Leviticus Chapter 4

27If one person of the people of the land commits a sin unintentionally, by his committing one of the commandments of the Lord which may not be committed, incurring guilt;   כזוְאִם־נֶ֧פֶשׁ אַחַ֛ת תֶּֽחֱטָ֥א בִשְׁגָגָ֖ה מֵעַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ בַּֽ֠עֲשׂתָ֠הּ אַחַ֨ת מִמִּצְוֹ֧ת יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ינָה וְאָשֵֽׁם:
28if his sin that he committed is made known to him, he shall bring his sacrifice: an unblemished female goat, for his sin that he committed.   כחא֚וֹ הוֹדַ֣ע אֵלָ֔יו חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֑א וְהֵבִ֨יא קָרְבָּנ֜וֹ שְׂעִירַ֤ת עִזִּים֙ תְּמִימָ֣ה נְקֵבָ֔ה עַל־חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָֽא:
29And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] on the head of the sin offering, and he shall slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.   כטוְסָמַךְ֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְשָׁחַט֙ אֶת־הַ֣חַטָּ֔את בִּמְק֖וֹם הָֽעֹלָֽה:
30And the kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour all of its [remaining] blood at the base of the altar.   לוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֤ן מִדָּמָהּ֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָ֣הּ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
31And he shall remove all of its fat, just as the fat was removed from the peace offering. The kohen shall then cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, and he will be forgiven.   לאוְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּ֣הּ יָסִ֗יר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר הוּסַ֣ר חֵ֘לֶב֘ מֵעַ֣ל זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֒ וְהִקְטִ֤יר הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just as the fat was removed from the peace-offering: i.e., like the parts [burnt on the altar] of the goat mentioned under the category of peace-offerings.   כאשר הוסר חלב מעל זבח השלמים: כאימורי עז האמורים בשלמים:
32If he brings a sheep for his sin offering, he shall bring an unblemished female.   לבוְאִם־כֶּ֛בֶשׂ יָבִ֥יא קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ לְחַטָּ֑את נְקֵבָ֥ה תְמִימָ֖ה יְבִיאֶֽנָּה:
33He shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of the sin offering and slaughter it as a sin offering in the place where he slaughters the burnt offering.   לגוְסָמַךְ֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְשָׁחַ֤ט אֹתָהּ֙ לְחַטָּ֔את בִּמְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשְׁחַ֖ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָֽה:
and he shall slaughter it as a sin-offering: i.e., its slaughtering shall be performed for the specific purpose of a sin-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 4:290]   ושחט אתה לחטאת: שתהא שחיטתה לשם חטאת:
34And the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour all of its blood onto the base of the altar.   לדוְלָקַ֨ח הַכֹּהֵ֜ן מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בְּאֶצְבָּע֔וֹ וְנָתַ֕ן עַל־קַרְנֹ֖ת מִזְבַּ֣ח הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָ֣הּ יִשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
35And he shall remove all its fat, just as the sheep's fat is removed from the peace offering. The kohen shall then cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar, upon the fires for the Lord. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, for his sin which he committed, and he will be forgiven.   להוְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּ֣הּ יָסִ֗יר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יוּסַ֣ר חֵ֣לֶב הַכֶּ֘שֶׂב֘ מִזֶּ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֒ וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֹתָם֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַ֖ל אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן עַל־חַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
just as the sheep’s fat is removed: whose prescribed parts [offered up on the altar] are increased by the [addition of its] tail. And likewise, in the case of a female sheep brought as a sin-offering, it too requires the tail [to be added together] with the prescribed parts [offered up on the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:291]   כאשר יוסר חלב הכשב: שנתרבו אימוריו באליה, אף חטאת, כשהיא באה כשבה, טעונה אליה עם האימורין:
upon the fires for the Lord: Upon the fires [prepared by man] for the Lord, foayles in Old French, pyres.   על אשי ה': על מדורות האש העשויות לשם. פואיילי"ש בלע"ז [מדורות]:

Leviticus Chapter 5

1If a person sins, whereby he accepts an oath, and he is a witness [to some matter] by seeing or knowing [it], yet he does not testify, he shall bear his transgression;   אוְנֶ֣פֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָ֗א וְשָֽׁמְעָה֙ ק֣וֹל אָלָ֔ה וְה֣וּא עֵ֔ד א֥וֹ רָאָ֖ה א֣וֹ יָדָ֑ע אִם־ל֥וֹא יַגִּ֖יד וְנָשָׂ֥א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
he accepts an oath: regarding some matter he had witnessed. I.e., they adjured him by oath, to the effect that if he knew anything regarding the matter, that he would testify for him.   ושמעה קול אלה: בדבר שהוא עד בו, שהשביעוהו שבועה שאם יודע לו בעדות, שיעיד לו:
2Or if a person touches anything unclean, whether it is the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domestic animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping animal, and it was hidden from him, he incurs guilt.   בא֣וֹ נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּגַּע֘ בְּכָל־דָּבָ֣ר טָמֵא֒ אוֹ֩ בְנִבְלַ֨ת חַיָּ֜ה טְמֵאָ֗ה א֚וֹ בְּנִבְלַת֙ בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה א֕וֹ בְּנִבְלַ֖ת שֶׁ֣רֶץ טָמֵ֑א וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְה֥וּא טָמֵ֖א וְאָשֵֽׁם:
Or if a person touches [anything unclean]: And after [consequently acquiring] this uncleanness, he eats holy things [namely sacrifices], or he enters the Sanctuary, [each of which] constitutes a sin which, if committed willfully, incurs the penalty of excision. Thus it is explained in Tractate Shevuoth (7a).   או נפש אשר תגע וגו': ולאחר הטומאה הזו יאכל קדשים, או יכנס למקדש, שהוא דבר שזדונו כרת. במסכת שבועות (יד ב) נדרש כן:
is hidden from him: i.e., the uncleanness was hidden from him [meaning that he knew that he was eating holy things or entering the Sanctuary; however, he did not know that he was in a state of uncleanness at the time]. — [Shev.. 14b; Torath Kohanim 5:303]   ונעלם ממנו: הטומאה:
he incurs guilt: By eating the sacred food or by entering the Sanctuary.   ואשם: באכילת קדש או בביאת מקדש:
3Or if he touches the uncleanness of a human, with any uncleanness through which he may become defiled, and it is hidden from him and [later] he knows, he has incurred guilt;   גא֣וֹ כִ֤י יִגַּע֙ בְּטֻמְאַ֣ת אָדָ֔ם לְכֹל֙ טֻמְאָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִטְמָ֖א בָּ֑הּ וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְה֥וּא יָדַ֖ע וְאָשֵֽׁם:
the uncleanness of a human: This refers to the uncleanness of a [human] corpse. — [Torath Kohanim 5:304]   בטמאת אדם: זו טומאת מת:
with any uncleanness: This [phrase] comes to include [in this law,] the case of uncleanness acquired by touching a זָב or a זָבָה [a man or woman who has experienced a discharge (see Lev. chapter 15)]. — [Torath Kohanim 5: 305]   לכל טמאתו: לרבות טומאת מגע זבין וזבות:
[through which] he may become defiled: [This phrase comes] to include someone who touches a man who has cohabited with a נִדָּה [a woman who is unclean because of a menstrual flow.]. - [Torath Kohanim 5:305]   אשר יטמא: לרבות הנוגע בבועל נדה:
through which: [This phrase comes] to include one who swallows the carrion of a kosher bird. — [Torath Kohanim 5:306]   בה: לרבות בולע נבלת עוף טהור:
and it is hidden: i.e., [he knew] that he had forgotten the uncleanness.   ונעלם: ולא ידע, ששכח הטומאה:
he has incurred guilt: By eating the sacred food or by entering the Sanctuary.   ואשם: באכילת קדש או בביאת מקדש:
4Or if a person swears, expressing with [his] lips to do harm or to do good, whatever a man may express in an oath, and it is hidden from him and [later] he knows, he is guilty in any one of these cases.   דא֣וֹ נֶ֡פֶשׁ כִּ֣י תִשָּׁבַע֩ לְבַטֵּ֨א בִשְׂפָתַ֜יִם לְהָרַ֣ע | א֣וֹ לְהֵיטִ֗יב לְ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבַטֵּ֧א הָֽאָדָ֛ם בִּשְׁבֻעָ֖ה וְנֶעְלַ֣ם מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְהֽוּא־יָדַ֥ע וְאָשֵׁ֖ם לְאַחַ֥ת מֵאֵֽלֶּה:
with [his] lips: But not in his heart [i. e., if he merely thought about it, he is not liable to bring a sacrifice]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:311]   בשפתים: ולא בלב:
to do harm: to himself, or   להרע: לעצמו:
or to do good: to himself. [That is to say, he swore:] “I will eat,” or “I will not eat,” or “I will sleep,” or “I will not sleep”. — [see Shev. 27a]   או להיטיב: לעצמו, כגון אוכל ולא אוכל אישן ולא אישן:
whatever [a man] may express [in an oath]: This [phrase] comes to include [an oath] regarding the past [i.e., if he swore, “I ate,” “I did not eat,” etc.]. — [Shev. 26a]   לכל אשר יבטא: לרבות לשעבר:
and it is hidden from him: And [consequently,] he transgressed his oath (Shev. 26a). In all these cases [a person must bring an] עוֹלֶה יוֹרֵד offering-sliding-scale offering, as explained here [in this passage. The person brings a lamb or a goat, or two turtle-doves or young doves, or a meal-offering, depending on what he can afford]. However, [for lying in] an oath involving the denial of a monetary claim, he is not [liable to] this type of offering, but rather, a guilt-offering. — [see below, verses 24-25]   ונעלם ממנו: ועבר על שבועתו, כל אלה בקרבן עולה ויורד, כמפורש כאן, אבל שבועה שיש בה כפירת ממון אינה בקרבן זה אלא באשם:
5And it shall be, when someone incurs guilt in any one of these cases, that he shall confess the sin which he had committed,   הוְהָיָ֥ה כִֽי־יֶאְשַׁ֖ם לְאַחַ֣ת מֵאֵ֑לֶּה וְהִ֨תְוַדָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖א עָלֶֽיהָ:
6and he shall bring his guilt offering to the Lord for his sin which he had committed, a female [animal] from the flock either a sheep or a goat, for a sin offering. And the kohen shall make atonement from his sin.   ווְהֵבִ֣יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֣וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֡ה עַ֣ל חַטָּאתוֹ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָטָ֜א נְקֵבָ֨ה מִן־הַצֹּ֧אן כִּשְׂבָּ֛ה אֽוֹ־שְׂעִירַ֥ת עִזִּ֖ים לְחַטָּ֑את וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלָ֛יו הַכֹּהֵ֖ן מֵֽחַטָּאתֽוֹ:
7But if he cannot afford a sheep, he shall bring as his guilt offering for that [sin] that he had committed, two turtle doves or two young doves before the Lord, one for a sin offering, and one for a burnt offering.   זוְאִם־לֹ֨א תַגִּ֣יעַ יָדוֹ֘ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְהֵבִ֨יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמ֜וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֗א שְׁתֵּ֥י תֹרִ֛ים אֽוֹ־שְׁנֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יוֹנָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אֶחָ֥ד לְחַטָּ֖את וְאֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָֽה:
8He shall bring them to the kohen, who shall first offer up that [bird] which is [designated] for the sin offering. He shall cut its head [by piercing with his nail] opposite the back of its head, but shall not separate [it].   חוְהֵבִ֤יא אֹתָם֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִקְרִ֛יב אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לַֽחַטָּ֖את רִֽאשׁוֹנָ֑ה וּמָלַ֧ק אֶת־רֹאשׁ֛וֹ מִמּ֥וּל עָרְפּ֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א יַבְדִּֽיל:
who shall first offer…the sin-offering: A sin-offering must precede a burnt-offering. — [Torath Kohanim 5:329] To what may this be compared? To an intercessor, who enters [the palace] to appease [the king]. Once he has appeased [him], the gift enters after him [i.e., first the sin-offering comes to appease, then the burnt-offering comes as a gift]. — [Zev. 7b]   והקריב את אשר לחטאת ראשונה: חטאת קודמת לעולה. למה הדבר דומה לפרקליט שנכנס לרצות, ריצה פרקליט נכנס דורון אחריו:
but shall not separate [it]: He cuts only one organ [either the esophagus or the trachea]. — [Chul. 21a]   ולא יבדיל: אינו מולק אלא סימן אחד:
the back of its head: Heb. עֹרֶף It is the high part of the head which slopes down towards the neck [i.e., the back surface of the head, at the level of the face. — (see Sifthei Chachamim on Lev. 1:15)]. Thus, the expression, עֹרֶף, “[that which is situated] opposite the עֹרֶף, has the meaning: ” that which sees the עֹרֶף “ [Now since the עֹרֶף has been defined as the back surface of the head then ”that which sees the עֹרֶף “ refers to] the entire length of the back of the neck [the area which ”sees the עֹרֶף," i.e., which is directly adjacent to it]. — [Torath Kohanim 5:332]   ערף: הוא גובה הראש המשופע לצד הצואר:
9He shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood shall be pressed out onto the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.   טוְהִזָּ֞ה מִדַּ֤ם הַֽחַטָּאת֙ עַל־קִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָ֣ר בַּדָּ֔ם יִמָּצֵ֖ה אֶל־יְס֣וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
He shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin-offering: In the case of a burnt-offering, Scripture requires only מִצּוּי, pressing out the blood (see Lev. 1:15), but for a sin-offering, both הַזָאָה, sprinkling of the blood, and מִצּוּי, pressing out the blood, are required. He grasps the עֹרֶף [or, as in some early editions and mansuscripts: He grasps the bird. See Yosef Hallel] and sprinkles [the blood], and so, the blood spurts out onto the altar. — [Zev. 64b]   והזה מדם החטאת: בעולה לא הטעין אלא מצוי, ובחטאת הזאה ומצוי. אוחז בעורף ומתיז, והדם ניתז והולך למזבח:
This is a sin-offering: [If the bird was sacrificed] for the specific purpose [of a sin-offering], the offering is valid; however, if it was not [sacrificed] for the specific purpose [of a sin-offering], it is not valid. — [Torath Kohanim 5:335]   חטאת הוא: לשמה כשרה, שלא לשמה פסולה:
10And he shall offer up the second one as a burnt offering, according to the law. Thus the kohen shall make atonement for him, from his sin which he had committed, and he shall be forgiven.   יוְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִ֛י יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלָ֧יו הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מֵֽחַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א וְנִסְלַ֥ח לֽוֹ:
according to the law: i.e., according to the ritual prescribed at the beginning of this parashah (Lev. 1: 14-17), regarding the burnt-offering of a bird which is brought voluntarily.   כמשפט: כדת האמור בעולת העוף של נדבה בראש הפרשה: