Leviticus Chapter 21

16And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   טזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
17Speak to Aaron, saying: Any man among your offspring throughout their generations who has a defect, shall not come near to offer up his God's food.   יזדַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹ֑ר אִ֣ישׁ מִזַּרְעֲךָ֞ לְדֹֽרֹתָ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בוֹ֙ מ֔וּם לֹ֣א יִקְרַ֔ב לְהַקְרִ֖יב לֶ֥חֶם אֱלֹהָֽיו:
his God’s food: Heb. לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו, his God’s food. Any meal is termed לֶחֶם, as in, “…made a great feast (לְחֵם) ” (Dan. 5:1).   לחם אלהיו: מאכל אלהיו, כל סעודה קרויה לחם, כמו (דניאל ה א) עבד לחם רב:
18For any man who has a defect should not approach: A blind man or a lame one, or one with a sunken nose or with mismatching limbs;   יחכִּ֥י כָל־אִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ מ֖וּם לֹ֣א יִקְרָ֑ב אִ֤ישׁ עִוֵּר֙ א֣וֹ פִסֵּ֔חַ א֥וֹ חָרֻ֖ם א֥וֹ שָׂרֽוּעַ:
For any man who has a defect should not approach: [But this prohibition has already been stated (preceding verse). The meaning here is that] it is not fitting that he should approach, like “[When you offer up a blind [animal]…a lame or a sick one, is there nothing wrong?] Were you to offer it to your governor, [would he accept you or would he favor you? says the Lord of Hosts” (Malachi 1:8). Thus, just as an animal with a defect is not fitting as an offering, neither is a person with a defect fit for presenting it.]   כי כל איש אשר בו מום לא יקרב: אינו דין שיקרב, כמו (מלאכי א ח) הקריבהו נא לפחתך:
with a sunken nose: Heb. חָרֻם. [This term means] that his nose is sunken between his two eyes, such that he applies [eye shadow to] his two eyes with one stroke [i.e., his nose is so sunken that its bridge does not intercede between the two eyes]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:48; Bech. 43b]   חרם: שחוטמו שקוע בין שתי העינים, שכוחל שתי עיניו כאחת:
with mismatching limbs: Heb. שָׂרוּעַ [This term means] that one of his limbs is bigger than its counterpart, [e.g.,] one of his eyes is large, and one of his eyes is smaller [normal], or one thigh longer than its [normal] counterpart. — [see Sifthei Chachamim; Bech. 40b]   שרוע: שאחד מאיבריו גדול מחברו, עינו אחת גדולה ועינו אחת קטנה, או שוקו אחת ארוכה מחברתה:
19or a man who has a broken leg or a broken arm;   יטא֣וֹ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ שֶׁ֣בֶר רָ֑גֶל א֖וֹ שֶׁ֥בֶר יָֽד:
20or one with long eyebrows, or a cataract, or a commingling in his eye; dry lesions or weeping sores, or one with crushed testicles   כאֽוֹ־גִבֵּ֣ן אוֹ־דַ֔ק א֖וֹ תְּבַלֻּ֣ל בְּעֵינ֑וֹ א֤וֹ גָרָב֙ א֣וֹ יַלֶּ֔פֶת א֖וֹ מְר֥וֹחַ אָֽשֶׁךְ:
one who has unusually long eyebrows: Heb. גִּבֵּן, sourcils in French, [meaning] that his eyebrow (גַּבִּין) hairs are [abnormally] long and droop. — [Bech. 43b]   או גבן: שורצילו"ש בלע"ז [בעל גבות ארוכות] שגביני עיניו שערן ארוך ושוכב:
cataract: Heb. דַּק. [This means] that over his eyes he has a [thin] membrane (דּוֹק) which is called teile, tele, toyle, or tele in Old French, as in, “He Who stretches out [the heavens] like a curtain (דֹּק) ” (Isa. 40:22). — [Torath Kohanim 21:52; Bech. 38a]   או דק: שיש לו בעיניו דוק שקורין טיל"א [קרום], כמו (ישעיה מ כב) הנוטה כדוק:
a commingling in his eyes: Heb. תְּבֻלַּל, something that mixes (מְבַלְבֵּל) the [colors of the] eye, e.g., a white line that extends from the white [of the eye], piercing the “ring” [viz., the iris,] i.e., the [colored] annulus that encompasses the black [center of the eye, viz., the pupil,] called prunelle in French. This line pierces the iris and enters the black [pupil]. The Targum renders תְּבֻלַּל as חִילִיז, derived from חִלָּזוֹן, because this line resembles a worm. And so did the Sages of Israel call it [when they enumerate] the defects of a firstborn animal [in the context of whether it may be slaughtered outside the Temple]: עֵינָב, נָחָשׁ, חִלָּזוֹן, a worm-shaped, snake-shaped [growth], or a berry-shaped [growth]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:52, Bech. 38a, Mishnah Bech. 6:2]   או תבלל: דבר המבלבל את העין, כגון חוט לבן הנמשך מן הלבן ופוסק בסירא, שהוא עוגל המקיף את השחור, שקוראים פרוניל"א [אישון], והחוט הזה פוסק את העוגל ונכנס בשחור. ותרגום תבלול חיליז, לשון חלזון, שהוא דומה לתולעת אותו החוט. וכן כינוהו חכמי ישראל במומי הבכור חלזון נחש עינב (בכורות לח א):
or dry lesions or weeping sores: These are various types of boils.   גרב וילפת: מיני שחין הם:
dry lesions: Heb. גָרָב. This is [equivalent to] חֶרֶס, a skin disease [whose lesions are] dry [both] underneath and on the surface.   גרב: זו החרס, שחין היבש מבפנים ומבחוץ:
weeping sores: Heb. יַלֶּפֶת. This is the Egyptian lichen. And why is it called יַלֶּפֶת ? Because it bonds (מְלַפֶּפֶת) itself more and more [to the stricken person] until the day of [his] death. It is wet on its surface and dry underneath. Now, in another passage, a lesion wet on the surface and dry underneath is called גָרָב, as the verse says (Deut. 28:27), “weeping sores (גָרָב) and with dry lesions (חֶרֶס).” (But how is that so, when here, we have explained גָּרָב not only to be a completely dry lesion but also to be synonymous with חֶרֶס)? The answer is that] when גָּרָב is mentioned alongside חֶרֶס [as in Deut. 28:27], then the term גָרָב means [with wet lesions on the surface, and the term חֶרֶס refers to dry lesions both on the surface and underneath (see Rashi there)]. However, when it is mentioned alongside יַלֶּפֶת, then חֶרֶס [the dry lesion], is called גָרָב. Thus is the matter explained in Bech. (41a).   ילפת: היא חזזית המצרית. ולמה נקראת ילפת שמלפפת והולכת עד יום המיתה, והוא לח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים. ובמקום אחר קורא לגרב שחין הלח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים, שנאמר (דברים כח כז) ובגרב ובחרס, כשסמוך גרב אצל חרס קורא לילפת גרב, וכשהוא סמוך אצל ילפת קורא לחרס גרב, כך מפורש בבכורות (מא א):
one who has crushed testicles: Heb. מְרוֹחַ אֶשֶׁךְ [This term is to be understood] according to the Targum [Onkelos] as מְרִיס פַּחֲדִין, meaning: his testicles are crushed, like, “the sinews of his testicles (פַּחִדָיו) are knit together” (Job 40:17).   מרוח אשך: לפי התרגום מריס פחדין, שפחדיו מרוססים, שביצים שלו כתותין. פחדין כמו (איוב מ יז) גידי פחדיו ישורגו:
21Any man among Aaron the kohen's offspring who has a defect shall not draw near to offer up the Lord's fire offerings. There is a defect in him; he shall not draw near to offer up his God's food.   כאכָּל־אִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֣וֹ מ֗וּם מִזֶּ֨רַע֙ אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן לֹ֣א יִגַּ֔שׁ לְהַקְרִ֖יב אֶת־אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה מ֣וּם בּ֔וֹ אֵ֚ת לֶ֣חֶם אֱלֹהָ֔יו לֹ֥א יִגַּ֖שׁ לְהַקְרִֽיב:
Any man…who has a defect [shall not draw near…]: [But has this prohibition not already been stated in verse 17? This verse, however, comes to] include other types of defects [not specified in our passage]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:54]   כל איש אשר בו מום: לרבות שאר מומין:
There is a defect in him: As long as he has the defect, he is unfit [for the Holy Service]. However, if his defect goes away, he is fit [to serve]. — [Torath Kohanim 21:55]   מום בו: בעוד מומו בו פסול, הא אם עבר מומו כשר:
his God’s food: Any food is termed לֶחֶם.   לחם אלהיו: כל מאכל קרוי לחם:
22His God's food from the most holy and from the holy ones, he may eat.   כבלֶ֣חֶם אֱלֹהָ֔יו מִקָּדְשֵׁ֖י הַקֳּדָשִׁ֑ים וּמִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים יֹאכֵֽל:
from the most holy: [This phrase] refers to [those sacrifices] with a higher degree of holiness;   מקדשי הקדשים: אלו קדשי הקדשים:
and from the holy ones, he may eat: These are the sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness. Now, if sacrifices with a higher degree of holiness are mentioned [that a kohen with a defect may eat of them], why is it necessary to state [the same of] sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness? [The answer is that] had they not been stated, I would have concluded [the following]: Indeed [a kohen] with a defect may eat of the sacrifices with a higher degree of holiness, since we find that these were allowed to [be eaten even by] a non- kohen , since Moses [who was not a kohen ,] ate of the flesh of the sacrifices of the investitures. Consequently, perhaps the most holy sacrifices carry with them this leniency]. The breast and thigh of sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness, however, shall not be eaten [by a kohen with a defect], for we do not find an instance where a non- kohen takes a share of these!“ Therefore, Scripture states here ”or from the holy" [thereby permitting a kohen with a defect to eat from the sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness as well]. In this way the matter is explained in [Tractate] Zevachim (101b).   ומן הקדשים יאכל: אלו קדשים קלים. ואם נאמרו קדשי הקדשים למה נאמרו קדשים קלים, אם לא נאמרו הייתי אומר בקדשי הקדשים יאכל בעל מום, שמצינו שהותרו לזר, שאכל משה בשר המלואים, אבל בחזה ושוק של קדשים קלים לא יאכל, שלא מצינו זר חולק בהן, לכך נאמרו קדשים קלים. כך מפורש בזבחים (קא ב):
23But he shall not come to the dividing curtain, nor shall he draw near to the altar, for he has a defect, and he shall not desecrate My holy things, for I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   כגאַ֣ךְ אֶל־הַפָּרֹ֜כֶת לֹ֣א יָבֹ֗א וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ לֹ֥א יִגַּ֖שׁ כִּי־מ֣וּם בּ֑וֹ וְלֹ֤א יְחַלֵּל֙ אֶת־מִקְדָּשַׁ֔י כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם:
But [he shall not come] to the dividing curtain: to sprinkle the seven sprinklings [of blood] towards the dividing curtain. — [see Lev. 4:6]   אך אל הפרכת: להזות שבע הזאות שעל הפרכת:
[Nor shall he draw near] to the altar: [This refers to] the outer altar [(see Exod. 27:18) in the courtyard of the Sanctuary, as opposed to the inner incense altar (see Exod. 30:110) which was situated just outside the dividing curtain, all within the Holy enclosed area of the Sanctuary. Now, had our verse been referring to the inner altar, it would not have been necessary to specify the prohibition of the dividing curtain, for the dividing curtain was even closer in to the holy of holies. However, since it refers to the outer altar,] both [the altar and the curtain] are necessary to be written here; this matter is explained [in full] in Torath Kohanim (21:58).   ואל המזבח: החיצון. ושניהם הוצרכו להכתב, ומפורש בתורת כהנים:
And he shall not desecrate My Holy Services: for if [a kohen with a defect] did perform the Holy Service, [his service is considered] desecrated [and] thereby deemed invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 21:60]   ולא יחלל את מקדשי: שאם עבד, עבודתו מחוללת להפסל:
24Moses told [this to] Aaron and his sons, and to all of the children of Israel.   כדוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁ֔ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֑יו וְאֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Moses told: [Literally, our verse would read: “Moses spoke to Aaron and his sons, and to all of the children of Israel.” But what did he speak? He told them] this [entire] commandment [i.e., all the laws of the kehunah delineated in this passage].   וידבר משה: המצוה הזאת:
[to] Aaron and his sons, and to all the children of Israel: [But why command “all the children of Israel” about laws pertaining only to kohanim ?] So that the courts of law [comprising non- kohen judges] should warn kohanim [who have defects, to separate themselves from the Holy Service]. — [Midrash Hagadol, and see Torath Kohanim, Glosses of Gra]   אל אהרן ואל בניו ואל כל בני ישראל: להזהיר בית דין על הכהנים:

Leviticus Chapter 22

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to Aaron and to his sons, that they shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel, which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name. I am the Lord.   בדַּבֵּ֨ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְיִנָּֽזְרוּ֙ מִקָּדְשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלֹ֥א יְחַלְּל֖וּ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵ֧ם מַקְדִּשִׁ֛ים לִ֖י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
they shall separate themselves: The term נְזִירָה means only separation [from something]. Likewise, Scripture says, “and draws away (וְיִנָּזֵר) from following Me” (Ezek. 14:7), and, “they drew backwards (נָזֹרוּ)” (Isa. 1:4). [Thus, here, the meaning is that] when kohanim are in a state of uncleanness, they shall separate themselves (וְיִנָּזְרוּ) from the holy things. — [Torath Kohanim 22:62] Another explanation: [The commentators are at a loss to explain this expression, because the following comment easily agrees with the preceding one. See below.] “shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name.” [Now, the verse, in the order it is written, reads: “Aaron and his sons…shall separate themselves from the holy (sacrifices) of the children of Israel, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name-which they sanctify to Me.”] Transpose the verse and explain it [as follows]: shall separate themselves from the holy [sacrifices] of the children of Israel which they sanctify to Me, so as not to desecrate My Holy Name." [Another explanation] (see Sifthei Chachamim):   וינזרו: אין נזירה אלא פרישה, וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל יד ז) וינזר מאחרי, (ישעיה א ד) נזורו אחור, יפרשו מן הקדשים בימי טומאתן. דבר אחר: וינזרו מקדשי בני ישראל אשר הם מקדישים לי ולא יחללו את שם קדשי, סרס המקרא ודרשהו, אשר הם מקדשים לי ולא יחללו את שם קדשי:
which they sanctify to Me: [This comes] to include offerings that the kohanim themselves sanctified [to the Holy Temple, offerings from which kohanim in the state of uncleanness shall also separate themselves]. [According to this explanation, no transposition is necessary, and the verse is to be explained as follows: When the kohanim are unclean, they must separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, i.e., those consecrated by the children of Israel, and also from those consecrated by the kohanim themselves. Accordingly, the words, “another explanation,” appear at this point, not as they appear in the Mikraoth Gedoloth. According to Mizrachi and others, and according to all manuscripts and incunabula editions, these words do not appear at all. - [Torath Kohanim 22:64]   אשר הם מקדשים לי: לרבות קדשי כהנים עצמן:
3Say to them: Throughout your generations, any man among any of your offspring who, while his defilement is still upon him, comes near to the holy sacrifices that the children of Israel consecrate to the Lord that soul shall be cut off from before me. I am the Lord.   גאֱמֹ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם לְדֹרֹ֨תֵיכֶ֜ם כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ | אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַ֣ב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶ֗ם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְדִּ֤ישׁוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְטֻמְאָת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֧פֶשׁ הַהִ֛וא מִלְּפָנַ֖י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
Any man…who…comes near [to the holy sacrifices]: The phrase “comes near” really means “eating.” And so we find that a warning against eating holy sacrifices while in a state of uncleanness, is expressed as “touching,” [as is written], “she shall not touch anything holy” (Lev. 12:4) [which is] a warning against eating [anything holy, while in a state of uncleanness]. And our Rabbis have learnt [that these terms mean “eating” in this context] by way of a hekesh [a rule of Scriptural exposition, whereby, via Rabbinical transmission, laws from two passages are linked through their appearance in the same verse (Mizrachi).] Now, it is impossible to say that one is liable [to the penalty of excision] if he [merely] touches [holy sacrifices while he is in the state of uncleanness], for we find the penalty of excision for eating [holy sacrifices while one is unclean] stated in the passage “Command Aaron” (Lev. 7:20-21) [and moreover, there, we find] the penalty of excision for eating mentioned twice, one next to the other (see Lev. 7:20-21), and, if one would be liable just for touching, it would be unnecessary for Scripture to mention liability for eating. In a similar vein, [this explanation that our verse here refers to eating and not touching,] is expounded in Torath Kohanim (22:69), [as follows]: “…But is there [a case of] one who touches [holy sacrifices], that he should be liable [to the penalty of excision?!] If so, why does Scripture say, ”comes near“? [Because it teaches us that for eating holy sacrifices, one incurs the penalty of excision] only when they become fit to be ”brought near“ as an offering-for one becomes liable only if one [eats holy sacrifices] while one is unclean, after the parts that makes the sacrifice permissible to be eaten has been offered up [i.e., only when the sacrificial fats have been offered up and the blood has been dashed, or the offering of the fistful of flour in a meal-offering, or the sanctification in a vessel of parts of other offerings (see Hagahoth Uvei-urei HaGra on Torath Kohanim ; Mizrachi), is the holy sacrifice allowed to be eaten by the kohanim, and not before]. Now, one may ask: [Since our verse, as well as the two verses in Lev. 7:20-21, are all referring to eating holy sacrifices when one is unclean,] why is it necessary for Scripture to mention three times the penalty of excision for kohanim [eating holy sacrifices] when they are in an unclean state? These have already been expounded upon in Tractate Shevuoth (7a): ”One of them is [needed] to state the general law; one of them is [needed] to state a particular case [namely, the peace-offering, in order to preclude the eating of certain clean foods that are not sacrificed on the altar which do not have the punishment of excision; and one of them is needed to teach us that…when the verse says, “he incurs guilt” (Lev. 5:2), and may bring a קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, a sliding-scale sacrifice, Scripture is referring to…a person…who, while in an unclean state, enters the Sanctuary or eats of its holy sacrifices].   כל איש אשר יקרב: אין קריבה זו אלא אכילה, וכן מצינו שנאמרה אזהרת אכילת קדשים בטומאה בלשון נגיעה בכל קדש לא תגע (ויקרא יב ד), אזהרה לאוכל. ולמדוה רבותינו מגזירה שוה. ואי אפשר לומר שחייב על הנגיעה, שהרי נאמר כרת על האכילה בצו את אהרן (ויקרא ז כ - כא) שתי כריתות זו אצל זו, ואם על הנגיעה חייב לא הוצרך לחייבו על האכילה, וכן נדרש בתורת כהנים וכי יש נוגע חייב, אם כן מה תלמוד לומר יקרב, משיכשר לקרב, שאין חייבין עליו משום טומאה, אלא אם כן קרבו מתיריו. ואם תאמר שלש כריתות בטומאת כהנים למה, כבר נדרשו במסכת שבועות אחת לכלל ואחת לפרט וכו' (שבועות ז א):
while his defilement is still upon him: [meaning:] While the person is in a state of uncleanness. But I might think that Scripture is referring to the flesh, while the flesh is unclean,“ and the verse is speaking of someone in a clean state who eats unclean flesh [of holy sacrifices]. However, one is forced to learn the meaning of the verse from the literal meaning [of this phrase ”while its/his uncleanness is still upon it/him"]-i.e., the verse is speaking of something from which uncleanness can be removed, and this is a person, because a person can cleanse himself in a mikvah [while meat cannot be purified once it is defiled. — [Torath Kohanim 22:69; Zev. 43b]   וטמאתו עליו: וטומאת האדם עליו, יכול בבשר הכתוב מדבר, וטומאתו של בשר עליו, ובטהור שאכל את הטמא הכתוב מדבר, הרי כבר נאמר (ויק' ז יט) והבשר אשר יגע בכל טמא לא יאכל, אלא על כרחך ממשמעו אתה למד, במי שטומאתו פורחת ממנו הכתוב מדבר, וזהו האדם שיש לו טהרה בטבילה:
shall be cut off: One might suggest that [the offender is to be “cut off”] from one place to another, i.e., he shall be cut off from his place [of abode] and exiled (Be’er Basadeh) to settle in another place. Scripture, therefore, continues, “I am the Lord”- [as if to say:] “I am in every place” [and even if someone is sent into exile, I am also in that other place. Hence, the “cutting off” here refers to excision of the soul, that he will die before his time (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:69]   ונכרתה וגו': יכול מצד זה לצד זה, יכרת ממקומו ויתיישב במקום אחר, תלמוד לומר אני ה', בכל מקום אני:
4Any man whatsoever among Aaron's offspring if he has tzara'ath or has had a discharge, he shall not eat of the holy sacrifices, until he cleanses himself. And one who touches anyone who has become unclean [by contact with a dead] person, or a man from whom semen issued,   דאִ֣ישׁ אִ֞ישׁ מִזֶּ֣רַע אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן וְה֤וּא צָר֨וּעַ֙ א֣וֹ זָ֔ב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים֙ לֹ֣א יֹאכַ֔ל עַ֖ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְהָ֑ר וְהַנֹּגֵ֨עַ֙ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶ֔פֶשׁ א֣וֹ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵ֥א מִמֶּ֖נּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָֽרַע:
among Aaron’s offspring: I know only that Aaron’s offspring [are meant]. How do I know that he himself [and every Kohen Gadol (Ramban on verse 17, Rash MiShantz on Torath Kohanim) is also included]? Therefore, Scripture states [the apparently superfluous word “he” in the clause], “if he has tzara’ath ”; for one might think that since he is allowed to offer up holy sacrifices when he is an onen (Rashi Lev. 21:12 above), he would also be allowed to offer them up if he has tzara’ath or if he had a discharge. Scripture, therefore, says, “if he…” [to include Aaron and all other Kohanim Gedolim]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:70]   מזרע אהרן: אין לי אלא זרעו, גופו מנין, תלמוד לומר והוא צרוע, שיכול הואיל ומקריב אונן יקריב צרוע וזב, תלמוד לומר והוא:
until he cleanses himself: [This means] sunset [after his immersion]. Or, perhaps, it means only immersion [in a mikvah, and that suffices]? It says here, וְטָהֵר, and it says below (verse 7), וְטָהֵר, “When the sun has set, he becomes clean (וְטָהֵר).” Just as there (in verse 7), [it means] sunset, here too, [it means] sunset [that he may not eat holy things until the sun sets after his immersion]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:72]   עד אשר יטהר: ביאת השמש, או אינו אלא טבילה, נאמר כאן וטהר, ונאמר למטה וטהר (פסוק ז) ובא השמש וטהר, מה להלן ביאת שמש, אף כאן ביאת שמש:
anyone who has become unclean [by contact with a dead] person: Heb. טְמֵא נֶפֶשׁ, one who has become unclean by [contact with] a dead person.   בכל טמא נפש: במי שנטמא במת:
5or a man who touches any creeping creature through which he becomes unclean or a person through whom he becomes unclean, whatever his uncleanness   האוֹ־אִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִגַּ֔ע בְּכָל־שֶׁ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְמָא־ל֑וֹ א֤וֹ בְאָדָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְמָא־ל֔וֹ לְכֹ֖ל טֻמְאָתֽוֹ:
[A man who touches] any creeping creature through which he becomes unclean: [The seemingly superfluous phrase “through which he becomes unclean” means,] the [minimum] size [of a part of a creeping creature] through which [contact] one is rendered unclean (Torath Kohanim 22:76) -namely, through the volume of a lentil. — [Chag. 11a]   בכל שרץ אשר יטמא לו: בשיעור הראוי לטמא, בכעדשה:
or a person: a corpse. - [Torath Kohanim 22:76] [That is to say, cleansing after contact with a dead body takes place only after immersion and sunset on the seventh day. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   או באדם: במת:
through whom he becomes unclean: The size through which [contact] one is rendered unclean-namely, the volume of an olive. [Oholoth 2:1]   אשר יטמא לו: כשיעורו לטמא, וזהו כזית:
whatever his uncleanness: [This comes] to include one who comes into contact with a man or woman who has had a discharge, or with a menstruating woman or with a woman who has given birth, [or with one who has tzara’ath]. — [Torath Kohanim 22:76]   לכל טומאתו: לרבות נוגע בזב וזבה, נדה ויולדת ובמצורע:
6the person who touches it shall remain unclean until evening, and he shall not eat from the holy things unless he has immersed his flesh in water.   ונֶ֚פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּגַּע־בּ֔וֹ וְטָֽמְאָ֖ה עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְלֹ֤א יֹאכַל֙ מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֛י אִם־רָחַ֥ץ בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּֽיִם:
The person who touches it: i.e., who touches any one of these unclean beings.   נפש אשר תגע בו: באחד מן הטמאים הללו:
7When the sun sets, he becomes clean, and afterwards, he may eat of the holy things, for it is his food.   זוּבָ֥א הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וְטָהֵ֑ר וְאַחַר֙ יֹאכַ֣ל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י לַחְמ֖וֹ הֽוּא:
and afterwards, he may eat of the holy things: This is expounded on in [Tractate] Yev. (74b) as referring to terumah, that [the purified kohen] may eat it after sunset [of the day of his cleansing].   ואחר יאכל מן הקדשים: נדרש ביבמות בתרומה, שמותר לאכלה בהערב השמש:
he may eat of the holy things: [meaning, some of the holy things,] but not all holy things [thus, our verse refers specifically to terumah, but not sacrificial flesh, which the kohen who was stricken with tzara’ath or had a discharge may not eat until he brings his sacrifices on the morrow]. — [see preceding Rashi]   מן הקדשים: ולא כל הקדשים:
8He shall not eat a carcass or anything that was torn, thereby becoming unclean through it. I am the Lord.   חנְבֵלָ֧ה וּטְרֵפָ֛ה לֹ֥א יֹאכַ֖ל לְטָמְאָה־בָ֑הּ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
He shall not eat a carcass or anything that was torn, thereby becoming unclean through it: [Scripture] warned here regarding the [implications of one’s] uncleanness, as follows: If one ate a carcass of a clean bird, which [as explained (Rashi above 17:15),] does not defile through contact or by lifting it but defiles only when it is swallowed into the esophagus-this person is prohibited to eat holy things. Now, [a bird that had been torn (טְרֵפָה) and mortally wounded by a wild animal, if slaughtered properly, does not convey uncleanness. So why is it mentioned here?] We must say that וּטְרֵפָה is [stated only to teach us that the carcass of a bird conveys uncleanness only] of the species that can be prohibited because of טְרֵפָה, thus excluding the carcass of an unclean bird, whose species can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [because it is prohibited even if it was perfectly healthy]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:125126; see Rashi Lev . 17:15]   נבלה וטרפה לא יאכל לטמאה בה: לענין הטומאה הזהיר כאן, שאם אכל נבלת עוף טהור, שאין לה טומאת מגע ומשא אלא טומאת אכילה בבית הבליעה, אסור לאכול בקדשים. וצריך לומר וטרפה, מי שיש במינו טרפה, יצא נבלת עוף טמא שאין במינו טרפה:
9They shall keep My charge and not bear a sin by [eating] it [while unclean] and thereby die through it since they will have desecrated it. I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   טוְשָֽׁמְר֣וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֗י וְלֹֽא־יִשְׂא֤וּ עָלָיו֙ חֵ֔טְא וּמֵ֥תוּ ב֖וֹ כִּ֣י יְחַלְּלֻ֑הוּ אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם:
They shall keep My charge: [and refrain] from eating teruman while one’s body is unclean. — [Sanh. 83a]   ושמרו את משמרתי: מלאכול תרומה בטומאת הגוף:
and thereby die through it: we learn that it is death by the hands of Heaven [which is meted out “through it,”] meaning that the sin of eating while unclean brings about the death penalty by itself without any other prerequisites, such as witnesses or warning. That could be only death by the hands of Heaven. - [Gur Aryeh ; Sanh. 83a; also see Sifthei Chachamim]   ומתו בו: למדנו שהיא מיתה בידי שמים:
10No non kohen may eat holy things; a kohen's resident and his hireling may not eat holy things.   יוְכָל־זָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֣אכַל קֹ֑דֶשׁ תּוֹשַׁ֥ב כֹּהֵ֛ן וְשָׂכִ֖יר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל קֹֽדֶשׁ:
No [non-kohen may] eat holy things: The text is referring to terumah, for the entire passage speaks of it (see Rashi verse 7).   לא יאכל קדש: בתרומה הכתוב מדבר, שכל הענין דבר בה:
a kohen’s resident and his hireling: [could be erroneously read as “a kohen who is a resident or a hireling.” However, the correct meaning here is:] The resident of a kohen or one who is hired by a kohen. [I. e., the word תּוֹשַׁב means “the resident of.”] Therefore, תּוֹשַׁב is vocalized with a patach [under the “shin,”] because it is in the construct state. [Had it been in the absolute state, simply meaning “resident,” the “shin” would have been vocalized with a kamatz .] Now, who is considered a “resident” [in this context]? This is a Hebrew slave whose ear has been bored [i.e., one who elected to remain a slave after six years, and resides with his master (see Exod. 21:16)], thereby becoming acquired [by his master] until the Jubilee year (see Rashi Exod. 21:6). And who is considered a hireling [in this context]? This is someone acquired for a [set] number of years [to be a Hebrew slave] and who is to be released after six years (see Exod. 21:2). The text comes to teach you here that he does not become his master’s physical property [and is, therefore, not permitted] to eat terumah . — [Torath Kohanim 22:86; Yev. . 70a]   תושב כהן ושכיר: תושבו של כהן ושכירו, לפיכך תושב זה נקוד פתח, לפי שהוא דבוק. ואיזהו תושב, זה נרצע שהוא קנוי לו עד היובל, ואיזהו שכיר, זה קנוי קנין שנים, שיוצא בשש, בא הכתוב ולמדך כאן שאין גופו קנוי לאדוניו לאכול בתרומתו:
11And if a kohen acquires a person, an acquisition through his money, he may eat of it, and those born in his house they may eat of his food.   יאוְכֹהֵ֗ן כִּֽי־יִקְנֶ֥ה נֶ֨פֶשׁ֙ קִנְיַ֣ן כַּסְפּ֔וֹ ה֖וּא יֹ֣אכַל בּ֑וֹ וִילִ֣יד בֵּית֔וֹ הֵ֖ם יֹֽאכְל֥וּ בְלַחְמֽוֹ:
And if a kohen acquires a person: [This refers to] a Canaanite slave, whose body is acquired [by his master and may therefore eat from his master’s terumah].   וכהן כי יקנה נפש: עבד כנעני שקנוי לגופו:
and those born in his house: These are the children of the [non-Jewish] maidservants [who are the property of the master]. We learn also from this verse here that a kohen’s wife may eat terumah, since she too, is considered “an acquisition through his money” [for the Jewish marriage is technically attained through the acquisition of a woman by a man by giving her money or an object worth money, such as a ring] (see Keth. 57b). However, we learn other [cases, namely, about a kohen’s wife who had been acquired through other means, e.g., by contract or cohabitation,] from another verse in Scripture “Anyone who is clean in your household [may eat it]” (Num. 18:11) [the above being expounded] in [Sifrei 18:29; see Levush Haorah also Gur Aryeh.]   ויליד ביתו: אלו בני השפחות. ואשת כהן אוכלת בתרומה מן המקרא הזה, שאף היא קנין כספו. ועוד למד ממקרא אחר (במדבר יח יא) כל טהור בביתך וגו' בספרי:
12And if a kohen's daughter is married to a non kohen, she may [no longer] eat of the separated holy things.   יבוּבַ֨ת־כֹּהֵ֔ן כִּ֥י תִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ זָ֑ר הִ֕וא בִּתְרוּמַ֥ת הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽל:
married to a non-kohen: אִישׁ זָר [lit., “an alien man,” here, in the context of kehunah , this means] to a Levite or an Israelite. — [Torath Kohanim 22:92]   לאיש זר: ללוי ולישראל:
13But if the kohen's daughter becomes widowed or divorced, and she has no offspring she may return to her father's household as in her youth [and] eat of her father's food, but no non kohen may eat of it.   יגוּבַת־כֹּהֵן֩ כִּ֨י תִֽהְיֶ֜ה אַלְמָנָ֣ה וּגְרוּשָׁ֗ה וְזֶ֘רַע֘ אֵ֣ין לָהּ֒ וְשָׁבָ֞ה אֶל־בֵּ֤ית אָבִ֨יהָ֙ כִּנְעוּרֶ֔יהָ מִלֶּ֥חֶם אָבִ֖יהָ תֹּאכֵ֑ל וְכָל־זָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
[But if the kohen’s daughter] becomes widowed or divorced: from her non- kohen husband.   אלמנה וגרושה: מן האיש הזר:
and she has no offspring: from him.   וזרע אין לה: ממנו:
she may return [to her father’s household…(and) eat of her father’s food]: But, if she does have offspring from her non- kohen husband, she is prohibited to eat terumah as long as the offspring is alive. — [Yev. 87a-b]   ושבה: הא אם יש לה זרע ממנו אסורה בתרומה כל זמן שהזרע קיים:
But no non-kohen may eat of it: [This seemingly superfluous phrase] is stated only to exclude an onen [kohen, i.e., one whose relative has died on that day,] who is permitted [to eat] terumah. [see Rashi 21:12 above] [It is as if Scripture is saying here:] “I said that only a non- kohen(זָר) [is prohibited to eat terumah]-but not an onen .” [Yev. 68b]   וכל זר לא יאכל בו: לא בא אלא להוציא את האונן שמותר בתרומה. זרות אמרתי לך, ולא אנינות:
14And if a man unintentionally eats what is holy, he shall add a fifth of it to it and give the kohen the holy thing.   ידוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־יֹאכַ֥ל קֹ֖דֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָ֑ה וְיָסַ֤ף חֲמִֽשִׁיתוֹ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְנָתַ֥ן לַכֹּהֵ֖ן אֶת־הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
And if [a man] eats that which is holy: [This refers to] terumah .   כי יאכל קדש: תרומה:
and give the kohen the holy thing: something that is fit to become holy. He shall not pay him money, but non-consecrated fruits, which in turn become [consecrated as] terumah . — [Pes. 32a]   ונתן לכהן את הקדש: דבר הראוי להיות קדש, שאינו פורע לו מעות אלא פירות של חולין, והן נעשין תרומה:
15And they shall not desecrate the holy things of the children of Israel, those that they have set aside for the Lord,   טווְלֹ֣א יְחַלְּל֔וּ אֶת־קָדְשֵׁ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יָרִ֖ימוּ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And they shall not desecrate [the holy things of the children of Israel]: By allowing non- kohanim to eat of them. [see next Rashi]   ולא יחללו וגו': להאכילם לזרים:
16thereby bringing upon themselves to bear iniquity and guilt, when they eat their holy things, for I am the Lord Who sanctifies them.   טזוְהִשִּׂ֤יאוּ אוֹתָם֙ עֲוֹ֣ן אַשְׁמָ֔ה בְּאָכְלָ֖ם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶ֑ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם:
thereby bringing upon themselves to bear-: [lit., “And they will cause them to bear (iniquity and guilt).”] They will cause themselves to bear iniquity when they [the non- kohanim] eat their holy things which were set aside for terumah , and were consecrated and consequently prohibited for them. Onkelos, however, who rendered: when they eat in uncleanness, unnecessarily rendered in this manner [because the verse deals with giving the terumah to non- kohanim, not with eating it in an unclean state].   והשיאו אותם: את עצמם יטענו עון באכלם את קדשיהם, שהובדלו לשם תרומה וקדשו ונאסרו עליהם. ואונקלוס שתרגם במיכלהון בסואבא, שלא לצורך תרגמו כן:
thereby bringing upon themselves to bear: Heb. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם. This is one of the three instances in Scripture of אֶת [normally referring to a third party “him,” “them” etc.], which are expounded by Rabbi Ishmael to mean that the Torah is speaking of the persons themselves [i.e., the verb is reflexive]. Similarly, [the other two examples are]: יָבִיא אֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם מלֹאת יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ [lit., “On the day when his abstinence is completed, he shall bring him”] (Num. 6:13)- [meaning] that he should bring himself. Likewise, וַיִּקְבֹּר אוֹתוֹ בַגַּי [lit., “And he buried him in the valley” (Deut. 34:6), meaning that] Moses buried himself (see Rashi there). Thus is it expounded in Sifrei (Bamidbar 6:124).   והשיאו אותם: זה אחד משלשה אתים שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש בתורה שמדברים באדם עצמו, וכן (במדבר ו יג) ביום מלאת ימי נזרו יביא אותו, הוא יביא את עצמו. וכן (דברים לד ו) ויקבור אותו בגיא, הוא קבר את עצמו, כך נדרש בספרי: