In ch. 31, the Alter Rebbe discussed various means of arousing joy to counteract the sadness brought on by contemplation of one’s spiritual failings. Ch. 33 resumes this discussion.

Yet another means of leading one’s soul to true joy, especially at those specific times when one finds it necessary to purify his soul and illuminate it with a gladness of heart:

עוֹד זֹאת תִּהְיֶה שִׂמְחַת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֲמִיתִּית, וּבִפְרָט כְּשֶׁרוֹאֶה בְּנַפְשׁוֹ בְּעִתִּים מְזוּמָּנִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְזַכְּכָהּ וּלְהָאִירָהּ בְּשִׂמְחַת לֵבָב,

Let him then think deeply and picture in his intellect and understanding the subject of G‑d’s true unity.

אֲזַי יַעֲמִיק מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ וִיצַיֵּיר בְּשִׂכְלוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ עִנְיַן יִחוּדוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ הָאֲמִיתִּי,

True unity means not only that there is but one G‑d, one Creator, but that furthermore, G‑d is the only existing being—nothing truly exists outside of Him, as will be explained further.

Let him consider how He permeates all worlds, both upper and lower.

אֵיךְ הוּא מְמַלֵּא כָּל עָלְמִין עֶלְיוֹנִים וְתַחְתּוֹנִים,

Just as the soul pervades the body, thereby animating it, so does G‑d permeate all the worlds. This indwelling refers to the divine life-force which adapts itself to each individual creation’s capacity to receive it, and for this reason, the Alter Rebbe distinguishes here between the “upper worlds” and “lower worlds”: in the “upper (more spiritual) worlds,” the revelation of this life-force is greater, since their capacity is greater.

Let him further consider how even this world is filled with His glory—

וַאֲפִילוּ מְלֹא כָּל הָאָרֶץ הַלֶּזוּ הוּא כְּבוֹדוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

This refers to the divine life-force, which “encompasses” all worlds and which animates them as if “from above,” without adapting itself to the particular nature of each created being so that even this physical world is “filled with His glory”1

and how everything is of no reality whatsoever in His presence.

וְכוּלָּא קַמֵּיהּ כְּלָא חֲשִׁיב מַמָּשׁ,

He is One alone in the upper and lower realms, just as He was alone prior to the six days of Creation, when nothing existed apart from G‑d; so, too, now, when all the worlds have come into being, He is still One alone, since all of creation is naught before Him, as will be explained further. Even in the very place where this world—the heaven, the earth, and all their hosts—was created, He alone then filled this space.

וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ הוּא בָּעֶלְיוֹנִים וְתַחְתּוֹנִים מַמָּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לְבַדּוֹ קוֹדֶם שֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, וְגַם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה שֶׁנִּבְרָא בוֹ עוֹלָם הַזֶּה, הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל צְבָאָם, הָיָה הוּא לְבַדּוֹ מְמַלֵּא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה,

The same is true now; He is One alone, without any change whatsoever. For in relation to Him, the very existence of all created beings is utterly nullified, so that from His perspective, as it were, everything remains just as it was prior to creation.

וְגַם עַתָּה כֵּן, הוּא לְבַדּוֹ בְּלִי שׁוּם שִׁינּוּי כְּלָל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל הַנִּבְרָאִים בְּטֵלִים אֶצְלוֹ בִּמְצִיאוּת מַמָּשׁ,

The Alter Rebbe here introduces an analogy which traces the early evolution of an idea or a desire from the moment that it first occurs in one’s mind and heart. At that stage, the idea or desire is formless, not yet having the shape or form of words. It is pure desire, pure idea. The desire of an English-speaking person, for example, feels no different from that of a Hebrew speaker.

It is only when it reaches the stage of applied, or practical, thought that the idea or desire takes on the form of what are called “letters of thought,” which may later be expressed in speech.

Now, the “letters” of thought and speech are, of course, seminally contained in the original idea or desire—it is only that at that point, their existence is completely nullified; it is as though these “letters” were nonexistent; only the idea or desire is felt.

Stated in the terms which the Alter Rebbe employs, the idea and desire are described as part of the “ten soul-powers,” of which three (ChaBaD) belong to the intellect, and seven (the middot) comprise one’s emotional range. These ten faculties are the “source and root” of thought and speech, for one thinks and speaks of that which he understands or feels. These faculties are called the “substance and essence of the soul” in comparison with thought and speech, which are merely the soul’s “garments,” i.e., its modes of external expression.

To relate the analogy to the point under discussion: Every created being derives its existence and life from Divine “speech,” i.e., the “letters” of G‑d’s command that created it. Since nothing is “outside” G‑d, this creative “speech” and the beings created thereby are contained within G‑d in the same way as the words one speaks were previously contained within the desire of the heart. All of creation is therefore nullified before G‑d, just as the “letters” of speech are nullified within the idea or desire which is their source, where only the desire is felt, not the “letters.”

In the Alter Rebbe’s words:

[All created beings are nullified before G‑d] just as the letters of speech and thought are nullified within their source and root, i.e., the soul’s substance and essence, meaning its ten faculties—chochmah, binah, daatand the middot,

כְּבִיטּוּל אוֹתִיּוֹת הַדִּבּוּר וְהַמַּחֲשָׁבָה בִּמְקוֹרָן וְשָׁרְשָׁן, הוּא מַהוּת הַנֶּפֶשׁ וְעַצְמוּתָהּ, שֶׁהֵן עֶשֶׂר בְּחִינוֹתֶיהָ: חָכְמָה בִּינָה וָדַעַת כוּ',

in which there are no letters as yet, prior to their being clothed in the garment of thought (as has been explained at length in chs. 20 and 21; see there).

שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם בְּחִינַת אוֹתִיּוֹת עֲדַיִין קוֹדֶם שֶׁמִּתְלַבְּשׁוֹת בִּלְבוּשׁ הַמַּחֲשָׁבָה [כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בִּפְרָקִים כ' וְכ"א בַּאֲרִיכוּת, עַיֵּין שָׁם].

Elsewhere, this idea is further illustrated by an analogy from a physical phenomenon—the nullification of the sun’s radiance and light within its source, the celestial orb of the sun.

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר גַּם כֵּן בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר מָשָׁל גַּשְׁמִי לָזֶה, מֵעִנְיַן בִּיטּוּל זִיו וְאוֹר הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּמְקוֹרוֹ, הוּא גּוּף כַּדּוּר הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ שֶׁבָּרָקִיעַ,

For surely, its radiance and light glow and spread forth there too, more strongly, in fact, than they spread forth and glow in the space of the universe. Being close to its source, the light is more intense. But there—within the sun—its very existence is nullified within that of its source; it is as though [the light] were absolutely nonexistent. All that is seen within the sun is the sun itself, not the light, which is merely a product, an offshoot, of the sun.

שֶׁגַּם שָׁם מֵאִיר וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט וַדַּאי זִיווֹ וְאוֹרוֹ, וּבְיֶתֶר שְׂאֵת מֵהִתְפַּשְּׁטוּתוֹ וְהֶאָרָתוֹ בַּחֲלַל הָעוֹלָם, אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא בָּטֵל בִּמְצִיאוּת בִּמְקוֹרוֹ וּכְאִילּוּ אֵינוֹ בִּמְצִיאוּת כְּלָל:

This will be better understood in terms of the saying, “Of what good is a candle in the daylight?”2 Naturally, the candle is no less luminous by day than by night. But because its light is overwhelmed by the far greater brightness of daylight, it no longer fulfills its function of illumination. At this point, it ceases to exist as a luminary. The same is true of the sun’s rays as they are within the sun.

Exactly so, figuratively speaking, is the very existence of the world and everything in it nullified in relation to its source, which is the light of the Ein Sof, as is explained there at length.

וְכָכָה מַמָּשׁ, דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, הוּא בִּיטּוּל הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ בִּמְצִיאוּת לְגַבֵּי מְקורוֹ שֶׁהוּא אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם בַּאֲרִיכוּת.

This, then, is the true meaning of G‑d’s unity—that He alone exists, and there is nothing besides Him.

Now when one contemplates deeply and at length on this matter of G-d’s true unity, his heart will rejoice with this faith;3 his soul will be gladdened by it to the point of rejoicing and singing with all his heart, soul, and might.

וְהִנֵּה, כְּשֶׁיַּעֲמִיק בָּזֶה הַרְבֵּה, יִשְׂמַח לִבּוֹ וְתָגֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן בְּכָל לֵב וְנֶפֶשׁ וּמְאֹד בֶּאֱמוּנָה זוֹ,

For this [faith] is tremendous—when it fills one’s mind, it actually constitutes [an experience of] the closeness of G‑d.

כִּי רַבָּה הִיא, כִּי הִיא קִרְבַת אֱלֹהִים מַמָּשׁ.

This, in fact, is the whole [purpose] of man and the purpose for which he, and all the worlds, both upper and lower, were created:

וְזֶה כָּל הָאָדָם וְתַכְלִית בְּרִיאָתוֹ, וּבְרִיאַת כָּל הָעוֹלָמוֹת עֶלְיוֹנִים וְתַחְתּוֹנִים –

that G‑d should have such a dwelling place here below, as will be explained further at length4how this earthly abode for G‑d is the purpose of all creation.

לִהְיוֹת לוֹ דִּירָה זוֹ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן בַּאֲרִיכוּת.

Man’s faith in the unity of G‑d fulfills this goal. For when G‑d’s unity is revealed in the mind and heart of men, this world becomes an abode for G‑d; He is revealed there just as one reveals himself completely in his own home.

How great is the joy of a common and lowly person when he is brought close to a king of flesh and blood who furthermore lodges and greater still dwells together with him—not in the king’s palace but in his (the commoner’s) home!

וְהִנֵּה, כַּמָּה גְדוֹלָה שִׂמְחַת הֶדְיוֹט וּשְׁפַל אֲנָשִׁים, בְּהִתְקָרְבוּתוֹ לְמֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם הַמִּתְאַכְסֵן וְדָר אִתּוֹ עִמּוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ,

How much more, infinitely more, [ought one to rejoice] in the nearness of the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, and in His dwelling together with man in this physical world, man’s “home.”

וְקַל וָחוֹמֶר לְאֵין קֵץ לְקִרְבַת וְדִירַת מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

So it is written: “‘For who is the man who dares to approach Me?’ says G‑d.”5

וּכְדִכְתִיב: "כִּי מִי הוּא זֶה אֲשֶׁר עָרַב לִבּוֹ לָגֶשֶׁת אֵלַי, נְאֻם ה'":

Yet in one’s awareness of G‑d’s unity and through self-nullification before Him, one does come near to G‑d. Furthermore, G‑d thereby dwells with him and within him.

For this ability to experience and to be absorbed in G‑d’s unity, it was instituted [by the Sages] that one should render praise and thanks to G‑d’s Name each morning, saying:

וְעַל זֶה תִּיקְּנוּ לִיתֵּן שֶׁבַח וְהוֹדָיָה לִשְׁמוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ בְּכָל בֹּקֶר, וְלוֹמַר:

“How fortunate are we! How good is our portion, [how pleasant our lot,] and how beautiful our heritage!”

"אַשְׁרֵינוּ מַה טּוֹב חֶלְקֵנוּ וְכוּ' וּמַה יָפָה יְרוּשָּׁתֵנוּ",

In other words, just as a person rejoices and is glad when an immense fortune falls into his possession—by inheritance, through no toil of his own,

כְּלוֹמַר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָאָדָם שָׂשׂ וְשָׂמֵחַ בִּירוּשָּׁה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לוֹ הוֹן עָתֵק שֶׁלֹּא עָמַל בּוֹ,

similarly, and infinitely more so, ought we to rejoice over the inheritance which our forefathers bequeathed to us.

כֵּן וְיוֹתֵר מִכֵּן לְאֵין קֵץ, יֵשׁ לָנוּ לִשְׂמוֹחַ עַל יְרוּשָּׁתֵנוּ שֶׁהִנְחִילוּנוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ,

This [inheritance] is the true unity of G‑d—that even here below on earth, there is nothing else besides Him alone, and this is His abode among the lowly beings of this physical world—when they are pervaded by the awareness of G‑d’s unity and nullify themselves before it.

הוּא יִחוּד ה' הָאֲמִיתִּי, אֲשֶׁר אֲפִילוּ בָּאָרֶץ מִתַּחַת – אֵין עוֹד מִלְּבַדּוֹ, וְזוֹ הִיא דִּירָתוֹ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנִים.

Our own unaided efforts would never win for us the ability to experience G‑d’s unity; it is our inheritance from our forefathers.

This is [the meaning of] what our Rabbis, of blessed memory, said: “Six hundred and thirteen mitzvot were given to Israel…came Habakkuk and based them all on a single one—faith—as it is written,6 ‘a tzaddik lives by his faith.’”7

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה: תַּרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת נִיתְּנוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בָּא חֲבַקּוּק וְהֶעֱמִידָן עַל אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: "וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה",

This means, it is as if they—all the mitzvot—consisted of this one mitzvah of faith alone, for through faith alone, one will come to fulfill all the 613 mitzvot.

כְּלוֹמַר, כְּאִלּוּ אֵינָהּ רַק מִצְוָה אַחַת, הִיא הָאֱמוּנָה לְבַדָּהּ, כִּי עַל יְדֵי הָאֱמוּנָה לְבַדָּהּ – יָבֹא לְקִיּוּם כָּל הַתַּרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת.

That is, when his heart will rejoice and be glad with his faith in G‑d’s unity, in perfect joy, as though he were obligated by just this one mitzvah, and it alone were the purpose for which he and all the worlds were created—surely, if there were but one such mitzvah for him to do, he would fulfill it with utmost joy.

דְּהַיְינוּ, כְּשֶׁיִּהְיֶה לִבּוֹ שָׂשׂ וְשָׂמֵחַ בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ בְּיִחוּד ה' בְּתַכְלִית הַשִּׂמְחָה, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא הָיְתָה עָלָיו רַק מִצְוָה זוֹ לְבַדָּהּ, וְהִיא לְבַדָּהּ תַּכְלִית בְּרִיאָתוֹ וּבְרִיאַת כָּל הָעוֹלָמוֹת –

Let him thus rejoice in the mitzvah of faith, and by the power and vitality of his soul [generated] from this great joy, his soul will soar far above all obstacles hindering his fulfillment of all the 613 mitzvot; both [obstacles] from within—from one’s animal soul and from without—arising from one’s environment.

הֲרֵי בְּכֹחַ וְחַיּוּת נַפְשׁוֹ בְּשִׂמְחָה רַבָּה זוֹ, תִּתְעַלֶּה נַפְשׁוֹ לְמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה, עַל כָּל הַמּוֹנְעִים קִיּוּם כָּל הַתַּרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ.

Being thus imbued with the awareness of G‑d’s true unity, he will be able to overcome any obstacle hindering him from carrying out the mitzvot. For how can anything stand in the path of G‑d’s will—the mitzvot—when there is nothing in the world apart from G‑d?

Thus, the expression יִחְיֶה (“will live”) in the verse “a tzaddik will live by his faith” is meant in the sense of “will be revived”; as though resurrected from the dead, so will his soul be revived by this great joy.

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר "בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה" – "יִחְיֶה" דַּיְיקָא, כִּתְחִיַּית הַמֵּתִים, דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, כָּךְ תִּחְיֶה נַפְשׁוֹ בְּשִׂמְחָה רַבָּה זוֹ.

This is a double and redoubled joy. Apart from the soul’s joy upon apprehending how near G‑d is to him and how He dwells together with him,

וְהִיא שִׂמְחָה כְּפוּלָה וּמְכוּפֶּלֶת, כִּי מִלְּבַד שִׂמְחַת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַמַּשְׂכֶּלֶת בְּקִרְבַת ה' וְדִירָתוֹ אִתּוֹ עִמּוֹ.

he will also rejoice doubly in the joy and pleasure which his faith brings to G‑d.

עוֹד זֹאת יִשְׂמַח בְּכִפְלַיִים בְּשִׂמְחַת ה' וְגוֹדֶל נַחַת רוּחַ לְפָנָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ בֶּאֱמוּנָה זוֹ,

For thereby, through one’s faith in G-d’s unity, the sitra achara is truly subdued, and darkness is transformed to light,

דְּאִתְכַּפְיָא סִטְרָא אָחֳרָא מַמָּשׁ וְאִתְהַפֵּךְ חֲשׁוֹכָא לִנְהוֹרָא,

meaning the darkness of the kelipot of this corporeal world, which obscure and conceal G‑d’s light

שֶׁהוּא חֹשֶׁךְ הַקְּלִיפּוֹת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַחוּמְרִי הַמַּחֲשִׁיכִים וּמְכַסִּים עַל אוֹרוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ

until the End of Days, as it is written, “He sets an end to darkness.”8

עַד עֵת קֵץ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "קֵץ שָׂם לַחֹשֶׁךְ"

(The Biblical phrase, “the End of Days,” is written קֵץ הַיָּמִין; since יָמִין (Aram.) means “days” and יְמִין (Heb.) means “right,” the phrase thus intimates that “in the End of Days, G‑d will reveal His right hand”—a reference to His attribute of revelation, when He will banish the spirit of impurity from the earth, and “G‑d’s glory, the G‑dliness within every created being, will be revealed, and all flesh together will behold [it].”9 That is to say, not only the mind but even the very flesh of man will perceive G‑dliness, as will be explained further.10)

[דְּהַיְינוּ, "קֵץ הַיָּמִין", שֶׁיַּעֲבִיר רוּחַ הַטּוּמְאָה מִן הָאָרֶץ, "וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד ה', וְרָאוּ כָל בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּיו", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן].

This banishment of the sitra achara will take place only at “the End of Days,” during the Messianic era. Until then, however, while the darkness of kelipah still reigns over the earth, one affords G‑d gratification by crushing the sitra achara and transforming its darkness into light by means of his faith, and man’s realization of this fact intensifies his own joy in his faith.

This is especially so in the Diaspora, where the atmosphere is unclean and is filled with kelipot and sitra achara.

וּבִפְרָט בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁאֲוִיר אֶרֶץ הָעַמִּים טָמֵא וּמָלֵא קְלִיפּוֹת וְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא,

There is no greater joy for G‑d than the light and joy caused by transforming darkness into light when the light has the superior quality acquired by coming out of the very darkness.

וְאֵין שִׂמְחָה לְפָנָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ כְּאוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה בְּיִתְרוֹן אוֹר הַבָּא מִן הַחֹשֶׁךְ דַּיְיקָא.

Thus, when a Jew in the Diaspora is pervaded with an awareness of G‑d’s unity, His joy is all the greater. It follows too that the more lowly one’s spiritual position, the greater the Divine joy when he acquires an awareness of G‑d’s unity.

We have seen so far, then, that one’s faith in G‑d’s unity leads him to a twofold joy: joy in his closeness to G‑d and joy in the knowledge that his faith brings joy to G‑d.

This is the meaning of the verse, “Let Israel rejoice in its Maker”11 (note the expression “Maker,” not “Creator” or the like):

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "יִשְׂמַח יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעוֹשָׂיו",

Whoever is of the seed of Israel ought to rejoice in the joy of G‑d, Who is happy and joyous with His abode among the creatures of the lower spheres, who are on the level of actual physical Asiyah.

פֵּירוּשׁ, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מִזֶּרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל – יֵשׁ לוֹ לִשְׂמוֹחַ בְּשִׂמְחַת ה', אֲשֶׁר שָׂשׂ וְשָׂמֵחַ בְּדִירָתוֹ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנִים, שֶׁהֵם בְּחִינַת עֲשִׂיָּה גַשְׁמִיִּית מַמָּשׁ.

The word translated “in its Maker” (בְּעוֹשָׂיו) shares a common root with עֲשִׂיָּה, the lowest level of creation. With this abode in particular ought Israel rejoice, knowing that G‑d’s joy is especially great when the creations in Asiyah, the very lowest world, become an abode for Him.

For this reason, the plural form—בְּעוֹשָׂיו—is used.

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב "בְּעוֹשָׂיו" – לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים,

The literal meaning of the verse is: “Let Israel rejoice in its Makers.” Why the use of a plural expression in reference to G‑d?

The Alter Rebbe explains that since G‑d is spoken of here as the “Maker” of the world of Asiyah, the domain of kelipot, whose nature is arrogance and therefore separation and self-centeredness, the Divine creative power is referred to in the plural, for it is fragmented, so to speak. There is a multitude of created beings, each separate from the other, each animated by the Divine creative power, hence a plurality of “Makers,” so to speak.

But this fault becomes a cause for still greater Divine joy when these separate beings at the level of Asiyah unite in G‑d’s unity. This unification of creation is another achievement of man’s faith in G‑d’s unity, for this faith subdues the sitra achara, which causes disunity.

As stated above, it is the earlier darkness which enhances the light that replaces it. Thus, the greater the darkness, the more superior the subsequent light.

In the Alter Rebbe’s words:

This plural expression—“Makers”—refers to our physical world that is filled with kelipot and sitra achara, which are called “a public domain,” i.e., a domain of multiplicity, and “mountains of separation,” in that they are arrogant and separate from one another.

שֶׁהוּא עוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַגַּשְׁמִי הַמָּלֵא קְלִיפּוֹת וְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא, שֶׁנִּקְרָא "רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים" וְ"טוּרֵי דִפְרוּדָא",

G-d’s joy in the fusion of this plurality is aroused when, through this faith in G‑d’s unity, they (the kelipot) are transformed into light, and they become a “private domain”—i.e., a unified realm—for G‑d’s unity.

וְאִתְהַפְּכָן לִנְהוֹרָא, וְנַעֲשִׂים "רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד" לְיִחוּדוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, בֶּאֱמוּנָה זוֹ: