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Torah Reading for Vezot Hab'rachah

In Israel: Bereishit

Parshat Vezot Hab'rachah
Tuesday, 23 Tishrei, 5783
18 October, 2022
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 33:1 - 34:12; Genesis 1:1 - 2:3; Numbers 29:35 - 30:1; Joshua 1:1-18)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 33

1And this is the blessing with which Moses, the man of God, blessed the children of Israel [just] before his death.   אוְזֹ֣את הַבְּרָכָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר בֵּרַ֥ךְ משֶׁ֛ה אִ֥ישׁ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לִפְנֵ֖י מוֹתֽוֹ:
And this is the blessing… [just] before his death: Very close to the time of his death. — [see Sifrei 33: 1] “For, if not now, when?”   וזאת הברכה, לפני מותו: סמוך למיתתו שאם לא עכשיו אימתי:
2He said: "The Lord came from Sinai and shone forth from Seir to them; He appeared from Mount Paran and came with some of the holy myriads; from His right hand was a fiery Law for them.   בוַיֹּאמַ֗ר יְהֹוָ֞ה מִסִּינַ֥י בָּא֙ וְזָרַ֤ח מִשֵּׂעִיר֙ לָ֔מוֹ הוֹפִ֨יעַ֙ מֵהַ֣ר פָּארָ֔ן וְאָתָ֖ה מֵרִֽבְבֹ֣ת קֹ֑דֶשׁ מִֽימִינ֕וֹ אֵ֥שׁ דָּ֖ת (כתיב אשדת) לָֽמוֹ:
He said: The Lord came from Sinai: Moses initiated his blessing by praising the Omnipresent, and then he addressed the needs of Israel. — [Sifrei 33:2] The praise with which Moses commenced, mentions the merit of Israel. All this was a way of conciliation, as if to say, “These people are worthy that a blessing should rest upon them.”   ויאמר ה' מסיני בא: פתח תחלה בשבחו של מקום ואחר כך פתח בצרכיהם של ישראל. ובשבח שפתח בו יש בו הזכרת זכות לישראל וכל זה דרך ריצוי הוא, כלומר כדאי הם אלו שתחול עליהם ברכה:
came from Sinai: He came out toward them when they came to stand at the foot of the mountain, as a bridegroom goes forth to greet his bride, as it is said, “[And Moses brought the people forth] toward God” (Exod. 19:17). We learn from this, that God came out toward them (Mechilta 19:17).   מסיני בא: יצא לקראתם כשבאו להתיצב בתחתית ההר כחתן היוצא להקביל פני כלה, שנאמר (שמות יט, יז) לקראת האלהים, למדנו שיצא כנגדם:
and shone forth from Seir to them: [Why did He come from Seir?] Because God first offered the children of Esau [who dwelled in Seir] that they accept the Torah, but they did not want [to accept it].   וזרח משעיר למו: שפתח לבני עשו שיקבלו את התורה ולא רצו:
He appeared: to them [Israel]   הופיע: להם:
from Mount Paran: [Why did God then come from Paran?] Because He went there and offered the children of Ishmael [who dwelled in Paran] to accept the Torah, but they [also] did not want [to accept it]. — [A.Z. 2b]   מהר פארן: שהלך שם ופתח לבני ישמעאל שיקבלוה, ולא רצו:
and came: to Israel.   ואתה: לישראל
with some holy myriads: With God were only some of the myriads of His holy angels, but not all of them, nor [even] most of them. This is unlike the manner of a mortal, who displays all the splendor of his riches and his glory on his wedding day. — [Sifrei 33:2]   מרבבת קדש: ועמו מקצת רבבות מלאכי קדש, ולא כולם ולא רובם, ולא כדרך בשר ודם שמראה כל כבוד עשרו ותפארתו ביום חופתו:
a fiery law for them: It was originally written before God in [letters of] black fire upon [a background of] white fire. — [Tanchuma Bereishith 1] He gave it to them on tablets, inscribed, [as it were,] by His right hand [thus it is said here, “from His right hand”]. Another explanation of אֵשׁ דָּת : As the Targum renders it, that He gave it to them from amidst the fire.   אש דת: שהיתה כתובה מאז לפניו באש שחורה על גב אש לבנה, נתן להם בלוחות כתב יד ימינו. דבר אחר אש דת כתרגומו, שנתנה להם מתוך האש:
3Indeed, You showed love for peoples; all his holy ones are in Your hand, for they let themselves be centered at Your feet, bearing Your utterances.   גאַ֚ף חֹבֵ֣ב עַמִּ֔ים כָּל־קְדשָׁ֖יו בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וְהֵם֙ תֻּכּ֣וּ לְרַגְלֶ֔ךָ יִשָּׂ֖א מִדַּבְּרֹתֶֽיךָ:
Indeed, You showed love for peoples: [God] also displayed great affection to the tribes, each one of whom were known as a people, for only Benjamin was destined to be born when the Holy One, blessed is He, said to Jacob, “A nation and a multitude of nations shall come into existence from you” (Genesis 35:11). [Thus we see that Benjamin alone was called “a nation.” “A multitude of nations” refers to Ephraim and Manasseh. See Rashi on Gen. 35:11, 48:4.]- [Gen. Rabbah 82:4]   אף חבב עמים: גם חבה יתירה חבב את השבטים. כל אחד ואחד קרוי עם, שהרי בנימין לבדו היה עתיד להוולד כשאמר הקב"ה ליעקב (בראשית לה, יא) גוי וקהל גוים יהיה ממך:
all his holy ones are in Your hand: [This refers to] the souls of the righteous, which are hidden away with God, as it is said, “But my lord’s soul shall be bound up in the bundle of life, with the Lord, your God” (I Sam. 25:29). - [Sifrei 33:3]   כל קדשיו בידך: נפשות הצדיקים הגנוזות אתו, כענין שנאמר (שמואל א' כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך:
for they […] be centered at Your feet: And Israel is indeed worthy of this [privilege to have their souls hidden away with God], because they placed themselves right in the middle (תּוֹךְ) of the bottom of the mountain at Your feet [figuratively speaking] at Sinai. The word תֻּכּוּ is in the passive conjugation, which has the meaning: הִתְוַכּוּ, “They [allowed themselves] to be placed right in the middle (תּוֹךְ)” [of the underside of the mountain], between Your feet.   והם תכו לרגלך: והם ראוים לכך, שהרי תכו עצמן לתוך תחתית ההר לרגלך בסיני. תכו לשון פועלו, הותווכו לתוך מרגלותיך:
bearing Your utterances: They bore upon themselves the yoke of Your Torah. — [Sifrei 33:3]   ישא מדברתיך: נשאו עליהם עול תורתך:
Your Torah: Heb. מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ‏. The mem in it [i.e., in this word] is somewhat of a root letter [rather than a prefix], as in “And he heard the voice speaking (מִדַּבֵּר) to him” (Num. 7:89); and “And I heard what was being spoken (מִדַּבֵּר) to me” (Ezek. 2:2). This form is similar to מִתְדַּבֵּר אֵלַי, [speaking to Himself for me to hear, see Rashi on Num. 7:89]. This too, namely, the word מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ‏, means: “what You were speaking to let me know what to tell the children of Israel.” Tes porparledurs in Old French. Onkelos, however, renders [the phrase יִשָּׂא מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ‏ as: “they traveled (יִשָּׂא like יִסַּע) according to Your commands (דַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ).” Thus, the mem is a servile prefix, with the meaning of מִן, from. [Thus, according to Onkelos, the word מִדַּבְּרֹתֶי‏ךָ literally means, from Your utterances.] Another explanation [of this verse is as follows]: Indeed, You showed love for peoples — even when You displayed Your affection towards the nations of the world, showing them a smiling [friendly] face, and You delivered Israel into their hands,   מדברתיך: המ"ם בו קרוב ליסוד, כמו (במדבר ז, פט) וישמע את הקול מדבר אליו, (יחזקאל ב, ב) ואשמע את קול מדבר אלי, כמו מתדבר אלי, אף זה מדברותיך מה שהיית מדבר להשמיעני לאמר להם. טיי"ש פורפרלידורי"ש בלע"ז [דיבורך]. ואונקלוס תרגם שהיו נוסעים על פי דבריך, והמ"ם בו שמוש משמשת לשון מן. דבר אחר אף חבב עמים אף בשעת חבתם של אומות העולם שהראית להם פנים שוחקות ומסרת את ישראל בידם:
all his holy ones are in Your hand: All Israel’s righteous and good people clung to You; they did not turn away from You, and You guarded them. — [B.B. 8a)]   כל קדשיו בידך: כל צדיקיהם וטוביהם דבקו בך ולא משו מאחריך ואתה שומרם:
for they let themselves be centered at your feet: And they placed themselves right in the middle of, and entered beneath Your [protective] shadow;   והם תכו לרגלך: והם מתמצעים ומתכנסים לתחת צלך:
bearing your utterances: And they gladly accepted Your decrees and Your laws. — [see Tanchuma 5] And these were their words:   ישא מדברתיך: מקבלים גזרותיך ודתותיך בשמחה. ואלה דבריהם:
4The Torah that Moses commanded us is a legacy for the congregation of Jacob.   דתּוֹרָ֥ה צִוָּה־לָ֖נוּ משֶׁ֑ה מֽוֹרָשָׁ֖ה קְהִלַּ֥ת יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
The Torah that Moses commanded us is a legacy for the congregation of Jacob: We have taken hold of it, and we will not forsake it!   תורה: אשר צוה לנו משה מורשה היא לקהלת יעקב, אחזנוה ולא נעזבנה:
5And He was King in Jeshurun, whenever the sum total of the people were gathered, and the tribes of Israel were together,   הוַיְהִ֥י בִֽישֻׁר֖וּן מֶ֑לֶךְ בְּהִתְאַסֵּף֙ רָ֣אשֵׁי עָ֔ם יַ֖חַד שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And He was: i.e., the Holy One, blessed is He,   ויהי: הקב"ה:
was King in Jeshurun: i.e., the yoke of God’s sovereignty was always upon them.   בישרון מלך: תמיד עול מלכותו עליהם:
whenever the sum total of the people were gathered: At every gathering of רָאשֵׁי - meaning, whenever their number is gathered. רָאשֵׁי as in the verse,“When you take the count (רֹאשׁ) of the children of Israel” (Exod. 30:12). These people are worthy that I should bless them. Another explanation: When Israel is gathered together in a unified group, and there is peace among them, God is their King-but not when there is strife among them. — [Sifrei 33:5]   בהתאסף: בכל התאסף ראשי חשבון אסיפתם. ראשי, כמו (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא את ראש, ראויין אלו שאברכם. דבר אחר, בהתאסף, בהתאספם יחד באגודה אחת ושלום ביניהם הוא מלכם, ולא כשיש מחלוקת ביניהם:
6May Reuben live and not die, and may his people be counted in the number.   ויְחִ֥י רְאוּבֵ֖ן וְאַל־יָמֹ֑ת וִיהִ֥י מְתָ֖יו מִסְפָּֽר:
May Reuben live: in this world,   יחי ראובן: בעולם הזה:
and not die: in the world-to-come, that the incident involving Bilhah not be remembered against him. — [see Rashi Gen. 35:22; Sifrei 33:6]   ואל ימות: לעולם הבא, שלא יזכר לו מעשה בלהה:
and may his people be counted in the number: May Reuben be counted along with the enumeration of the rest of his brothers. This [matter, that the incident involving Bilhah should not exclude Reuben from being counted together with his brothers] is similar to what is said: “[And Reuben went] and lay with Bilhah… and Jacob’s sons were twelve” (Gen. 35:22), [indicating] that he was not excluded from the number [of Jacob’s sons, on account of this incident].   ויהי מתיו מספר: נמנין במנין שאר אחיו, דוגמא היא זו כענין שנאמר (בראשית לה, כב) וישכב את בלהה ויהיו בני יעקב שנים עשר, שלא יצא מן המנין:
7May this [also be] for Judah." And he [Moses] said, "O Lord, hearken to Judah's voice and bring him to his people; may his hands do battle for him, and may You be a help against his adversaries."   זוְזֹ֣את לִֽיהוּדָה֘ וַיֹּאמַר֒ שְׁמַ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ ק֣וֹל יְהוּדָ֔ה וְאֶל־עַמּ֖וֹ תְּבִיאֶ֑נּוּ יָדָיו֙ רָ֣ב ל֔וֹ וְעֵ֥זֶר מִצָּרָ֖יו תִּֽהְיֶֽה:
May this [also be] for Judah: He juxtaposed Judah to Reuben, because they both confessed to the wrong they had done, as it is said, “that wise men have told… to them alone… and no stranger passed between them” (Job 15:18-19). [This verse alludes to the confession of Reuben and Judah (“that wise men have told”), and how they were consequently blessed here together (“them alone”); although Levi was next in line chronologically to Reuben, nevertheless here, in the context of this blessing, Levi did not come between them (“no stranger came between them”), but rather, he was blessed immediately afterwards (verses 8-11).]- [see Rashi, Job 15:19] Our Rabbis further explained that during the entire forty years that Israel was in the desert, Judah’s bones were rolling in his coffin, because of the excommunication which he had accepted upon himself [when he took responsibility for Benjamin], as it is said, “If I will not bring him to you… then I have sinned against you all of the days” (Gen. 43:9). [So], Moses said, “Who caused Reuben to [publicly] confess his sin? It was Judah…” (see Sotah 7b) [and thus, by placing Judah together with Reuben, Moses alluded to this merit of Judah, and, in effect, “May the Lord listen to Judah’s voice,” is a prayer that Judah’s bones would finally come to rest].   וזאת ליהודה: סמך יהודה לראובן, מפני ששניהם הודו על קלקול שבידם, שנאמר (איוב טו, יח - יט) אשר חכמים יגידו וגו' להם לבדם וגו' ולא עבר זר בתוכם. ועוד פירשו רבותינו, שכל ארבעים שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמות יהודה מתגלגלים בארון מפני נדוי שקבל עליו, שנאמר (בראשית מד, לב) וחטאתי לאבי כל הימים, אמר משה מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה וכו':
O Lord, hearken to Judah’s voice: [I.e., Also, hear the prayer of Judah’s descendants:] The prayer of David and Solomon, and the prayer of Asa because of the Ethiopians, and that of Jehoshaphat on account of the Ammonites, and that of Hezekiah because of Sennacherib. — [see Sifrei 33:7]   שמע ה' קול יהודה: תפלת דוד ושלמה ואסא מפני הכושים, ויהושפט מפני העמונים, וחזקיה מפני סנחריב:
and bring him to his people: in peace, from war.   ואל עמו תביאנו: לשלום מפני המלחמה:
his hands will do battle for him: May his hands fight his battle (רִיבוֹ), and may they exact his vengeance.   ידיו רב לו: יריבו ריבו וינקמו נקמתו:
and may You be a help against his adversaries: [Moses here] was praying for [Judah’s descendant] Jehoshaphat, concerning the battle of Ramoth Gilead, [as Scripture states,] “Jehoshaphat cried out, and the Lord helped him (עֲזָרוֹ)” (II Chron. 18:31). Another explanation:   ועזר מצריו תהיה: על יהושפט התפלל על מלחמת רמות גלעד, (דה"ב יח, לא) ויזעק יהושפט וה' עזרו. דבר אחר ...
O Lord, hearken to Judah’s voice: Here, included within Judah’s blessing, Moses alluded to [and incorporated] a blessing for Simeon [the allusion being in the word שְׁמַע, the very root of שִׁמְעוֹן]. Also [in accordance with this incorporation of Simeon within Judah], when they divided Eretz Israel [among the tribes], Simeon received [his portion] out of the lot of Judah, as Scripture states, “Out of the lot of the children of Judah was the inheritance of the children of Simeon” (Josh. 19:9). - [Sifrei 33:7] Now why did Moses not devote a separate blessing for him? Because he held against him what he had done in Shittim [referring to the sin of Zimri the son of Salu, a leader of the tribe of Simeon (see Num. 25:1-14)]. So it is written in the Aggadah of Psalms. — [Shocher Tov 90]   שמע ה' קול יהודה: כאן רמז ברכה לשמעון מתוך ברכותיו של יהודה, ואף כשחלקו ארץ ישראל נטל שמעון מתוך גורלו של יהודה שנאמר (יהושע יט, ט) מחבל בני יהודה נחלת בני שמעון. ומפני מה לא ייחד לו ברכה בפני עצמו, שהיה בלבו עליו על מה שעשה בשטים, כן כתוב באגדת תהלים:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 33

8And of Levi he said: "Your Tummim and Urim belong to Your pious man, whom You tested at Massah and whom You tried at the waters of Meribah,   חוּלְלֵוִ֣י אָמַ֔ר תֻּמֶּ֥יךָ וְאוּרֶ֖יךָ לְאִ֣ישׁ חֲסִידֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נִסִּיתוֹ֙ בְּמַסָּ֔ה תְּרִיבֵ֖הוּ עַל־מֵ֥י מְרִיבָֽה:
And of Levi he said: Heb. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר, And of Levi, he said….   וללוי אמר: ועל לוי אמר:
Your Tummim and Urim: Here, Moses is addressing the Shechinah .   תמיך ואוריך: כלפי שכינה הוא מדבר:
whom You tested at Massah: [spoken in praise of the Levites,] for they did not complain with the others who complained.   אשר נסיתו במסה: שלא נתלוננו עם שאר המלינים:
and whom You tried…: [This is to be understood] as the Targum renders it [namely, “You tested him (Levi) at the Waters of Meribah, and he came out faithful”]. Another explanation: “whom you tried at the waters of Meribah” — You made false accusations against him [Levi], for if Moses [was punished with death and not permitted to enter the Land of Israel because he] said to Israel, “Listen now, you rebels!” (see Num. 20:10), then [how do we understand why] Aaron and Miriam [were also punished with death and were not permitted to enter the Land of Israel] — what did they do [to deserve this]?- [Sifrei 33:8]   תריבהו וגו': כתרגומו. דבר אחר תריבהו על מי מריבה נסתקפת לו לבוא בעלילה, אם משה אמר (במדבר כ, י) שמעו נא המורים, אהרן ומרים מה עשו:
9who said of his father and his mother, 'I do not see him'; neither did he recognize his brothers, nor did he know his children, for they observed Your word and kept Your covenant.   טהָֽאֹמֵ֞ר לְאָבִ֤יו וּלְאִמּוֹ֙ לֹ֣א רְאִיתִ֔יו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו֙ לֹ֣א הִכִּ֔יר וְאֶת־בָּנָ֖ו לֹ֣א יָדָ֑ע כִּ֤י שָֽׁמְרוּ֙ אִמְרָתֶ֔ךָ וּבְרִֽיתְךָ֖ יִנְצֹֽרוּ:
who said of his father and his mother, 'I do not see him…’: [Moses says:] When they [Israel] sinned with the calf, and I said, “Whoever is for the Lord, come to me!” (Exod. 32:26), all the sons of Levi assembled to me, and I ordered them to kill [those guilty of worshipping the golden calf, even] one’s mother’s father, if he was an [ordinary] Israelite [and not a Levite], or his brother from his mother [if his brother’s father was not a Levite], or the son of his daughter [whose husband was not a Levite], and they did so. It is, however, impossible to explain [that it means literally his father and his brother from his father, and likewise, literally his sons, because all these were Levites, and not one of the tribe of Levi sinned, as it is said, “and all the sons of Levi [gathered to him]” (Exod. 32:26). - [Sifrei 33:9]   האומר לאביו ולאמו לא ראיתיו: כשחטאו בעגל ואמרתי (שמות לב, כו) מי לה' אלי, נאספו אלי כל בני לוי וצויתים להרוג את אבי אמו והוא מישראל, או את אחיו מאמו, או את בן בתו, וכן עשו. ואי אפשר לפרש אביו ממש ואחיו מאביו וכן בניו ממש, שהרי לוים הם ומשבט לוי לא חטא אחד מהם שנאמר כל בני לוי:
for they observed Your word: namely, “You shall have no other gods [before Me]” (Exod. 20:3). - [Sifrei 33:9]   כי שמרו אמרתך: (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים:
and kept Your covenant: namely, the covenant of circumcision. — [Sifrei 33:9] For the [ordinary] Israelites who were born in the desert did not circumcise their sons, whereas the Levites were [not only] circumcised themselves, [but they] also circumcised their sons. — [Sifrei Bemidbar 9:18]   ובריתך ינצרו: ברית מילה, שאותם שנולדו במדבר של ישראל לא מלו את בניהם והם היו מולין ומלין את בניהם:
10They shall teach Your ordinances to Jacob, and Your Torah to Israel; they shall place incense before You, and burnt offerings upon Your altar.   ייוֹר֤וּ מִשְׁפָּטֶ֨יךָ֙ לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְתוֹרָֽתְךָ֖ לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יָשִׂ֤ימוּ קְטוֹרָה֙ בְּאַפֶּ֔ךָ וְכָלִ֖יל עַל־מִזְבְּחֶֽךָ:
They shall teach Your ordinances: [because] they are worthy of doing this.   יורו משפטיך: ראויין אלו לכך:
and burnt-offerings: Heb. וְכָלִיל, a burnt-offering [which is completely (כָּלִיל) consumed on the altar]. — [Yoma 26a]   וכליל: עולה:
11May the Lord bless his army and favorably accept the work of his hands; strike the loins of those who rise up against him and his enemies, so that they will not recover."   יאבָּרֵ֤ךְ יְהֹוָה֙ חֵיל֔וֹ וּפֹ֥עַל יָדָ֖יו תִּרְצֶ֑ה מְחַ֨ץ מָתְנַ֧יִם קָמָ֛יו וּמְשַׂנְאָ֖יו מִן־יְקוּמֽוּן:
strike the loins of those who rise up against him: Strike those who rise up against him, in the loins. This is similar to what is said, “Constantly cause their loins to slip” (Ps. 69:24). Here, Moses was referring to those who contested the priesthood. — [Sifrei 33:11] Another explanation: Moses saw [prophetically] that the Hasmonean and his sons were destined to wage war with the Greeks. He therefore prayed for them, because they were few in number, namely, the twelve sons of the Hasmonean and Eleazar, against many myriads [of the enemy]. Hence, Moses said here: “May the Lord bless his army (חֵילוֹ) and favorably accept the work of his hands.” - [See Tanchuma Vayechi 14; Gen. Rabbah 99:2; Otzar Midrashim, Ma’aseh Hanukkah second version, p. 191; Midrash LaHanukkah , p. 193]   מחץ מתנים קמיו: מחץ קמיו מכת מתנים, כענין שנאמר (תהלים סט, כד) ומתניהם תמיד המעד, ועל המעוררין על הכהונה אמר כן. דבר אחר ראה שעתידין חשמונאי ובניו להלחם עם היונים והתפלל עליהם לפי שהיו מועטים י"ב בני חשמונאי ואלעזר כנגד כמה רבבות, לכך נאמר ברך ה' חילו ופועל ידיו תרצה:
and his enemies so that they will not recover: Strike the loins of those who rise up against him and of his enemies, so that they will have no recovery.   ומשנאיו מן יקומון: מחץ קמיו ומשנאיו מהיות להם תקומה:
12And of Benjamin he said, "The Lord's beloved one shall dwell securely beside Him; He protects him all day long, and He dwells between his shoulders."   יבלְבִנְיָמִ֣ן אָמַ֔ר יְדִ֣יד יְהֹוָ֔ה יִשְׁכֹּ֥ן לָבֶ֖טַח עָלָ֑יו חֹפֵ֤ף עָלָיו֙ כָּל־הַיּ֔וֹם וּבֵ֥ין כְּתֵפָ֖יו שָׁכֵֽן:
And of Benjamin he said: Since Levi’s blessing pertains to the sacrificial service, and Benjamin’s blessing pertains to building the Holy Temple within his territory, Moses juxtaposed one to the other. He then juxtaposes Joseph immediately after him [Benjamin] because Joseph too [had a sanctuary built within his territory, namely] the Mishkan of Shiloh was erected in his territory, as is said: “He rejected the tent of Joseph” (Ps. 78:67). And because the Holy Temple is dearer [to God] than [the Mishkan of] Shiloh, he mentioned [the blessing of] Benjamin before [that of] Joseph [even though Joseph was older.].   לבנימן אמר: לפי שברכת לוי בעבודת הקרבנות ושל בנימין בבנין בית המקדש בחלקו סמכן זה לזה וסמך יוסף אחריו, שאף הוא משכן שילה היה בנוי בחלקו, שנאמר (שם עח, סז) וימאס באהל יוסף וגו'. ולפי שבית עולמים חביב משילה לכך הקדים בנימין ליוסף:
He protects him: Heb. חֹפֵף, covers him and protects him.   חפף עליו: מכסה אותו ומגין עליו:
all day long: i.e., forever. Since [the time] Jerusalem was chosen [for the building of the Holy Temple], the Divine Presence has never dwelt elsewhere. — [Mechilta 12:4]   כל היום: לעולם משנבחרה ירושלים לא שרתה שכינה במקום אחר:
and dwells between his shoulders: The Holy Temple was built on the highest point of his [Benjamin’s] land, except that it was twenty-three cubits below the Eitam Well (see Yoma 31a). Now, it was David’s intention to build it there [at the level of the Eitam Well], as is taught in Shechitath Kodashim [Zev. 54b]: [However,] they said to David: “Let us build it a little lower, for Scripture states, ‘and He dwells between his shoulders’ [which are lower than the head]-and there is no part of an ox more beautiful than its shoulders.”   ובין כתפיו שכן: בגובה ארצו היה, בית המקדש בנוי אלא שנמוך עשרים ושלש אמה מעין עיטם ושם היה דעתו של דוד לבנותו, כדאיתא בשחיטת קדשים (זבחים נד ב) אמרי נחתי ביה פורתא משום דכתיב ובין כתפיו שכן אין לך נאה בשור יותר מכתפיו:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 33

13And of Joseph he said: "His land shall be blessed by the Lord, with the sweetness of the heavens with dew, and with the deep that lies below,   יגוּלְיוֹסֵ֣ף אָמַ֔ר מְבֹרֶ֥כֶת יְהֹוָ֖ה אַרְצ֑וֹ מִמֶּ֤גֶד שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ מִטָּ֔ל וּמִתְּה֖וֹם רֹבֶ֥צֶת תָּֽחַת:
His land shall be blessed by the Lord: For throughout the inheritance of all the tribes, there was no land more full of goodness than Joseph’s land. — [Sifrei 33:13]   מברכת ה' ארצו: שלא היתה בנחלת השבטים ארץ מלאה כל טוב כארצו של יוסף:
and with the sweetness: Heb. מִמֶּגֶד [This word denotes] delicacies and sweetness.   ממגד: לשון עדנים ומתק:
the deep: The [waters which lie in] the depth [of the earth] ascend, and moisten the land from below. You find that in the case of each tribe, Moses’ blessing resembles Jacob’s blessing [to the same tribe. For instance, Jacob blessed Joseph also with the וּמִתְּהוֹם רֹבֶצֶת תָּחַת] (Gen. 49:25).   ומתהום: שהתהום עולה ומלחלח אותה מלמטה אתה מוצא בכל השבטים ברכתו של משה מעין ברכתו של יעקב:
14and with the sweetness of the produce of the sun, and with the sweetness of the moon's yield,   ידוּמִמֶּ֖גֶד תְּבוּאֹ֣ת שָׁ֑מֶשׁ וּמִמֶּ֖גֶד גֶּ֥רֶשׁ יְרָחִֽים:
and with the sweetness of the produce of the sun: for Joseph’s land was exposed to the sun, which sweetened its fruit. — [Sifrei 33:14]   וממגד תבואת שמש: שהיתה ארצו פתוחה לחמה וממתקת הפירות:
the moon’s yield: Heb. יְרָחִים גֶּרֶשׁ. Some fruits are ripened by the moon (יָרֵחַ). - [Sifrei 33:14] These are cucumbers and gourds. Another explanation: [This refers to fruits] which the earth expels (מְגָרֶשֶׁת) and brings out [from itself] month (יֶרַח) by month. — [Targum Onkelos]   גרש ירחים: יש פירות שהלבנה מבשלתן ואלו הן קשואין ודלועין. דבר אחר גרש ירחים. שהארץ מגרשת ומוציאה מחדש לחדש:
15and with the crops of early mountains, and with the sweetness of perennial hills,   טווּמֵרֹ֖אשׁ הַֽרְרֵי־קֶ֑דֶם וּמִמֶּ֖גֶד גִּבְע֥וֹת עוֹלָֽם:
and with the crops of early mountains: And blessed with the fruits that are first (רֹאשׁ) to ripen, for its mountains advance (קֶדֶם) the ripening of their fruits [thus, “the early mountains”]. Another explanation: [This verse] teaches [us] that their creation [that of the mountains in the territory of Joseph] preceded (קֶדֶם) that of all other mountains. — [Sifrei 33:15]   ומראש הררי קדם: ומבורכת מראשית בשול הפירות שהרריה מקדימין לבכר בשול פירותיהם. דבר אחר מגיד שקדמה בריאתן לשאר הרים:
the sweetness of perennial hills: גִּבְעוֹת עוֹלָם. Hills which produce fruit continuously (עוֹלָם) and do not cease [to produce fruit even] because of lack of rain.   גבעות עולם: גבעות העושות פירות לעולם ואינן פוסקות מעוצר הגשמים:
16and with the sweetness of the land and its fullness, and through the contentment of the One Who dwells in the thornbush. May it come upon Joseph's head and upon the crown of the one separated from his brothers.   טזוּמִמֶּ֗גֶד אֶ֚רֶץ וּמְלֹאָ֔הּ וּרְצ֥וֹן שֹֽׁכְנִ֖י סְנֶ֑ה תָּב֨וֹאתָה֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ יוֹסֵ֔ף וּלְקָדְקֹ֖ד נְזִ֥יר אֶחָֽיו:
and through the contentment of the One Who dwells in the thornbush: Heb. שֹׁכְנִי סְנֶה, equivalent to שׁוֹכֵן סְנֶה, the One Who dwells in the bush. [Thus, the verse means:] "And may his land be blessed through the favorable acceptance and contentment of the Holy One, blessed is He, Who first revealed Himself to me in a thornbush (סְנֶה).   ורצון שכני סנה: כמו שוכן סנה ותהא ארצו מבורכת מרצונו ונחת רוחו של הקב"ה הנגלה עלי תחלה בסנה:
through the contentment: Heb. וּרְצוֹן. Contentment and appeasement. Similarly, every instance of [the word] רָצוֹן in Scripture.   רצון: נחת רוח ופיוס וכן כל רצון שבמקרא:
may it come: i.e., this blessing will come upon Joseph’s head.   תבואתה: ברכה זו לראש יוסף:
the one separated from his brothers: [Joseph] who was separated from his brothers through his being sold.   נזיר אחיו: שהופרש מאחיו במכירתו:
17To his firstborn ox is [given] glory. His horns are the horns of a re'em. With them, he will gore peoples together [throughout all] the ends of the earth these are the myriads of Ephraim, and these are the thousands of Manasseh."   יזבְּכ֨וֹר שׁוֹר֜וֹ הָדָ֣ר ל֗וֹ וְקַרְנֵ֤י רְאֵם֙ קַרְנָ֔יו בָּהֶ֗ם עַמִּ֛ים יְנַגַּ֥ח יַחְדָּ֖ו אַפְסֵי־אָ֑רֶץ וְהֵם֙ רִבְב֣וֹת אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְהֵ֖ם אַלְפֵ֥י מְנַשֶּֽׁה:
to his firstborn ox: Heb. בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ [In addition to the simple meaning of “firstborn,”] there are some instances in which the word בְּכוֹר has the meaning of “greatness” and “majesty,” as it is said, “I will also make him a great man (בְּכוֹר) [the highest of the kings on earth]” (Ps. 89:28); and similarly, “Israel is My son, my firstborn (בְּכוֹרִי)” [denoting high status] (Exod. 4:22). [Thus:] בְּכוֹר here: The king who will descend from Joseph, namely, Joshua.   בכור שורו: יש בכור שהוא לשון גדולה ומלכות, שנאמר (תהלים פט, כח) אף אני בכור אתנהו, וכן (שמות ד, כה) בני בכורי ישראל. בכור: מלך היוצא ממנו והוא יהושע:
his ox: whose strength is as mighty as that of an ox, to conquer many kings.   שורו: שכחו קשה כשור לכבוש כמה מלכים:
is [given] glory: [Literally, “glory is his,”] was given to him [when Moses transferred some of his attribute of majesty to Joshua when he became leader], as it is said, [God said to Moses:] “And you shall give some of your majesty to him” [Joshua] (Num. 27:20).   הדר לו: נתון לו שנאמר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו:
and his horns are the horns of a re’em: The ox is powerful, but its horns are not beautiful; [on the other hand,] a re’em has beautiful horns, but it is not powerful. [Moses thus] blessed Joshua with the power of an ox and the beauty of a re’em 's horns. — [Sifrei 33:17]   וקרני ראם קרניו: שור כחו קשה ואין קרניו נאות, אבל ראם קרניו נאות, ואין כחו קשה, נתן ליהושע כחו של שור ויופי קרני ראם:
the ends of the earth: [This refers to] the thirty-one kings [whom Joshua conquered in the Land of Israel]. Is it possible that these kings were all from the Land of Israel? [The answer is, that] there was not one king or ruler who did not acquire for himself a palace and a holding in the Land of Israel [even though he belonged to another country]. [And why so?] Because the Land of Israel was considered distinguished to all of them, as it is said [of the Land of Israel], “The finest inheritance of the hosts of nations” (Jer. 3:19). - [Sifrei 33:17] [For this reason, the thirty-one kings are referred to as “the ends of the earth.”   אפסי ארץ: שלושים ואחד מלכים אפשר שכולם מארץ ישראל היו אלא אין לך כל מלך ושלטון שלא קנה לו פלטרין ואחוזה בארץ ישראל, שחשובה לכולם היא, שנאמר (ירמיה ג, יט) נחלת צבי צבאות גוים:
these are the myriads of Ephraim: The ones who are to be gored are the myriads who were killed by Joshua who was descended from Ephraim [Joseph’s son].   והם רבבות אפרים: אותם המנוגחים הם הרבבות שהרג יהושע, שבא מאפרים:
and these are the thousands of Manasseh: They are the thousands killed in Midian by Gideon, [who was descended from Manasseh, Joseph’s other son], as it is said, “Now Zebah and Zalmunna were in Karkor…” (Jud. 8:10) [and the verse continues to enumerate many thousands of hosts which were there].   והם אלפי מנשה: הם האלפים שהרג גדעון במדין, שנאמר (שופטים ח, י) וזבח וצלמונע בקרקר וגו':

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 33

18And to Zebulun he said: "Rejoice, Zebulun, in your departure, and Issachar, in your tents.   יחוְלִזְבוּלֻ֣ן אָמַ֔ר שְׂמַ֥ח זְבוּלֻ֖ן בְּצֵאתֶ֑ךָ וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר בְּאֹֽהָלֶֽיךָ:
And to Zebulun he said: These five tribes whom [Moses] blessed last, namely, Zebulun, Gad, Dan, Naftali and Asher, have their names repeated [e.g., “And of Zebulun he said: Rejoice, Zebulun…”], in order to instill them with strength and power, for they were the weakest of all the tribes. And indeed [for this reason,] they were the ones Joseph introduced to Pharaoh, as it is said, “And from among his brothers, he took five men” (Gen. 47:2). [Joseph took these brothers and not the others,] because they looked weak, so that Pharaoh should not appoint them as his war officers. — [B.K. 92a]   ולזבולן אמר: אלו חמשה שבטים שבירך באחרונה זבולן גד דן נפתלי ואשר כפל שמותיהם לחזקם ולהגבירם, לפי שהיו חלשים שבכל השבטים, הם הם שהוליך יוסף לפני פרעה, שנאמר (בראשית מז, ב) ומקצה אחיו לקח חמשה אנשים, לפי שנראים חלשים ולא ישים אותם לו שרי מלחמתו:
Rejoice, Zebulun, in your departure, and Issachar, in your tents: Zebulun and Issachar entered into a partnership [with the following agreement]: Zebulun would dwell at the seashore and go out in ships, to trade and make profit. He would thereby provide food for Issachar, and they would sit and occupy themselves with the study of Torah. Consequently, Moses mentioned Zebulun before Issachar [even though the latter was the elder of the two], because Issachar’s Torah came through [the provisions of] Zebulun. — [Gen. Rabbah 99:9]   שמח זבולן בצאתך ויששכר באהליך: זבולן ויששכר עשו שותפות, זבולן לחוף ימים ישכון ויוצא לפרקמטיא בספינות ומשתכר, ונותן לתוך פיו של יששכר והם יושבים ועוסקים בתורה, לפיכך הקדים זבולן ליששכר שתורתו של יששכר על ידי זבולן היתה:
Rejoice, Zebulun, in your departure: Prosper when you go out to trade.   שמח זבולן בצאתך: הצלח בצאתך לסחורה:
and Issachar: Prosper when you sit in your tents to study the Torah, to sit [in the Sanhedrin] and to [calculate and] proclaim leap years, and to fix the months, as it is said, “And from the sons of Issachar, those who had an understanding of the times” (I Chron. 12:32) [and then the verse continues,] “their chiefs were two hundred”-the chiefs of the Sanhedrin occupied themselves with this, and in accordance with them, the seasons and leap years were fixed [for all Israel].   ויששכר: הצלח בישיבת אהליך לתורה לישב ולעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים, כמו שנאמר (דה"א יב, לג) ומבני יששכר יודעי בינה לעתים ראשיהם מאתים ראשי סנהדראות היו עוסקים בכך. ועל פי קביעות עתיהם ועבוריהם:
19They will call peoples to the mountain; there, they will offer up righteous sacrifices. For they will be nourished by the abundance of the seas, and by the treasures hidden in the sand."   יטעַמִּים֙ הַר־יִקְרָ֔אוּ שָׁ֖ם יִזְבְּח֣וּ זִבְחֵי־צֶ֑דֶק כִּ֣י שֶׁ֤פַע יַמִּים֙ יִינָ֔קוּ וּשְׂפֻנֵ֖י טְמ֥וּנֵי חֽוֹל:
Peoples: of the tribes of Israel.   עמים: של שבטי ישראל:
They will call [peoples] to the Mountain: I.e., [people from the tribes of Israel] will assemble at Mount Moriah [on the Pilgrimage Festivals]. Every assembly took place through a “calling” [i.e., a summoning of the people. This is why the verse speaks of the assembly of the people in terms of “They will call”]. And there [at Mount Moriah, in the Holy Temple], the people will offer up righteous sacrifices on the Pilgrimage Festivals.   הר יקראו: להר המוריה יאספו כל אסיפה על ידי קריאה היא ושם יזבחו ברגלים זבחי צדק:
for they will be nourished by the abundance of the seas: i.e., Issachar and Zebulun [will be nourished], and thereby, they will have spare time to study the Torah.   כי שפע ימים יינקו: יששכר וזבולן ויהא להם פנאי לעסוק בתורה:
and by the treasures hidden in the sand: Things covered up and hidden by the sand-the tarit [or “torino,” a kind of fish], the snail [from which a sky-blue dye was obtained], and “white glass,” all of which come from the sea or the sand. These were found in the territory of Issachar and Zebulun, as is taught in Tractate Megillah (6a): [Scripture says, “Zebulun is a people who jeopardized his life to die” (Jud. 5:18). [And why?] Because [as that verse continues], “Naftali is on the high places of the field,” i.e., Zebulun complained [to God] about his territory, saying, “To my brothers, You have given fields and vineyards [… while to me, You have given seas and rivers]!” [In reply, God told Zebulun that the other brothers will seek him out because of the hidden treasures contained within the seas and the sands.]   ושפני טמוני חול: כסויי טמוני חול טרית וחלזון וזכוכית לבנה היוצאים מן הים ומן החול ובחלקו של יששכר וזבולן היה, כמו שאמרו במסכת מגילה (ו א) זבולן עם חרף נפשו למות (שופטים ה יח) משום דנפתלי על מרומי שדה, שהיה מתרעם זבולן על חלקו לאחי נתת שדות וכרמים וכו':
the treasures: Heb. וּשְׂפֻנֵי An expression meaning a covering, as it is said, “And he covered (וַיִּסְפֹּן) the house” (I Kings 6:9); and, וְסָפֻן בָאֶרֶז, which the Targum renders as: “And it was covered with a covering of cedar” (I Kings 7:3). Another explanation: they will call people to the mountain: Through Zebulun’s commerce, merchants of the world’s nations will come to his land. Now Zebulun is located at the border, so these merchants will say, “Since we have taken so much trouble to reach here, let us go to Jerusalem and see what the God of this nation is like and what they do.” And they see all Israel worshipping one God and eating one kind of food [i.e., only what is permissible to them, and they will be astonished], because [among] the nations, the deity of one is not like the deity of another, and the food of one is not like the food of another. So they will say, “There is no nation as worthy as this one!” Consequently, they will convert to Judaism there, as our verse says, “there, they will offer up righteous sacrifices” [and all of this will be due to Zebulun’s commerce]. — [Sifrei 33:19]   ושפני: לשון כסוי, כמו שנאמר (מ"א ו, ט) ויספון את הבית, (שם ז, ג) וספון בארז, ותרגומו ומטלל בכיורי ארזא. דבר אחר עמים הר יקראו על ידי פרקמטיא של זבולן, תגרי אומות העולם באים אל ארצו, והוא עומד על הספר והם אומרים הואיל ונצטערנו עד כאן נלך עד ירושלים ונראה מה יראתה של אומה זו ומה מעשיה, והם רואים כל ישראל עובדים לאלוה אחד ואוכלים מאכל אחד לפי שהגוים אלוהו של זה לא כאלוהו של זה, ומאכלו של זה לא כמאכלו של זה, והם אומרים אין אומה כשרה כזו ומתגיירין שם, שנאמר שם יזבחו זבחי צדק:
for they will be nourished by the abundance of the seas: Zebulun and Issachar [will be nourished], that is to say, the sea will lavish them with wealth.   כי שפע ימים יינקו: זבולן ויששכר הים נותן להם ממון בשפע:
20And of Gad he said: "Blessed is He Who grants expanse to Gad; he dwells like a lion, tearing the arm [of his prey, together] with the head.   כוּלְגָ֣ד אָמַ֔ר בָּר֖וּךְ מַרְחִ֣יב גָּ֑ד כְּלָבִ֣יא שָׁכֵ֔ן וְטָרַ֥ף זְר֖וֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹֽד:
Blessed is He Who grants expanse to Gad: This teaches us that Gad’s territory extended far eastward. — [Sifrei 33:20]   ברוך מרחיב גד: מלמד שהיה תחומו של גד מרחיב ועולה כלפי מזרח:
He dwells like a lion: Because Gad was near the border, he is therefore compared to lions, for all those who are located near the border must be mighty [like lions, in order to protect themselves from attack]. — [Sifrei 33:20]   כלביא שכן: לפי שהיה סמוך לספר לפיכך נמשל כאריות שכל הסמוכים לספר צריכים להיות גבורים:
tearing the arm [of his prey, together] with the head: Anyone slain by the Gadites could be readily identified: they used to cut off the head together with the arm in one blow. — [Jonathan Ben Uziel]   וטרף זרוע אף קדקד: הרוגיהן היו נכרין, חותכים הראש עם הזרוע במכה אחת:
21He saw the first portion for himself, because there, the portion of the lawgiver is hidden. And he came at the head of the people; he did what is righteous for the Lord, and what is lawful with Israel."   כאוַיַּ֤רְא רֵאשִׁית֙ ל֔וֹ כִּי־שָׁ֛ם חֶלְקַ֥ת מְחֹקֵ֖ק סָפ֑וּן וַיֵּ֨תֵא֙ רָ֣אשֵׁי עָ֔ם צִדְקַ֤ת יְהֹוָה֙ עָשָׂ֔ה וּמִשְׁפָּטָ֖יו עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
He saw the first portion for himself: He saw fit to take for himself territory in the land of Sihon and Og, whose land was the beginning (רֵאשִׁית) of the conquest of the Land.   וירא ראשית לו: ראה ליטול לו חלק בארץ סיחון ועוג, שהיא ראשית כבוש הארץ:
because there, the portion of the lawgiver is hidden: For Gad knew [through Divine transmission,] that within his territory would be contained a portion of the field designated for the burial of “the lawgiver,” namely Moses. — [Sotah 13b]   כי שם חלקת מחקק: כי ידע אשר שם בנחלתו חלקת שדה קבורת מחוקק והוא משה:
of the lawgiver: That portion [of the field, where Moses was buried,] was hidden (סָפוּן) and concealed from every creature, as it is said, “And no man knows his burial place” (Deut. 34:6).   ספון: אותה חלקה ספונה וטמונה מכל בריה, שנאמר (לקמן לד, ו) ולא ידע איש את קבורתו:
And he came: i.e., Gad came.   ויתא: גד:
at the head of the people: The Gadites marched before the armed forces in the conquest of the Land, because the Gadites were powerful, and so it is said [of them], “Pass over, armed, before your brothers” (Deut. 3:18).   ראשי עם: הם היו הולכים לפני החלוץ בכבוש הארץ לפי שהיו גבורים, וכן הוא אומר (דברים ג, יח) ואתם תעברו חלוצים לפני אחיכם וגו':
He did what is righteous for the Lord: Because the Gadites substantiated their words, keeping their promise to cross the Jordan [and remain there to help their brothers] until Israel had conquered and divided [the Land among the tribes]. Another explanation: And he came-And Moses came. [Similarly, the remaining clauses:] “At the head of the people,” and “He did what is righteous for the Lord,” also refer to Moses. — [Sifrei 33:21]   צדקת ה' עשה: שהאמינו דבריהם ושמרו הבטחתם לעבור את הירדן עד שכבשו וחלקו. דבר אחר ויתא משה ראשי עם. צדקת ה' עשה. על משה אמור:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 33

22And of Dan he said: "Dan is a young lion, streaming from Bashan."   כבוּלְדָ֣ן אָמַ֔ר דָּ֖ן גּ֣וּר אַרְיֵ֑ה יְזַנֵּ֖ק מִן־הַבָּשָֽׁן:
Dan is a young lion: Dan was also located close to the border, and so [like Gad], he is compared to lions. — [Sifrei 33:22]   דן גור אריה: אף הוא היה סמוך לספר לפיכך מושלו באריות:
streaming from Bashan: [This is to be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it [“His land drinks from the rivers that flow from Bashan”]. For the Jordan [river] comes out from Dan’s territory, from the Paneas cave, which is [a place called] Leshem, within the territory of Dan. [The children of Dan conquered Leshem and incorporated it into their territory, calling it Dan after their father,] as it is said, “And they called Leshem, Dan” (Joshua 19:47). - [Bech. 55a] And its source (זִנּוּק) and flow is from Bashan. Another explanation [of יְזַנֵּק מִן-הַבָּשָׁן] is: Just as a water flow (זִנּוּק) issues from one place and divides itself [afterwards] into two directions, similarly, the tribe of Dan [started with one territory and ended up] taking a portion in two places. First, they took the northwest [of the Land of Israel], namely, Ekron and its surroundings. But this did not suffice them. So they came and fought against Leshem, which is Paneas, located in the north-east [of the Land of Israel]. [Now Rashi demarcates these two areas geographically:] For the Jordan comes out of the Paneas [or Banias] cave, which is in the east [and at the northern extremity] of the Land of Israel, and then the river flows from the north [straight down] to the south, ending at the edge of the Salt Sea [“Dead Sea”], which in turn, is in the east of Judah’s territory, Judah having taken his territory in the southern part of the Land of Israel, as is delineated in the book of Joshua (19:47). This is the meaning of what is stated there: “And the border of the children of Dan went out from them, so the children of Dan arose and fought against Leshem [and took possession of it].” [So when this verse says “And the border of the children of Dan went out from them,” it means:] Their border was bursting outwards [as it were,] along that whole [eastern flank of the Land] where they originally took their inheritance. [Hence, whereas Dan started out with one territory, he ended up with two, just like a water flow (זִנּוּק) is one, and divides into two]. — [Sifrei 33:22]   יזנק מן הבשן: כתרגומו שהיה הירדן יוצא מחלקו ממערת פמייאס והיא לשם שהיא בחלקו של דן, שנאמר (יהושע יט, מז) ויקראו ללשם דן וזינוקו וקילוחו מן הבשן. דבר אחר מה זינוק זה יוצא ממקום אחד ונחלק לשני מקומות, כך שבטו של דן נטלו חלק בשני מקומות. תחלה נטלו בצפונית מערבית עקרון וסביבותיה, ולא ספקו להם ובאו ונלחמו עם לשם שהיא פמייאס והיא בצפונית מזרחית, שהרי הירדן יוצא ממערת פמייאס והוא במזרחה של ארץ ישראל ובא מהצפון לדרום וכלה בקצה ים המלח, שהוא במזרח יהודה, שנטל בדרומה של ארץ ישראל, כמו שמפורש בספר יהושע, והוא שנאמר (שם יט, מז) ויצא גבול בני דן מהם ויעלו בני דן וילחמו עם לשם וגו', יצא גבולם מכל אותו הרוח שהתחילו לנחול בו:
23And of Naftali he said, "Naftali is favorably satisfied and full of the Lord's blessing. Possess the Sea and the south."   כגוּלְנַפְתָּלִ֣י אָמַ֔ר נַפְתָּלִי֙ שְׂבַ֣ע רָצ֔וֹן וּמָלֵ֖א בִּרְכַּ֣ת יְהֹוָ֑ה יָ֥ם וְדָר֖וֹם יְרָֽשָׁה:
favorably satisfied: Naftali’s land would fully satisfy all its inhabitants.   שבע רצון: שהיתה ארצו שבעה כל רצון יושביה:
Possess the sea and the south: The sea of Kinnereth fell within Naftali’s portion; moreover, he took a rope’s length of fishing-coast on its south[ern shore] for spreading out his nets and trawls. — [B.K. 81b]   ים ודרום ירשה: ים כנרת נפלה בחלקו ונטל מלא חבל חרם בדרומה לפרוש חרמים ומכמורות:
Possess: Heb. יְרָשָׁה. This word is in the imperative form and is equivalent to [the simple command רֵשׁ] in “Go up and possess (רֵשׁ)” (Deut. 1:21). The fact that the accent is placed on next to the last syllable in the word, namely on the reish, proves this point, like the words: יְרַשׁ (possess!), יְדַע (know!), לְקַח (take!) and שְׁמַע (listen!). Now, when one adds a hey at the end of this [simple command] form, the accent is on next to the last syllable of the word to become: לְקָחָה סְלָחָה יְדָעָה שְׁמָעָה Here also, יְרָשָׁה is an imperative form. Accordingly, in the Masoreth Gedolah, we find this in the alphabetically arranged imperative forms of verbs, which have their accents on next to the last syllable.   ירשה: לשון צווי, כמו (דברים א, כא) עלה רש, והטעם שלמעלה ברי"ש מוכיח, כמו ירש, ידע, לקח, שמע, כשמוסיף בו ה"א יהיה הטעם למעלה שמעה, ידעה, סלחה, לקחה אף כאן ירשה לשון צווי. ובמסורת הגדולה מצינו באלפא ביתא לשון צווי דטעמיהון מלעיל:
24And of Asher he said: "May Asher be blessed with sons. He will be pleasing to his brothers, and immerse his foot in oil.   כדוּלְאָשֵׁ֣ר אָמַ֔ר בָּר֥וּךְ מִבָּנִ֖ים אָשֵׁ֑ר יְהִ֤י רְצוּי֙ אֶחָ֔יו וְטֹבֵ֥ל בַּשֶּׁ֖מֶן רַגְלֽוֹ:
May Asher be blessed with sons: I saw in Sifrei the following (33:24): “Among all of the tribes, you will not find one that is blessed with sons as Asher was.” But I do not know in which regard.   ברוך מבנים אשר: ראיתי בספרי אין לך בכל השבטים שנתברך בבנים כאשר, ואיני יודע כיצד:
He will be pleasing to his brothers: Asher pleased his brothers with “Onpakinon oil” [oil of unripe olives, used for anointing one’s skin] and tasty foods (?), and they please him [by repaying him] with grain. Another explanation of “He will be pleasing to his brothers” : Because the women who came from Asher were beautiful [and were sought after for marriage]. This is the meaning of what is stated in Chronicles (I Chron. 7:31). [when it speaks of Malchiel, Asher’s grandson] “he was the father בִּרְזָיִת [literally, olive-child]” that is to say, his daughters were married to Kohanim Gedolim [and kings], who were anointed with olive oil (זַיִת) . - [Gen. Rabbah 71:10]   יהי רצוי אחיו: שהיה מתרצה לאחיו בשמן אנפיקינון ובקפלאות והם מרצין לו בתבואה. דבר אחר יהי רצוי אחיו שהיו בנותיו נאות והוא שנאמר (דברי הימים א' ז, לא) הוא אבי ברזית, שהיו בנותיו נשואות לכהנים גדולים הנמשחים בשמן זית:
and immerse his foot in oil: for his land flowed like a spring with oil. It once happened, that the people of Laodicea were in need of oil, and they appointed an agent [who was sent from place to place, until he found an olive farmer. The latter brought this agent to his home, and there, the olive farmer washed himself and then dipped his hands and feet, thereby fulfilling our verse here: “And dip his foot in oil.” Then, he supplied the agent from Laodicea with one million, one hundred and eighteen thousand maneh worth of olive oil!]. — [Tractate Men. 85b]   וטובל בשמן רגלו: שהיתה ארצו מושכת שמן כמעין. ומעשה שנצטרכו אנשי לודקיא לשמן מנו להם פולמוסטום אחד וכו', כדאיתא במנחות (פה ב):
25Your locks are iron and copper, and the days of your old age will be like the days of your youth.   כהבַּרְזֶ֥ל וּנְח֖שֶׁת מִנְעָלֶ֑ךָ וּכְיָמֶ֖יךָ דָּבְאֶֽךָ:
Your locks are iron and copper: Now he [Moses] addresses all Israel, whose strong men dwelled in the border cities and would “lock up” the Land [as it were, with their protection], so that the enemies would be unable to enter. It was as if the Land was closed up with locks and bolts made of iron and copper. Another explanation: Your locks are iron and copper-Your land is “locked in” by mountains, from which iron and copper are mined. [In this respect] Asher’s territory was [considered] the “lock of the Land of Israel.” — [Sifrei 33:25]   ברזל ונחשת מנעלך: עכשיו הוא מדבר נגד כל ישראל, שהיו גבוריהם יושבים בערי הספר ונועלים אותה שלא יוכלו האויבים ליכנס בה כאלו היא סגורה במנעולים ובריחים של ברזל ונחשת. דבר אחר ברזל ונחשת מנעלך ארצכם נעולה בהרים שחוצבין מהם ברזל ונחשת, וארצו של אשר היתה מנעולה של ארץ ישראל:
and the days of your old age will be like the days of your youth: Heb. וּכְיָמֶי‏ךָ דָּבְאֶךָ. Like the days that are your best, namely, your first days, the days of your youth-so will be the days of your old age, days which [ordinarily] flow away (דּוֹאֲבִים), are painful, and decline. Another explanation of וּכְיָמֶי‏ךָ דָּבְאֶךָ is: וּכְיָמֶי‏ךָ - the days which can be enumerated as your good days, namely, all those days on which you fulfilled the will of the Omnipresent - דָּבְאֶךָ, so will be “your flowing,” i.e., all the countries [in the world] will make silver and gold flow into the Land of Israel. For Israel will be blessed with fruits, so that all the countries will be supplied by it, consequently pouring their silver and gold into it, ascorant in Old French. Moreover, the world’s silver and gold will be depleted, because they will pour it into your Land. — [Sifrei 33:25]   וכימיך דבאך: וכימים שהם טובים לך, שהן ימי תחלתך ימי נעוריך כן יהיו ימי זקנתך, שהם דואבים זבים ומתמוטטים. דבר אחר וכימיך דבאך וכימיך שהם טובים לך כמנין ימיך, כל הימים אשר אתם עושים רצונו של מקום, יהיו דבאך שכל הארצות יהיו דובאות כסף וזהב לארץ ישראל, שתהא מבורכת בפירות. וכל הארצות מתפרנסות הימנה וממשיכות לה כספם וזהבם אישקורונ"ט [ישפעו]. הכסף והזהב כלה מהם, שהן מזיבות אותם לארצכם:
26Jeshurun, there is none like God; He Who rides the heavens is at your assistance, and with His majesty, [He rides] the skies,   כואֵ֥ין כָּאֵ֖ל יְשֻׁר֑וּן רֹכֵ֤ב שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ בְּעֶזְרֶ֔ךָ וּבְגַֽאֲוָת֖וֹ שְׁחָקִֽים:
Jeshurun: There is none like God - Jeshurun, you should know that there is none like God among all the gods of the peoples, and that their rock is not like your Rock.   אין כאל ישרון: דע לך ישורון שאין כאל בכל אלהי העמים ולא כצורך צורם:
He Who rides the heavens: is the same God Who is at your assistance, and with His majesty, He rides the skies.   רכב שמים: הוא אותו אלוה שבעזרך ובגאותו הוא רוכב שחקים:

Sixth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 33

27which are the abode for the God Who precedes all, and below, are the mighty ones of the world. He expelled the enemy from before you, and said, 'Destroy!'   כזמְעֹנָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵי קֶ֔דֶם וּמִתַּ֖חַת זְרֹעֹ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם וַיְגָ֧רֶשׁ מִפָּנֶ֛יךָ אוֹיֵ֖ב וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַשְׁמֵֽד:
which are the abode for God Who precedes all: The skies are an abode for God who preceded (קֶדֶם) all other deities. He selected the skies [above] as His residence and abode, while all the strong men live below Him.   מענה אלהי קדם: למעון הם השחקים לאלהי קדם, שקדם לכל אלהים ובירר לו שחקים לשבתו ומעונתו, ומתחת מעונתו כל בעלי זרוע שוכנים:
are the mighty ones of the world: [Literally, “The arms of the world.” This refers to] Sihon, Og, and the kings of Canaan, who were [considered] the strength and might of the world. Therefore, despite themselves, they will tremble and quake, and their power will dwindle before God - the fear of one above always falls upon the one below, and thus, He to whom power and might belong is the one who helps you, and who...   זרעת עולם: סיחון ועוג ומלכי כנען, שהיו תקפו וגבורתו של עולם, לפיכך על כרחם יחרדו ויזועו וכחם חלש מפניו. לעולם אימת הגבוה על הנמוך, והוא שהכח והגבורה שלו בעזרך:
drove out the enemy from before you: And said to you, “Destroy them!”   ויגרש מפניך אויב: ואמר לך השמד אותם:
which are the abode: Heb. מְעֹנָה. Every word that requires a lamed as a prefix [meaning “for” or “to”] can instead have a hey as a suffix [and the meaning is identical. Thus, here, the word מְעֹנָה is equivalent to לַמָּעֹן, meaning “for an abode”]. — [Yev. 13b]   מענה: כל תיבה שצריכה למ"ד בתחלתה הטיל לה ה"א בסופה:
28And Israel dwelled safely and alone as Jacob [blessed them], in a land of grain and wine; also, their heavens will drip dew.   כחוַיִּשְׁכֹּן֩ יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל בֶּ֤טַח בָּדָד֙ עֵ֣ין יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ דָּגָ֣ן וְתִיר֑וֹשׁ אַף־שָׁמָ֖יו יַֽעַרְפוּ־טָֽל:
safely and alone: Every single individual [will dwell safely]-each man under his own vine and his own fig tree. [And their security will be so sound, that] they will have no need to live together in one group, because of the enemy.   בטח בדד: כל יחיד ויחיד איש תחת גפנו ותחת תאנתו מפוזרין ואין צריכים להתאסף ולישב יחד מפני האויב:
as Jacob [blessed]: Heb. עֵין יַעִקֹב. [The word עֵין, has the same meaning here] like [referring to the manna], “And its appearance (וְעֵינוֹ) was like the appearance of (כְּעֵין) crystal” (Num. 11:7). [So, our verse comes to teach us that the blessing here, of Israel dwelling בָּדָד] is like the appearance of the blessing that Jacob blessed, and not like the [meaning of the word] בָּדָד used by Jeremiah, “I dwelled alone (בָּדָד)” (Jer. 15:17), but like the appearance of the promise [of secure dwelling] that Jacob made to them [Joseph and his brothers], “And God will be with you, and bring you back to the land of your forefathers” (Gen. 48:21). - [Sifrei 33:28]   עין יעקב: כמו (במדבר יא, ז) ועינו כעין הבדולח, כעין הברכה שברכם יעקב, לא כבדד שאמר ירמיה (ירמיה טו, יז) בדד ישבתי, אלא כעין הבטחה שהבטיחם יעקב (בראשית מח, כא) והיה אלהים עמכם והשיב אתכם אל ארץ אבותיכם:
will drip: Heb. יַעַרְפוּ [like] יִרְעִפוּ, will drip.   יערפו: יטיפו:
also, their heavens will drip dew: [Why does the verse say “also”? It means:] Also, Isaac’s blessing will be added to that of Jacob, which states, “And the God will give you from the dew of the heavens” (Gen. 27: 28). - [Sifrei 33:28]   אף שמיו יערפו טל: אף ברכתו של יצחק נוספת על ברכתו של יעקב (שם כז, כח) ויתן לך האלהים מטל השמים וגו':
29Fortunate are you, O Israel! Who is like you, O people whose salvation is through the Lord, the Shield Who helps you, your majestic Sword! Your enemies will lie to you, but you will tread upon their heights."   כטאַשְׁרֶ֨יךָ יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל מִ֣י כָמ֗וֹךָ עַ֚ם נוֹשַׁ֣ע בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה מָגֵ֣ן עֶזְרֶ֔ךָ וַֽאֲשֶׁר־חֶ֖רֶב גַּֽאֲוָתֶ֑ךָ וְיִכָּֽחֲשׁ֤וּ אֹֽיְבֶ֨יךָ֙ לָ֔ךְ וְאַתָּ֖ה עַל־בָּֽמוֹתֵ֥ימוֹ תִדְרֹֽךְ:
Fortunate are you, O Israel: After Moses specified the blessings to Israel, he said to them, “Why do I have to specify all the details? In general: Everything is yours!”   אשריך ישראל: לאחר שפרט להם הברכות אמר להם מה לי לפרוט לכם, כלל דבר, הכל שלכם:
Fortunate are you, O Israel. Who is like you…!: Your salvation depends on God, Who is the Shield that helps you and the Sword of your majesty.   אשריך ישראל מי כמוך: תשועתך בה' אשר הוא מגן עזרך (ואשר הוא) וחרב גאותך:
Your enemies will lie to you: Like, for instance, the Gibeonites, who said, “Your servants have come from a… distant land…” (Josh. 9:9).   ויכחשו אויביך לך: כגון הגבעונים שאמרו (יהושע ט, ט) מארץ רחוקה באו עבדיך וגו':
and you will tread upon their heights: [The meaning here is: “And you will crush their neck underfoot,”] similar to “Place your feet upon the necks of these kings!” (Josh. 10:24).   ואתה על במותימו תדרוך: כענין שנאמר (שם י, כד) שימו את רגליכם על צוארי המלכים האלה:

Deuteronomy Chapter 34

1And Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, [to the] top of the summit facing Jericho. And the Lord showed him all the Land: The Gilead until Dan,   אוַיַּ֨עַל משֶׁ֜ה מֵֽעַרְבֹ֤ת מוֹאָב֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר נְב֔וֹ רֹ֚אשׁ הַפִּסְגָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י יְרֵח֑וֹ וַיַּרְאֵ֨הוּ יְהֹוָ֧ה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָ֖ד עַד־דָּֽן:
from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo: There were many levels [leading up from the plain to the summit], but Moses covered them with one step. — [Sotah 13b]   מערבות מואב אל הר נבו: כמה מעלות היו ופסען משה בפסיעה אחת:
all the Land: He showed him the entire Land of Israel in its tranquility, and the oppressors who were destined to oppress it. — [Sifrei 33:30]   את כל הארץ: הראהו את כל ארץ ישראל בשלותה והמציקין העתידים להיות מציקין לה:
until Dan: He showed him the children of Dan practicing idolatry, as Scripture states, “And the children of Dan set up for themselves the graven image” (Jud. 18:30), and He showed him Samson, who was destined to issue from him [Dan] as a savior [for Israel]. — [ibid.]   עד דן: הראהו בני דן עובדים עבודה זרה שנאמר (שופטים יח, ל) ויקימו להם בני דן את הפסל, והראהו שמשון שעתיד לצאת ממנו למושיע:
2and all [the land of] Naftali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, until the western sea,   בוְאֵת֙ כָּל־נַפְתָּלִ֔י וְאֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ אֶפְרַ֖יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֑ה וְאֵת֙ כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ יְהוּדָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיָּ֥ם הָאַֽחֲרֽוֹן:
And all [the land of] Naftali: He showed him his land in its tranquility and in its destruction, and He showed him Deborah and Barak of Kedesh-Naftali, waging war against Sisera and his troops. — [Sifrei 33:31]   ואת כל נפתלי: הראהו ארצו בשלותה וחורבנה, והראהו דבורה וברק מקדש נפתלי נלחמים עם סיסרא וחיילותיו:
and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh: He showed him their land in its tranquility and in its destruction; and He showed him Joshua, who was descended from Ephraim, waging war against the kings of Canaan, and Gideon, who was descended from Manasseh, waging war against Midian and Amalek. — [Sifrei 33:31]   ואת ארץ אפרים ומנשה: הראהו ארצם בשלותה ובחורבנה והראהו יהושע נלחם עם מלכי כנען שבא מאפרים, וגדעון שבא ממנשה נלחם עם מדין ועמלק:
and all the land of Judah: in its tranquility and in its destruction, and He showed him the kingdom of the house of David and their victories. — [Sifrei 33:31]   ואת כל ארץ יהודה: בשלותה ובחורבנה והראהו מלכות בית דוד ונצחונם:
until the western sea: Heb. עַד הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן, the land in the west [of Israel], in its tranquillity and in its destruction. [Here, the sea referred to is the Mediterranean Sea, which represents the westernmost flank of the Land of Israel.] Another explanation: Do not understand the verse as stating הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן, but read it as though it had said הַיּוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, “until the very last day,” meaning that the Holy One, blessed is He, showed Him all the incidents that were destined to happen to Israel [until “the last day,” namely,] until the time that the dead would return to life. — [Sifrei 33:31]   עד הים האחרון: ארץ המערב בשלותה ובחורבנה. דבר אחר אל תקרי הים האחרון אלא היום האחרון, הראהו הקב"ה כל המאורעות שעתידין לארע לישראל עד שיחיו המתים:
3and the south, and the plain, the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, until Zoar.   גוְאֶת־הַנֶּ֗גֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּ֞ר בִּקְעַ֧ת יְרֵח֛וֹ עִ֥יר הַתְּמָרִ֖ים עַד־צֹֽעַר:
and the south: Heb. הַנֶּגֶב, the southland [of the Land of Israel]. Another explanation: the Machpelah Cave [which is in Hebron, in the south of Israel], as Scripture states, “And they went up to the south בַנֶּגֶב, and they came to Hebron” (Num. 13:22). - [Sifrei 33:32]   ואת הנגב: ארץ הדרום. דבר אחר מערת המכפלה, שנאמר (במדבר יג, כב) ויעלו בנגב ויבא עד חברון:
and the plain: He showed him Solomon molding the vessels of the Holy Temple, as Scripture states, “In the plain (כִּכָּר) of the Jordan, the king molded them in thick clay” (I Kings 7:46). - [Sifrei 33:31]   ואת הככר: הראהו שלמה יוצק כלי בית המקדש, שנאמר (מ"א א' ז, מו) בככר הירדן יצקם המלך במעבה האדמה:
4And the Lord said to him, "This is the Land I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, 'I will give it to your offspring.' I have let you see it with your eyes, but you shall not cross over there."   דוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו זֹ֤את הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִ֠שְׁבַּ֠עְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֨ם לְיִצְחָ֤ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְזַרְעֲךָ֣ אֶתְּנֶ֑נָּה הֶרְאִיתִ֣יךָ בְעֵינֶ֔יךָ וְשָׁ֖מָּה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲבֹֽר:
saying, ‘I will give it to your offspring,’ I have let you see it: so that you [Moses] can go and say to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, “The oath that the Holy One, blessed is He, swore to you-He has fulfilled it!” This is what is meant by the word “saying” [i.e., Moses should say this to them] (Ber. 18b).“For this reason,” [God says to Moses,] “I have shown it to you. However, a decree has been made before Me, that you shall not cross over there, for otherwise, I would keep you alive until you would see Israel implanted and settled in the Land, and then you would go and tell them [the forefathers].”   לאמר לזרעך אתננה הראיתיך: כדי שתלך ותאמר לאברהם ליצחק וליעקב שבועה שנשבע לכם הקב"ה קיימה, וזהו לאמר, לכך הראיתיה לך, אבל גזרה היא מלפני ששמה לא תעבור, שאלולי כך הייתי מקיימך עד שתראה אותם נטועים וקבועים בה ותלך ותגיד להם:
5And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died there, in the land of Moab, by the mouth of the Lord.   הוַיָּ֨מָת שָׁ֜ם משֶׁ֧ה עֶֽבֶד־יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מוֹאָ֖ב עַל־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
And Moses… died there: Is it possible that Moses died, and [then] wrote, “And Moses… died there”? But [the answer is:] Moses wrote up to that juncture, and Joshua wrote from then on. Says Rabbi Meir: But is it possible that the Torah Scroll would be lacking anything at all, and yet Scripture states (Deut. 31:26),“Take this Torah Scroll” [and Moses commanded this to the Levites; so, according to the above opinion, is it possible that the Torah Scroll referred to there was an incomplete one, up to the juncture of Moses’s death? This cannot be!] Rather, [continues Rabbi Meir, we must say that] The Holy One, blessed is He, dictated this [i.e., the verse “And Moses… died there”], and Moses wrote it in tears. — [B.B. 15b, Sifrei 33:34]   וימת שם משה: אפשר משה מת וכתב וימת שם משה, אלא עד כאן כתב משה, מכאן ואילך כתב יהושע. ר' מאיר אומר אפשר ספר התורה חסר כלום, והוא אומר (לעיל לא, כו) לקוח את ספר התורה הזה, אלא הקב"ה אומר ומשה כותב בדמע:
by the mouth of the Lord: [i.e., Moses died] by a Divine kiss. — [B.B. 17a]   על פי ה': בנשיקה:
6And He buried him in the valley, in the land of Moab, opposite Beth Pe'or. And no person knows the place of his burial, unto this day.   ווַיִּקְבֹּ֨ר אֹת֤וֹ בַגַּי֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מוֹאָ֔ב מ֖וּל בֵּ֣ית פְּע֑וֹר וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע אִישׁ֙ אֶת־קְבֻ֣רָת֔וֹ עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
And He buried him: i.e., The Holy One, blessed is He, Himself, in His very glory [buried Moses]. — [Sotah 14a] Rabbi Ishmael, however, says that [the words “And he buried him” mean that] Moses buried himself. And this אֶת in the phrase here וַיִּקְבֹּר אוֹתוֹ is one of the three instances of the אֶת in Scripture which Rabbi Ishmael expounded on in this way [i.e., where the suffix attached אֶת is understood to be reflexive, meaning “to himself”, “to themselves”, and so on]. And similar to this case [are the following two instances]: “On the day when his Nazirite vow is completed, he must bring him (אֹתוֹ)” (Num. 6:13), which means, “he shall bring himself” [i.e., present himself]. And likewise, “And they cause them (אוֹתָם) to bear the sin of their guilt” (Lev. 22:16). Surely does this refer to others causing them to bear that sin? Rather, the verse must mean that they cause themselves to bear the sin. — [Sifrei Nasso 32:124]   ויקבר אותו: הקב"ה בכבודו. רבי ישמעאל אומר הוא קבר את עצמו, וזהו אחד משלשה אתין שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש כן. כיוצא בו (במדבר ו, יג) ביום מלאת ימי נזרו יביא אותו, הוא מביא את עצמו. כיוצא בו (ויקרא כב, טז) והשיאו אותם עון אשמה, וכי אחרים משיאים אותם, אלא הם משיאים את עצמם:
opposite Beth Pe’or: His burial site was ready there [at Beth Pe’or], since the six days of Creation, to atone for the [sinful] act of Pe’or. — [see Num. 25:1-8; Sotah 14a] This [Moses’s burial site] was one of the things created at twilight, on the eve of [the first] Sabbath. — [Avoth 5:6]   מול בית פעור: קברו היה מוכן שם מששת ימי בראשית לכפר על מעשה פעור, וזה אחד מן הדברים שנבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות:
7Moses was one hundred and twenty years old when he died. His eye had not dimmed, nor had he lost his [natural] freshness.   זוּמשֶׁ֗ה בֶּן־מֵאָ֧ה וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים שָׁנָ֖ה בְּמֹת֑וֹ לֹא־כָֽהֲתָ֥ה עֵינ֖וֹ וְלֹא־נָ֥ס לֵחֹֽה:
His eye had not dimmed: Even after he died. — [see Sifrei 33:36]   לא כהתה עינו: אף משמת:
nor had he lost his [natural] freshness: [The word לֵחֹה refers to his [body’s] moisture. [Thus, the phrase means:] “[Even after his death,] decomposition did not take over his body, nor did the appearance of his face change.”   ולא נס לחה: לחלוחית שבו לא שלט בו רקבון ולא נהפך תואר פניו:
8And the sons of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab for thirty days, and the days of weeping over the mourning for Moses came to an end.   חוַיִּבְכּוּ֩ בְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל אֶת־משֶׁ֛ה בְּעַרְבֹ֥ת מוֹאָ֖ב שְׁלשִׁ֣ים י֑וֹם וַיִּתְּמ֔וּ יְמֵ֥י בְכִ֖י אֵ֥בֶל משֶֽׁה:
The sons of Israel: [ordinarily meaning the children of Israel, male and female. But here, it refers only to] the males [who wept for Moses]. However, concerning [the passing of] Aaron, since he used to pursue peace and bring peace between a man and his fellow and between a woman and her husband, it is said [at Aaron’s passing], “The whole house of Israel [wept for him]” (Num. 20:29), meaning both males and females. — [Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer 17]   בני ישראל: הזכרים, אבל באהרן מתוך שהיה רודף שלום ונותן שלום בין איש לרעהו ובין אשה לבעלה נאמר (במדבר כ, כט) כל בית ישראל, זכרים ונקבות:
9And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom, because Moses had laid his hands upon him. And the children of Israel obeyed him, and they did as the Lord had commanded Moses.   טוִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בִּן־נ֗וּן מָלֵא֙ ר֣וּחַ חָכְמָ֔ה כִּֽי־סָמַ֥ךְ משֶׁ֛ה אֶת־יָדָ֖יו עָלָ֑יו וַיִּשְׁמְע֨וּ אֵלָ֤יו בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֔וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
10And there was no other prophet who arose in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face,   יוְלֹא־קָ֨ם נָבִ֥יא ע֛וֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כְּמשֶׁ֑ה אֲשֶׁר֙ יְדָע֣וֹ יְהֹוָ֔ה פָּנִ֖ים אֶל־פָּנִֽים:
whom the Lord knew face to face: For he was quite familiar with Him, speaking with Him at any time he wished, as it is said, “So now I will go up to the Lord” (Exod. 32:30), and, “You stand still, and I will listen to what the Lord will command concerning you” (Num. 9:8).   אשר ידעו ה' פנים אל פנים: שהיה לבו גס בו ומדבר אליו בכל עת שרוצה, כענין שנאמר (שמות לב, ל) ועתה אעלה אל ה', (במדבר ט, ח) עמדו ואשמעה מה יצוה ה' לכם:
11as manifested by all the signs and wonders, which the Lord had sent him to perform in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh and all his servants, and to all his land,   יאלְכָל־הָֽ֨אֹתֹ֜ת וְהַמּֽוֹפְתִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר שְׁלָחוֹ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה לַֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לְפַרְעֹ֥ה וּלְכָל־עֲבָדָ֖יו וּלְכָל־אַרְצֽוֹ:
12and all the strong hand, and all the great awe, which Moses performed before the eyes of all Israel.   יבוּלְכֹל֙ הַיָּ֣ד הַֽחֲזָקָ֔ה וּלְכֹ֖ל הַמּוֹרָ֣א הַגָּד֑וֹל אֲשֶׁר֙ עָשָׂ֣ה משֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and all the strong hand: [This refers to] his receiving the Torah on the Tablets with his hands.   ולכל היד החזקה: שקבל את התורה בלוחות בידיו:
And all the great awe: [This refers to the] miracles and mighty deeds [that were performed for Israel] in the great and awesome wilderness. — [Sifrei 33:41]   ולכל המורא הגדול: נסים וגבורות שבמדבר הגדול והנורא:
before the eyes of all Israel: [This expression alludes to the incident where] his heart stirred him up to smash the tablets before their eyes, as it is said, “and I shattered them before your eyes” (Deut. 9:17). - [Sifrei 33:41] And [regarding Moses shattering the Tablets,] the Holy One Blessed is He gave His approval, as Scripture states, “[the first Tablets] which you shattered” (Exod. 34:1); [God said to Moses:] “Well done for shattering them!” - [Shab. 87a]   לעיני כל ישראל: שנשאו לבו לשבור הלוחות לעיניהם, שנאמר (לעיל ט, יז) ואשברם לעיניכם, והסכימה דעת הקב"ה לדעתו, שנאמר (שמות לד, א) אשר שברת, יישר כחך ששברת:

Seventh Portion

Genesis Chapter 1

1In the beginning of God's creation of the heavens and the earth.   אבְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
In the beginning: Said Rabbi Isaac: It was not necessary to begin the Torah except from “This month is to you,” (Exod. 12:2) which is the first commandment that the Israelites were commanded, (for the main purpose of the Torah is its commandments, and although several commandments are found in Genesis, e.g., circumcision and the prohibition of eating the thigh sinew, they could have been included together with the other commandments). Now for what reason did He commence with “In the beginning?” Because of [the verse] “The strength of His works He related to His people, to give them the inheritance of the nations” (Ps. 111:6). For if the nations of the world should say to Israel, “You are robbers, for you conquered by force the lands of the seven nations [of Canaan],” they will reply, "The entire earth belongs to the Holy One, blessed be He; He created it (this we learn from the story of the Creation) and gave it to whomever He deemed proper When He wished, He gave it to them, and when He wished, He took it away from them and gave it to us.   בראשית: אמר רבי יצחק לא היה צריך להתחיל [את] התורה אלא (שמות יב ב) מהחודש הזה לכם, שהיא מצוה ראשונה שנצטוו [בה] ישראל, ומה טעם פתח בבראשית, משום (תהלים קיא ו) כח מעשיו הגיד לעמו לתת להם נחלת גוים, שאם יאמרו אומות העולם לישראל לסטים אתם, שכבשתם ארצות שבעה גוים, הם אומרים להם כל הארץ של הקב"ה היא, הוא בראה ונתנה לאשר ישר בעיניו, ברצונו נתנה להם וברצונו נטלה מהם ונתנה לנו:
In the beginning of God’s creation of: Heb. בְּרֵאשִית בָּרָא. This verse calls for a midrashic interpretation [because according to its simple interpretation, the vowelization of the word בָּרָא, should be different, as Rashi explains further]. It teaches us that the sequence of the Creation as written is impossible, as is written immediately below] as our Rabbis stated (Letters of R. Akiva , letter “beth” ; Gen. Rabbah 1:6; Lev. Rabbah 36:4): [God created the world] for the sake of the Torah, which is called (Prov. 8:22): “the beginning of His way,” and for the sake of Israel, who are called (Jer. 2:3) “the first of His grain.” But if you wish to explain it according to its simple meaning, explain it thus: “At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth, the earth was astonishing with emptiness, and darkness…and God said, ‘Let there be light.’” But Scripture did not come to teach the sequence of the Creation, to say that these came first, for if it came to teach this, it should have written:“At first (בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה) He created the heavens and the earth,” for there is no רֵאשִׁית in Scripture that is not connected to the following word, [i.e., in the construct state] like (ibid. 27:1):“In the beginning of (בְּרֵאשִית) the reign of Jehoiakim” ; (below 10:10)“the beginning of (רֵאשִׁית) his reign” ; (Deut. 18:4)“the first (רֵאשִׁית) of your corn.” Here too, you say בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אלֹהִים, like בְּרֵאשִׁית בְּרֹא, in the beginning of creating. And similar to this is,“At the beginning of the Lord’s speaking (דִּבֶּר) to Hosea,” (Hos. 1:2), i.e., at the beginning of the speaking (דִּבּוּרוֹ) of the Holy One, Blessed be He, to Hosea, “the Lord said to Hosea, etc.” Now if you say that it came to teach that these (i.e., heaven and earth) were created first, and that its meaning is: In the beginning of all, He created these-and that there are elliptical verses that omit one word, like (Job 3:10): “For [He] did not shut the doors of my [mother’s] womb,” and it does not explain who it was who shut [the womb]; and like (Isa. 8:4): “he will carry off the wealth of Damascus,” and it does not explain who will carry it off; and like (Amos 6:12): “or will one plow with cattle,” and it does not explain: “if a man will plow with cattle” ; and like (Isa. 46: 10): “telling the end from the beginning,” and it does not explain that [it means] telling the end of a matter from the beginning of a matter-if so, [if you say that Scripture indicates the order of creation] be astounded at yourself, for the water preceded, as it is written: “and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the water,” and Scripture did not yet disclose when the creation of water took place! From this you learn that the water preceded the earth. Moreover, the heavens were created from fire and water. Perforce, you must admit that Scripture did not teach us anything about the sequence of the earlier and the later [acts of creation].   בראשית ברא: אין המקרא הזה אומר אלא דרשני, כמו שדרשוהו רבותינו ז"ל בשביל התורה שנקראת (משלי ח כב) ראשית דרכו, ובשביל ישראל שנקראו (ירמיה ב ג) ראשית תבואתו. ואם באת לפרשו כפשוטו כך פרשהו בראשית בריאת שמים וארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו וחשך ויאמר א-להים יהי אור. ולא בא המקרא להורות סדר הבריאה לומר שאלו קדמו, שאם בא להורות כך, היה לו לכתוב בראשונה ברא את השמים וגו', שאין לך ראשית במקרא שאינו דבוק לתיבה של אחריו, כמו (שם כו א) בראשית ממלכות יהויקים, (בראשית י י) ראשית ממלכתו, (דברים יח ד) ראשית דגנך, אף כאן אתה אומר בראשית ברא א-להים וגו', כמו בראשית ברוא. ודומה לו (הושע א ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע, כלומר תחלת דבורו של הקב"ה בהושע, ויאמר ה' אל הושע וגו'. ואם תאמר להורות בא שאלו תחלה נבראו, ופירושו בראשית הכל ברא אלו, ויש לך מקראות שמקצרים לשונם וממעטים תיבה אחת, כמו (איוב ג י) כי לא סגר דלתי בטני, ולא פירש מי הסוגר, וכמו (ישעיה ח ד) ישא את חיל דמשק, ולא פירש מי ישאנו, וכמו (עמוס ו יב) אם יחרוש בבקרים, ולא פירש אם יחרוש אדם בבקרים, וכמו (ישעיה מו י) מגיד מראשית אחרית, ולא פירש מגיד מראשית דבר אחרית דבר. אם כן תמה על עצמך, שהרי המים קדמו, שהרי כתיב ורוח א-להים מרחפת על פני המים, ועדיין לא גלה המקרא בריית המים מתי היתה, הא למדת שקדמו המים לארץ. ועוד שהשמים מאש ומים נבראו, על כרחך לא לימד המקרא סדר המוקדמים והמאוחרים כלום:
God’s creation of the heavens and the earth: But it does not say “of the Lord’s creation of” (i.e., it should say “of the Lord God’s creation of” as below 2:4 “on the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven”) for in the beginning it was His intention to create it with the Divine Standard of Justice, but he perceived that the world would not endure; so He preceded it with the Divine Standard of Mercy, allying it with the Divine Standard of Justice, and that is the reason it is written:“on the day the Lord God made earth and heaven.”   ברא א-להים: ולא אמר ברא ה', שבתחלה עלה במחשבה לבראתו במדת הדין, ראה שאין העולם מתקיים, הקדים מדת רחמים ושתפה למדת הדין, היינו דכתיב (להלן ב ד) ביום עשות ה' א-להים ארץ ושמים:
2Now the earth was astonishingly empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the water.   בוְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָֽיְתָ֥ה תֹ֨הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְח֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם:
astonishingly empty: Heb. תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ. The word תֹהוּ is an expression of astonishment and desolation, that a person wonders and is astonished at the emptiness therein.   תהו ובהו: תהו לשון תמה ושממון שאדם תוהא ומשתומם על בהו שבה:
astonishingly empty: Astordison in Old French; [étourdissement in modern French], astonishment. בֹהוּ an expression of emptiness and desolation. (This does not appear in all editions.)   תהו: אישטורדישו"ן בלע"ז [מבוכה]:
בֹהוּ: an expression of emptiness and desolation. (This does not appear in all editions.)   בהו: לשון רקות וצדו:
on the face of the deep: on the face of the waters which were on the earth.   על פני תהום: על פני המים שעל הארץ:
and the spirit of God was hovering: The Throne of Glory was suspended in the air and hovered over the face of the water with the breath of the mouth of the Holy One, blessed be He and with His word, like a dove, which hovers over the nest, acoveter in Old French, to cover, hover over.   ורוח א-להים מרחפת: כסא הכבוד עומד באויר ומרחף על פני המים ברוח פיו של הקב"ה ובמאמרו, כיונה המרחפת על הקן אקוביטי"ר בלע"ז [לכסות]:
3And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.   גוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִי־א֑וֹר וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר:
4And God saw the light that it was good, and God separated between the light and between the darkness.   דוַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר כִּי־ט֑וֹב וַיַּבְדֵּ֣ל אֱלֹהִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֥ין הַחֽשֶׁךְ:
And God saw the light that it was good, and God separated: Here too, we need the words of the Aggadah: He saw it that it was not proper for the wicked to use it; so He separated it for the righteous in the future. According to its simple meaning, explain it as follows: He saw it that it was good, and it was unseemly that it [light] and darkness should serve in confusion; so He established for this one its boundary by day, and for that one its boundary by night.   וירא א-להים את האור כי טוב ויבדל: אף בזה אנו צריכים לדברי אגדה ראהו שאינו כדאי להשתמש בו רשעים והבדילו לצדיקים לעתיד לבא. ולפי פשוטו כך פרשהו ראהו כי טוב ואין נאה לו ולחשך שיהיו משתמשין בערבוביא, וקבע לזה תחומו ביום ולזה תחומו בלילה:
5And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night, and it was evening and it was morning, one day.   הוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַח֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
one day: According to the sequence of the language of the chapter, it should have been written, “the first day,” as it is written regarding the other days, “second, third, fourth.” Why did Scripture write“one” ? Because the Holy One, blessed be He, was the only one in His world, for the angels were not created until the second day. [i.e., יוֹם אֶחָד is understood as ‘the day of the only One’] So is it explained in Genesis Rabbah (3:8).   יום אחד: לפי סדר [לשון] הפרשה היה לו לכתוב יום ראשון, כמו שכתוב בשאר הימים שני, שלישי, רביעי. למה כתב אחד, לפי שהיה הקב"ה יחיד בעולמו שלא נבראו המלאכים עד יום שני, כך מפורש בבראשית רבה (ג ח):
6And God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, and let it be a separation between water and water."   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יְהִ֥י רָקִ֖יעַ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַמָּ֑יִם וִיהִ֣י מַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין מַ֖יִם לָמָֽיִם:
Let there be an expanse: Let the expanse be strengthened, for, although the heavens were created on the first day, they were still moist, and they solidified on the second [day] from the rebuke of the Holy One, blessed be He, when He said, “Let there be an expanse.” This is what Scripture says (Job 26:11): “The pillars of the heavens trembled” the entire first day, and on the second day: “They were astonished by His rebuke,” like a person who stands in astonishment because of the rebuke of the one who frightens him. [Genesis Rabbah 12:10]   יהי רקיע: יחזק הרקיע. שאף על פי שנבראו שמים ביום ראשון, עדיין לחים היו, וקרשו בשני מגערת הקב"ה באומרו יהי רקיע, וזהו שכתוב (איוב כו יא) עמודי שמים ירופפו כל יום ראשון. ובשני יתמהו מגערתו, כאדם שמשתומם ועומד מגערת המאיים עליו:
in the midst of the water: In the middle of the water (Targum), for there is a separation between the upper waters and the expanse, as there is between the expanse and the waters that are on the earth. Behold you have learned that they are suspended by the word of the King. — [Gen. Rabbah 4:3]   בתוך המים: באמצע המים, שיש הפרש בין מים העליונים לרקיע כמו בין הרקיע למים שעל הארץ, הא למדת שהם תלוים במאמרו של מלך:
7And God made the expanse and it separated between the water that was below the expanse and the water that was above the expanse, and it was so.   זוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִים֘ אֶת־הָֽרָקִיעַ֒ וַיַּבְדֵּ֗ל בֵּ֤ין הַמַּ֨יִם֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ מִתַּ֣חַת לָֽרָקִ֔יעַ וּבֵ֣ין הַמַּ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר מֵעַ֣ל לָֽרָקִ֑יעַ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
And God made the expanse: He fixed it upon its base, which is [what is meant by] “making” it; as [in the verse] (Deut. 21:12):“and she shall ‘do’ her nails,” וְעָשְׂתָה.   ויעש א-להים את הרקיע: תקנו על עמדו והיא עשייתו, כמו (דברים כא יב) ועשתה את צפרניה:
above the expanse: It does not say, “on the expanse,” but “above the expanse,” because they [the waters] are suspended in the air (Mid. Ps. 19:4). Now why does it not say, “that it was good” on the second day? Because the work involving the water was not completed until the third day, although He commenced it on the second day, and an unfinished thing is not in its fullness and its goodness; and on the third day, when He completed the work involving the water and He commenced and completed another work, He repeated therein“that it was good” twice (sic): once for the completion of the work of the second day and once for the completion of the work of that [third] day. — [Gen. Rabbah 4:6]   מעל לרקיע: על הרקיע לא נאמר אלא מעל לרקיע, לפי שהן תלוים באויר. ומפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב ביום שני, לפי שלא נגמרה מלאכת המים עד יום שלישי, והרי התחיל בה בשני, ודבר שלא נגמר אינו במילואו ובטובו, ובשלישי שנגמרה מלאכת המים והתחיל מלאכה אחרת וגמרה, כפל בו כי טוב שני פעמים, אחד לגמר מלאכת השני ואחד לגמר מלאכת היום:
8And God called the expanse Heaven, and it was evening, and it was morning, a second day.   חוַיִּקְרָ֧א אֱלֹהִ֛ים לָֽרָקִ֖יעַ שָׁמָ֑יִם וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם שֵׁנִֽי:
And God called the expanse heaven: Heb. שָׁמַיִם [This is a combination of the words מַיִם שָׂא, bear water (Gen. Rabbah 4:7); שָׁם מַיִם, there is water; אֵשׁ וּמַיִם, fire and water. He mingled them with one another and made the heavens from them (Chag. 12a).   ויקרא א-להים לרקיע שמים: שא מים, שם מים, אש ומים, שערבן זה בזה ועשה מהם שמים:
9And God said, "Let the water that is beneath the heavens gather into one place, and let the dry land appear," and it was so.   טוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יִקָּו֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם מִתַּ֤חַת הַשָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ אֶל־מָק֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד וְתֵֽרָאֶ֖ה הַיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the water…gather: They were spread out over the surface of the entire earth, and He gathered them in the ocean, [the Mediterranean], which is the largest of all the seas. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 5; Gen. Rabbah 5:2]   יקוו המים: [שהיו] שטוחין על פני כל הארץ והקוום באוקינוס, הוא הים הגדול שבכל הימים:
10And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas, and God saw that it was good.   יוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לַיַּבָּשָׁה֙ אֶ֔רֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵ֥ה הַמַּ֖יִם קָרָ֣א יַמִּ֑ים וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
He called seas: But is it not one sea? However, the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Acre differs from the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Spain. — [from Ekev 39]   קרא ימים: והלא ים אחד הוא, אלא אינו דומה טעם דג העולה [מן הים] בעכו לטעם דג העולה [מן הים] באספמיא:
11And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation, seed yielding herbs and fruit trees producing fruit according to its kind in which its seed is found, on the earth," and it was so.   יאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים תַּדְשֵׁ֤א הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ דֶּ֗שֶׁא עֵ֚שֶׂב מַזְרִ֣יעַ זֶ֔רַע עֵ֣ץ פְּרִ֞י עֹ֤שֶׂה פְּרִי֙ לְמִינ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the earth sprout vegetation, seed yielding herbs: דֶּשֶׁא does not have the same meaning as עֵשֶׂב, and עֵשֶׂב does not have the same meaning as דֶּשֶׁא. And it would have been inappropriate for the Scriptural text to use the expression, תַּעֲשִׂיב הָאָרֶץ (let the earth bring forth herbs), for there are various species of דֶּשֶׁא, each one by itself which is called a particular עֵשֶׂב. And it would not be the correct term for the speaker to say, “such-and-such a דֶּשֶׁא,” because the term דֶּשֶׁא applies to the earth’s covering, when it is filled with vegetation.   תדשא הארץ דשא עשב: לא דשא לשון עשב ולא עשב לשון דשא, ולא היה לשון המקרא לומר תעשיב הארץ, שמיני דשאים מחולקין, כל אחד לעצמו נקרא עשב פלוני, ואין לשון למדבר לומר דשא פלוני, שלשון דשא הוא לבישת הארץ כשהיא מתמלאת בדשאים:
Let the earth sprout: Let it be filled and covered with a mantle of herbs. In Old French, דֶשֶׁא is called erbediz, herbage, all in a mixture, whereas each root individually is called עֵשֶׂב.   תדשא הארץ: תתמלא ותתכסה לבוש עשבים. בלשון לעז נקרא דשא אירבידי"ץ [מכלול העשבים] כולן בערבוביא, וכל שורש לעצמו נקרא עשב:
seed-yielding: That its seeds should grow in it from which to sow elsewhere.   מזריע זרע: שיגדל בו זרעו לזרוע ממנו במקום אחר:
fruit trees: That the taste of the tree should be like the taste of the fruit. It [the earth] did not do so, however, but“the earth gave forth, etc., trees producing fruit,” but the trees themselves were not fruit. Therefore, when man was cursed because of his iniquity, it [the earth] too was punished for its iniquity (and was cursed-not in all editions). - [from Gen. Rabbah 5:9]   עץ פרי: שיהא טעם העץ כטעם הפרי, והיא לא עשתה כן, אלא (פסוק יב) ותוצא הארץ עץ עושה פרי, ולא העץ פרי, לפיכך כשנתקלל אדם על עונו נפקדה גם היא על עונה ונתקללה:
in which its seed is found: These are the kernels of every fruit, from which the tree grows when it is planted.   אשר זרעו בו: הן גרעיני כל פרי, שמהן האילן צומח כשנוטעין אותן:
12And the earth gave forth vegetation, seed yielding herbs according to its kind, and trees producing fruit, in which its seed is found, according to its kind, and God saw that it was good.   יבוַתּוֹצֵ֨א הָאָ֜רֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵ֣שֶׂב מַזְרִ֤יעַ זֶ֨רַע֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וְעֵ֧ץ עֹֽשֶׂה־פְּרִ֛י אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
And the earth gave forth, etc.: Even though לְמִינֵהוּ.“according to its kind,” was not said regarding the herbs when they were commanded [to grow], they heard that the trees were commanded thus, and they applied an a fortiori argument to themselves, [a קַל וָחוֹמֶר -from the minor to the major], as is explained in the Aggadah of Tractate Chullin (60a).   ותוצא הארץ וגו': אף על פי שלא נאמר למינהו בדשאין בציוייהן, שמעו שנצטוו האילנות על כך, ונשאו קל וחומר בעצמן, כמפורש באגדה בשחיטת חולין (חולין ס א):
13And it was evening, and it was morning, a third day.   יגוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם שְׁלִישִֽׁי:
14And God said, "Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens, to separate between the day and between the night, and they shall be for signs and for appointed seasons and for days and years.   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יְהִ֤י מְאֹרֹת֙ בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם לְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַיּ֖וֹם וּבֵ֣ין הַלָּ֑יְלָה וְהָי֤וּ לְאֹתֹת֙ וּלְמ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים וּלְיָמִ֖ים וְשָׁנִֽים:
Let there be luminaries, etc.: They were created on the first day, and on the fourth day, He commanded them to be suspended in the sky, and likewise, all the creations of heaven and earth were created on the first day, and each one was fixed in its proper place on the day that was decreed upon it. That is why it is written:“with the heavens (אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם) to include their products,”and with the earth (וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ)," to include its products. — [Gen. Rabbah 1:14]   יהי מארת וגו': מיום ראשון נבראו, וברביעי צוה עליהם להתלות ברקיע, וכן כל תולדות שמים וארץ נבראו מיום ראשון, וכל אחד ואחד נקבע ביום שנגזר עליו, הוא שכתוב (פסוק א) את השמים, לרבות תולדותיהם, ואת הארץ, לרבות תולדותיה:
Let there be luminaries: Heb., יְהִי מְאֹרֹת It [the word, מְאֹרֹת is written without a“vav,” [thus, the word can be מְאֵרֹת meaning curses] because it [the fourth day] is a cursed day when children become ill with croup. This is what we learned (Ta’anith 27b): “on the fourth day [of the week], they [the men of the ma’amad] would fast so that children should not become ill with croup.”   יהי מארת: חסר וי"ו כתיב, על שהוא יום מארה ליפול אסכרה בתינוקות, הוא ששנינו ברביעי היו מתענים על אסכרה שלא תפול בתינוקות:
to separate between the day and between the night: (This happened) after the first light was hidden away, but during the seven (another reading: during the three) days of Creation, the primordial light and darkness served together, both by day and by night. — [Medrah Yelammedenu , as quoted in Yalkut Shim’oni] According to the Ramban and early editions of Rashi , it appears that the reading, “during the seven days of Creation,” is the authentic reading. Ramban , however quotes the Genesis Rabbah , which states that the original primordial light served only during the first three days, until the sun and the moon were suspended in the sky. After that, the primordial light was hidden away, as in Rashi to verse 4. Note also that several early manuscripts and printed editions of Rashi read: “but in the seven days of Creation, the primordial light and darkness served, this one by day and this one by night.” This is also the reading of Mizrachi , and it appears more accurate than our reading, because, in fact, the light and the darkness did not serve together, as Rashi explains in verse 4.]   להבדיל בין היום ובין הלילה: משנגנז האור הראשון, אבל בשבעת ימי בראשית שמשו האור והחושך הראשונים יחד בין ביום ובין בלילה:
and they shall be for signs: When the luminaries are eclipsed, it is an unfavorable omen for the world, as it is said (Jer. 10:2): “and from the signs of the heaven be not dismayed, etc.” When you perform the will of the Holy One, blessed be He, you need not fear retribution. — [from Succah 29a]   והיו לאותות: כשהמאורות לוקין סימן רע הוא לעולם, שנאמר (ירמיה י ב) מאותות השמים אל תחתו, בעשותכם רצון הקב"ה אין אתם צריכין לדאג מן הפורענות:
and for appointed seasons: This refers to the future, when the Israelites are destined to be commanded concerning the festivals and they [the festivals] are reckoned from the first phase of the moon. — [from Gen. Rabbah 6:1].   ולמועדים: על שם העתיד, שעתידים ישראל להצטוות על המועדות והם נמנים למולד הלבנה:
and for days: The sun serves for half a day, and the moon for half of it, so that you have a full day.   ולימים: שמוש החמה חצי יום ושמוש הלבנה חציו, הרי יום שלם:
and years: At the end of 365 days (other editions: and a 1/4 of a day) they complete their revolution through the twelve constellations of the zodiac, which serve them, and that constitutes a year. (Other editions read: and that is 365 and 1/4 days), and they return and start a second time to revolve on the sphere like their first revolution.   ושנים: לסוף שלש מאות ששים וחמשה ימים יגמרו מהלכת בשנים עשר מזלות המשרתים אותם והיא שנה. (וחוזרים ומתחילים פעם שניה לסבב בגלגל כמהלכן הראשון):
15And they shall be for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to shed light upon the earth." And it was so.   טווְהָי֤וּ לִמְאוֹרֹת֙ בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם לְהָאִ֖יר עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
And they shall be for luminaries: In addition, they will serve in this function, viz. to shed light upon the world.   והיו למאורות: עוד זאת ישמשו שיאירו לעולם:
16And God made the two great luminaries: the great luminary to rule the day and the lesser luminary to rule the night, and the stars.   טזוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־שְׁנֵ֥י הַמְּאֹרֹ֖ת הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים אֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַגָּדֹל֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַיּ֔וֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַקָּטֹן֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַלַּ֔יְלָה וְאֵ֖ת הַכּֽוֹכָבִֽים:
the two great luminaries: They were created equal, but the moon was made smaller because it brought charges and said, “It is impossible for two kings to use the same crown.” - [from Chullin 60b] Rashi (ad loc.) explains that this derash is based on the discrepancy of the two expressions, “the two great luminaries,” which intimates that the moon was a great luminary, and“the lesser luminary,” which intimates that the moon was smaller than the sun. To reconcile this difference, the Rabbis asserted that the moon was originally created equal to the sun, but, because of its complaint that the sun wielded the same power that it wielded, it was forced to relinquish that power.   המאורות הגדולים וגו': שוים נבראו, ונתמעטה הלבנה על שקטרגה ואמרה אי אפשר לשני מלכים שישתמשו בכתר אחד:
and the stars: Because He diminished the moon, He increased its hosts, to appease it. - [from Gen. Rabbah 46:4 and Chullin 60b] i.e., The stars serve as the entourage of the moon. When it comes out, they accompany it, and when it sets, they too set. [Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   ואת הכוכבים: על ידי שמיעט את הלבנה, הרבה צבאיה להפיס דעתה: 
17And God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to shed light upon the earth.   יזוַיִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לְהָאִ֖יר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
18And to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate between the light and between the darkness, and God saw that it was good.   יחוְלִמְשֹׁל֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם וּבַלַּ֔יְלָה וּֽלֲהַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֣ין הַח֑שֶׁךְ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
19And it was evening, and it was morning, a fourth day.   יטוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם רְבִיעִֽי:
20And God said, "Let the waters swarm a swarming of living creatures, and let fowl fly over the earth, across the expanse of the heavens."   כוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יִשְׁרְצ֣וּ הַמַּ֔יִם שֶׁ֖רֶץ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֑ה וְעוֹף֙ יְעוֹפֵ֣ף עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֖י רְקִ֥יעַ הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
living creatures: That there should be life in them.   נפש חיה: שיש בה חיות:
a swarming: Heb. שֶׁרֶץ. Every living thing that is not much higher than the earth is שֶׁרֶץ; among the winged creatures, such as flies; among the insects, such as ants, beetles, and worms; and among the [larger] creatures, such as the weasel, the mouse, the lizard, and their like, and so [among] the fishes. [Note that in most early editions and mss., the reading is וְכָל הַדָּגִים, and all the fishes (and not וְכֵן הַדגָּים).]   שרץ: כל דבר חי שאינו גבוה מן הארץ קרוי שרץ, בעוף כגון זבובים, בשקצים כגון נמלים וחיפושין ותולעים, ובבריות כגון חולד ועכבר וחומט וכיוצא בהם, וכל הדגים:
21And God created the great sea monsters, and every living creature that crawls, with which the waters swarmed, according to their kind, and every winged fowl, according to its kind, and God saw that it was good.   כאוַיִּבְרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִ֖ם הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֣ה | הָֽרֹמֶ֡שֶׂת אֲשֶׁר֩ שָֽׁרְצ֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם לְמִֽינֵהֶ֗ם וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־ע֤וֹף כָּנָף֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
the…sea monsters: The great fish in the sea, and in the words of the Aggadah (B.B. 74b), this refers to the Leviathan and its mate, for He created them male and female, and He slew the female and salted her away for the righteous in the future, for if they would propagate, the world could not exist because of them. הַתַּנִינִם is written. [I.e., the final “yud,” which denotes the plural, is missing, hence the implication that the Leviathan did not remain two, but that its number was reduced to one.]- [from Gen. Rabbah 7:4, Midrash Chaseroth V’Yetheroth, Batei Midrashoth, vol 2, p. 225].   התנינים: דגים גדולים שבים. ובדברי אגדה הוא לויתן ובן זוגו שבראם זכר ונקבה והרג את הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא, שאם יפרו וירבו לא יתקיים העולם בפניהם:
living creature: a creature in which there is life.   נפש החיה: שיש בה חיות:
22And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters of the seas, and let the fowl multiply upon the earth."   כבוַיְבָ֧רֶךְ אֹתָ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֗וּ וּמִלְא֤וּ אֶת־הַמַּ֨יִם֙ בַּיַּמִּ֔ים וְהָע֖וֹף יִ֥רֶב בָּאָֽרֶץ:
And…blessed them: Because [people] decimate them and hunt them and eat them, they required a blessing; and the beasts also required a blessing, but because the serpent was destined to be cursed, He did not bless them, lest he [the serpent] be included. — [from Gen. Rabbah 11:3, Midrash Tadshe 1]   ויברך אותם: לפי שמחסרים אותן וצדין מהם ואוכלין אותם הוצרכו לברכה. ואף החיות הוצרכו לברכה, אלא מפני הנחש שעתיד לקללה, לכך לא ברכן, שלא יהא הוא בכלל:
Be fruitful: [The word פְּרוּ is derived from פְּרִי, fruit, meaning produce fruits.   פרו: לשון פרי, כלומר עשו פירות:
and multiply: If He had said only, “Be fruitful,” one would beget one and no more.“And multiply” was therefore said so that one could beget many.   ורבו: אם לא אמר אלא פרו היה אחד מוליד אחד ולא יותר, ובא ורבו שאחד מוליד הרבה:
23And it was evening, and it was morning, a fifth day.   כגוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם חֲמִישִֽׁי:
24And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kind, cattle and creeping things and the beasts of the earth according to their kind," and it was so.   כדוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים תּוֹצֵ֨א הָאָ֜רֶץ נֶ֤פֶשׁ חַיָּה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ בְּהֵמָ֥ה וָרֶ֛מֶשׂ וְחַֽיְתוֹ־אֶ֖רֶץ לְמִינָ֑הּ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the earth bring forth: That is what I explained [verse 14] that everything was created on the first [day], and they required only to be brought forth. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Bereishith 1]   תוצא הארץ: הוא שפירשתי (פסוק יד) שהכל נברא מיום ראשון ולא הוצרכו אלא להוציאם:
living creatures: which have life. (See above, verse 20.)   נפש חיה: שיש בה חיות:
and creeping things: These are the creeping things, which are low and crawl upon the earth and appear as if they are dragging along, because their movement is not discernible. Every expression of רֶמֶשׁ or שֶׁרֶץ [is translated] in our language [Old French] as conmovres , crawling creatures.   ורמש: הם שרצים שהם נמוכים ורומשים על הארץ, נראים כאלו נגררים, שאין הלוכן ניכר. כל לשון רמש ושרץ בלשוננו קונמובר"יש בלע"ז [רוחשים]:
25And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kind and the cattle according to their kind, and all the creeping things of the ground according to their kind, and God saw that it was good.   כהוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִים֩ אֶת־חַיַּ֨ת הָאָ֜רֶץ לְמִינָ֗הּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־רֶ֥מֶשׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֖ה לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
And… made: He fixed them in their complete form, and in their full stature. — [from Rosh Hashanah 11a, Chullin 60a]   ויעש: תקנם בצביונם ובקומתן:
26And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and they shall rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the heaven and over the animals and over all the earth and over all the creeping things that creep upon the earth."   כווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם בְּצַלְמֵ֖נוּ כִּדְמוּתֵ֑נוּ וְיִרְדּוּ֩ בִדְגַ֨ת הַיָּ֜ם וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבְכָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Let us make man: From here we learn the humility of the Holy One, blessed be He. Since man was created in the likeness of the angels, and they would envy him, He consulted them. And when He judges kings, He consults with His Heavenly household, for so we find regarding Ahab, that Micah said to him, (I Kings 22:19): “I saw the Lord seated on His throne, and all the host of heaven were standing by Him, on His right and on His left.” Now do “left” or “right” apply to Him ?! But rather, [the passage means that] these [angels] were standing on the right to defend, and these [angels] were standing on the left to prosecute. Likewise, (Dan. 4:14): “By the decree of the destructive angels is the matter, and by the word of the holy ones is the edict.” Here too, He took counsel with His heavenly household. He said to them, “Among the heavenly beings, there are some in My likeness. If there are none in My likeness among the earthly beings, there will be envy among the creatures of the Creation. ” - [from Tanchuma, Shemoth 18; Gen. Rabbah 8:11, 14:13]   נעשה אדם: ענותנותו של הקב"ה למדנו מכאן, לפי שהאדם בדמות המלאכים ויתקנאו בו לפיכך נמלך בהם, וכשהוא דן את המלכים הוא נמלך בפמליא שלו, שכן מצינו באחאב שאמר לו מיכה (מלכים א' כב יט) ראיתי את ה' יושב על כסאו וכל צבא השמים עומד עליו מימינו ומשמאלו, וכי יש ימין ושמאל לפניו, אלא אלו מימינים לזכות ואלו משמאילין לחובה. וכן (דניאל ד יד) בגזרת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאלתא, אף כאן בפמליא שלו נמלך ונטל רשות, אמר להם יש בעליונים כדמותי, אם אין בתחתונים כדמותי, הרי יש קנאה במעשה בראשית:
Let us make man: Even though they [the angels] did not assist Him in His creation, and there is an opportunity for the heretics to rebel (to misconstrue the plural as a basis for their heresies), Scripture did not hesitate to teach proper conduct and the trait of humility, that a great person should consult with and receive permission from a smaller one. Had it been written: “I shall make man,” we would not have learned that He was speaking with His tribunal, but to Himself. And the refutation to the heretics is written alongside it [i. e., in the following verse:]“And God created (וַיִּבְרָא) ,” and it does not say,“and they created וַיִּבְרְאוּ.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 8:9]   נעשה אדם: אף על פי שלא סייעוהו ביצירתו ויש מקום למינים לרדות, לא נמנע הכתוב מללמד דרך ארץ ומדת ענוה שיהא הגדול נמלך ונוטל רשות מן הקטן. ואם כתב אעשה אדם לא למדנו שיהא מדבר עם בית דינו אלא עם עצמו, ותשובת המינים כתב בצדו ויברא א-להים את האדם, ולא כתב ויבראו:
in our image: in our form.   בצלמנו: בדפוס שלנו:
after our likeness: to understand and to discern.   כדמותנו: להבין ולהשכיל:
and they shall rule over the fish: Heb. וְיִרְדּוּ This expression contains both the meaning of ruling and the meaning of subservience. If he merits, he rules over the beasts and over the cattle. If he does not merit, he becomes subservient to them, and the beast rules over him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 8:12]   וירדו בדגת הים: יש בלשון הזה לשון רידוי ולשון ירידה, זכה רודה בחיות ובבהמות, לא זכה נעשה ירוד לפניהם והחיה מושלת בו:
27And God created man in His image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.   כזוַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמ֔וֹ בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹת֑וֹ זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם:
And God created man in His image: In the form that was made for him, for everything [else] was created with a command, whereas he [man] was created with the hands (of God), as it is written (Ps. 139:5): “and You placed Your hand upon me.” Man was made with a die, like a coin, which is made by means of a die, which is called coin in Old French. And so Scripture states (Job 38:14): “The die changes like clay.” - [from Letters of Rabbi Akiva , second version; Mid. Ps. 139:5; Sanh. 38a]   ויברא א-להים את האדם בצלמו: בדפוס העשוי לו, שהכל נברא במאמר והוא נברא בידים, שנאמר (תהלים קלט ה) ותשת עלי כפכה, נעשה בחותם כמטבע העשויה על ידי רושם שקורין קוי"ן בלע"ז [מטבע] וכן הוא אומר (איוב לח יד) תתהפך כחומר חותם:
in the image of God He created him: It explains to you that the image that was prepared for him was the image of the likeness of his Creator. — [from B.B. 58a]   בצלם א-להים ברא אותו: פירש לך שאותו צלם המתוקן לו צלם דיוקן יצורו הוא:
male and female He created them: Yet further (2:21) Scripture states: “And He took one of his ribs, etc.” The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 8:1, Ber. 61a, Eruvin 18a) explains that He originally created him with two faces, and afterwards, He divided him. The simple meaning of the verse is that here Scripture informs you that they were both created on the sixth [day], but it does not explain to you how they were created, and it explains [that] to you elsewhere. — [from Baraitha of the Thirty Two Methods , Method 13]   זכר ונקבה ברא אותם: ולהלן הוא אומר (בראשית ב כא) ויקח אחת מצלעותיו וגו', מדרש אגדה שבראו שני פרצופין בבריאה ראשונה ואחר כך חלקו. ופשוטו של מקרא, כאן הודיעך שנבראו שניהם בששי ולא פירש לך כיצד ברייתן ופירש לך במקום אחר:
28And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the sky and over all the beasts that tread upon the earth. "   כחוַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֹתָם֘ אֱלֹהִים֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לָהֶ֜ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֛וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁ֑הָ וּרְד֞וּ בִּדְגַ֤ת הַיָּם֙ וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּ֖ה הָֽרֹמֶ֥שֶׂת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
and subdue it: The“vav” [in וְכִבְשֻׁהָ is missing, [allowing the word to be read וְכִבְשָׁה, the masculine singular imperative] to teach you that the male subdues the female that she should not be a gadabout (Gen. Rabbah 8:12), and it is also meant to teach you that the man, whose way it is to subdue, is commanded to propagate, but not the woman (Yev. Yev. 65b).   וכבשה: חסר וי"ו, ללמדך שהזכר כובש את הנקבה שלא תהא יצאנית, ועוד ללמדך שהאיש שדרכו לכבוש מצווה על פריה ורביה ולא האשה:
29And God said, "Behold, I have given you every seed bearing herb, which is upon the surface of the entire earth, and every tree that has seed bearing fruit; it will be yours for food.   כטוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים הִנֵּה֩ נָתַ֨תִּי לָכֶ֜ם אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב | זֹרֵ֣עַ זֶ֗רַע אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵ֛ץ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ פְרִי־עֵ֖ץ זֹרֵ֣עַ זָ֑רַע לָכֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאָכְלָֽה:
30And to all the beasts of the earth and to all the fowl of the heavens, and to everything that moves upon the earth, in which there is a living spirit, every green herb to eat," and it was so.   לוּלְכָל־חַיַּ֣ת הָ֠אָ֠רֶץ וּלְכָל־ע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם וּלְכֹ֣ל | רוֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֔ה אֶת־כָּל־יֶ֥רֶק עֵ֖שֶׂב לְאָכְלָ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
it will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth: He equated cattle and the beasts to them [to man] regarding the food [that they were permitted to eat]. He did not permit Adam and his wife to kill a creature and to eat its flesh; only every green herb they were all permitted to eat equally. When the sons of Noah came, He permitted them to eat flesh, as it is said (below 9:3): “Every creeping thing that is alive, etc.” Like the green herbs, which I permitted to the first man, I have given you everything. — [from Sanh. 59b]   לכם יהיה לאכלה. ולכל חית הארץ: השוה להם הכתוב בהמות וחיות למאכל, ולא הרשה לאדם ולאשתו להמית בריה ולאכול בשר, אך כל ירק עשב יאכלו יחד כלם, וכשבאו בני נח התיר להם בשר, שנאמר (להלן ט ג) כל רמש אשר הוא חי וגו' כירק עשב שהתרתי לאדם הראשון, נתתי לכם את כל:
31And God saw all that He had made, and behold it was very good, and it was evening and it was morning, the sixth day.   לאוַיַּ֤רְא אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב מְאֹ֑ד וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּֽׁי:
the sixth day: Scripture added a “hey” on the sixth [day], at the completion of the Creation, to tell us that He stipulated with them, [“you were created] on the condition that Israel accept the Five Books of the Torah.” [The numerical value of the “hey” is five.] (Tanchuma Bereishith 1). Another explanation for “the sixth day” : They [the works of creation] were all suspended until the “sixth day,” referring to the sixth day of Sivan, which was prepared for the giving of the Torah (Shab. 88a). [The“hey” is the definite article, alluding to the well-known sixth day, the sixth day of Sivan, when the Torah was given (ad loc.).]   יום הששי: הוסיף ה' בששי בגמר מעשה בראשית, לומר שהתנה עמהם על מנת שיקבלו עליהם ישראל חמשה חומשי תורה. דבר אחר יום הששי כולם תלוים ועומדים עד יום הששי, הוא ששי בסיון המוכן למתן תורה:

Genesis Chapter 2

1Now the heavens and the earth were completed and all their host.   אוַיְכֻלּ֛וּ הַשָּׁמַ֥יִם וְהָאָ֖רֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָֽם:
2And God completed on the seventh day His work that He did, and He abstained on the seventh day from all His work that He did.   בוַיְכַ֤ל אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה:
And God completed on the seventh day: Rabbi Shimon said: [A human being of] flesh and blood, who cannot [exactly] know his times and his moments, must add from the profane to the holy [i.e., he must add some time to the Sabbath.] The Holy One, blessed be He, Who knows His times and His moments [exactly], entered it [the Sabbath] within a hairbreadth, and it therefore appeared as if He completed it [His work] on that day. Another explanation: What was the world lacking? Rest. The Sabbath came, and so came rest. The work was completed and finished. — [from Gen. Rabbah 10:9]   ויכל א-להים ביום השביעי: רבי שמעון אומר בשר ודם שאינו יודע עתיו ורגעיו צריך להוסיף מחול על הקודש, הקב"ה שיודע עתיו ורגעיו נכנס בו כחוט השערה ונראה כאלו כלה בו ביום. דבר אחר מה היה העולם חסר, מנוחה, באת שבת באת מנוחה, כלתה ונגמרה המלאכה:
3And God blessed the seventh day and He hallowed it, for thereon He abstained from all His work that God created to do.   גוַיְבָ֤רֶךְ אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וַיְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י ב֤וֹ שָׁבַת֙ מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
And…blessed…and hallowed: He blessed it with manna, for on all the days of the week, it descended for them [in the amount of] an omer per person, whereas on the sixth day,[each one received] a double portion. And He hallowed it with manna, that it did not descend at all on the Sabbath. This verse is written with reference to the future. — [from Gen. Rabbah 11:2]   ויברך ויקדש: ברכו במן שכל ימות השבת היה יורד להם עומר לגלגלת ובששי לחם משנה, וקדשו במן שלא ירד בו מן כלל והמקרא כתוב על שם העתיד:
that God created to do: The work that was fit to be done on the Sabbath, He doubled up and did it on the sixth [day], as is explained in Genesis Rabbah (11:9).   אשר ברא א-להים לעשות: המלאכה שהיתה ראויה לעשות בשבת כפל ועשאה בששי, כמו שמפורש בבראשית רבה (יא ט):

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 29

35The eighth day shall be a time of restriction for you; you shall not perform any mundane work.   להבַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י עֲצֶ֖רֶת תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
A time of restriction for you: עֲצֶרֶת, restricted from working (Chagigah 18a). Another interpretation: Restrain yourselves from leaving. This teaches that they were required to remain [in Jerusalem] overnight (Sifrei Pinchas 55). This [word עֲצֶרֶת] is expounded in the Aggadah : (Sukkah 55b) [as follows]: For throughout the days of the festival they brought offerings symbolizing the seventy nations, and when they came to leave, the Omnipresent said to them, “Please make Me a small feast, so that I can have some pleasure from you [alone].”   עצרת תהיה לכם: עצורים בעשיית מלאכה. דבר אחר עצרת עצרו מלצאת, מלמד שטעון לינה. ומדרשו באגדה לפי שכל ימות הרגל הקריבו כנגד שבעים אומות וכשבאין ללכת, אמר להם המקום בבקשה מכם עשו לי סעודה קטנה כדי שאהנה מכם:
36You shall offer up a burnt offering, a fire offering for a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord: one bull, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   לווְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם עֹלָ֜ה אִשֵּׁ֨ה רֵ֤יחַ נִיחֹ֨חַ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה פַּ֥ר אֶחָ֖ד אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֑ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:
one bull, one ram: These correspond to Israel. [God said,] “Remain with Me a little longer.” It expresses [His] affection [for Israel]. It is like children taking leave of their father, who says to them, “It is difficult for me to part with you; stay one more day.” It is analogous to a king who made a banquet, etc. [and on the last day, his closest friend makes a small banquet for the king] as is stated in Tractate Sukkah [55b]. In the Midrash of R. Tanchuma (Pinchas 16) [it says]: The Torah teaches common courtesy. Someone who has a guest, [and wants him to feel at home,] on the first day, he should serve him fattened poultry, on the following day he should serve him fish, on the following day beef, on the following day pulses, and on the following day vegetables, progressively diminishing, as in the case of the festival bulls.   פר אחד איל אחד: אלו כנגד ישראל, התעכבו לי מעט עוד. ולשון חבה הוא זה, כבנים הנפטרים מאביהם והוא אומר להם קשה עלי פרידתכם עכבו עוד יום אחד. משל למלך שעשה סעודה וכו', כדאיתא במס' סוכה (דף נה ב) ובמדרש רבי תנחומא למדה תורה דרך ארץ, שמי שיש לו אכסנאי יום ראשון יאכילו פטומות, למחר מאכילו דגים, למחר מאכילו בשר בהמה, למחר מאכילו קטניות, למחר מאכילו ירק, פוחת והולך כפרי החג:
37Their meal offerings and their libations, for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, as prescribed.   לזמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם לַפָּ֨ר לָאַ֧יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
38And one young male goat for a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its meal offering and its libation.   לחוּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:
39These you shall offer up for the Lord on your festivals, besides your vows and voluntary offerings, for your burnt offerings, for your meal offerings, for your libations, and for your peace offerings.   לטאֵ֛לֶּה תַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בְּמֽוֹעֲדֵיכֶ֑ם לְבַ֨ד מִנִּדְרֵיכֶ֜ם וְנִדְבֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם לְעֹלֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ וּלְמִנְחֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וּלְנִסְכֵּיכֶ֖ם וּלְשַׁלְמֵיכֶֽם:
These you shall offer up for the Lord on your festivals: A matter fixed as an obligation.   אלה תעשו לה' במועדיכם: דבר הקצוב לחובה:
besides your vows: If you wish to pledge offerings during a festival, it is considered a mitzvah [virtuous deed] for you [to fulfill your vows during the festival] (Sifrei Pinchas 56). Alternatively, vows or voluntary offerings which you have pledged throughout the year should be brought on the festival, lest one find it difficult to return to Jerusalem to offer up his vows, with the result that he will transgress the prohibition of “you shall not delay [in paying your vows and pledges]” (Deut. 23:22).   לבד מנדריכם: אם באתם לידור קרבנות ברגל, מצוה היא בידכם או נדרים או נדבות שנדרתם כל השנה תקריבום ברגל, שמא יקשה לו לחזור ולעלות לירושלים ולהקריב נדריו, ונמצא עובר בבל תאחר:

Numbers Chapter 30

1Moses spoke to the children of Israel in accordance with all that the Lord had commanded Moses.   אוַיֹּ֥אמֶר משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כְּכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
Moses spoke to the children of Israel: [This verse is written] to make a pause; [these are] the words of R. Ishmael. Since up to this point the words of the Omnipresent [were stated], and the [following] chapter dealing with vows begins with the words of Moses, it was necessary to make a break first and say that Moses repeated this chapter [of offerings] to Israel, for if not so, it would imply that he did not tell this to them, but began his address with the chapter discussing vows. — [Sifrei Pinchas 57]   ויאמר משה אל בני ישראל: להפסיק הענין, דברי רבי ישמעאל, לפי שעד כאן דבריו של מקום ופרשת נדרים מתחלת בדבורו של משה, הוצרך להפסיק תחלה ולומר שחזר משה ואמר פרשה זו לישראל, שאם לא כן יש במשמע שלא אמר להם זו אלא בפרשת נדרים התחיל דבריו:


Joshua Chapter 1

1And it was after the death of Moses the servant of the Lord, that the Lord said to Joshua the son of Nun, Moses' minister, saying:   אוַיְהִ֗י אַחֲרֵ֛י מ֥וֹת מֹשֶׁ֖ה עֶ֣בֶד יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בִּן־נ֔וּן מְשָׁרֵ֥ת מֹשֶׁ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
And it was after the death of Moses: This is connected to the order of the Torah which ends with Moses’ passing, and this follows it.  
2Moses my servant has died; and now arise cross this Jordan, you and all this nation, to the land which I give the children of Israel.   במֹשֶׁ֥ה עַבְדִּ֖י מֵ֑ת וְעַתָּה֩ ק֨וּם עֲבֹ֜ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֣ן הַזֶּ֗ה אַתָּה֙ וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Moses My servant has died: If he were alive, I would prefer him. The Rabbis interpret this passage as a reference, not to Moses the leader, but to Moses the Lawgiver, concerning the 3,000 laws that were forgotten during the period of mourning for Moses. Joshua came and asked the Lord to repeat these laws to him. Said to him the Holy One, Blessed be He: Moses My servant has died, and the Torah is called by his name, implying to you that it is impossible [to convey them to you.] Go out and occupy them with martial activities.  
3Every place on which the soles of your feet will tread I have given to you, as I have spoken to Moses.   גכָּל־מָק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּדְרֹ֧ךְ כַּֽף־רַגְלְכֶ֛ם בּ֖וֹ לָכֶ֣ם נְתַתִּ֑יו כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־מֹשֶֽׁה:
Every place on which [the soles of your feet] will tread: A similar statement to this was said to Moses, concerning which we learned in Sifrei : If this verse is to teach about the boundaries of Eretz Israel, the Scripture already states: From this desert and Lebanon etc., [clearly defining the boundaries of the Holy Land.] If so, why is it stated, ‘Every place where your foot will tread?’ Even outside of Eretz Israel. [I.e.] After you have conquered the land, all that you will conquer outside the land, will be holy and will be yours.  
4From this desert and Lebanon to the great river, the Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites to the great sea westward shall be your boundary.   דמֵהַמִּדְבָּר֩ וְהַלְּבָנ֨וֹן הַזֶּ֜ה וְֽעַד־הַנָּהָ֣ר | הַגָּד֣וֹל נְהַר־פְּרָ֗ת כֹּ֚ל אֶ֣רֶץ הַחִתִּ֔ים וְעַד־הַיָּ֥ם הַגָּד֖וֹל מְב֣וֹא הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה גְּבֽוּלְכֶֽם:
From this desert and Lebanon: [I.e.] the Desert of Kadesh, the Desert of Zin [that is near Edom], which was in the southeastern corner, through which they entered the land, as it is stated: And behold, we are in Kadesh. Now, whence is it derived that it was in the southeast? For it is stated: And the south side shall be to you from the desert of Zin near Edom etc.  
to the great river, the Euphrates: This is its width from south to North.  
all the land of the Hittites: is included.  
to the great sea westward: Lengthwise from east to west.  
5No man shall stand up before you all the days of your life; as I was with Moses, so shall I be with you. I will not weaken My grasp on you nor will I abandon you.   הלֹֽא־יִתְיַצֵּ֥ב אִישׁ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י חַיֶּ֑יךָ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיִ֚יתִי עִם־מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א אַרְפְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א אֶעֶזְבֶֽךָּ:
6Be strong and have courage; for you will cause this nation to inherit the land that I have sworn to their ancestors to give to them.   וחֲזַ֖ק וֶֽאֱמָ֑ץ כִּ֣י אַתָּ֗ה תַּנְחִיל֙ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֶת־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֥עְתִּי לַֽאֲבוֹתָ֖ם לָתֵ֥ת לָהֶֽם:
Be strong and have courage: in worldly pursuits, as the Scripture states: “For you will cause this nation to inherit the land.”  
7Just be strong and very courageous to observe and do in accordance with all of the Torah that Moses My servant has commanded you. Do not stray therefrom right or left, in order that you succeed wherever you go.   זרַק֩ חֲזַ֨ק וֶאֱמַ֜ץ מְאֹ֗ד לִשְׁמֹ֚ר לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ כְּכָל־הַתּוֹרָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֚ר צִוְּךָ֙ מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדִּ֔י אַל־תָּס֥וּר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ יָמִ֣ין וּשְׂמֹ֑אול לְמַ֣עַן תַּשְׂכִּ֔יל בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ:
Just be strong and very courageous: in Torah, as the Scripture states: “To observe and to do in accordance with all of the Torah.”  
8This book of the Torah shall not leave your mouth; you shall meditate therein day and night, in order that you observe to do all that is written in it, for then will you succeed in all your ways and then will you prosper.   חלֹֽא־יָמ֡וּשׁ סֵ֩פֶר֩ הַתּוֹרָ֨ה הַזֶּ֜ה מִפִּ֗יךָ וְהָגִ֚יתָ בּוֹ֙ יוֹמָ֣ם וָלַ֔יְלָה לְמַ֙עַן֙ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר לַֽעֲשֹ֔וֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּת֖וּב בּ֑וֹ כִּי־אָ֛ז תַּצְלִ֥יחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶ֖ךָ וְאָ֥ז תַּשְׂכִּֽיל:
This book of the Torah: The book of Deuteronomy was before him.  
And you shall meditate therein: והגית. Every expression of הגיון in the Scriptures refers to the heart, as it is stated: “And the meditation of my heart (והגיון לבי) before you.” Your heart will meditate (יהגה) fear.  
9Did I not command you, be strong and have courage, do not fear and do not be dismayed, for the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.   טהֲל֚וֹא צִוִּיתִ֙יךָ֙ חֲזַ֣ק וֶאֱמָ֔ץ אַֽל־תַּעֲרֹ֖ץ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּ֚י עִמְּךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ:
Did I not command you, be strong and have courage: in war; as it is stated: Do not fear and not be dismayed. Now, when did he command him? In Moses’ time, as it is stated: “And command Joshua, etc.”  
10And Joshua commanded the officers of the nation, saying:   יוַיְצַ֣ו יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ אֶת־שֹֽׁטְרֵ֥י הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
And Joshua commanded: on the day that the days of the weeping in the mourning of Moses were ended.  
11Go through the midst of the camp and command the nation saying: Prepare provision for yourselves, for in another three days you will cross this Jordan to come and inherit the land that the Lord your God is giving you to inherit.   יאעִבְר֣וּ | בְּקֶ֣רֶב הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֗ה וְצַוּ֚וּ אֶת־הָעָם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הָכִ֥ינוּ לָכֶ֖ם צֵדָ֑ה כִּ֞י בְּע֣וֹד | שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים אַתֶּם֙ עֹבְרִים֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֣ן הַזֶּ֔ה לָבוֹא֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֖ם לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
Prepare provisions for yourselves: everything necessary for the way. He told them to prepare weapons for battle. For, if you say it refers to food and drink, were they not supplied by the manna which was in their vessels until Nissan 16? For so it is stated: “And the manna ceased on the morrow.”  
in another three days: [lit. in yet three days, i.e.] At the end of three days, when you will still be here three days, and afterwards you will cross.  
12And to the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, Joshua said, saying:   יבוְלָרְאוּבֵנִי֙ וְלַגָּדִ֔י וְלַֽחֲצִ֖י שֵׁ֣בֶט הַֽמְנַשֶּׁ֑ה אָמַ֥ר יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ לֵאמֹֽר:
13Remember the word that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you saying: The Lord your God is giving you rest and has given you this land.   יגזָכוֹר֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֛ם מֹשֶׁ֥ה עֶֽבֶד־יְהֹוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר יְהֹוָ֚ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם֙ מֵנִ֣יחַ לָכֶ֔ם וְנָתַ֥ן לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּֽאת:
14Your wives, your children, and your cattle shall settle in the land that Moses gave you on this side of the Jordan, and you, all the warriors, shall cross over armed before your brothers, and you shall help them.   ידנְשֵׁיכֶ֣ם טַפְּכֶם֘ וּמִקְנֵיכֶם֒ יֵֽשְׁב֕וּ בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֥ן לָכֶ֛ם מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וְאַתֶּם֩ תַּֽעַבְר֨וּ חֲמֻשִׁ֜ים לִפְנֵ֣י אֲחֵיכֶ֗ם כֹּ֚ל גִּבּוֹרֵ֣י הַחַ֔יִל וַֽעֲזַרְתֶּ֖ם אוֹתָֽם:
all the warriors: among you shall cross over armed.  
15Until the Lord gives your brothers rest as He has given you, and they too shall inherit the land that the Lord your God gives them. You will then return to the land of your inheritance which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you on this side of the Jordan towards the rising of the sun, and you will inherit it.   טועַ֠ד אֲשֶׁר־יָנִ֨יחַ יְהֹוָ֥ה | לַֽאֲחֵיכֶם֘ כָּכֶם֒ וְיָֽרְשׁ֣וּ גַם־הֵ֔מָּה אֶת־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם נֹתֵ֣ן לָהֶ֑ם וְשַׁבְתֶּ֞ם לְאֶ֚רֶץ יְרֻשַּׁתְכֶם֙ וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֣ם אוֹתָ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֣ר | נָתַ֣ן לָכֶ֗ם מֹשֶׁה֙ עֶ֣בֶד יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּעֵ֥בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן מִזְרַ֥ח הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ:
toward the rising of the sun: The eastern side of the Jordan.  
16And they answered Joshua saying: All that you have commanded us we shall do and wherever you send us we shall go.   טזוַֽיַּֽעֲנ֔וּ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּ֚ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתָ֙נוּ֙ נַֽעֲשֶֹ֔ה וְאֶל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּשְׁלָחֵ֖נוּ נֵלֵֽךְ:
17Just as we obeyed Moses in everything, so shall we obey you. Only that the Lord your God be with you as He was with Moses.   יזכְּכֹ֚ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֙עְנוּ֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה כֵּ֖ן נִשְׁמַ֣ע אֵלֶ֑יךָ רַ֠ק יִֽהְיֶ֞ה יְהֹוָ֚ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה עִם־מֹשֶֽׁה:
18Every man that shall rebel against your words and will not listen to your commands in all that you order him shall be put to death. Only be strong and have courage.   יחכָּל־אִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַמְרֶ֣ה אֶת־פִּ֗יךָ וְלֹֽא־יִשְׁמַ֧ע אֶת־דְּבָרֶ֛יךָ לְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־תְּצַוֶּ֖נּוּ יוּמָ֑ת רַ֖ק חֲזַ֥ק וֶֽאֱמָֽץ:
that shall rebel [against your words]: defy your words.  
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