי. Cf. (Isa. 19:17) “And the land of Judah shall be to Egypt for a dread (לְחָגָּא),” frayteyne [or fraite] in O.F., a cleft of a rock. And do not wonder about the “vav” of (Gen. 21:16) “like a shot (כִּמְטַחֲוֵי);” in which there is no radical in the word but the “teth” and the “heth.”   חגוי: כמו (ישעיה יט) והיתה אדמת יהודה למצרים לחגא ברייטיינ"א בלעז ואל תתמה על וי"ו של חגוי שהיא כוי"ו של קצוי (תהלים סה) וכוי"ו של כמטחוי (בראשית כא) שאין יסוד בתיבה אלא טי"ת וחי"ת:
4If you go up high like an eagle, and if you place your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down, says the Lord.   דאִם־תַּגְבִּ֣יהַּ כַּנֶּ֔שֶׁר וְאִם־בֵּ֥ין כּֽוֹכָבִ֖ים שִׂ֣ים קִנֶּ֑ךָ מִשָּׁ֥ם אוֹרִֽידְךָ֖ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
5Did thieves come upon you, did plunderers of the night? How were you silent? Will they not steal till they have enough? If vintagers came upon you, would they not leave over some gleaning grapes?   האִם־גַּנָּבִ֚ים בָּא֚וּ לְךָ֙ אִם־שׁ֣וֹדְדֵי לַ֔יְלָה אֵ֣יךְ נִדְמֵ֔יתָה הֲל֥וֹא יִגְנְב֖וּ דַּיָּ֑ם אִם־בֹּֽצְרִים֙ בָּ֣אוּ לָ֔ךְ הֲל֖וֹא יַשְׁאִ֥ירוּ עֹֽלֵלֽוֹת:
come upon you: Heb. בָּאוּ לְךָ, lit., came to you.   באו לך: עליך:
How were you silent?: Why were you sleeping soundly and still until they stole all they desired?   איך נדמיתה: למה נרדמתה דומם עד שגנבו כל רצונם:
would (the vintagers) not leave over some gleaning grapes?: But these will not leave you anything, for they will search and reveal and seek out your hidden things.   הלא בוצרים ישאירו עוללות: ואלה לא ישאירו לך כלום כי יחפשוך ויגלו וידרשו מצפוניך:
6How Esau was searched out, how his hidden things were revealed!   ואֵיךְ נֶחְפְּשׂ֣וּ עֵשָׂ֔ו נִבְע֖וּ מַצְפֻּנָֽיו:
were revealed: Heb. נִבְעוּ. Jonathan rendered: were revealed, and it is an Aramaic expression: נִבְעוּ means “sought out.” Cf. (Isa. 21:12) “If you will request, request (אִם תִּבְעָיוּן בְּעָיוּ).”   נבעו: תרגום יונתן איתגליין ולשון ארמית נבעו נתבקשו וכן אם תבעיון בעיו (ישעיהו כ״א:י״ב):
7Until the border all your allies escorted you; your friends enticed you, yea prevailed against you; your food they lay as a wound under you; there is no discernment in them.   זעַד־הַגְּב֣וּל שִׁלְּח֗וּךָ כֹּל אַנְשֵׁ֣י בְרִיתֶ֔ךָ הִשִּׁיא֛וּךָ יָֽכְל֥וּ לְךָ֖ אַנְשֵׁ֣י שְׁלֹמֶ֑ךָ לַחְמְךָ֗ יָשִׂ֚ימוּ מָזוֹר֙ תַּחְתֶּ֔יךָ אֵ֥ין תְּבוּנָ֖ה בּֽוֹ:
Until the border… escorted you: Those who promised to aid you, came with you and escorted you to the border of your land, to the boundary, whence they came upon you in war, and with this they enticed you and succeeded.   עד הגבול שלחוך: אותם שהבטיחוך לעזרה באו עמך ולווך עד גבול ארצך עד הספר ששם באו עליך למלחמה ובזאת השיאוך והצליחו:
they prevailed against you: to entice you to leave, and they deserted you.   יכלו לך: לפתותך לצאת ושבו מאחריך:
your food they lay as a wound under you: Even your food your brother Jacob made for you as a wound, for he gave you bread and a pottage of lentils, and thereby you despised the birthright.   לחמך ישימו מזור תחתיך: אף מאכלך שם לך אחיך יעקב למזור שנתן לך לחם ונזיד עדשים ועל ידו בזית הבכורה:
wound: Heb. מָזוֹר.   מזור: חולי:
8Shall I not in that day-says the Lord-destroy wise men from Edom and discernment from the mountain of Esau?   חהֲל֛וֹא בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא נְאֻם יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהַֽאֲבַדְתִּ֚י חֲכָמִים֙ מֵֽאֱד֔וֹם וּתְבוּנָ֖ה מֵהַ֥ר עֵשָֽׂו:
9And your mighty men shall be dismayed, O dwellers of the southland, in order that every man be cut off from the mountain of Esau by slaughter.   טוְחַתּ֥וּ גִבּוֹרֶ֖יךָ תֵּימָ֑ן לְמַ֧עַן יִכָּֽרֶת־אִ֛ישׁ מֵהַ֥ר עֵשָׂ֖ו מִקָּֽטֶל:
And your mighty men shall be dismayed: They shall be dismayed and frightened to flee to the land of Israel [Malbim: to the land of Edom]. And Jonathan rendered: And your mighty men shall be dismayed, dwellers of the southland.   וחתו גבוריך תימן: יחתו ויפחדו לנוס אל ארץ ישמעאל וי"ת ויתברון גברך יתבי ארעא דרומא:
in order that every man be cut off: I.e, every mighty man. [from Targum Jonathan]   למען יכרת: כל איש גבור:
from the mountain of Esau by slaughter: By the great slaughter that will come upon them.   מהר עשו מקטל: מרוב הרג שיבא עליכם:
10Because of the violence of your brother Jacob, shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.   ימֵֽחֲמַ֛ס אָחִ֥יךָ יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב תְּכַסְּךָ֣ בוּשָׁ֑ה וְנִכְרַ֖תָּ לְעוֹלָֽם:
Because of the violence of your brother Jacob: Because of the violence you inflicted upon Jacob.   מחמס אחיך יעקב: בשביל חמס שעשית ליעקב:
11On that day you stood from afar, on the day strangers captured his possessions, and foreigners came into his cities, and on Jerusalem they cast lots; you, too, are like one of them.   יאבְּיוֹם֙ עֲמָֽדְךָ֣ מִנֶּ֔גֶד בְּי֛וֹם שְׁב֥וֹת זָרִ֖ים חֵיל֑וֹ וְנָכְרִ֞ים בָּ֣אוּ שְׁעָרָ֗יו (כתיב שְׁעָרָ֗ו) וְעַל־יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ יַדּ֣וּ גוֹרָ֔ל גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה כְּאַחַ֥ד מֵהֶֽם:
On the day you stood from afar: that you did not come to aid him.   ביום עמדך מנגד: שלא באת לעזור לו:
you, too, are like one of them: I account it for you as though you were one of their attackers.   גם אתה כאחד מהם: אעלה אני עליך כאילו אתה מן הבאים עליהם:
12And you should not have looked on the day of your brother on the day of his being delivered, and you should not have rejoiced about the children of Judah on the day of their destruction, and you should not have spoken proudly on the day of distress.   יבוְאַל־תֵּ֚רֶא בְיֽוֹם־אָחִ֙יךָ֙ בְּי֣וֹם נָכְר֔וֹ וְאַל־תִּשְׂמַ֥ח לִבְנֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּי֣וֹם אָבְדָ֑ם וְאַל־תַּגְדֵּ֥ל פִּ֖יךָ בְּי֥וֹם צָרָֽה:
And you should not have looked on the day of your brother: You should not have looked and stood from afar.   ואל תרא ביום אחיך: לא היה לך (להביט) ולעמוד מנגד:
on the day of his being delivered: Heb. נָכְרוֹ. On the day of his being delivered into the hands of the heathens. And so does Scripture state concerning Saul: (I Sam. 23:7)נִכַּר אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים בְּיָדְי”, “He has delivered him into my hand.”   ביום נכרו: ביום הסגירו ביד אויב הוא הבבליים וכן הוא אומר בשאול (שמואל א כ״ג:ז׳) נכר אותו אלהים בידי הסגיר אותו בידי:
13You should not have come into the gate of My people on the day of their misfortune; you too should not have looked at their affliction on the day of their misfortune, and you should not have stretched out [your hand] upon their possessions on the day of their misfortune.   יגאַל־תָּב֚וֹא בְשַֽׁעַר־עַמִּי֙ בְּי֣וֹם אֵידָ֔ם אַל־תֵּ֧רֶא גַם־אַתָּ֛ה בְּרָֽעָת֖וֹ בְּי֣וֹם אֵיד֑וֹ וְאַל־תִּשְׁלַ֥חְנָה בְחֵיל֖וֹ בְּי֥וֹם אֵידֽוֹ:
and you should not have stretched out upon their possessions: You should not have stretched out your hand upon their possessions. So did Jonathan render. And this is an ellipsis, to which we must add: “your hands.”   ואל תשלחנה בחילו: אל תשלחנה ידך בנכסיו כן תרגם יונתן ומקרא קצר הוא וצריך להוסיף עליו ידך:
14And you should not have stood by the gap to cut off their fugitives, neither should you have delivered their survivors on the day of distress.   ידוְאַל־תַּֽעֲמֹד֙ עַל־הַפֶּ֔רֶק לְהַכְרִ֖ית אֶת־פְּלִיטָ֑יו וְאַל־תַּסְגֵּ֥ר שְׂרִידָ֖יו בְּי֥וֹם צָרָֽה:
And you should not have stood by the gap: Heb. הַפֶּרֶק. The place through which the escapees emerge to escape, and in French they call it “trou.”   ואל תעמוד על הפרק: מקום שהבורחים יוצאים דרך שם לימלט ובלשון לע"ז קוראים אותו טרו"ג:
And you should not have stood by the gap: From here [we learn] that one may not interrupt between one paragraph and another in reading the “Shema.” [Haggadah of Rabbi Akiva]   (אל תעמוד על הפרק: מכאן שאסור להפסיק בק"ש בין פרק לפרק הג"ה דר"ע):
15For the day of the Lord over all the nations is close; as you have done shall be done to you; your recompense shall be returned upon your head.   טוכִּֽי־קָר֥וֹב יֽוֹם־יְהֹוָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֚ר עָשִׂ֙יתָ֙ יֵעָ֣שֶׂה לָּ֔ךְ גְּמֻֽלְךָ֖ יָשׁ֥וּב בְּרֹאשֶֽׁךָ:
16For, as you drank on My Holy Mount, shall all the nations drink constantly, and they shall drink and be stunned, and they shall be as though they were not.   טזכִּ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֚ר שְׁתִיתֶם֙ עַל־הַ֣ר קָדְשִׁ֔י יִשְׁתּ֥וּ כָל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם תָּמִ֑יד וְשָׁת֣וּ וְלָע֔וּ וְהָי֖וּ כְּל֥וֹא הָיֽוּ:
For, as you drank on My Holy Mount: Just as you rejoiced concerning the destruction of My Holy Mount. [from Jonathan]   כאשר שתיתם על הר קדשי: כמה דחדיתון על מחת טורא דקודשי:
and be stunned: Heb. יְלָעוּ. As the Targum renders: וְיִסְתַּלְעֲמוּן, an expression of confusion, amazement, and benumbing the mind; etourdissant in French-stunning.   ולעו: כתרגומו ויסתלעמון ל' מהומה ושממון וטירוף דעת אישטורדישו"ן בלע"ז:
17And on Mount Zion there shall be a remnant, and it shall be holy, and the house of Jacob shall inherit those who inherited them.   יזוּבְהַ֥ר צִיּ֛וֹן תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה פְלֵיטָ֖ה וְהָ֣יָה קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְיָֽרְשׁוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֵ֖ת מוֹרָֽשֵׁיהֶֽם:
those who inherited them: The possessions of the people who inherited them. [from Targum Jonathan]   את מורשיהם: נכסי עממיא דהוו מחסנין להון:
18And the house of Jacob shall be fire and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau shall become stubble, and they shall ignite them and consume them, and the house of Esau shall have no survivors, for the Lord has spoken.   יחוְהָיָה֩ בֵֽית־יַֽעֲקֹ֨ב אֵ֜שׁ וּבֵ֧ית יוֹסֵ֣ף לֶֽהָבָ֗ה וּבֵ֚ית עֵשָׂו֙ לְקַ֔שׁ וְדָֽלְק֥וּ בָהֶ֖ם וַֽאֲכָל֑וּם וְלֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶ֚ה שָׂרִיד֙ לְבֵ֣ית עֵשָׂ֔ו כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר:
for the Lord has spoken: Now where did He speak? (Num. 24:19) “Out of Jacob shall come a ruler, and he shall destroy him that remains in the city.” [from Mechilta Bo 12:16, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch.37]   כי ה' דבר: והיכן דבר (במדבר כ״ד:י״ט) וירד מיעקב והאביד שריד וגו':
19And [the inhabitants of] the southland shall inherit the mountain of Esau, and [the inhabitants of] the plain, the Philistines, and they shall inherit the field of Ephraim and the field of Samaria, and Benjamin [with the inhabitants of] Gilead.   יטוְיָֽרְשׁ֨וּ הַנֶּ֜גֶב אֶת־הַ֣ר עֵשָׂ֗ו וְהַשְּׁפֵלָה֙ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְיָֽרְשׁוּ֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְאֵ֖ת שְׂדֵ֣ה שֹֽׁמְר֑וֹן וּבִנְיָמִ֖ן אֶת־הַגִּלְעָֽד:
And [the inhabitants of] the southland shall inherit: Israel, who were dwelling in the south of Eretz Israel, shall inherit the mountain of Esau, which is at the southern boundary; and the people of the plain shall inherit the land of the Philistines and Mt. Ephraim and Mt. Shomeron.   וירשו הנגב: ישראל שהיו יושבין בדרומה של ארץ ישראל ירשו את הר עשו שהוא במצר דרום ובני השפלה ירשו את ארץ פלשתים ואת הר אפרים ואת הר שומרון:
and Benjamin with [the inhabitants of] Gilead: And the children of Manasseh, whose territory was the land of Gilead, shall spread beyond the borders of Eretz Israel on the east.   ובנימין את הגלעד: ובני מנשה שהיתה ארץ גלעד שלהם יפשטו להם מהלאה לגבולותיה של ארץ ישראל במזרחה:
20And this exiled host of the children of Israel who are [with] the Canaanites as far as Zarephath and the exile of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad shall inherit the cities of the southland.   כוְגָלֻ֣ת הַֽחֵל־הַ֠זֶּה לִבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֚ל אֲשֶֽׁר־כְּנַֽעֲנִים֙ עַד־צָ֣רְפַ֔ת וְגָלֻ֥ת יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּסְפָרַ֑ד יִֽרְשׁ֕וּ אֵ֖ת עָרֵ֥י הַנֶּֽגֶב:
And this exiled host: Heb. הַחֵל. Jonathan renders: This people. הַחֵל, An expression of a host. Cf. (Isa. 36:2) “And he came (sic) to Jerusalem with an army (חֵיל) of a great multitude,” which deals with Rabshakeh, only that this one is missing a “yud.” It is also possible to explain גָלֻת הַחֵל as “the exile of this valley.”   וגלות החל הזה: תרגם יונתן עמא הדין, החל לשון חיל כמו (ישעיהו ל״ו:ב׳) ויבא ירושלמה בחיל כבד דרבשקה אלא שזה חסר יו"ד ויש עוד לפרש החל הזה גלות הגיא הזה:
who are [with] the Canaanites as far as Zarephath: The exile which is of the children of Israel who were exiled from the ten tribes to the land of the Canaanites as far as Zarephath   לבני ישראל אשר כנענים עד צרפת: גלות אשר הוא מבני ישראל שגלו מעשרת השבטים לארץ כנענים עד צרפת:
and the exile of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad: who are of the people of Judah who were exiled to Sepharad - they shall inherit the cities of the southland, which are in the southern part of Eretz Israel. The exegetes claim that Zarephath is the kingdom called France in French.   וגלות ירושלים אשר בספרד: שהם מבני יהודה אשר גלו לספרד הם ירשו את ערי הנגב שבדרומה של ארץ ישראל. ואומרי' הפותרים צרפת הוא המלכות שקורין פרנצ"א בלע"ז:
Sepharad: Jonathan renders: Spain.   ספרד: תרגם יונתן אספמיא:
21And saviors shall ascend Mt. Zion to judge the mountain of Esau, and the Lord shall have the kingdom.   כאוְעָל֚וּ מֽוֹשִׁעִים֙ בְּהַ֣ר צִיּ֔וֹן לִשְׁפֹּ֖ט אֶת־הַ֣ר עֵשָׂ֑ו וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הַמְּלוּכָֽה:
shall ascend: Princes of Israel as saviors on Mt. Zion.   ועלו: שרי ישראל מושיעים בהר ציון:
to judge the mountain of Esau: to exact retribution from the mountain of Esau for what they did to Israel.   לשפוט את הר עשו: ליפרע מהר עשו אשר עשו לישראל:
to judge: Heb. לִשְׁפֹּט. joustiser in O.F.   לשפוט: יושטיציי"ר בלע"ז:
the mountain of Esau: Jonathan renders: the great city of Esau.   הר עשו: י"ת כרכא רבא דעשו:
and the Lord shall have the kingdom: This teaches you that His kingdom will not be complete until He exacts retribution from Amalek.   והיתה לה' המלוכה: לימדך שאין מלכותו שלימה עד שיפרע מעמלק:
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