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Torah Reading for Vayeishev

Second Day of Chanukah (Shabbat - Vayeishev)
Shabbat, 26 Kislev, 5781
12 December, 2020
Select a portion:
Complete: (Genesis 37:1 - 40:23; Numbers 7:18-23; Zachariah 2:14 - 4:7)
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First Portion

Genesis Chapter 37

1Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings, in the land of Canaan.   אוַיֵּ֣שֶׁב יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מְגוּרֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו בְּאֶ֖רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
Jacob dwelt: Scripture described Esau’s settlements and his generations, [but only] briefly, because they were not distinguished nor important enough to elaborate on [in detail] how they settled and the order of their wars, [or] how they drove out the Horites. [In contrast] it (Scripture) elaborates at length on the settlements of Jacob and his generations, and all the events that brought these about, since they were [considered] important [enough] to the Omnipresent to dwell upon at length. Similarly, you find regarding the ten generations from Adam to Noah: So-and-so begot so-and-so, but when it (Scripture) reached Noah, it dwelt upon him at length. Likewise, with the ten generations from Noah to Abraham, it dealt [only] briefly with them, but when it reached Abraham, it dwelt upon him at length. This can be compared to a pearl that falls into the sand: A person searches in the sand and sifts it with a sieve until he finds the pearl, and when he finds it, he casts the pebbles from his hand and keeps the pearl. (Another interpretation of “Jacob dwelt” -The camels of a flax dealer [once] entered [a town], laden with flax. The blacksmith wondered, “Where will all this flax go?” One clever fellow answered him, “One spark will come out of your bellows, which will burn it all.” So did Jacob see all the chieftains [of Esau] mentioned above (36:15-19, 40-43). He wondered and said, “Who can conquer them all?” What is written below? “These are the generations of Jacob: Joseph” (verse 2), only, and it is written: “And the house of Jacob shall be fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau shall become stubble” (Obadiah 1:18). One spark will emerge from Joseph, which will destroy and consume them all. From an old Rashi.) [From Tanchuma Vayeshev 1]   וישב יעקב וגו': אחר שכתב לך ישובי עשו ותולדותיו בדרך קצרה, שלא היו ספונים [הגונים] וחשובים לפרש היאך נתיישבו וסדר מלחמותיהם איך הורישו את החורים, פירש לך ישובי יעקב ותולדותיו בדרך ארוכה כל גלגולי סבתם, לפי שהם חשובים לפני המקום להאריך בהם. וכן אתה מוצא בעשרה דורות שמאדם ועד נח, פלוני הוליד פלוני, וכשבא לנח האריך בו. וכן בעשרה דורות שמנח ועד אברהם קצר בהם, ומשהגיע אצל אברהם האריך בו. משל למרגלית שנפלה בין החול, אדם ממשמש בחול וכוברו בכברה עד שמוצא את המרגלית, ומשמצאה הוא משליך את הצרורות מידו ונוטל המרגלית. (דבר אחר וישב יעקב הפשתני הזה נכנסו גמליו טעונים פשתן, הפחמי תמה אנה יכנס כל הפשתן הזה, היה פיקח אחד משיב לו ניצוץ אחד יוצא ממפוח שלך ששורף את כולו, כך יעקב ראה כל האלופים הכתובים למעלה, תמה ואמר מי יכול לכבוש את כולן, מה כתיב למטה (פסוק ב) אלה תולדות יעקב יוסף, דכתיב (עובדיה א יח) והיה בית יעקב אש ובית יוסף להבה ובית עשו לקש, ניצוץ יוצא מיוסף שמכלה ושורף את כולם):
2These are the generations of Jacob: when Joseph was seventeen years old, being a shepherd, he was with his brothers with the flocks, and he was a lad, [and was] with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives; and Joseph brought evil tales about them to their father.   באֵ֣לֶּה | תֹּֽלְד֣וֹת יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב יוֹסֵ֞ף בֶּן־שְׁבַע־עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ הָיָ֨ה רֹעֶ֤ה אֶת־אֶחָיו֙ בַּצֹּ֔אן וְה֣וּא נַ֗עַר אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י בִלְהָ֛ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י זִלְפָּ֖ה נְשֵׁ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיָּבֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־דִּבָּתָ֥ם רָעָ֖ה אֶל־אֲבִיהֶֽם:
These are the generations of Jacob: And these are those of the generations of Jacob. These are their settlements and their wanderings until they came to settle. The first cause [of their wanderings]: when Joseph was seventeen years old, etc. Through this [the events that unfolded], they wandered and descended to Egypt. This is according to the plain explanation of the verse, putting everything in its proper perspective. The Midrash Aggadah, however, interprets [the passage as follows]: Scripture bases the generations of Jacob on Joseph because of many things: one is that, with his entire being, Jacob served Laban only for Rachel [and Rachel bore Joseph]. In addition, Joseph’s features resembled his (Jacob’s), and whatever happened to Jacob happened to Joseph. This one (Jacob) was hated, and that one (Joseph) was hated. This one-his brother (Esau) sought to kill him, and that one his brothers sought to kill him, and likewise many [other similarities related] in Genesis Rabbah (84:6). It is further expounded upon [as follows]: “dwelt” (verse 1) When Jacob sought to dwell in tranquility, the troubles of Joseph sprang upon him. The righteous seek to dwell in tranquility. Said the Holy One, blessed be He, “What is prepared for the righteous in the world to come is not sufficient for them, but they seek [also] to dwell in tranquility in this world!”   אלה תולדות יעקב: אלה של תולדות יעקב, אלה ישוביהם וגלגוליהם עד שבאו לכלל יישוב. סבה ראשונה יוסף בן שבע עשרה וגו' על ידי זה נתגלגלו וירדו למצרים. זהו אחר פשוטו של מקרא להיות [דבר] דבור על אופניו. ומדרש אגדה דורש, תלה הכתוב תולדות יעקב ביוסף מפני כמה דברים, אחת שכל עצמו של יעקב לא עבד אצל לבן אלא ברחל, ושהיה זיו איקונין של יוסף דומה לו, וכל מה שאירע ליעקב אירע ליוסף, זה נשטם וזה נשטם, זה אחיו מבקש להרגו וזה אחיו מבקשים להרגו, וכן הרבה בבראשית רבה (סד ו). ועוד נדרש בו וישב ביקש יעקב לישב בשלוה, קפץ עליו רוגזו של יוסף. צדיקים מבקשים לישב בשלוה אומר הקב"ה לא דיין לצדיקים מה שמתוקן להם לעולם הבא, אלא שמבקשים לישב בשלוה בעולם הזה:
and he was a lad: He behaved childishly, fixing his hair and touching up his eyes so that he would appear handsome. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:7]   והוא נער: שהיה עושה מעשה נערות, מתקן בשערו ממשמש בעיניו, כדי שיהיה נראה יפה:
with the sons of Bilhah: That is to say, he was frequently with the sons of Bilhah, because his [other] brothers would demean them, while he acted friendly toward them. [From Tanchuma Vayeshev 7]   את בני בלהה: כלומר ורגיל אצל בני בלהה, לפי שהיו אחיו מבזין אותן והוא מקרבן:
evil tales about them: Any evil he saw in his brothers, the sons of Leah, he would tell his father: 1) that they ate limbs from living animals, 2) that they demeaned the sons of the handmaids by calling them slaves, and 3) that they were suspected of illicit sexual relationships. For these three [tales] he was punished: For [the report that his brothers ate] limbs from living animals, “they slaughtered a kid” (Gen. 37:31) when they sold him, and did not eat it alive. For the report that he told about them that they called their brothers slaves, “Joseph was sold as a slave” (Ps. 105:17), and concerning the illicit sexual relationships that he told about them, “his master’s wife lifted her eyes, etc.” (Gen. 39:7).   את דבתם רעה: כל רעה שהיה רואה באחיו בני לאה היה מגיד לאביו, שהיו אוכלין אבר מן החי, ומזלזלין בבני השפחות לקרותן עבדים, וחשודים על העריות. ובשלשתן לקה. על אבר מן החי (לעיל פסוק לא) וישחטו שעיר עזים במכירתו, ולא אכלוהו חי. ועל דבה שספר עליהם שקורין לאחיהם עבדים, (תהלים קה יז) לעבד נמכר יוסף. ועל העריות שספר עליהם, (להלן לט ז) ותשא אשת אדוניו וגו':
tales about them: Heb. דִּבָּתָם Every expression of דִּבָּה denotes parlediz in Old French, gossip, slander. Whatever evil he could tell about them he told. דִּבָּה is an expression of making the lips of the sleeping speak (דוֹבֵב).   דבתם: כל לשון דבה פרלידי"ץ בלע"ז [רכילות] כל מה שהיה יכול לדבר בהם רעה היה מספר:
3And Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was a son of his old age; and he made him a fine woolen coat.   גוְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָהַ֤ב אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ מִכָּל־בָּנָ֔יו כִּֽי־בֶן־זְקֻנִ֥ים ה֖וּא ל֑וֹ וְעָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ כְּתֹ֥נֶת פַּסִּֽים:
a son of his old age: Heb. - בֶן זְקֻנִים, for he was born to him in his old age (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 38). Onkelos rendered: for he was a wise son to him. Whatever he had learned from Shem and Eber he gave over to him. Another explanation: for his (Joseph’s) features (זִיו אִיקוֹנִין) resembled his own (those of Jacob). [From Gen. Rabbah 84:8]   בן זקונים: שנולד לו לעת זקנתו. ואונקלוס תרגם בר חכים הוא ליה כל מה שלמד משם ועבר מסר לו. דבר אחר שהיה זיו איקונין שלו דומה לו:
fine woolen: Heb. פַּסִים, a term meaning fine woolen garments, like “green wool (כַּרְפַּס) and blue wool” (Esther 1:6), and like the fine woolen coat (כְתֹנֶת פַּסִים) of Tamar and Amnon (II Sam. 13:18). The Midrash Aggadah, however, explains that it was called פַּסִים because of his (Joseph’s) troubles, namely, that he was sold to Potiphar (פּוֹטִפַר), to the merchants (סוֹחֲרִים), to the Ishmaelites (יִשְׁמְעִאלִים), and to the Midianites (מִדְיָנִים). [From Gen. Rabbah 84:8]   פסים: לשון כלי מלת, כמו (אסתר א ו) כרפס ותכלת, וכמו (שמואל ב' יג יח) כתונת הפסים, דתמר ואמנון. ומדרש אגדה על שם צרותיו שנמכר לפוטיפר ולסוחרים ולישמעאלים ולמדינים:
4And his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, so they hated him, and they could not speak with him peacefully.   דוַיִּרְא֣וּ אֶחָ֗יו כִּֽי־אֹת֞וֹ אָהַ֤ב אֲבִיהֶם֙ מִכָּל־אֶחָ֔יו וַיִּשְׂנְא֖וּ אֹת֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א יָֽכְל֖וּ דַּבְּר֥וֹ לְשָׁלֹֽם:
and they could not speak with him peacefully: From what is stated to their discredit, we may learn something to their credit, that they did not say one thing with their mouth and think differently in their heart. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:9]   ולא יכלו דברו לשלום: מתוך גנותם למדנו שבחם, שלא דברו אחת בפה ואחת בלב:
speak with him: Heb. דַבְּרוֹ, [the equivalent of] לְדַבֵּר עִמוֹ, to speak with him. [From Targum Onkelos]   דברו: לדבר עמו:  
5And Joseph dreamed a dream and told his brothers, and they continued to hate him.   הוַיַּֽחֲלֹ֤ם יוֹסֵף֙ חֲל֔וֹם וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְאֶחָ֑יו וַיּוֹסִ֥פוּ ע֖וֹד שְׂנֹ֥א אֹתֽוֹ:
6And he said to them, "Listen now to this dream, which I have dreamed:   ווַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֕א הַֽחֲל֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָלָֽמְתִּי:
7Behold, we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field, and behold, my sheaf arose and also stood upright, and behold, your sheaves encircled [it] and prostrated themselves to my sheaf."   זוְהִנֵּ֠ה אֲנַ֜חְנוּ מְאַלְּמִ֤ים אֲלֻמִּים֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֛ה קָ֥מָה אֲלֻמָּתִ֖י וְגַם־נִצָּ֑בָה וְהִנֵּ֤ה תְסֻבֶּ֨ינָה֙ אֲלֻמֹּ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וַתִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֖יןָ לַֽאֲלֻמָּתִֽי:
binding sheaves: Heb. מְאַלְּמִים אִלֻמִים, as the Targum renders: מְאַסְרִין אֱסָרִין, sheaves, and likewise, carrying his sheaves (אִלֻמוֹתָיו) (Ps. 126:6). The same is found in the Mishnah: But [if one finds] large sheaves (וְהָאִלֻמוֹת) , one must take [them] and announce [them] (Baba Mezia 22b).   מאלמים אלומים: כתרגומו מאסרין אסרין, עמרין, וכן (תהלים קכו ו) נושא אלומותיו, וכמוהו בלשון משנה (בבא מציעא כב ב) והאלומות נוטל ומכריז:
my sheaf arose: It stood erect.   קמה אלומתי: נזקפה:
and also stood upright: It remained standing erect in its place.   וגם נצבה: לעמוד על עמדה בזקיפה:
8So his brothers said to him, "Will you reign over us, or will you govern us?" And they continued further to hate him on account of his dreams and on account of his words.   חוַיֹּ֤אמְרוּ לוֹ֙ אֶחָ֔יו הֲמָלֹ֤ךְ תִּמְלֹךְ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ אִם־מָשׁ֥וֹל תִּמְשֹׁ֖ל בָּ֑נוּ וַיּוֹסִ֤פוּ עוֹד֙ שְׂנֹ֣א אֹת֔וֹ עַל־חֲלֹֽמֹתָ֖יו וְעַל־דְּבָרָֽיו:
and on account of his words: Because of the evil tales that he would bring to their father.   ועל דבריו: על דבתם רעה שהיה מביא לאביהם:
9And he again dreamed another dream, and he related it to his brothers, and he said, "Behold, I have dreamed another dream, and behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were prostrating themselves to me."   טוַיַּֽחֲלֹ֥ם עוֹד֙ חֲל֣וֹם אַחֵ֔ר וַיְסַפֵּ֥ר אֹת֖וֹ לְאֶחָ֑יו וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֨ה חָלַ֤מְתִּי חֲלוֹם֙ ע֔וֹד וְהִנֵּ֧ה הַשֶּׁ֣מֶשׁ וְהַיָּרֵ֗חַ וְאַחַ֤ד עָשָׂר֙ כּֽוֹכָבִ֔ים מִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִ֖ים לִֽי:
10And he told [it] to his father and to his brothers, and his father rebuked him and said to him, "What is this dream that you have dreamed? Will we come I, your mother, and your brothers to prostrate ourselves to you to the ground?"   יוַיְסַפֵּ֣ר אֶל־אָבִיו֘ וְאֶל־אֶחָיו֒ וַיִּגְעַר־בּ֣וֹ אָבִ֔יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ מָ֛ה הַֽחֲל֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָלָ֑מְתָּ הֲב֣וֹא נָב֗וֹא אֲנִי֙ וְאִמְּךָ֣ וְאַחֶ֔יךָ לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו֥‍ֹת לְךָ֖ אָֽרְצָה:
And he told [it] to his father and to his brothers: After he told it to his brothers, he told it again to his father in their presence.   ויספר אל אביו ואל אחיו: לאחר שספר אותו לאחיו חזר וספרו לאביו בפניהם:
his father rebuked him: because he was bringing hatred upon himself.   ויגער בו: לפי שהיה מטיל שנאה עליו:
Will we come: Isn’t your mother (Rachel) already dead? But he (Jacob) did not know that the matters referred to Bilhah, who had raised him (Joseph) as [if she were] his mother (Gen. Rabbah 84:11). Our Rabbis, however, derived from here that there is no dream without meaningless components (Ber. 55a/b). Jacob, however, intended to make his sons forget the whole matter, so that they would not envy him (Joseph). Therefore, he said, “Will we come, etc.” Just as it is impossible for your mother, so is the rest meaningless.   הבוא נבוא: והלא אמך כבר מתה. והוא לא היה יודע שהדברים מגיעין לבלהה, שגדלתו כאמו. ורבותינו למדו מכאן שאין חלום בלא דברים בטלים. ויעקב נתכוון להוציא הדבר מלב בניו שלא יקנאוהו, לכך אמר לו הבוא נבוא וגו', כשם שאי אפשר באמך כך השאר הוא בטל:
11So his brothers envied him, but his father awaited the matter.   יאוַיְקַנְאוּ־ב֖וֹ אֶחָ֑יו וְאָבִ֖יו שָׁמַ֥ר אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר:
awaited the matter: Heb. שָׁמַר. He was waiting and looking forward in expectation of when it (the fulfillment) would come. Similarly,“awaiting (שׁוֹמֵר) the realization [of God’s promise]” (Isa. 26:2), [and]“You do not wait (תִשְׁמוֹר) for my sin” (Job 14:16). You do not wait. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:12]   שמר את הדבר: היה ממתין ומצפה מתי יבא, וכן (ישעיה כו ב) שומר אמונים וכן (איוב יד טז) לא תשמור על חטאתי, לא תמתין:

Second Portion

Genesis Chapter 37

12And his brothers went to pasture their father's flocks in Shechem.   יבוַיֵּֽלְכ֖וּ אֶחָ֑יו לִרְע֛וֹת אֶת־צֹ֥אן אֲבִיהֶ֖ם בִּשְׁכֶֽם:
to pasture their father’s flocks: Heb. לִרְעוֹת אֶת-צֹאן. There are dots over the word אֶת, for they went only to “pasture” [i.e., feed] themselves. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:13]   לרעות את צאן: נקוד על את, שלא הלכו אלא לרעות את עצמן:
13And Israel said to Joseph, "Are your brothers not pasturing in Shechem? Come, and I will send you to them." And he said to him, "Here I am."   יגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶל־יוֹסֵ֗ף הֲל֤וֹא אַחֶ֨יךָ֙ רֹעִ֣ים בִּשְׁכֶ֔ם לְכָ֖ה וְאֶשְׁלָֽחֲךָ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ הִנֵּֽנִי:
“Here I am.”: An expression of modesty and eagerness. He went with alacrity to fulfill his father’s command although he knew that his brothers hated him. [From Mechilta Beshallach , second treatise, introduction]   הנני: לשון ענוה וזריזות, נזדרז למצות אביו, ואף על פי שהיה יודע באחיו ששונאין אותו:
14So he said to him, "Go now and see to your brothers' welfare and the welfare of the flocks, and bring me back word." So he sent him from the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ לֶךְ־נָ֨א רְאֵ֜ה אֶת־שְׁל֤וֹם אַחֶ֨יךָ֙ וְאֶת־שְׁל֣וֹם הַצֹּ֔אן וַֽהֲשִׁבֵ֖נִי דָּבָ֑ר וַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֨הוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣מֶק חֶבְר֔וֹן וַיָּבֹ֖א שְׁכֶֽמָה:
from…Hebron: But is not Hebron on a mountain? It is stated: “And they ascended in the south, and he came as far as Hebron” (Num. 13:22). But [it is to be understood that he sent him] from the deep counsel of the righteous man who is buried in Hebron (i.e., Abraham), to fulfill what was said to Abraham between the parts (Gen. 15:13). [From Gen. Rabbah 84:13]   מעמק חברון: והלא חברון בהר, שנאמר (במדבר יג כב) ויעלו בנגב ויבא עד חברון, אלא מעצה עמוקה של [אותו] צדיק הקבור בחברון, לקיים מה שנאמר לאברהם בין הבתרים (לעיל טו יג) כי גר יהיה זרעך:
and he came to Shechem: a place destined for misfortune. There the tribes sinned, there Dinah was violated, there the kingdom of the house of David was divided, as it is said: “And Rehoboam went to Shechem” (I Kings 12:1). [From Sanh. 102a]   ויבא שכמה: מקום מוכן לפורענות, שם קלקלו השבטים, שם ענו את דינה, שם נחלקה מלכות בית דוד, שנאמר (מ"א י"ב א) וילך רחבעם שכמה וגו':
15Then a man found him, and behold, he was straying in the field, and the man asked him, saying, "What are you looking for?"   טווַיִּמְצָאֵ֣הוּ אִ֔ישׁ וְהִנֵּ֥ה תֹעֶ֖ה בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וַיִּשְׁאָלֵ֧הוּ הָאִ֛ישׁ לֵאמֹ֖ר מַה־תְּבַקֵּֽשׁ:
Then a man found him: This is [the angel] Gabriel, as it is said: “And the man Gabriel” (Dan. 9:21). [From Tanchuma Vayeshev 2]   וימצאהו איש: זה גבריאל [שנאמר (דניאל ט כא) והאיש גבריאל]:
16And he said, "I am looking for my brothers. Tell me now, where are they pasturing?"   טזוַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֶת־אַחַ֖י אָֽנֹכִ֣י מְבַקֵּ֑שׁ הַגִּֽידָה־נָּ֣א לִ֔י אֵיפֹ֖ה הֵ֥ם רֹעִֽים:
17And the man said, "They have traveled away from here, for I overheard them say, 'Let us go to Dothan.' " So Joseph went after his brothers, and he found them in Dothan.   יזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָאִישׁ֙ נָֽסְע֣וּ מִזֶּ֔ה כִּ֤י שָׁמַ֨עְתִּי֙ אֹֽמְרִ֔ים נֵֽלְכָ֖ה דֹּתָ֑יְנָה וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ יוֹסֵף֙ אַחַ֣ר אֶחָ֔יו וַיִּמְצָאֵ֖ם בְּדֹתָֽן:
They have traveled away from here: They removed themselves from brotherhood.   נסעו מזה: הסיעו עצמן מן האחוה:
‘Let us go to Dothan.’: Heb. נֵלְכָה דֹתָינָה, to seek regarding you legal pretexts (נִכְלֵי דָתוֹת), by which they could put you to death. According to its simple meaning, however, it is a place-name, and a Biblical verse never loses its simple sense.   נלכה דתינה: לבקש לך נכלי דתות שימיתוך בהם. ולפי פשוטו שם מקום הוא, ואין מקרא יוצא מדי פשוטו:
18And they saw him from afar, and when he had not yet drawn near to them, they plotted against him to put him to death.   יחוַיִּרְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מֵֽרָחֹ֑ק וּבְטֶ֨רֶם֙ יִקְרַ֣ב אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּתְנַכְּל֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ לַֽהֲמִיתֽוֹ:
they plotted: Heb. וַיִתְנַכְּלוּ. They were filled with plots and cunning.   ויתנכלו: נתמלאו נכלים וערמומיות:
against him: Heb. אֹתוֹ, similar to אִתּוֹ or עִמוֹ, i.e. אֵלָיו, to him.   אתו: כמו אתו, עמו, כלומר אליו:
19So they said one to the other, "Behold, that dreamer is coming.   יטוַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֑יו הִנֵּ֗ה בַּ֛עַל הַֽחֲלֹמ֥וֹת הַלָּזֶ֖ה בָּֽא:
20So now, let us kill him, and we will cast him into one of the pits, and we will say, 'A wild beast devoured him,' and we will see what will become of his dreams."   כוְעַתָּ֣ה | לְכ֣וּ וְנַֽהַרְגֵ֗הוּ וְנַשְׁלִכֵ֨הוּ֙ בְּאַחַ֣ד הַבֹּר֔וֹת וְאָמַ֕רְנוּ חַיָּ֥ה רָעָ֖ה אֲכָלָ֑תְהוּ וְנִרְאֶ֕ה מַה־יִּֽהְי֖וּ חֲלֹֽמֹתָֽיו:
and we will see what will become of his dreams: Rabbi Isaac said, This verse says: “Expound on me.” [I.e., this verse demands a midrashic interpretation.] The Holy Spirit says thus: They (the brothers) say, “Let us kill him,” but the verse concludes: “and we will see what will become of his dreams.” Let us see whose word will stand up, yours or Mine. It is impossible that they (the brothers) are saying, “and we will see what will become of his dreams,” because, since they will kill him, his dreams will come to nought. [From Tan. Buber, Vayeshev 13]   ונראה מה יהיו חלומותיו: אמר ר' יצחק מקרא זה אומר דרשני, רוח הקודש אומרת כן. הם אומרים נהרגהו, והכתוב מסיים ונראה מה יהיו חלומותיו, נראה דבר מי יקום או שלכם או שלי. ואי אפשר שיאמרו הם ונראה מה יהיו חלומותיו מכיון שיהרגוהו בטלו חלומותיו:
21But Reuben heard, and he saved him from their hand[s], and he said, "Let us not deal him a deadly blow."   כאוַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע רְאוּבֵ֔ן וַיַּצִּלֵ֖הוּ מִיָּדָ֑ם וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹ֥א נַכֶּ֖נּוּ נָֽפֶשׁ:
“Let us not deal him a deadly blow.”: Heb. לֹא נַכֶּנוּ נָפֶשׁ. Literally, let us not smite him the soul. [This is equivalent to] מַכַּת נֶפֶשׁ, [let us not deal him] a deadly blow, which means death. [From Targum Onkelos]   לא נכנו נפש: מכת נפש זו היא מיתה:
22And Reuben said to them, "Do not shed blood! Cast him into this pit, which is in the desert, but do not lay a hand upon him," in order to save him from their hand[s], to return him to his father.   כבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֣ם | רְאוּבֵן֘ אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ־דָם֒ הַשְׁלִ֣יכוּ אֹת֗וֹ אֶל־הַבּ֤וֹר הַזֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וְיָ֖ד אַל־תִּשְׁלְחוּ־ב֑וֹ לְמַ֗עַן הַצִּ֤יל אֹתוֹ֙ מִיָּדָ֔ם לַֽהֲשִׁיב֖וֹ אֶל־אָבִֽיו:
to save him: The Holy Spirit testifies for Reuben that he said this only to save him, so that he would [be able to] come and take him out of there. He said, “I am the firstborn and the eldest of them all. The sin will be attributed only to me.” [from Gen. Rabbah 84:15]   למען הציל אותו: רוח הקודש מעידה על ראובן שלא אמר זאת אלא להציל אותו, שיבא הוא ויעלנו משם, אמר אני בכור וגדול שבכולן, לא יתלה הסרחון אלא בי:

Third Portion

Genesis Chapter 37

23Now it came to pass when Joseph came to his brothers, that they stripped Joseph of his shirt, of the fine woolen coat which was upon him.   כגוַיְהִ֕י כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א יוֹסֵ֖ף אֶל־אֶחָ֑יו וַיַּפְשִׁ֤יטוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתּ֔וֹ אֶת־כְּתֹ֥נֶת הַפַּסִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָלָֽיו:
that they stripped Joseph of his shirt: This is the shirt.   את כתנתו: זה חלוק:
of the fine woolen coat which was upon him: This is what his father gave to him, more than his brothers. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:16]   את כתונת הפסים: הוא שהוסיף לו אביו יותר על אחיו:
24And they took him and cast him into the pit; now the pit was empty there was no water in it.   כדוַיִּ֨קָּחֻ֔הוּ וַיַּשְׁלִ֥כוּ אֹת֖וֹ הַבֹּ֑רָה וְהַבּ֣וֹר רֵ֔ק אֵ֥ין בּ֖וֹ מָֽיִם:
now the pit was empty-there was no water in it: Since it says: “now the pit was empty,” do I not know that there was no water in it? For what purpose did the Torah write,“there was no water in it”? [To inform us that] there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it. [From Shab. 22a, Chag. 3a]   והבור רק אין בו מים: ממשמע שנאמר והבור רק, איני יודע שאין בו מים, מה תלמוד לומר אין בו מים, מים אין בו אבל נחשים ועקרבים יש בו:
25And they sat down to eat a meal, and they lifted their eyes and saw, and behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites was coming from Gilead, and their camels were carrying spices, balm, and lotus, going to take [it] down to Egypt.   כהוַיֵּֽשְׁבוּ֘ לֶֽאֱכָל־לֶחֶם֒ וַיִּשְׂא֤וּ עֵֽינֵיהֶם֙ וַיִּרְא֔וּ וְהִנֵּה֙ אֹֽרְחַ֣ת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִ֔ים בָּאָ֖ה מִגִּלְעָ֑ד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶ֣ם נֹֽשְׂאִ֗ים נְכֹאת֙ וּצְרִ֣י וָלֹ֔ט הֽוֹלְכִ֖ים לְהוֹרִ֥יד מִצְרָֽיְמָה:
a caravan: Heb. אֹרְחַת, as the Targum renders שְׁיָרַת, [אֹרְחַת] because of those who travel on the way (אֹרַח).   ארחת: כתרגומו שיירת, על שם הולכי ארח:
and their camels were carrying, etc.: Why did Scripture publicize their burden? To let you know the reward of the righteous, for it is customary for Arabs to carry only naphtha and tar, whose odor is foul, but for this one (Joseph) it was arranged [that they should be carrying] spices, so that he should not be afflicted by a foul odor. [Mechilta Beshallach, treatise 2, section 5]   וגמליהם נושאים וגו': למה פרסם הכתוב את משאם, להודיע מתן שכרן של צדיקים, שאין דרכן של ערביים לשאת אלא נפט ועטרן שריחן רע, ולזה נזדמנו בשמים שלא יוזק מריח רע:
spices: Heb. נְכֹאת. Any collection of many spices is called נְכֹאת. Similarly,“and he showed them his entire storeroom of spices (בֵּית נְכֹתֹה)” (II Kings 20:13), the compounding of his spices. Onkelos, however, renders it as a word meaning wax.   נכאת: כל כנוסי בשמים הרבה קרוי נכאת וכן (מ"ב כ יג) ויראם את כל בית נכתה, מרקחת בשמיו, ואונקלוס תרגמו לשון שעוה:
balm: Heb. וּצְרִי, a sap that drips from balsam trees, and this is נָטָתּ, sap, which is enumerated with the ingredients of the incense [used in the Temple] (Exod. 30:34-38).   וצרי: שרף הנוטף מעצי הקטף, והוא (שמות ל לד) נטף, הנמנה עם סמני הקטורת:
and lotus: Heb. וָלֹט. This is called לוֹטִיתָא in the language of the Mishnah (Shevi’ith 7:6). Our Sages defined it as a root of an herb, called aristolochie, birthwort, in Tractate Niddah (8a).   ולט: לוטס שמו בלשון משנה (שביעית ז ו). ורבותינו פירשוהו לשון שרש עשב ושמו אשטורוזי"א [ספלול] במסכת נידה (ח א):
26And Judah said to his brothers, "What is the gain if we slay our brother and cover up his blood?   כווַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוּדָ֖ה אֶל־אֶחָ֑יו מַה־בֶּ֗צַע כִּ֤י נַֽהֲרֹג֙ אֶת־אָחִ֔ינוּ וְכִסִּ֖ינוּ אֶת־דָּמֽוֹ:
What is the gain: What money [will we profit]? As the Targum renders.   מה בצע: מה ממון, כתרגומו:
and cover up his blood: And conceal his death.   וכסינו את דמו: ונעלים את מיתתו:
27Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, but our hand shall not be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh." And his brothers hearkened.   כזלְכ֞וּ וְנִמְכְּרֶ֣נּוּ לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִ֗ים וְיָדֵ֨נוּ֙ אַל־תְּהִי־ב֔וֹ כִּֽי־אָחִ֥ינוּ בְשָׂרֵ֖נוּ ה֑וּא וַיִּשְׁמְע֖וּ אֶחָֽיו:
And… hearkened: Heb. וַיִשְׁמְעוּ, [which the Targum renders:] מִינֵיהּ וְקַבִּילוּ, and they accepted from him. Every instance of שְׁמִיעָה that signifies acceptance, such as this one and such as“And Jacob listened (וַיִשְׁמַע) to his father” (Gen. 28:7),“We will do, and we will listen (וְנִשְׁמָע)” (Exod. 24:7), is translated נְקַבֵּל. Every instance that means the hearing of the ear, [however,] such as“And they heard (וַיִשְׁמְעוּ) the voice of the Lord God going in the garden” (Gen. 3:8),“But Rebecca overheard (שׁוֹמַעַת)” (ibid. 27:5),“and Israel heard (וַיִשְׁמַע) [of it]” (ibid. 35:22),“I have heard (שָׁמַעְתִּי) the complaints” (Exod. 16:12), are all rendered [respectively]: וּשְׁמַע, וּשְׁמָעַת, וּשְׁמָעוּ, שְׁמִיע ַקֳדָמַי.   וישמעו: וקבילו מניה. וכל שמיעה שהיא קבלת דברים כגון זה וכגון (לעיל כח ז) וישמע יעקב אל אביו, (שמות כד ז) נעשה ונשמע, מתרגם נקבל, וכל שהוא שמיעת האוזן, כגון (בראשית ג ח) וישמעו את קול ה' א-להים מתהלך בגן, (שם כז ה) ורבקה שומעת, (שם לה כב) וישמע ישראל, (שמות טז יב) שמעתי את תלונות, כולן מתרגם ושמעו, ושמעת, ושמע, שמיע קדמי:
28Then Midianite men, merchants, passed by, and they pulled and lifted Joseph from the pit, and they sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty silver [pieces], and they brought Joseph to Egypt.   כחוַיַּֽעַבְרוּ֩ אֲנָשִׁ֨ים מִדְיָנִ֜ים סֹֽחֲרִ֗ים וַיִּמְשְׁכוּ֙ וַיַּֽעֲל֤וּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ מִן־הַבּ֔וֹר וַיִּמְכְּר֧וּ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֛ף לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִ֖ים בְּעֶשְׂרִ֣ים כָּ֑סֶף וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף מִצְרָֽיְמָה:
Then Midianite men, merchants, passed by: This is another caravan, and Scripture informs you that he was sold many times. [From Tanchuma Buber, Vayeshev 13]   ויעברו אנשים מדינים: זו היא שיירא אחרת, והודיעך הכתוב שנמכר פעמים הרבה:
and they pulled: The sons of Jacob [pulled] Joseph out the pit and sold him to the Ishmaelites, and the Ishmaelites to the Midianites, and the Midianites to Egypt. [From Midrash Asarah Harugei Malchuth]   וימשכו: בני יעקב את יוסף מן הבור וימכרוהו לישמעאלים, והישמעאלים למדינים, והמדינים למצרים:
29And Reuben returned to the pit, and behold, Joseph was not in the pit; so he rent his garments.   כטוַיָּ֤שָׁב רְאוּבֵן֙ אֶל־הַבּ֔וֹר וְהִנֵּ֥ה אֵֽין־יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּבּ֑וֹר וַיִּקְרַ֖ע אֶת־בְּגָדָֽיו:
And Reuben returned: But when he (Joseph) was sold, he (Reuben) was not there, for his day to go and serve his father had arrived (Gen. Rabbah 84:15). Another explanation: He was busy with his sackcloth and his fasting for disarranging his father’s bed (Peskikta d’Rav Kahana ch. 25.   וישב ראובן: ובמכירתו לא היה שם, שהגיע יומו לילך ולשמש את אביו. דבר אחר עסוק היה בשקו ובתעניתו על שבלבל יצועי אביו:
30And he returned to his brothers and said, "The boy is gone! And I where will I go?"   לוַיָּ֥שָׁב אֶל־אֶחָ֖יו וַיֹּאמַ֑ר הַיֶּ֣לֶד אֵינֶ֔נּוּ וַֽאֲנִ֖י אָ֥נָה אֲנִי־בָֽא:
…where will I go?: Where will I flee from Father’s pain?   אנה אני בא: אנה אברח מצערו של אבא:
31And they took Joseph's coat, and they slaughtered a kid, and they dipped the coat in the blood.   לאוַיִּקְח֖וּ אֶת־כְּתֹ֣נֶת יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ֙ שְׂעִ֣יר עִזִּ֔ים וַיִּטְבְּל֥וּ אֶת־הַכֻּתֹּ֖נֶת בַּדָּֽם:
and they slaughtered a kid: Its blood resembles that of a human. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:19, Targum Jonathan]   שעיר עזים: דמו דומה לשל אדם:
the coat: Heb. הַכֻּתֹּנֶת. This is its name. [I.e. this is the absolute state.] But when it is connected to another word [i.e. in the construct state], as in“Joseph’s coat” (כְּתֹנֶת יוֹסֵף) ,“a fine woolen coat” (כְּתֹנֶת פַּסִים) (above, verse 3), [and]“a linen shirt” (כְּתֹנֶת בַּד) (Lev. 16:4), it is vowelized כְּתֹנֶת.   הכתנת: זה שמה, וכשהיא דבוקה לתיבה אחרת כגון (פסוק לא) כתנת יוסף, (פסוק ג) כתנת פסים, (ויקרא טז ד) כתנת בד, נקוד כתנת:
32And they sent the fine woolen coat, and they brought [it] to their father, and they said, "We have found this; now recognize whether it is your son's coat or not."   לבוַיְשַׁלְּח֞וּ אֶת־כְּתֹ֣נֶת הַפַּסִּ֗ים וַיָּבִ֨יאוּ֙ אֶל־אֲבִיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ זֹ֣את מָצָ֑אנוּ הַכֶּר־נָ֗א הַכְּתֹ֧נֶת בִּנְךָ֛ הִ֖וא אִם־לֹֽא:
33He recognized it, and he said, "[It is] my son's coat; a wild beast has devoured him; Joseph has surely been torn up."   לגוַיַּכִּירָ֤הּ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ כְּתֹ֣נֶת בְּנִ֔י חַיָּ֥ה רָעָ֖ה אֲכָלָ֑תְהוּ טָרֹ֥ף טֹרַ֖ף יוֹסֵֽף:
and he said, “[It is] my son’s coat…”: It is [my son’s coat]. [From targumim]   ויאמר כתנת בני: היא זו:
a wild beast has devoured him: [This means that] the Holy Spirit flickered within him: Potiphar’s wife will ultimately provoke him (Gen. Rabbah 84:19). Now why did the Holy One, blessed be He, not reveal it (the truth) to him? Because they (the brothers) excommunicated and cursed anyone who would reveal [it], and they included the Holy One, blessed be He, with them, but Isaac, however, knew that he was alive [but] he said, “How can I reveal it if the Holy One, blessed be He, does not wish to reveal it to him?” [from Tanchuma Miketz]   חיה רעה אכלתהו: נצנצה בו רוח הקדש, סופו שתתגרה בו אשת פוטיפר. ולמה לא גלה לו הקב"ה, לפי שהחרימו וקללו את כל מי שיגלה, ושתפו להקב"ה עמהם, אבל יצחק היה יודע שהוא חי, אמר היאך אגלה והקב"ה אינו רוצה לגלות לו:
34And Jacob rent his garments, and he put sackcloth on his loins, and he mourned for his son many days.   לדוַיִּקְרַ֤ע יַֽעֲקֹב֙ שִׂמְלֹתָ֔יו וַיָּ֥שֶׂם שַׂ֖ק בְּמָתְנָ֑יו וַיִּתְאַבֵּ֥ל עַל־בְּנ֖וֹ יָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים:
many days: Twenty-two years from the time he (Joseph) left him until Jacob went down to Egypt, as it is said: “Joseph was seventeen years old, etc.” (verse 2), and he was 30 years old when he stood before Pharaoh, and the seven years of plenty, “For this is already two years of the famine” (Gen. 45:6) when Jacob came to Egypt. Here are 22 years corresponding to the 22 years that Jacob did not fulfill [the mitzvah] to honor his father and mother: 20 years that he was in Laban’s house, and two years that he was on the road when he returned from Laban’s house, one and a half years in Succoth and six months in Beth-el. This is what he [meant when he] said to Laban, “This is twenty years for me in your house” (Gen. 31:41). They are for me, upon me, and I will ultimately suffer [for twenty years], corresponding to them. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:20, Meg. 16b-17a]   ימים רבים: עשרים ושתים שנה משפירש ממנו עד שירד יעקב למצרים, שנאמר (פסוק ב) יוסף בן שבע עשרה שנה וגו' ובן שלשים שנה היה בעמדו לפני פרעה, ושבע שני השובע ושנתים הרעב כשבא יעקב למצרים הרי עשרים ושתים שנה, כנגד עשרים ושתים שנה שלא קיים יעקב כבוד אב ואם. עשרים שנה שהיה בבית לבן, ושתי שנים בדרך בשובו מבית לבן, שנה וחצי בסכות וששה חדשים בבית אל וזהו שאמר ללבן לעיל (לא מא) זה לי עשרים שנה בביתך, לי הן, עלי הן, וסופי ללקות כנגדן:
35And all his sons and all his daughters arose to console him, but he refused to be consoled, for he said, "Because I will descend on account of my son as a mourner to the grave"; and his father wept for him.   להוַיָּקֻ֩מוּ֩ כָל־בָּנָ֨יו וְכָל־בְּנֹתָ֜יו לְנַֽחֲמ֗וֹ וַיְמָאֵן֙ לְהִתְנַחֵ֔ם וַיֹּ֕אמֶר כִּֽי־אֵרֵ֧ד אֶל־בְּנִ֛י אָבֵ֖ל שְׁאֹ֑לָה וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ אֹת֖וֹ אָבִֽיו:
and all his daughters: Rabbi Judah says: Twin sisters were born with every tribe, and they married them. Rabbi Nehemiah says: They were Canaanite women. But what is the meaning of“and all his daughters” ? A person does not hesitate to call his son-in-law his son and his daughter-in-law his daughter. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:21]   וכל בנתיו: רבי יהודה אומר אחיות תאומות נולדו עם כל שבט ושבט ונשאום. רבי נחמיה אומר כנעניות היו, אלא מהו וכל בנותיו, כלותיו, שאין אדם נמנע מלקרוא לחתנו בנו ולכלתו בתו:
but he refused to be consoled: No one accepts consolation for a person who is really alive but believed to be dead, for it is decreed that a dead person should be forgotten from the heart, but not a living person. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:21, Pes. 54b]   וימאן להתנחם: אין אדם יכול לקבל תנחומין על החי וסבור שמת, שעל המת נגזרה גזירה שישתכח מן הלב ולא על החי:
I will descend on account of my son: Heb. אֶל-בְּנִי. There are many instances of אֶל that serve as an expression of עַל, “on account of,” e.g.“on account of (אֶל) Saul and on account of (וְאֶל) the bloody house” (II Sam. 21:1);“because (אֶל) the Ark of God had been taken and because of (וְאֶל) (the death of) (sic) her father-in-law and her husband” (I Sam. 4:21).   ארד אל בני: כמו על בני, והרבה אל משמשין בלשון על, (ש"ב כא א) אל שאול ואל בית הדמים, (ש"א ד כא) אל הלקח ארון הא-להים ואל מות חמיה ואישה:
as a mourner to the grave: Heb. שְׁאֹלָה. According to its simple meaning, it is a term denoting the grave. In my mourning I will be buried, and I will not be consoled all my days (Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel). [According to] its midrashic interpretation, however, [שְׁאוֹל means] Gehinom. This sign was given into my hand from God, that if none of my sons dies within my lifetime, I am assured that I will not see the face of Gehinnom. [From Tanchuma Vayigash 9, Midrash Yelammedenu]   אבל שאולה: כפשוטו לשון קבר הוא, באבלי אקבר, ולא אתנחם כל ימי. ומדרשו גיהנם, סימן זה היה מסור בידי מפי הגבורה אם לא ימות אחד מבני בחיי מובטח אני שאיני רואה גיהנם:
and his father wept for him: This refers to Isaac. He was weeping over Jacob’s distress, but he did not mourn [for Joseph], for he knew that he was alive. [From Gen. Rabbah 84:21]   ויבך אתו אביו: יצחק היה בוכה מפני צרתו של יעקב, אבל לא היה מתאבל, שהיה יודע שהוא חי:
36And the Midianites sold him to Egypt, to Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain, chief of the slaughterers.   לווְהַ֨מְּדָנִ֔ים מָֽכְר֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־מִצְרָ֑יִם לְפֽוֹטִיפַר֙ סְרִ֣יס פַּרְעֹ֔ה שַׂ֖ר הַטַּבָּחִֽים:
chief of the slaughterers: Those who slaughter the king’s animals.   הטבחים: שוחטי בהמות המלך:

Fourth Portion

Genesis Chapter 38

1Now it came about at that time that Judah was demoted by his brothers, and he turned away until [he came] to an Adullamite man, named Hirah.   אוַֽיְהִי֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא וַיֵּ֥רֶד יְהוּדָ֖ה מֵאֵ֣ת אֶחָ֑יו וַיֵּ֛ט עַד־אִ֥ישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִ֖י וּשְׁמ֥וֹ חִירָֽה:
Now it came about at that time: Why was this section placed here, where it interrupts the section dealing with Joseph? To teach us that his (Judah’s) brothers demoted him from his high position when they saw their father’s distress. They said, “You told [us] to sell him. Had you told [us] to return him, we would have obeyed you.” [from Tanchuma Buber, Vayeshev 8]   ויהי בעת ההוא: למה נסמכה פרשה זו לכאן, והפסיק בפרשתו של יוסף, ללמד שהורידוהו אחיו מגדולתו כשראו בצרת אביהם, אמרו אתה אמרת למכרו, אלו אמרת להשיבו היינו שומעים לך:
and he turned away: from his brothers.   ויט: מאת אחיו:
to an Adullamite man: He entered into a partnership with him.   עד איש עדלמי: נשתתף עמו:
2And there Judah saw the daughter of a merchant named Shua, and he took her and came to her.   בוַיַּרְא־שָׁ֧ם יְהוּדָ֛ה בַּת־אִ֥ישׁ כְּנַֽעֲנִ֖י וּשְׁמ֣וֹ שׁ֑וּעַ וַיִּקָּחֶ֖הָ וַיָּבֹ֥א אֵלֶֽיהָ:
merchant: Heb. כְּנַעִנִי [Onkelos renders] תַּגְרָא, a merchant.   כנעני: תגרא:  
3And she conceived and bore a son, and he named him Er.   גוַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ עֵֽר:
4And she conceived again and bore a son, and she named him Onan.   דוַתַּ֥הַר ע֖וֹד וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ אוֹנָֽן:
5Once again she bore a son, and she named him Shelah, and he (Judah) was in Chezib when she gave birth to him.   הוַתֹּ֤סֶף עוֹד֙ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ שֵׁלָ֑ה וְהָיָ֥ה בִכְזִ֖יב בְּלִדְתָּ֥הּ אֹתֽוֹ:
and he (Judah) was in Chezib: The name of the place. I say, however, that it was called Chezib because she stopped giving birth; [this is] an expression similar to“You are to me as a failing spring (אַכְזָב)” (Jer. 15:18);“whose water does not fail (יְכַזְבוּ)” (Isa. 58:11). Otherwise, what does Scripture intend to tell us? Moreover, in Genesis Rabbah (85:4) I saw: And she named him Shelah… She stopped [bearing].   והיה בכזיב: שם המקום. ואומר אני על שם שפסקה מלדת נקרא כזיב, לשון (ירמיה טו יח) היו תהיה לי כמו אכזב, (ישעיה נח יא) אשר לא יכזבו מימיו, דאם לא כן מה בא להודיענו. ובבראשית רבה (פה ד) ראיתי ותקרא שמו שלה, פסקת:
6And Judah took a wife for Er, his firstborn, named Tamar.   ווַיִּקַּ֧ח יְהוּדָ֛ה אִשָּׁ֖ה לְעֵ֣ר בְּכוֹר֑וֹ וּשְׁמָ֖הּ תָּמָֽר:
7Now Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and the Lord put him to death.   זוַיְהִ֗י עֵ֚ר בְּכ֣וֹר יְהוּדָ֔ה רַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיְמִתֵ֖הוּ יְהֹוָֽה:
was evil in the eyes of the Lord: [His evil was] like the evil of Onan, viz. that he wasted his semen, as it is written in connection with Onan: “and He put him to death also,” meaning that, as Er’s death, so was Onan’s death. Now, why should Er waste his semen? So that she (Tamar) would not become pregnant and her beauty be impaired. [From Yev. 34b]   רע בעיני ה': כרעתו של אונן משחית זרעו, שנאמר באונן (פסוק י) וימת גם אותו, כמיתתו של ער מיתתו של אונן, ולמה היה ער משחית זרעו, כדי שלא תתעבר ויכחיש יפיה:
8So Judah said to Onan, "Come to your brother's wife and perform the rite of the levirate, and raise up progeny for your brother."   חוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוּדָה֙ לְאוֹנָ֔ן בֹּ֛א אֶל־אֵ֥שֶׁת אָחִ֖יךָ וְיַבֵּ֣ם אֹתָ֑הּ וְהָקֵ֥ם זֶ֖רַע לְאָחִֽיךָ:
and raise up progeny: The son shall be called by the name of the deceased. [From Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   והקם זרע: הבן יקרא על שם המת:
9Now Onan knew that the progeny would not be his, and it came about, when he came to his brother's wife, he wasted [his semen] on the ground, in order not to give seed to his brother.   טוַיֵּ֣דַע אוֹנָ֔ן כִּ֛י לֹּ֥א ל֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה הַזָּ֑רַע וְהָיָ֞ה אִם־בָּ֨א אֶל־אֵ֤שֶׁת אָחִיו֙ וְשִׁחֵ֣ת אַ֔רְצָה לְבִלְתִּ֥י נְתָן־זֶ֖רַע לְאָחִֽיו:
he wasted [his semen] on the ground: He practiced coitus interruptus. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:5]   ושחת ארצה: דש מבפנים וזורה מבחוץ:
10Now what he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He put him to death also.   יוַיֵּ֛רַע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיָּ֖מֶת גַּם־אֹתֽוֹ:
11Then Judah said to his daughter in law Tamar, "Remain as a widow in your father's house until my son Shelah grows up," for he said, "Lest he too die, like his brothers." So Tamar went, and she remained in her father's house.   יאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוּדָה֩ לְתָמָ֨ר כַּלָּת֜וֹ שְׁבִ֧י אַלְמָנָ֣ה בֵית־אָבִ֗יךְ עַד־יִגְדַּל֙ שֵׁלָ֣ה בְנִ֔י כִּ֣י אָמַ֔ר פֶּן־יָמ֥וּת גַּם־ה֖וּא כְּאֶחָ֑יו וַתֵּ֣לֶךְ תָּמָ֔ר וַתֵּ֖שֶׁב בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיהָ:
for he said, etc.: Meaning that he dismissed her with a straw (with a lame excuse), for he did not intend to marry her to him (Shelah).   כי אמר וגו': כלומר דוחה היה אותה בקש, שלא היה בדעתו להשיאה לו:
for he said, “Lest he too die…”: This is a woman whose husbands presumably die young. [From Yev. 64b]   כי אמר פן ימות: מוחזקת היא זו שימותו אנשיה:
12Many days passed, and Shua's daughter, Judah's wife, died; and Judah was consoled, and he went up [to watch] over his sheepshearers he and Hirah, his Adullamite friend to Timnah.   יבוַיִּרְבּוּ֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וַתָּ֖מָת בַּת־שׁ֣וּעַ אֵֽשֶׁת־יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיִּנָּ֣חֶם יְהוּדָ֗ה וַיַּ֜עַל עַל־גֹּֽזְזֵ֤י צֹאנוֹ֙ ה֗וּא וְחִירָ֛ה רֵעֵ֥הוּ הָֽעֲדֻלָּמִ֖י תִּמְנָֽתָה:
and he went up [to watch] over his sheepshearers: He went up to Timnah to stand over his sheepshearers [i.e. to oversee them].   ויעל על גוזזי צאנו: ויעל תמנתה לעמוד על גוזזי צאנו:
13And it was told to Tamar, saying, "Behold, your father in law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep."   יגוַיֻּגַּ֥ד לְתָמָ֖ר לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֥ה חָמִ֛יךְ עֹלֶ֥ה תִמְנָ֖תָה לָגֹ֥ז צֹאנֽוֹ:
is going up to Timnah: In connection with Samson, however, Scripture says (Jud. 14:1): “And Samson went down to Timnah.” It was situated on a mountain slope, so that they would go up to it from here and go down to it from there. [From Sotah 10a]   עולה תמנתה: ובשמשון הוא אומר (שופטים יד א) וירד שמשון תמנתה, בשפוע ההר היתה יושבת, עולין לה מכאן ויורדין לה מכאן:
14So she took off her widow's garb, covered [her head] with a veil and covered her face, and she sat down at the crossroads that were on the way to Timnah, for she saw that Shelah had grown up, but as for her she was not given to him for a wife.   ידוַתָּ֩סַר֩ בִּגְדֵ֨י אַלְמְנוּתָ֜הּ מֵֽעָלֶ֗יהָ וַתְּכַ֤ס בַּצָּעִיף֙ וַתִּתְעַלָּ֔ף וַתֵּ֨שֶׁב֙ בְּפֶ֣תַח עֵינַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־דֶּ֣רֶךְ תִּמְנָ֑תָה כִּ֤י רָֽאֲתָה֙ כִּֽי־גָדַ֣ל שֵׁלָ֔ה וְהִ֕וא לֹֽא־נִתְּנָ֥ה ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
and covered her face: Heb. וַתִּתְעַלָף. She covered her face so that he would not recognize her.   ותתעלף: כסתה פניה שלא יכיר בה:
at the crossroads: Heb. בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם, lit., at the opening of the eyes. At the crossroads, on the road to Timnah. Our Sages, however, explained it midrashically to mean, at the entrance (פֶתַח) [to the residence] of our father Abraham, which all eyes (עֵינַיִם) looked forward to see. [From Sotah 10a]   ותשב בפתח עינים: בפתיחת עינים, בפרשת דרכים שעל דרך תמנתה. ורבותינו דרשו בפתחו של אברהם אבינו שכל עינים מצפות לראותו:
for she saw that Shelah had grown up, etc.: Therefore, she made herself available to Judah, for she longed to bear sons from him.   כי ראתה כי גדל שלה וגו': לפיכך הפקירה עצמה אצל יהודה, שהיתה מתאוה להעמיד ממנו בנים:
15When Judah saw her, he thought she was a harlot, because she covered her face.   טווַיִּרְאֶ֣הָ יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶ֖הָ לְזוֹנָ֑ה כִּ֥י כִסְּתָ֖ה פָּנֶֽיהָ:
he thought she was a harlot: because she was sitting at the crossroads.   ויחשבה לזונה: לפי שיושבת בפרשת דרכים:
because she covered her face: and he could not see her and recognize her. Our Sages midrashic interpretation is: because she had covered her face when she had stayed in her father-in-law’s house and she was modest. Therefore, he did not suspect her. [From Sotah 10b]   כי כסתה פניה: ולא יכול לראותה ולהכירה. ומדרש רבותינו כי כסתה פניה כשהיתה בבית חמיה היתה צנועה, לפיכך לא חשדה:
16So he turned aside toward her to the road, and he said, "Get ready now, I will come to you," for he did not know that she was his daughter in law, and she said, "What will you give me that you should come to me?"   טזוַיֵּ֨ט אֵלֶ֜יהָ אֶל־הַדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הָֽבָה־נָּא֙ אָב֣וֹא אֵלַ֔יִךְ כִּ֚י לֹ֣א יָדַ֔ע כִּ֥י כַלָּת֖וֹ הִ֑וא וַתֹּ֨אמֶר֙ מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִ֔י כִּ֥י תָב֖וֹא אֵלָֽי:
So he turned aside toward her to the road: From the road he was following, he turned aside to the road where she was. In Old French, destorner, to turn aside.   ויט אליה אל הדרך: מדרך שהיה בה נטה אל הדרך אשר היא בה, ובלשון לע"ז דשטולי"ר [לסטות]:
“Get ready now…”: Prepare yourself and your mind for this. Every expression of הָבָה signifies preparation, except where it can be translated as an expression of giving, and even those instances [of הָבָה] meaning preparation are close to an expression of giving.   הבה נא: הכיני עצמך ודעתך לכך. כל לשון הבה לשון הזמנה הוא, חוץ ממקום שיש לתרגמו בלשון נתינה, ואף אותן של הזמנה קרובים ללשון נתינה הם:
17And he said, "I will send a kid from the herd," and she said, "[Only] if you give me a pledge until you send [it]."   יזוַיֹּ֕אמֶר אָֽנֹכִ֛י אֲשַׁלַּ֥ח גְּדִֽי־עִזִּ֖ים מִן־הַצֹּ֑אן וַתֹּ֕אמֶר אִם־תִּתֵּ֥ן עֵֽרָב֖וֹן עַ֥ד שָׁלְחֶֽךָ:
a pledge: Heb. עֵרָבוֹן, security. [From Targum Onkelos]   ערבון: משכון:
18So he said, "What is the pledge that I should give you?" And she said, "Your signet, your cloak, and the staff that is in your hand." So he gave them to her, and he came to her, and she conceived his likeness.   יחוַיֹּ֗אמֶר מָ֣ה הָעֵֽרָבוֹן֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶתֶּן־לָךְ֒ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר חֹתָֽמְךָ֙ וּפְתִילֶ֔ךָ וּמַטְּךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וַיִּֽתֶּן־לָ֛הּ וַיָּבֹ֥א אֵלֶ֖יהָ וַתַּ֥הַר לֽוֹ:
Your signet, your cloak: Heb. וּפְתִיל‏ ֶחֹתָמ‏ְ [Onkelos renders:] עִזְקָת‏ ָוְשׁוֹשִׁיפ‏ָ. Your ring, with which you seal, and your cloak, with which you cover yourself.   חתמך ופתילך: עזקתך ושושיפך, טבעת שאתה חותם בה, ושמלתך שאתה מתכסה בה:
and she conceived his likeness: lit.,“and she conceived to him.” Mighty men like him, righteous men like him. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:9]   ותהר לו: גבורים כיוצא בו, צדיקים כיוצא בו:  
19Then she arose and went away, and she took off her veil, and she donned her widow's garb.   יטוַתָּ֣קָם וַתֵּ֔לֶךְ וַתָּ֥סַר צְעִיפָ֖הּ מֵֽעָלֶ֑יהָ וַתִּלְבַּ֖שׁ בִּגְדֵ֥י אַלְמְנוּתָֽהּ:
20And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his Adullamite friend to take the pledge from the woman's hand, but he did not find her.   כוַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח יְהוּדָ֜ה אֶת־גְּדִ֣י הָֽעִזִּ֗ים בְּיַד֙ רֵעֵ֣הוּ הָֽעֲדֻלָּמִ֔י לָקַ֥חַת הָעֵֽרָב֖וֹן מִיַּ֣ד הָֽאִשָּׁ֑ה וְלֹ֖א מְצָאָֽהּ:
21So he asked the people of the place, saying, "Where is the harlot who was at the crossroads on the way?" and they said, "No harlot was here."   כאוַיִּשְׁאַ֞ל אֶת־אַנְשֵׁ֤י מְקֹמָהּ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אַיֵּ֧ה הַקְּדֵשָׁ֛ה הִ֥וא בָֽעֵינַ֖יִם עַל־הַדָּ֑רֶךְ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ לֹֽא־הָֽיְתָ֥ה בָזֶ֖ה קְדֵשָֽׁה:
the harlot: Heb. הַקְדֵשָׁה, prepared (מְקֻדֶשֶׁת) and ready for harlotry.   הקדשה: מקודשת ומזומנת לזנות:
22So he returned to Judah, and he said, "I have not found her, and the people of the place also said, 'No harlot was here.' "   כבוַיָּ֨שָׁב֙ אֶל־יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לֹ֣א מְצָאתִ֑יהָ וְגַ֨ם אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ אָֽמְר֔וּ לֹא־הָֽיְתָ֥ה בָזֶ֖ה קְדֵשָֽׁה:
23So Judah said, "Let her take [them] for herself, lest we become a laughingstock. Behold, I sent this kid, but you did not find her."   כגוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוּדָה֙ תִּקַּח־לָ֔הּ פֶּ֖ן נִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָב֑וּז הִנֵּ֤ה שָׁלַ֨חְתִּי֙ הַגְּדִ֣י הַזֶּ֔ה וְאַתָּ֖ה לֹ֥א מְצָאתָֽהּ:
Let her take [them] for herself: Let her keep what she has.   תקח לה: יהיה שלה מה שבידה:
lest we become a laughingstock: If you seek her further, the matter will become known, and it will be a disgrace, for what more am I required to do to keep my word?   פן נהיה לבוז: אם תבקשנה עוד יתפרסם הדבר ויהיה גנאי, כי מה עלי לעשות עוד לאמת דברי:
Behold, I sent this kid: Since Judah had deceived his father with the kid in whose blood he immersed Joseph’s coat, he too was deceived with a kid. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:9]   הנה שלחתי הגדי הזה: לפי שרימה יהודה את אביו בגדי עזים, שהטביל כתנת יוסף בדמו, רמוהו גם אותו בגדי עזים:
24Now it came about after nearly three months, that it was told to Judah, saying, "Your daughter in law Tamar has played the harlot, and behold, she is pregnant from harlotry." So Judah said, "Bring her out, and let her be burned."   כדוַיְהִ֣י | כְּמִשְׁל֣שׁ חֳדָשִׁ֗ים וַיֻּגַּ֨ד לִֽיהוּדָ֤ה לֵאמֹר֨ זָֽנְתָה֙ תָּמָ֣ר כַּלָּתֶ֔ךָ וְגַ֛ם הִנֵּ֥ה הָרָ֖ה לִזְנוּנִ֑ים וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוּדָ֔ה הֽוֹצִיא֖וּהָ וְתִשָּׂרֵֽף:
Now it came about after nearly three months: Heb. כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים. The greater part of the first, the greater part of the third, and the complete middle one. The expression כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים means, “upon the tripling of the months,” like “sending portions (מִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת)” (Esther 9:19)"[and] shall they stretch forth their hand (מִשְׁלוֹחַ יָדָם) (Isa. 11: 14) (lit., the stretching forth of their hand). And so did Onkelos render: כְּתַלְתוּת יַרְחַיָא, at the tripling of the months. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:10]   כמשלש חדשים: רובו של ראשון ורובו של אחרון ואמצעי שלם, ולשון כמשלש חדשים, כהשתלש החדשים, כמו (אסתר ט כב) ומשלוח מנות, (ישעיה יא יד) משלוח ידם, וכן תרגם אונקלוס כתלתות ירחיא:
she is pregnant from harlotry: Heb. הָרָה. This is an adjective, “pregnant,” like “a pregnant (הָרָה) woman” (Exod. 21:22), and like “clear (בָּרָה) as the sun” (Song 6:10).   הרה לזנונים: שם דבר, מעוברת כמו (שמות כא כב) אשה הרה, וכמו (שה"ש ו י) ברה כחמה:
and let her be burned: Ephraim Miksha’ah said in the name of Rabbi Meir: She was the daughter of Shem, who was a priest. Therefore, they sentenced her to be burned. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:10]   ותשרף: אמר אפרים מקשאה משום רבי מאיר בתו של שם היתה, שהוא כהן, לפיכך דנוה בשרפה:
25She was taken out, and she sent to her father in law, saying, "From the man to whom these belong I am pregnant," and she said, "Please recognize whose signet ring, cloak, and staff are these?"   כההִ֣וא מוּצֵ֗את וְהִ֨יא שָֽׁלְחָ֤ה אֶל־חָמִ֨יהָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁר־אֵ֣לֶּה לּ֔וֹ אָֽנֹכִ֖י הָרָ֑ה וַתֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הַכֶּר־נָ֔א לְמִ֞י הַֽחֹתֶ֧מֶת וְהַפְּתִילִ֛ים וְהַמַּטֶּ֖ה הָאֵֽלֶּה:
She was taken out: to be burned [from targumim]   הוא מוצאת: לישרף:
and she sent to her father-in-law: She did not want to embarrass him and say, “From you I am pregnant,” but, “From the man to whom these belong.” She said, “If he confesses by himself, let him confess, and if not, let them burn me, but I will not embarrass him.” From this they (our Rabbis) said, “It is better for a person to be cast into a fiery furnace than to embarrass his fellow in public.” [from Sotah 10b]   והיא שלחה אל חמיה: לא רצתה להלבין פניו ולומר ממך אני מעוברת, אלא לאיש אשר אלה לו, אמרה אם יודה מעצמו, יודה, ואם לאו ישרפוני, ואל אלבין פניו. מכאן אמרו נוח לו לאדם שיפילוהו לכבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים:
Please recognize: Heb. הַכֶּר-נָא. נָא is only an expression of supplication. “Please recognize your Creator and do not destroy three souls.” [from Sotah 10b, Gen. Rabbah 85:11]   הכר נא: אין נא אלא לשון בקשה, הכר נא בוראך ואל תאבד שלש נפשות:
26Then Judah recognized [them], and he said, "She is right, [it is] from me, because I did not give her to my son Shelah." But he no longer continued to be intimate with her.   כווַיַּכֵּ֣ר יְהוּדָ֗ה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ צָֽדְקָ֣ה מִמֶּ֔נִּי כִּֽי־עַל־כֵּ֥ן לֹֽא־נְתַתִּ֖יהָ לְשֵׁלָ֣ה בְנִ֑י וְלֹֽא־יָסַ֥ף ע֖וֹד לְדַעְתָּֽהּ:
She is right: in what she said.   צדקה: בדבריה:
from me: she is pregnant (Targum Onkelos). Our Sages, however, explained this midrashically to mean that a “bath-kol” came forth and declared, “From Me and from within Me these matters have emerged. Since she was modest in her father-in-law’s house, I decreed that kings should be descended from her, and from the tribe of Judah I [already] decreed to raise up kings in Israel.” [from Sotah 10b]   ממני: היא מעוברת. ורבותינו ז"ל דרשו שיצאה בת קול ואמרה ממני ומאתי יצאו הדברים, לפי שהיתה צנועה בבית חמיה גזרתי שיצאו ממנה מלכים, ומשבט יהודה גזרתי להעמיד מלכים בישראל:
because I did not give her to my son Shelah: For she did this justifiably, because I did not give her to my son Shelah. [From Bereishith Rabbathi]   כי על כן לא נתתיה: כי בדין עשתה, על אשר לא נתתיה לשלה בני:
But he no longer continued: Heb. וְלֹא-יָסַף. Some say: he did not continue [to know her] (Targum Onkelos), and others say: he did not cease (Sotah 10b). (A similar instance is found in connection with Eldad and Medad (Num. 11:25), [where the verse reads:] וְלֹא יָסָפוּ, they did not continue, which the Targum renders: וְלֹא פָסְקוּ, they did not cease).   ולא יסף עוד: יש אומרים לא הוסיף. ויש אומרים לא פסק [וחבירו גבי אלדד ומידד (במדבר יא כה) ולא יספו, ומתרגמינן ולא פסקו]:
27And it came about at the time she was giving birth, that behold, there were twins in her womb.   כזוַיְהִ֖י בְּעֵ֣ת לִדְתָּ֑הּ וְהִנֵּ֥ה תְאוֹמִ֖ים בְּבִטְנָֽהּ:
at the time she was giving birth: But concerning Rebecca, Scripture states:“And her days to give birth were completed” (Gen. 25:24). In the latter instance, the months were complete, but here they were short of full term. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:13]   בעת לדתה: וברבקה הוא אומר (כב כד) וימלאו ימיה ללדת, להלן למלאים וכאן לחסרים:
behold, there were twins: This is written with the full spelling (תאוֹמִים); in the other instance, [with Rebecca,] it is written defectively (תוֹמִם), because one [child, Esau,] was wicked, but these [twins] were both righteous. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:13]   והנה תאומים: מלא, ולהלן (כה כד) תומים, חסר, לפי שהאחד רשע, אבל אלו שניהם צדיקים:
28And it came about when she gave birth, that he (the infant) stretched out his hand. So the midwife took and bound a crimson thread on his hand, saying, "This one came out first."   כחוַיְהִ֥י בְלִדְתָּ֖הּ וַיִּתֶּן־יָ֑ד וַתִּקַּ֣ח הַֽמְיַלֶּ֗דֶת וַתִּקְשֹׁ֨ר עַל־יָד֤וֹ שָׁנִי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר זֶ֖ה יָצָ֥א רִֽאשֹׁנָֽה:
that he (the infant) stretched out his hand: One of them stretched his hand to the outside, and after she (the midwife) bound the crimson thread on it, he drew it back.   ויתן יד: הוציא האחד ידו לחוץ, ולאחר שקשרה על ידו השני החזירה:
29And it came about, as he was drawing back his hand, behold, his brother emerged, and she said, "With what strength you have strengthened yourself!" And he (Judah) named him Perez.   כטוַיְהִ֣י | כְּמֵשִׁ֣יב יָד֗וֹ וְהִנֵּה֙ יָצָ֣א אָחִ֔יו וַתֹּ֕אמֶר מַה־פָּרַ֖צְתָּ עָלֶ֣יךָ פָּ֑רֶץ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ פָּֽרֶץ:
you have strengthened yourself: Heb. פָּרַצְתָּ with what strength you have strengthened yourself! [from Targum Onkelos]   פרצת: חזקת עליך חוזק:
30Afterwards, his brother emerged, the one upon whose hand was the crimson thread, and he named him Zerah.   לוְאַחַר֙ יָצָ֣א אָחִ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־יָד֖וֹ הַשָּׁנִ֑י וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ זָֽרַח:
the one upon whose hand was the crimson thread: Four hands are written here, corresponding to the four devoted things (charamim) by which Achan, who was descended from him (Zerah), committed a trespass. Some say [that they] correspond to the four things that he took: a Babylonish garment, two pieces of silver weighing two hundred shekels, and a wedge of gold (Jos. 7:21) (Gen. Rabbah 85:14).   אשר על ידו השני: ארבע ידות כתובות כאן כנגד ארבעה חרמים שמעל עכן שיצא ממנו. ויש אומרים כנגד ארבעה דברים שלקח, (יהושע ז כא) אדרת שנער, ושני חתיכות כסף של מאתים שקלים, ולשון זהב אחד:
and he named him Zerah: because of the shining appearance (זְרִיחַת) of the crimson.   ויקרא שמו זרח: על שם זריחת מראית השני:

Fifth Portion

Genesis Chapter 39

1Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain, chief of the slaughterers, an Egyptian man, purchased him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there.   אוְיוֹסֵ֖ף הוּרַ֣ד מִצְרָ֑יְמָה וַיִּקְנֵ֡הוּ פּֽוֹטִיפַר֩ סְרִ֨יס פַּרְעֹ֜ה שַׂ֤ר הַטַּבָּחִים֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י מִיַּד֙ הַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֽוֹרִדֻ֖הוּ שָֽׁמָּה:
Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt: [Scripture] returns to the previous topic, which it had interrupted in order to juxtapose the demotion of Judah with the selling of Joseph, to imply that because of him (Joseph), they (his brothers) demoted him (Judah) from his high position; and also to juxtapose the incident of Potiphar’s wife with the incident of Tamar, to tell you that just as that one [the incident of Tamar] was meant for the sake of heaven, so too this one [the incident of Potiphar’s wife] was meant for the sake of heaven. For she saw through her astrology that she was destined to raise children from him (Joseph), but she did not know whether [they would be] from her or from her daughter. [From Gen. Rabbah 85:2]   ויוסף הורד: חוזר לענין ראשון, אלא שהפסיק בו כדי לסמוך ירידתו של יהודה למכירתו של יוסף לומר לך שבשבילו הורידוהו מגדולתו. ועוד, כדי לסמוך מעשה אשתו של פוטיפר למעשה תמר, לומר לך מה זו לשם שמים אף זו לשם שמים, שראתה באצטרולוגין שלה שעתידה להעמיד בנים ממנו ואינה יודעת אם ממנה אם מבתה:
2The Lord was with Joseph, and he was a successful man, and he was in the house of his Egyptian master.   בוַיְהִ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֔ף וַיְהִ֖י אִ֣ישׁ מַצְלִ֑יחַ וַיְהִ֕י בְּבֵ֖ית אֲדֹנָ֥יו הַמִּצְרִֽי:
3And his master saw that the Lord was with him, and whatever he (Joseph) did the Lord made prosper in his hand.   גוַיַּ֣רְא אֲדֹנָ֔יו כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אִתּ֑וֹ וְכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא עֹשֶׂ֔ה יְהֹוָ֖ה מַצְלִ֥יחַ בְּיָדֽוֹ:
that the Lord was with him: The name of Heaven was frequently in his mouth. [From Tanchuma Vayeshev 8]   כי ה' אתו: שם שמים שגור בפיו:
4And Joseph found favor in his eyes, and he (Joseph) served him, and he (Potiphar) appointed him over his house, and all he had he gave into his hand.   דוַיִּמְצָ֨א יוֹסֵ֥ף חֵ֛ן בְּעֵינָ֖יו וַיְשָׁ֣רֶת אֹת֑וֹ וַיַּפְקִדֵ֨הוּ֙ עַל־בֵּית֔וֹ וְכָל־יֶשׁ־ל֖וֹ נָתַ֥ן בְּיָדֽוֹ:
and all he had: Heb. וְכָל-יֶשׁ-לוֹ. This is elliptical. The word אִשֶׁר is missing. [It should read: וְכָל-אִשֶׁר יֶשׁ-לוֹ.] [from targumim]   וכל יש לו: הרי לשון קצר, חסר אשר:
5Now it came to pass that since he had appointed him over his house and over all that he had, the Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian for Joseph's sake, and the blessing of the Lord was in all that he had, in the house and in the field.   הוַיְהִ֡י מֵאָז֩ הִפְקִ֨יד אֹת֜וֹ בְּבֵית֗וֹ וְעַל֙ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶשׁ־ל֔וֹ וַיְבָ֧רֶךְ יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־בֵּ֥ית הַמִּצְרִ֖י בִּגְלַ֣ל יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיְהִ֞י בִּרְכַּ֤ת יְהֹוָה֙ בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶשׁ־ל֔וֹ בַּבַּ֖יִת וּבַשָּׂדֶֽה:
6So he left all that he had in Joseph's hand, and he knew nothing about what was with him except the bread that he ate; and Joseph had handsome features and a beautiful complexion.   ווַיַּֽעֲזֹ֣ב כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֘ בְּיַד־יוֹסֵף֒ וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֤ע אִתּוֹ֙ מְא֔וּמָה כִּ֥י אִם־הַלֶּ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא אוֹכֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף יְפֵה־תֹ֖אַר וִיפֵ֥ה מַרְאֶֽה:
and he knew nothing about what was with him: He did not pay attention to anything.   ולא ידע אתו מאומה: לא היה נותן לבו לכלום:
except the bread: That is his wife, but [Scripture] speaks euphemistically. [From Gen. Rabbah 86:6]   כי אם הלחם: היא אשתו, אלא שדבר בלשון נקיה:
and Joseph had handsome features: As soon as Joseph found himself [in the position of] ruler, he began eating and drinking and curling his hair. Said the Holy One, blessed be He: “Your father is mourning and you curl your hair! I will incite the bear against you.” Immediately afterwards “his master’s wife lifted up her eyes.” [from Tanchuma Vayeshev 8]   ויהי יוסף יפה תואר: כיון שראה עצמו מושל, התחיל אוכל ושותה ומסלסל בשערו, אמר הקב"ה אביך מתאבל ואתה מסלסל בשערך, אני מגרה בך את הדוב מיד:

Sixth Portion

Genesis Chapter 39

7Now it came to pass after these events that his master's wife lifted up her eyes to Joseph, and she said, "Lie with me."   זוַיְהִ֗י אַחַר֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַתִּשָּׂ֧א אֵֽשֶׁת־אֲדֹנָ֛יו אֶת־עֵינֶ֖יהָ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֑ף וַתֹּ֖אמֶר שִׁכְבָ֥ה עִמִּֽי:
his master’s wife lifted up her eyes, etc: Wherever it says אַחַר, it means immediately following. [From Gen. Rabbah 44:5]   ותשא אשת אדוניו וגו': כל מקום שנאמר אחר סמוך:
8But he refused, and he said to his master's wife, "Behold, with me my master knows nothing about anything in the house, and all he has he has given into my hand.   חוַיְמָאֵ֓ן | וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֶל־אֵ֣שֶׁת אֲדֹנָ֔יו הֵ֣ן אֲדֹנִ֔י לֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע אִתִּ֖י מַה־בַּבָּ֑יִת וְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יֶשׁ־ל֖וֹ נָתַ֥ן בְּיָדִֽי:
9In this house, there is no one greater than I, and he has not withheld anything from me except you, insofar as you are his wife. Now how can I commit this great evil, and sin against God?"   טאֵינֶ֨נּוּ גָד֜וֹל בַּבַּ֣יִת הַזֶּה֘ מִמֶּ֒נִּי֒ וְלֹֽא־חָשַׂ֤ךְ מִמֶּ֨נִּי֙ מְא֔וּמָה כִּ֥י אִם־אוֹתָ֖ךְ בַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתְּ־אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ וְאֵ֨יךְ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֜ה הָֽרָעָ֤ה הַגְּדֹלָה֙ הַזֹּ֔את וְחָטָ֖אתִי לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
and sin against God: The sons of Noah were commanded against immorality. [From Sanh. 56a]   וחטאתי לא-להים: בני נח נצטוו על העריות:
10Now it came about when she spoke to Joseph day in and day out, that he did not obey her, to lie beside her [and] to be with her.   יוַיְהִ֕י כְּדַבְּרָ֥הּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף י֣וֹם | י֑וֹם וְלֹֽא־שָׁמַ֥ע אֵלֶ֛יהָ לִשְׁכַּ֥ב אֶצְלָ֖הּ לִֽהְי֥וֹת עִמָּֽהּ:
to lie beside her: even without intercourse. [From Gen. Rabbah 87:6]   לשכב אצלה: אפילו בלא תשמיש:
to be with her: in the World to Come. [From Gen. Rabbah 87:6]   להיות עמה: לעולם הבא:
11And it came about on a certain day, that he came to the house to do his work, and none of the people of the house were there in the house.   יאוַֽיְהִי֙ כְּהַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֥א הַבַּ֖יְתָה לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת מְלַאכְתּ֑וֹ וְאֵ֨ין אִ֜ישׁ מֵֽאַנְשֵׁ֥י הַבַּ֛יִת שָׁ֖ם בַּבָּֽיִת:
And it came about on a certain day: That is to say that a special day arrived, a day of rejoicing, a religious festival when they (the household) all went to the temple of their idols. She said, “I have no more fitting day to consort with Joseph than today.” So she said to them, “I am ill, and I cannot go.” [from Sotah 36b]   ויהי כהיום הזה: כלומר ויהי כאשר הגיע יום מיוחד, יום צחוק, יום איד שלהם שהלכו כולם לבית עבודה זרה, אמרה אין לי יום הגון להזקק ליוסף כהיום הזה. אמרה להם חולה אני ואיני יכולה לילך:
to do his work: [There is a controversy between] Rav and Shmuel. One said: his actual work, and the other said: to perform his needs with her, but his father’s image appeared, etc., as is stated in Sotah (36b).   לעשות מלאכתו: רב ושמואל, חד אמר מלאכתו ממש, וחד אמר לעשות צרכיו עמה, אלא שנראית לו דמות דיוקנו של אביו וכו', כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (דף לו ב):  
12So she grabbed him by his garment, saying, "Lie with me!" But he left his garment in her hand and fled and went outside.   יבוַתִּתְפְּשֵׂ֧הוּ בְּבִגְד֛וֹ לֵאמֹ֖ר שִׁכְבָ֣ה עִמִּ֑י וַיַּֽעֲזֹ֤ב בִּגְדוֹ֙ בְּיָדָ֔הּ וַיָּ֖נָס וַיֵּצֵ֥א הַחֽוּצָה:
13Now it happened, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled outside,   יגוַֽיְהִי֙ כִּרְאוֹתָ֔הּ כִּֽי־עָזַ֥ב בִּגְד֖וֹ בְּיָדָ֑הּ וַיָּ֖נָס הַחֽוּצָה:
14that she called to the people of her house, and she spoke to them, saying, "Look! He brought us a Hebrew man to mock us. He came to me to lie with me, but I called loudly.   ידוַתִּקְרָ֞א לְאַנְשֵׁ֣י בֵיתָ֗הּ וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר רְא֗וּ הֵ֥בִיא לָ֛נוּ אִ֥ישׁ עִבְרִ֖י לְצַ֣חֶק בָּ֑נוּ בָּ֤א אֵלַי֙ לִשְׁכַּ֣ב עִמִּ֔י וָֽאֶקְרָ֖א בְּק֥וֹל גָּדֽוֹל:
“Look! He brought us…”: Heb. הֵבִיא [without a noun or pronoun. Although the pronoun is sometimes absent, the antecedent is usually clear, whereas here there is no antecedent.] This is an elliptical expression: “He brought us,” but [Scripture] does not specify who brought him; she was referring to her husband.   ראו הביא לנו: הרי זה לשון קצרה, הביא לנו ולא פירש מי הביאו, ועל בעלה אומרת כן:
Hebrew: Heb. עִבְרִי, from the other side of the river (עֵבֶר הַנָהָר) from the sons of Eber (Gen. Rabbah 42:8). (Other editions: from the other side of the river.)   עברי: מעבר הנהר, מבני עבר:
15And it happened that when he heard that I raised my voice and called out, he left his garment beside me, and he fled and went outside."   טווַיְהִ֣י כְשָׁמְע֔וֹ כִּֽי־הֲרִימֹ֥תִי קוֹלִ֖י וָֽאֶקְרָ֑א וַיַּֽעֲזֹ֤ב בִּגְדוֹ֙ אֶצְלִ֔י וַיָּ֖נָס וַיֵּצֵ֥א הַחֽוּצָה:
16So she left his garment beside her, until his master came home.   טזוַתַּנַּ֥ח בִּגְד֖וֹ אֶצְלָ֑הּ עַד־בּ֥וֹא אֲדֹנָ֖יו אֶל־בֵּיתֽוֹ:
his master: [The master] of Joseph.   אדוניו: של יוסף:
17And she told him the same thing, saying, "The Hebrew slave that you brought to us came to me to mock me.   יזוַתְּדַבֵּ֣ר אֵלָ֔יו כַּדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לֵאמֹ֑ר בָּ֣א אֵלַ֞י הָעֶ֧בֶד הָֽעִבְרִ֛י אֲשֶׁר־הֵבֵ֥אתָ לָּ֖נוּ לְצַ֥חֶק בִּֽי:
came to me: to mock me; the Hebrew slave that you brought to us.   בא אלי: לצחק בי העבד העברי אשר הבאת לנו:
18And it happened when I raised my voice and called out, that he left his garment beside me and fled outside."   יחוַיְהִ֕י כַּֽהֲרִימִ֥י קוֹלִ֖י וָֽאֶקְרָ֑א וַיַּֽעֲזֹ֥ב בִּגְד֛וֹ אֶצְלִ֖י וַיָּ֥נָס הַחֽוּצָה:
19Now it came about when his master heard his wife's report that she spoke to him, saying, "Your slave did such things to me," that his wrath burned.   יטוַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ אֲדֹנָ֜יו אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבְּרָ֤ה אֵלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כַּדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה עָ֥שָׂה לִ֖י עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וַיִּ֖חַר אַפּֽוֹ:
Now it came about when his master heard, etc.: During intercourse she told him this, and that is the meaning of “Your slave did such things to me,” [meaning] such acts of intimacy. [From Gen. Rabbah 87:9]   ויהי כשמוע אדוניו וגו': בשעת תשמיש אמרה לו כן, וזהו שאמרה כדברים האלה עשה לי עבדך, עניני תשמיש כאלה:
20So Joseph's master took him and put him into prison, the place where the king's prisoners were imprisoned, and he was there in the prison.   כוַיִּקַּח֩ אֲדֹנֵ֨י יוֹסֵ֜ף אֹת֗וֹ וַיִּתְּנֵ֨הוּ֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַסֹּ֔הַר מְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁר־אֲסִירֵ֥י כתיב אסורי הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲסוּרִ֑ים וַֽיְהִי־שָׁ֖ם בְּבֵ֥ית הַסֹּֽהַר:
21The Lord was with Joseph, and He extended charisma to him, and He gave him favor in the eyes of the warden of the prison.   כאוַיְהִ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־יוֹסֵ֔ף וַיֵּ֥ט אֵלָ֖יו חָ֑סֶד וַיִּתֵּ֣ן חִנּ֔וֹ בְּעֵינֵ֖י שַׂ֥ר בֵּֽית־הַסֹּֽהַר:
and he extended charisma to him: Heb. חָסֶד. [It means] that he was well-liked by all who saw him, an expression of“a beautiful and charismatic (וַחִסוּדָה) bride” in the Mishnah (Derech Eretz Rabbah , ch. 6) [from a midrash quoted by Yalkut Shimoni, vol. 2, 1053.]   ויט אליו חסד: שיהא מקובל לכל רואיו, לשון כלה נאה וחסודה שבמשנה (כתובות יז א):
22So the warden of the prison delivered all the prisoners who were in the prison into Joseph's hand, and whatever they did there, he [was the one who] did it.   כבוַיִּתֵּ֞ן שַׂ֤ר בֵּֽית־הַסֹּ֨הַר֙ בְּיַד־יוֹסֵ֔ף אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָ֣אֲסִירִ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּבֵ֣ית הַסֹּ֑הַר וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֤ר עֹשִׂים֙ שָׁ֔ם ה֖וּא הָיָ֥ה עֹשֶֽׂה:
he [was the one who] did it: As the Gen. Targum renders: by his command it was done.   הוא היה עושה: כתרגומו במימריה הוה מתעביד:
23The warden of the prison did not inspect anything [that was] in his (Joseph's) hand, for the Lord was with him, and whatever he did the Lord made prosper.   כגאֵ֣ין | שַׂ֣ר בֵּֽית־הַסֹּ֗הַר רֹאֶ֤ה אֶת־כָּל־מְא֨וּמָה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ בַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אִתּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא עֹשֶׂ֖ה יְהֹוָ֥ה מַצְלִֽיחַ:
since the Lord was with him: Heb. בַּאִשֶׁר. Because the Lord was with him.   באשר ה' אתו: בשביל שה' אתו:

Seventh Portion

Genesis Chapter 40

1Now it came about after these events that the cupbearer of the king of Egypt and the baker sinned against their master, against the king of Egypt.   אוַיְהִ֗י אַחַר֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה חָֽטְא֛וּ מַשְׁקֵ֥ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֖יִם וְהָֽאֹפֶ֑ה לַֽאֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֖ם לְמֶ֥לֶךְ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Now it came about after these events: Because that cursed woman (Potiphar’s wife) had accustomed the people to talk [badly] about the righteous man (Joseph), therefore the Holy One, blessed be He, brought to them [the Egyptians] the sin of these [men], so that they would turn [their attention] to them [the two chamberlains] and not to him (Joseph), and also so that relief would come to the righteous man through them. [From Gen. Rabbah 88:1, 88:3]   אחר הדברים האלה: לפי שהרגילה אותה ארורה את הצדיק בפי כולם לדבר בו ולגנותו, הביא להם הקב"ה סורחנם של אלו שיפנו אליהם ולא אליו, ועוד שתבוא הרווחה לצדיק על ידיהם:
sinned: [Regarding] this one (the cupbearer) a fly was found in his goblet, and [concerning] that one (the baker) a pebble was found in his bread. [From Gen. Rabbah 88:2]   חטאו: זה נמצא זבוב בפיילי פוטירין שלו, וזה נמצא צרור בגלוסקין שלו:
and the baker: of the king’s bread. The expression of baking (אִפִיָה) applies only to bread, pesto(u)r or pistor in Old French, kneader, baker.   והאופה: את פת המלך ואין לשון אפייה אלא בפת, ובלע"ז פיסטו"ר [אופה]:  
2And Pharaoh became incensed at his two chamberlains, at the chief cupbearer and at the chief baker.   בוַיִּקְצֹ֣ף פַּרְעֹ֔ה עַ֖ל שְׁנֵ֣י סָֽרִיסָ֑יו עַ֚ל שַׂ֣ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֔ים וְעַ֖ל שַׂ֥ר הָֽאוֹפִֽים:
3And he placed them in the prison of the house of the chief of the slaughterers, into the prison, the place where Joseph was imprisoned.   גוַיִּתֵּ֨ן אֹתָ֜ם בְּמִשְׁמַ֗ר בֵּ֛ית שַׂ֥ר הַטַּבָּחִ֖ים אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַסֹּ֑הַר מְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹסֵ֖ף אָס֥וּר שָֽׁם:
4And the chief of the slaughterers appointed Joseph [to be] with them, and he served them, and they were a year in prison.   דוַ֠יִּפְקֹ֠ד שַׂ֣ר הַטַּבָּחִ֧ים אֶת־יוֹסֵ֛ף אִתָּ֖ם וַיְשָׁ֣רֶת אֹתָ֑ם וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ יָמִ֖ים בְּמִשְׁמָֽר:
And the chief of the slaughterers appointed, etc.: to be with them.   ויפקד שר הטבחים את יוסף: להיות אתם:
and they were a year in prison: Heb. יָמִים, twelve months.   ויהיו ימים במשמר: שנים עשר חדש:
5Now both of them dreamed a dream, each one his dream on the same night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were confined in the prison.   הוַיַּֽחַלְמוּ֩ חֲל֨וֹם שְׁנֵיהֶ֜ם אִ֤ישׁ חֲלֹמוֹ֙ בְּלַ֣יְלָה אֶחָ֔ד אִ֖ישׁ כְּפִתְר֣וֹן חֲלֹמ֑וֹ הַמַּשְׁקֶ֣ה וְהָֽאֹפֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁר֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲסוּרִ֖ים בְּבֵ֥ית הַסֹּֽהַר:
Now both of them dreamed a dream: Heb. וַיַחַלְמוּ חִלוֹם שְׁנֵיהֶם, and both of them dreamed a dream. This is its simple meaning, but its midrashic meaning is that each dreamed both dreams, meaning that each dreamed his own dream and the interpretation of his companion’s dream. That is the meaning of what is stated: “Now the chief baker saw that he had interpreted well” (verse 16). [From Gen. Rabbah 88:4, Ber. 55b]   ויחלמו חלום שניהם: ויחלמו שניהם חלום, זה פשוטו, ומדרשו כל אחד חלם חלום שניהם, שחלם את חלומו ופתרון חבירו, וזו שנאמר (פסוק טז) וירא שר האופים כי טוב פתר:
each man according to the interpretation of his dream: Each one dreamed a dream similar to the interpretation destined to befall them.   איש כפתרון חלומו: כל אחד חלם חלום הדומה לפתרון העתיד לבא עליהם:
6And Joseph came to them in the morning, and he saw them and behold, they were troubled.   ווַיָּבֹ֧א אֲלֵיהֶ֛ם יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּבֹּ֑קֶר וַיַּ֣רְא אֹתָ֔ם וְהִנָּ֖ם זֹֽעֲפִֽים:
troubled: Heb. זֹעִפִים, sad, similar to “sad and upset (וְזָעֵף)” (I Kings 20:43); “I will bear the fury (זַעַף) of the Lord” (Micah 7:9). [From Targum Onkelos]   זעפים: עצבים כמו (מ"א כ מג) סר וזעף, (מיכה ז ט) זעף ה' אשא: 
7And he asked Pharaoh's chamberlains who were with him in the prison of his master's house, saying, "Why are your faces sad today?"   זוַיִּשְׁאַ֞ל אֶת־סְרִיסֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אִתּ֧וֹ בְמִשְׁמַ֛ר בֵּ֥ית אֲדֹנָ֖יו לֵאמֹ֑ר מַדּ֛וּעַ פְּנֵיכֶ֥ם רָעִ֖ים הַיּֽוֹם:
8And they said to him, "We have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter for it." Joseph said to them, "Don't interpretations belong to God? Tell [them] to me now."   חוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו חֲל֣וֹם חָלַ֔מְנוּ וּפֹתֵ֖ר אֵ֣ין אֹת֑וֹ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם יוֹסֵ֗ף הֲל֤וֹא לֵֽאלֹהִים֙ פִּתְרֹנִ֔ים סַפְּרוּ־נָ֖א לִֽי:
9So the chief cupbearer related his dream to Joseph, and he said to him, "In my dream, behold, a vine is before me.   טוַיְסַפֵּ֧ר שַׂר־הַמַּשְׁקִ֛ים אֶת־חֲלֹמ֖וֹ לְיוֹסֵ֑ף וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ בַּֽחֲלוֹמִ֕י וְהִנֵּה־גֶ֖פֶן לְפָנָֽי:
10And on the vine are three tendrils, and it seemed to be blossoming, and its buds came out; [then] its clusters ripened into grapes.   יוּבַגֶּ֖פֶן שְׁלשָׁ֣ה שָֽׂרִיגִ֑ם וְהִ֤וא כְפֹרַ֨חַת֙ עָֽלְתָ֣ה נִצָּ֔הּ הִבְשִׁ֥ילוּ אַשְׁכְּלֹתֶ֖יהָ עֲנָבִֽים:
tendrils: Heb. שָׂרִיגִם, long branches, known [in Old French] as vidiz, vine-shoots.   שריגים: זמורות ארוכות שקורין וידי"ץ בלע"ז [ענף גפן]:
and it seemed to be blossoming: Heb. וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת, meaning it resembled blossoming. וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת It seemed to me in my dream as if it were blossoming, and after the blossom, its buds came up, and they became tiny grapes, aspanir in Old French, and afterwards they ripened. [Onkelos renders וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת :] “and it was as if blossoming, it brought forth blossoms”; until here is the Targum for פֹּרַחַת. [The word] נֵץ [denotes a stage of grapes] larger than פֶּרַח, the blossom, as it is written:“and the buds (נִצָה) turn into ripening grapes” (Isa. 18:5), and it is also written: “had blossomed פֶרַח) (וַיֹצֵא,” and afterwards, “it had put forth a bud (וַיָצֵץ צִיץ)” (Num. 17:23).   והיא כפרחת: דומה לפורחת. והיא כפורחת נדמה לי בחלומי כאלו היא פורחת, ואחר הפרח עלתה נצה ונעשה סמדר, אישפני"ר בלע"ז [להנץ] ואחר כך הבשילו, והיא כד אפרחת אפיקת לבלבין, עד כאן תרגום של פורחת. נץ גדול מפרח, כדכתיב (ישעיה יח ה) ובוסר גומל יהיה נצה, וכתיב (במדבר יז כג) ויוצא פרח, והדר ויצץ ציץ:
11And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and squeezed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I placed the cup on Pharaoh's palm."   יאוְכ֥וֹס פַּרְעֹ֖ה בְּיָדִ֑י וָֽאֶקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָֽעֲנָבִ֗ים וָֽאֶשְׂחַ֤ט אֹתָם֙ אֶל־כּ֣וֹס פַּרְעֹ֔ה וָֽאֶתֵּ֥ן אֶת־הַכּ֖וֹס עַל־כַּ֥ף פַּרְעֹֽה:
and squeezed: Heb. וָאֶשְׂחַט, as the Targum renders וַעִצָרִית. There are many instances [of this word] in the language of the Mishnah.   ואשחט: כתרגומו ועצרית, והרבה יש בלשון משנה:
12And Joseph said to him, "This is its meaning: the three tendrils are three days.   יבוַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ יוֹסֵ֔ף זֶ֖ה פִּתְרֹנ֑וֹ שְׁל֨שֶׁת֙ הַשָּׂ֣רִגִ֔ים שְׁל֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים הֵֽם:
are three days: For you they symbolize three days, and there are many midrashic interpretations (Chullin 92a, Gen. Rabbah 88:5, targumim).   שלשת ימים הם: סימן הם לך לשלשת ימים, ויש מדרשי אגדה הרבה:
13In another three days, Pharaoh will number you [with the other officers], and he will restore you to your position, and you will place Pharaoh's cup into his hand, according to [your] previous custom, when you were his cupbearer.   יגבְּע֣וֹד | שְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים יִשָּׂ֤א פַרְעֹה֙ אֶת־רֹאשֶׁ֔ךָ וַֽהֲשִֽׁיבְךָ֖ עַל־כַּנֶּ֑ךָ וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ כוֹס־פַּרְעֹה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט֙ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיִ֖יתָ מַשְׁקֵֽהוּ:
Pharaoh will number you: Heb. יִשָׂא פַרְעֹה אֶת-רֹאשׁך, lit., will raise your head, an expression of numbering. When he counts the rest of his servants to serve him at the feast, he will count you along with them.   ישא פרעה את ראשך: לשון חשבון, כשיפקוד שאר עבדיו לשרת לפניו בסעודה ימנה אותך עמהם:
your position: Heb. כַּנּ‏ֶ, your base and your seat.   כנך: בסיס שלך ומושבך:
14But remember me when things go well with you, and please do me a favor and mention me to Pharaoh, and you will get me out of this house.   ידכִּ֧י אִם־זְכַרְתַּ֣נִי אִתְּךָ֗ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְעָשִֽׂיתָ־נָּ֥א עִמָּדִ֖י חָ֑סֶד וְהִזְכַּרְתַּ֨נִי֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְהֽוֹצֵאתַ֖נִי מִן־הַבַּ֥יִת הַזֶּֽה:
But remember me: But keep me in mind, since it will go well with you as I have interpreted.   כי אם זכרתני אתך: [אשר אם זכרתני אתך] מאחר שייטב לך [כפתרוני]:
and please do me a favor: Heb. נָא. נָא is only an expression of pleading.   ועשית נא עמדי חסד: אין נא אלא לשון בקשה:
15For I was stolen from the land of the Hebrews, and here too, I have done nothing, for which they have put me into the dungeon."   טוכִּֽי־גֻנֹּ֣ב גֻּנַּ֔בְתִּי מֵאֶ֖רֶץ הָֽעִבְרִ֑ים וְגַם־פֹּה֙ לֹֽא־עָשִׂ֣יתִי מְא֔וּמָה כִּֽי־שָׂמ֥וּ אֹתִ֖י בַּבּֽוֹר:
16Now the chief baker saw that he had interpreted well. So he said to Joseph, "Me too! In my dream, behold, there were three wicker baskets on my head.   טזוַיַּ֥רְא שַׂר־הָֽאֹפִ֖ים כִּ֣י ט֣וֹב פָּתָ֑ר וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף אַף־אֲנִי֙ בַּֽחֲלוֹמִ֔י וְהִנֵּ֗ה שְׁלשָׁ֛ה סַלֵּ֥י חֹרִ֖י עַל־רֹאשִֽׁי:
wicker baskets: Heb. סַלֵי חֹרִי, baskets of peeled willows, made with many holes (חוֹרִין חוֹרִין). In our country (France) there are many [such baskets], and it is the custom of the venders of hollow wafers, known as o(u) blies, to put them into such baskets.   סלי חורי: סלים של נצרים קלופים עשוים חורין חורין, ובמקומנו יש הרבה, ודרך מוכרי פת כסנין שקורין אובלידי"ש [רקיקים] לתתם באותן סלים: 
17And in the topmost basket were all kinds of Pharaoh's food, the work of a baker, and the birds were eating them from the basket atop my head."   יזוּבַסַּ֣ל הָֽעֶלְי֗וֹן מִכֹּ֛ל מַֽאֲכַ֥ל פַּרְעֹ֖ה מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֹפֶ֑ה וְהָע֗וֹף אֹכֵ֥ל אֹתָ֛ם מִן־הַסַּ֖ל מֵעַ֥ל רֹאשִֽׁי:
18And Joseph replied and said, "This is its meaning: the three baskets represent three days.   יחוַיַּ֤עַן יוֹסֵף֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר זֶ֖ה פִּתְרֹנ֑וֹ שְׁל֨שֶׁת֙ הַסַּלִּ֔ים שְׁל֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים הֵֽם:
19In another three days, Pharaoh will remove your head from you and hang you on a gallows, and the birds will eat your flesh off you."   יטבְּע֣וֹד | שְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים יִשָּׂ֨א פַרְעֹ֤ה אֶת־רֹֽאשְׁךָ֙ מֵֽעָלֶ֔יךָ וְתָלָ֥ה אֽוֹתְךָ֖ עַל־עֵ֑ץ וְאָכַ֥ל הָע֛וֹף אֶת־בְּשָֽׂרְךָ֖ מֵֽעָלֶֽיךָ:
20Now it came about on the third day, Pharaoh's birthday, that Pharaoh made a feast for all his servants, and he counted the chief cupbearer and chief baker among his servants.   כוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י י֚וֹם הֻלֶּ֣דֶת אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּ֖ה לְכָל־עֲבָדָ֑יו וַיִּשָּׂ֞א אֶת־רֹ֣אשׁ | שַׂ֣ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֗ים וְאֶת־רֹ֛אשׁ שַׂ֥ר הָֽאֹפִ֖ים בְּת֥וֹךְ עֲבָדָֽיו:
Pharaoh’s birthday: Heb. יוֹם הֻלֶדֶת, the day of his birth, and it is called “ginusia” day [in Greek]. The expression הֻלֶדֶת [the “hoph’al” which is the passive of the“hiph’il” the causative] is used because the fetus is born only through [the assistance of] others, for the midwife assists the woman in giving birth. It is for this reason that the midwife is called מְיַלֶדֶת, [one who causes to deliver], and likewise, “And as for your birth (מוֹלְדוֹתַיך), on the day you were born (הוּלֶדֶת אוֹתך)” (Ezek. 16:4), and similarly, “after the mark was washed (הֻכַּבֵּס)” (Lev. 13:55), for the washing is done by others. [From Gen. Rabbah 88:6]   יום הלדת את פרעה: יום לידתו, וקורין לו יום גינוסיא. ולשון הולדת, לפי שאין הולד נולד אלא על ידי אחרים שהחיה מילדת את האשה, ועל כן החיה נקראת מילדת, וכן (יחזקאל טז ד) ומולדותיך ביום הולדת אותך, וכן (ויקרא יג נה) אחרי הוכבס את הנגע, שכיבוסו על ידי אחרים:
he counted, etc.: Heb. וַיִשָׂא אֶת רֹאשׁ. He counted them with the rest of his servants, for he was counting the servants who would serve him in his feast, and he remembered these among them. [וַיִשָׂא אֶת-רֹאשׁ is] similar to “Take the count (שְׂאוּ אֶת-רֹאשׁ)” (Num. 1:2), an expression of counting.   וישא את ראש וגו': מנאם עם שאר עבדיו, שהיה מונה המשרתים שישרתו לו בסעודתו, וזכר את אלו בתוכם, כמו (במדבר א ב) שאו את ראש, לשון מנין:  
21And he restored the chief cupbearer to his [position as] cupbearer, and he placed the cup on Pharaoh's palm.   כאוַיָּ֛שֶׁב אֶת־שַׂ֥ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֖ים עַל־מַשְׁקֵ֑הוּ וַיִּתֵּ֥ן הַכּ֖וֹס עַל־כַּ֥ף פַּרְעֹֽה:
22And the chief baker he hanged, as Joseph had interpreted to them.   כבוְאֵ֛ת שַׂ֥ר הָֽאֹפִ֖ים תָּלָ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּתַ֛ר לָהֶ֖ם יוֹסֵֽף:
23But the chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph, and he forgot him.   כגוְלֹֽא־זָכַ֧ר שַׂר־הַמַּשְׁקִ֛ים אֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף וַיִּשְׁכָּחֵֽהוּ:
But the chief cupbearer did not remember: on that day.   ולא זכר שר המשקים: בו ביום:
and he forgot him: afterwards. Because Joseph relied on him to remember him, he was compelled to be confined for two years, as it is said: “Praiseworthy is the man who made the Lord his trust and did not turn to the haughty (רְהָבִים)” (Ps. 40:5). He did not turn to the Egyptians, who are called רַהַב, haughty. [From Gen. Rabbah 89:3]   וישכחהו: לאחר מכן. מפני שתלה בו יוסף בטחונו לזכרו, הוזקק להיות אסור עוד שתי שנים, שנאמר (תהלים מ ה) אשרי הגבר אשר שם ה' מבטחו ולא פנה אל רהבים, ולא בטח על מצרים הקרוים (ישעיה ל ז) רהב:

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 7

18On the second day, Nethanel the son of Zu'ar, the chieftain of Issachar brought [his offering].   יחבַּיּוֹם֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י הִקְרִ֖יב נְתַנְאֵ֣ל בֶּן־צוּעָ֑ר נְשִׂ֖יא יִשָּׂשכָֽר:
Nethanel the son of Zu’ar… brought…:   הקריב נתנאל בן צוער:
19He brought his offering of one silver bowl weighing one hundred and thirty [shekels], one silver sprinkling basin [weighing] seventy shekels according to the holy shekel, both filled with fine flour mixed with olive oil for a meal offering.   יטהִקְרִ֨ב אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֜וֹ קַֽעֲרַת־כֶּ֣סֶף אַחַ֗ת שְׁלשִׁ֣ים וּמֵאָה֘ מִשְׁקָלָהּ֒ מִזְרָ֤ק אֶחָד֙ כֶּ֔סֶף שִׁבְעִ֥ים שֶׁ֖קֶל בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ שְׁנֵיהֶ֣ם | מְלֵאִ֗ים סֹ֛לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן לְמִנְחָֽה:
He brought his offering: Why is the word הִקְרִב, “brought [his offering],” used in connection with the tribe of Issachar, but is not used in connection with any of the [other] tribes? Because [the tribe of] Reuben came and complained, “Is it not enough that my brother Judah has preceded me? Let me [at least] offer up after him.” Moses said to him,“I was told by the Almighty that they should offer up in the order in which they travel, according to their divisions.” This is why it says: הִקְרִב אֶת קָרְבָּנוֹ, [in which the word הִקְרִב is] missing a“yud,” [thus] giving it the meaning of הַקְרִב, in the imperative-for he was commanded by the Almighty,“Bring the offering!” (Sifrei Naso 1:158) What is the meaning of הִקְרִב … הִקְרִב, twice? For because of two reasons he [Issachar] merited to be the second of the tribes to offer their sacrifices: One, because they were [well] versed in the Torah, as it says,“And of the sons of Issachar, those who had understanding of the times” (I Chron. 12:32). Another, because they advised the chieftains to contribute these offerings (Sifrei). In the writings of Rabbi Moses Hadarshan [“the preacher”], I found [the following]: Rabbi Phinehas the son of Yair says [that] Nethaniel the son of Zu’ar gave them this idea.   הקרב את קרבנו: מה תלמוד לומר הקריב בשבטו של יששכר, מה שלא נאמר בכל השבטים, לפי שבא ראובן וערער ואמר די שקדמני יהודה אחי, אקריב אני אחריו. אמר לו משה מפי הגבורה נאמר לי שיקריבו כסדר מסען לדגליהם. לכך אמר הקרב את קרבנו, והוא חסר יו"ד, שהוא משמע הקרב, לשון צווי, שמפי הגבורה נצטווה הקרב. ומהו הקריב הקרב שני פעמים, שבשביל שני דברים זכה להקריב שני לשבטים אחת שהיו יודעים בתורה, שנאמר (ד"ה א' יב, לג) ומבני יששכר יודעי בינה לעתים, ואחת שהם נתנו עצה לנשיאים להתנדב קרבנות הללו. וביסודו של ר' משה הדרשן מצאתי אמר רבי פנחס בן יאיר, נתנאל בן צוער השיאן עצה זו:
one silver bowl: Heb. קַעֲרַת כֶּסֶף. The numerical value of [the two words] in gematria amounts to nine hundred and thirty, corresponding to the years of Adam, the first man (Gen. 5:5). ק = 100 ע = 70 ר = 200 ת =400 כ = 20 ס = 60 פ = 80, total 930   קערת כסף: מנין אותיותיו בגימטריה תתק"ל כנגד שנותיו של אדם הראשון:
weighing one hundred and thirty shekels: Alluding to the fact that when he [Adam] began to raise a family to maintain the existence of the world, he was one hundred and thirty years old, as it says,“Adam lived one hundred and thirty years, and he begot…” (Gen. 5:3).   שלשים ומאה משקלה: על שם שכשהעמיד תולדות לקיום העולם בן מאה ושלשים שנה היה, שנאמר (בראשית ה, ג) ויחי אדם שלשים ומאת שנה ויולד בדמותו וגו':
one silver sprinkling basin: Heb. מִזְרָק אֶחָד כֶּסֶף. The gematria of these[three words] is five hundred and twenty- מ = 40 ז = 7 ר = 200 ק = 100 א = 1 ח = 8 ד = 4 כ = 20 ס = 60 פ = 80, total 520, alluding to Noah, who began raising a family at the age of five hundred, and alluding to the twenty years before his children were born in which the decree of the [Great] Flood was enacted, as I explained [to be the meaning of the verse],“His days shall be one hundred and twenty years” (Gen. 6:3). This is why it says מִזְרָק אֶחָד כֶּסֶף rather than מִזְרָק כֶּסֶף אֶחָד, as it says in the case of the [silver] bowl [i.e., קַעֲרַת כֶּסֶף אַחַת], to tell us that even the letters of [the word] אֶחָד are included in the calculation.   מזרק אחד כסף: בגימטריה תק"כ, על שם נח שהעמיד תולדות בן ת"ק שנה, ועל שם עשרים שנה שנגזרה גזירת המבול קודם תולדותיו, כמו שפירשתי אצל (בראשית ו, ג) והיו ימיו מאה ועשרים שנה, לפיכך נאמר מזרק אחד כסף ולא נאמר מזרק כסף אחד, כמו שנאמר בקערה, לומר שאף אותיות של אחד מצטרפות למנין:
seventy shekels: Corresponding to the seventy nations who emanated from his [Noah’s] sons.   שבעים שקל: כנגד שבעים אומות שיצאו מבניו:
20One spoon [weighing] ten [shekels] of gold filled with incense.   ככַּ֥ף אַחַ֛ת עֲשָׂרָ֥ה זָהָ֖ב מְלֵאָ֥ה קְטֹֽרֶת:
One spoon: Corresponding to the Torah, which was given by the hand of the Holy One, blessed is He. [כַּף also means“hand.”]   כף אחת: כנגד התורה שנתנה מידו של הקב"ה:
ten gold [shekels]: Corresponding to the Ten Commandments.   עשרה זהב: כנגד עשרת הדברות:
filled with incense: קְטֹרֶת. The gematria of קְטֹרֶת [i.e., 613] corresponds to the six hundred and thirteen commandments-provided that you convert the “kuph” into a “daleth” in accordance with the cipher known as א״ת ב״ש ג״ר ד״ק [in which the first and last letters of the alphabet are interchangeable, the second and the second-to-last letters, etc. Thus, ד = 4 ט = 9 ר = 200 ת = 400, totaling 613].   מלאה קטרת: גימטריה של קטרת תרי"ג מצות, ובלבד שתחליף קו"ף בדל"ת על ידי א"ת ב"ש ג"ר ד"ק:
21One young bull, one ram and one lamb in its first year for a burnt offering.   כאפַּ֣ר אֶחָ֞ד בֶּן־בָּקָ֗ר אַ֧יִל אֶחָ֛ד כֶּֽבֶשׂ־אֶחָ֥ד בֶּן־שְׁנָת֖וֹ לְעֹלָֽה:
One young bull: Corresponding to Abraham, of whom it says, “He took a young bull” (Gen. 18:7).   פר אחד: כנגד אברהם, שנאמר בו (בראשית יח, ז) ויקח בן בקר:
one ram: Corresponding to Isaac [of whom it says,] “and took the ram [and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son]…” (Gen. 22:13).   איל אחד: כנגד יצחק (שם כב, יג) ויקח את האיל וגו':
one lamb: Corresponding to Jacob, [about whom it says,] “Jacob separated the lambs” (Gen. 30:40).   כבש אחד: כנגד יעקב (שם ל, מ) והכשבים הפריד יעקב:
22One young he goat for a sin offering.   כבשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד לְחַטָּֽאת:
One young he-goat: to atone for the sale of Joseph, about which it says, “and they slaughtered a kid” (Gen. 37:31).   שעיר עזים: לכפר על מכירת יוסף, שנאמר בו (שם לז, לא) וישחטו שעיר עזים:
23And for the peace offering: two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs in their first year; this was the offering of Nethanel the son of Zu'ar.   כגוּלְזֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֘ בָּקָ֣ר שְׁנַ֒יִם֒ אֵילִ֤ם חֲמִשָּׁה֙ עַתֻּדִ֣ים חֲמִשָּׁ֔ה כְּבָשִׂ֥ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֖ה חֲמִשָּׁ֑ה זֶ֛ה קָרְבַּ֥ן נְתַנְאֵ֖ל בֶּן־צוּעָֽר:
And for the peace-offering: two oxen: Corresponding to Moses and Aaron, who established peace between Israel and their Father in heaven.   ולזבח השלמים בקר שנים: כנגד משה ואהרן, שנתנו שלום בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים:
Rams…he-goats…lambs: Three types, corresponding to kohanim, Levites, and Israelites, and corresponding to the Torah, the Prophets, and the Holy Writings. The three fives [in this verse] correspond to the five books of the Pentateuch, to the five commandments inscribed on the first tablet, and the five commandments inscribed on the second one. Until this point, [my comments were] in the name of Rabbi Moses Hadarshan [the preacher].   אילם עתדים כבשים: שלשה מינים כנגד כהנים ולוים וישראלים, וכנגד תורה נביאים וכתובים. שלש חמשיות כנגד חמשה חומשין, וחמשת הדברות הכתובין על לוח אחד, וחמשה הכתובין על השני. עד כאן מיסודו של ר' משה הדרשן:


Zechariah Chapter 2

14Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion, for, behold! I will come and dwell in your midst, says the Lord.   ידרָנִּ֥י וְשִׂמְחִ֖י בַּת־צִיּ֑וֹן כִּ֧י הִֽנְנִי־בָ֛א וְשָֽׁכַנְתִּ֥י בְתוֹכֵ֖ךְ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
15And many nations shall join the Lord on that day, and they shall be My people; and I will dwell in your midst and you shall know that the Lord of Hosts sent me to you.   טווְנִלְווּ֩ גוֹיִ֨ם רַבִּ֚ים אֶל־יְהֹוָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י לְעָ֑ם וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֣י בְתוֹכֵ֔ךְ וְיָדַ֕עַתְּ כִּי־יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֵלָֽיִךְ:
And many nations shall join: shall join.  
16And the Lord shall inherit Judah as His share on the Holy Land, and He shall again choose Jerusalem.   טזוְנָחַ֨ל יְהֹוָ֚ה אֶת־יְהוּדָה֙ חֶלְק֔וֹ עַ֖ל אַדְמַ֣ת הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וּבָחַ֥ר ע֖וֹד בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
And the Lord shall inherit Judah: as His inheritance and His share.  
17Silence all flesh from before the Lord, for He is aroused out of His holy habitation.   יזהַ֥ס כָּל בָּשָׂ֖ר מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֥י נֵע֖וֹר מִמְּע֥וֹן קָדְשֽׁוֹ:
Silence all flesh: All the rest of the nations.  
for He is aroused: An expression [denoting] arousal and awakening.  

Zechariah Chapter 3

1And He showed me Joshua, the High Priest, standing before the angel of the Lord. And Satan was standing on his right, to accuse him.   אוַיַּרְאֵ֗נִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל עֹמֵ֕ד לִפְנֵ֖י מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהַשָּׂטָ֛ן עֹמֵ֥ד עַל־יְמִינ֖וֹ לְשִׂטְנֽוֹ:
to accuse him: To accuse him because his sons were married to gentile women, as it is written in the Book of Ezra (10:18): “And it was found of the sons of the priests who had taken foreign wives, of the sons of Jeshua the son of Jozadak, etc.”  
2And the Lord said to Satan: The Lord shall rebuke you, O Satan; and the Lord shall rebuke you, He who chose Jerusalem. Is this one not a brand plucked from fire?   בוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָ֗ן יִגְעַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֚ה בְּךָ֙ הַשָּׂטָ֔ן וְיִגְעַ֚ר יְהֹוָה֙ בְּךָ֔ הַבֹּחֵ֖ר בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הֲל֧וֹא זֶ֥ה֥ א֖וּד מֻצָּ֥ל מֵאֵֽשׁ:
The Lord shall rebuke you, O Satan: The Holy One, blessed be He, shall rebuke you, O you Satan (and then he repeated and said: The Lord shall rebuke you, He who chose Jerusalem Moharaz Margolioth); and He Who rebukes you is the One Who chose Jerusalem, that you shall not enter before Him to accuse this righteous man. Is he not fit, and has he not merited this? For he was saved from the consuming fire.  
Is this one not a brand plucked from fire?: It is related in the Aggadah of [chapter] Helek Helek (Sanh. 93a) that he [Joshua] was cast into the fire with Ahab son of Kolaiah and his colleague.  
3Now Joshua was wearing filthy garments and standing before the angel.   גוִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֕עַ הָיָ֥ה לָב֖וּשׁ בְּגָדִ֣ים צוֹאִ֑ים וְעֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י הַמַּלְאָֽךְ:
was wearing filthy garments: This is to be explained according to the Targum: He had sons who had married women who were unfit [to marry into] the priesthood, and he was punished because he did not interfere with the [sons’ marriages].  
4And he [the angel] raised his voice and said to those standing before him, saying, "Take the filthy garments off him." And he said to him, "See, I have removed your iniquity from you, and I have clad you with clean garments."   דוַיַּ֣עַן וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֶל־הָעֹֽמְדִ֚ים לְפָנָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הָסִ֛ירוּ הַבְּגָדִ֥ים הַצֹּאִ֖ים מֵעָלָ֑יו וַ֣יֹּאמֶר אֵלָ֗יו רְאֵ֨ה הֶֽעֱבַ֚רְתִּי מֵֽעָלֶ֙יךָ֙ עֲו‍ֹנֶ֔ךָ וְהַלְבֵּ֥שׁ אֹֽתְךָ֖ מַֽחֲלָצֽוֹת:
“Take the filthy garments off him.”: Let his sons separate from their wives, and he will be forgiven.  
clean garments: A change of beautiful garments; i.e., merits. Since he compared the iniquity to filthy garments, he compares the merit to clean garments; beautiful, white garments.  
5And I said, "Let them put a pure miter on his head," and they put the pure miter on his head. And they had clothed him with garments while the angel of the Lord was standing.   הוָֽאֹמַ֕ר יָשִׂ֛ימוּ צָנִ֥יף טָה֖וֹר עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיָּשִׂימוּ֩ הַצָּנִ֨יף הַטָּה֜וֹר עַל־רֹאשׁ֗וֹ וַיַּלְבִּשֻׁ֙הוּ֙ בְּגָדִ֔ים וּמַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהֹוָ֖ה עֹמֵֽד:
And I said: I, Zechariah.  
“Let them put a pure miter, etc.”: I begged mercy for him.  
6And the angel of the Lord warned Joshua, saying,   ווַיָּ֙עַד֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה בִּֽיהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ לֵאמֹֽר:
warned: an expression of warning, as in (Deut. 31:28): “And I will warn them before the heaven and the earth.”  
7So said the Lord of Hosts: If you walk in My ways, and if you keep My charge, you, too, shall judge My house, and you, too, shall guard My courtyards, and I will give you free access among these who stand by.   זכֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת אִם־בִּדְרָכַ֚י תֵּלֵךְ֙ וְאִ֣ם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֔ר וְגַם־אַתָּה֙ תָּדִ֣ין אֶת־בֵּיתִ֔י וְגַ֖ם תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר אֶת־חֲצֵרָ֑י וְנָתַתִּ֚י לְךָ֙ מַהְלְכִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָעֹֽמְדִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
If you walk in My ways, etc.: Then I, too, will do this for you.  
you, too, shall judge My house: You shall judge and be the officer over My Temple.  
and I will give you free access: According to the Targum: and when the dead will be resurrected, I will resurrect you; and I will give you walkers who walk among these seraphim. According to its simple meaning, he brings him tidings that his sons will be meritorious in the future.  
who stand by: Seraphim and ministering angels, who never sit.  
8Hearken, now, O Joshua the High Priest-you and your companions who sit before you, for they are men worthy of a miracle-for, behold! I bring My servant, the Shoot.   חשְֽׁמַע־נָ֞א יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ | הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֗וֹל אַתָּה֙ וְרֵעֶ֙יךָ֙ הַיֹּֽשְׁבִ֣ים לְפָנֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־אַנְשֵׁ֥י מוֹפֵ֖ת הֵ֑מָּה כִּֽי־הִנְנִ֥י מֵבִ֛יא אֶת־עַבְדִּ֖י צֶֽמַח:
you and your companions: They were Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.  
for they are men worthy of a miracle: [Jonathan renders:] Men worthy to have miracles performed for them, for a miracle was performed for them, too.  
for, behold! I bring My servant, the Shoot: For now Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah, is insignificant in the king’s court, but I will make his greatness burgeon. I will also give him favor in the eyes of the king, so that he will grant [Zerubbabel’s] request for the building of the Temple and the city, as explained in Nehemiah (1:1): “The words of Nehemiah, the son of Hachaliah.” Nehemiah was identical with Zerubbabel, as we say in Sanhedrin (38a).  
9For, behold the stone that I have placed before Joshua. Seven eyes are directed to one stone. Behold! I untie its knots, says the Lord of Hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.   טכִּ֣י | הִנֵּ֣ה הָאֶ֗בֶן אֲשֶׁ֚ר נָתַ֙תִּי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ עַל־אֶ֥בֶן אַחַ֖ת שִׁבְעָ֣ה עֵינָ֑יִם הִֽנְנִ֧י מְפַתֵּ֣חַ פִּתֻּחָ֗הּ נְאֻם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּמַשְׁתִּ֛י אֶת־עֲו‍ֹ֥ן הָאָֽרֶץ־הַהִ֖יא בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
For, behold the stone: The foundation of the house that you laid in the days of Cyrus - they stopped you, and that foundation and the thickness of the wall appeared little in your sight, as explained in Ezra (3:12f.) and in the prophecy of Haggai (2:2f.).  
Seven eyes are directed to one stone: It will eventually be widened seven times as much. And so did Jonathan render: On one stone, seven eyes see it. The expression of עֵינַיִם is an expression of appearances. It appears to me that the seven eyes are because of the eyes of the Holy One, blessed be He in Whose eyes and heart it is [planned] to add seven times as much because of the prophecy similar to this one (4:10): “And they shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel these seven times; the eyes of the Lord they are roving to and fro throughout the land.” This is but to say that He directed His eyes to increase the glory of the Temple in its building.  
Behold! I untie its knots: I untie its knots I thwart the plot of the enemies who wrote an accusation to stop the work.  
and I will remove: Heb. ומשתי.  
in one day: I do not know what day.  
10On that day, says the Lord of Hosts, you shall call-each man to his neighbor-to come under his vine and under his fig tree.   יבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נְאֻם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת תִּקְרְא֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ לְרֵעֵ֑הוּ אֶל־תַּ֥חַת גֶּ֖פֶן וְאֶל־תַּ֥חַת תְּאֵנָֽה:

Zechariah Chapter 4

1And the angel who spoke with me returned, and he awakened me as a man who wakes up from his sleep.   אוַיָּ֕שָׁב הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֑י וַיְעִירֵ֕נִי כְּאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יֵע֥וֹר מִשְּׁנָתֽוֹ:
2And he said to me, "What do you see?" And I said, "I saw, and behold [there was] a candelabrum all of gold, with its oil-bowl on top of it, and its seven lamps thereon; seven tubes each to the lamps that were on top of it.   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י מָ֥ה אַתָּ֖ה רֹאֶ֑ה וָֽאֹמַ֡ר (כתיב וָיאֹמַ֡ר) רָאִ֣יתִי וְהִנֵּֽה־מְנוֹרַת֩ זָהָ֨ב כֻּלָּ֜הּ וְגֻלָּ֣הּ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֗הּ וְשִׁבְעָ֚ה נֵרֹֽתֶ֙יהָ֙ עָלֶ֔יהָ שִׁבְעָ֚ה וְשִׁבְעָה֙ מֽוּצָק֔וֹת לַנֵּר֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹאשָֽׁהּ:
with its oil - bowl on top of it: as in (Josh. 15:19): “The upper springs” . This is an expression for a spring, [hence] a sort of large round bowl.  
and its seven lamps: A type of vessel into which oil and wicks are inserted.  
seven tubes each: Seven small tubes come to every lamp, for the oil flows from the bowl through those tubes into each lamp.  
3And [there were] two olive trees near it; one on the right of the bowl, and one on its left.   גוּשְׁנַ֥יִם זֵיתִ֖ים עָלֶ֑יהָ אֶחָד֙ מִימִ֣ין הַגֻּלָּ֔ה וְאֶחָ֖ד עַל־שְׂמֹאלָֽהּ:
And [there were] two olive trees near it: Beside it were two trees upon which olives were growing, one on the right of the bowl, one on the its left, etc. Here [the prophet] does not explain about the two golden vats mentioned below in the chapter, which are the sorts of bowls or vats of the oil press. [These vats] stand beside the olive trees. The olives beat themselves into the vats and are heated there as [if] in a vat or pit where olives are generally packed. There they are pressed in the oil press, and the oil falls into the vats, and from the vats into the bowl, and from the bowl into the tubes, and from the tubes into the lamps. The tubes and the lamps number forty-nine, an allusion to the light, for in the future the light of the sun will be sevenfold the light of the seven days forty-nine times the light of a day of Creation.  
4So I answered and spoke to the angel who talked with me, saying, "What are these, my lord?"   דוָאַ֙עַן֙ וָֽאֹמַ֔ר אֶל הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר מָ֥ה אֵ֖לֶּה אֲדֹנִֽי:
“What are these, my Lord?”: What is this, that the olive trees are picked by themselves, and the oil comes into the lamps by itself?  
5And the angel who spoke with me answered, and he said to me, "Do you not know what these are?" And I said, "No, my lord."   הוַ֠יַּעַן הַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּי֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י הֲל֥וֹא יָדַ֖עְתָּ מָה הֵ֣מָּה אֵ֑לֶּה וָֽאֹמַ֖ר לֹ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי:
6And he answered and spoke to me, saying, "This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel, saying: 'Not by military force and not by physical strength, but by My spirit,' says the Lord of Hosts.   ווַיַּ֜עַן וַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלַי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר זֶה דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹ֚א בְחַ֙יִל֙ וְלֹ֣א בְכֹ֔חַ כִּ֣י אִם־בְּרוּחִ֔י אָמַ֖ר יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת:
“This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel”: This is a sign for you to promise Zerubbabel that just as the olives and this oil are finished by themselves in all respects, so will you not build My house with your [own] power or with your [own] strength.  
but by My spirit: I will place My spirit upon Darius, and he will command you to build and to pay all the building expenses from his [treasury]; and [he will] help you with wheat, wine, oil, and wood, as is explained in Ezra (6, 7): They required no aid from any man.  
7Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you sink to a plain! He will bring out the stone of the main architect, with shouts of grace, grace to it."   זמִֽי־אַתָּ֧ה הַֽר־הַגָּד֛וֹל לִפְנֵ֥י זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל לְמִישֹׁ֑ר וְהוֹצִיא֙ אֶת־הָאֶ֣בֶן הָֽרֹאשָׁ֔ה תְּשֻׁא֕וֹת חֵ֥ן חֵ֖ן לָֽהּ:
Who are you, O great mountain?: You, the princes of the other side of the river Tattenai, the governor of the other side of the river; Shethar Bozenai, and their companions (Ezra 6:6), who have stopped the work until now - from now on you shall be before Zerubbabel as a plain; you have no more ruling power or superiority over him.  
He will bring out the stone of the main architect: The main architect will take the plummet in his hand to be the main architect at the head of the builders, and they will build everything according to his words [everything] that he will order concerning a beautiful and glorious building.  
with shouts of grace, grace to it: To that stone, for everyone will say, “How beautiful is this building that was made with this plummet.” [The expression] “shouts of grace” is as (Job 39:7) “the shouts of a driver,” and (Isa. 66:6) “a sound of stirring” both of which are expressions of making a voice heard.  
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