The original heading reads as follows:

likkutei amarim(“A Compilation of Teachings”)

part three


iggeret hateshuvah(“The Epistle on Repentance”)

It has been taught in a Baraita at the end of Tractate Yoma:1 There are three types of atonement, varying according to the different categories of transgression,

and repentance [necessarily] accompanies each of them.

If one failed to fulfill a positive commandment and repented, he is forgiven forthwith.

If one violated a prohibitive commandment and repented, his repentance is tentative, and Yom Kippur atones.

In this instance, repentance alone does not suffice to secure complete forgiveness; it only guarantees that he will not be punished until the arrival of Yom Kippur, at which time he is completely forgiven.

(2This means that though, in terms of fulfillment, a positive commandment is superior, for which reason it supersedes3 a prohibitive commandment;

When positive and negative commands conflict, the positive command takes precedence and overrides the prohibition. (For example: the wearing of tzitzit made of an admixture of wool and linen, despite the prohibition of kilayim, or shaatnez.) Since observing a positive command thus appears to be of more value than observing a prohibition, why do we say that if one transgresses a positive command, repentance alone suffices, whereas if one transgresses a prohibition, forgiveness cannot be secured by repentance alone, and one must await the advent of Yom Kippur?

The Alter Rebbe will now address himself to this question. His answer will also enable us to understand the spiritual effects of the performance of a positive command and the spiritual blemish that results from transgressing a negative command. Insight into the mitzvot from this perspective will in turn enable us to understand why a positive command supersedes a negative command and why it is nevertheless more difficult to attain atonement for transgressing a negative command.

Briefly, the answer is as follows: When one performs a positive command, he not only fulfills G‑d’s will but also draws down a flow of Divine light into the higher spiritual realms and upon his own soul. The reason: each positive command is likened to a bodily organ. (Note by the Rebbe: “As our Sages, of blessed memory, have said: ‘The 248 organs correspond to the 248 positive commands.’”4) This means to say that just as a bodily organ is a receptacle for the life-force which it elicits from the soul, so, too, is each positive commandment a vessel that draws down Divine effluence and vitality from the infinite Ein Sof-light.

Moreover, just as the life-force of the soul is enclothed within the various limbs, so, too, does the life-force drawn down through the performance of a positive command become enclothed (i.e., internalized) within the worlds.

Fulfilling a negative command—by not committing the transgression—is also a fulfillment of the Divine will. As our Sages, of blessed memory, have said: “If one passively refrains all his days from sin, he is rewarded (Note by the Rebbe: ‘but only’) as though he had actively performed a command.”5

However, since such performance does not result from any action on his part as in the case of a positive command—he merely fulfills G‑d’s will by not transgressing—its result is of lesser spiritual value. For the purpose of the Torah and mitzvot is to draw down Divine illumination through the performance of the 248 positive commands and to dispel the spirit of impurity through the observance of the 365 prohibitions (as explained earlier in Part I, ch. 37, p. 506-507).

Thus, in a situation where positive and negative precepts clash and the question is which one is to be set aside, the positive command supersedes the negative. For it is impossible that doing the prohibited deed will impart a spirit of impurity, inasmuch as its prohibition is being overruled because the Torah so dictates. Conversely, (even) if the Torah were to direct that one should neglect the positive command, the action that would draw down Divine illumination would still be lacking.

For this reason, a positive command supersedes a prohibition: the deficiency normally wrought by transgressing a prohibition does not result when the Torah commands that it be set aside while the dividend gained by fulfilling a positive command—the drawing down of the Divine light—is realized.

However, in light of the above, it would seem that the same reasoning should apply with regard to transgressions: a higher degree of repentance should be necessary for violating a positive command than for transgressing a negative command—yet according to the above quotation from the Gemara in Yoma, the opposite is true.

The explanation is as follows: The gain of the positive command—the G‑dly light that it draws into the soul—cannot be won through repentance in any event; all that repentance can now secure is forgiveness for the transgression. Not so with regard to transgressing a prohibition, where repentance can rectify the misdeed entirely. Furthermore, since the misdeed actively blemished the individual’s soul and the celestial realms as well, mere repentance does not suffice: only Yom Kippur can completely obliterate the blemish that it brought about.6

This is what the Alter Rebbe now goes on to say:

this superiority of the positive command that makes it supersede a negative command is so because by performing a positive command, one precipitates an illumination and flow into the higher worlds from the reflected [infinite] Ein Sof-light

(7as we find in the Zohar: “The 248 positive commandments are the 248 ‘organs of the King’”8),

The 248 positive commands are equated with the emotive attributes of Atzilut, which are collectively termed “the King.” Just as an organ serves as a vessel to the soul-faculty enclothed within it, so, too, is each positive command an organ and vessel for a particular effluence of the emotive attributes of Atzilut that are drawn down through the performance of that particular commandment. Thus, through performing positive commands, one draws down G‑dliness into the higher worlds.

and also through the performance of a positive command, one draws G‑dliness onto his Divine soul,

as we say in the blessings that precede the performance of many mitzvot, “…Who has hallowed us with His commandments.”

I.e., fulfilling a positive command has the effect of drawing down Divine light and holiness upon the soul, for which reason it surpasses and supersedes conformity to a negative command.

But concerning repentance, which would seek to rectify the transgression of a positive command,

though through repentance, the punishment for rebelling against G‑d’s rule and not fulfilling the King’s word is commuted,

nonetheless, the illumination which would have been drawn down through the performance of the positive command is lacking—even after repentance so that the sin remains only partially rectified.

On the verse, “A crookedness that cannot be corrected,”9 i.e., even through repentance, our Sages accordingly comment: “This relates to one who neglected the evening [or morning] reading of Shema, or [the evening or morning prayer].”10

For though he be scrupulous henceforth about reading the evening and morning Shema forevermore, thereby demonstrating his regret,

his repentance is ineffectual in correcting what he once neglected.

For after all is said and done, the world will forever be lacking the unique gift of Divine light that he could have drawn down through reading the Shema on that particular occasion. Thus, all that repentance can accomplish, he is now able to accomplish through repentance alone. No other steps can secure him any further atonement.

So much for he who transgressed a positive precept.

If one violates a prohibition in thought, speech, or action, since thereby evil cleaves to his soul, he [also] impairs its supernal root and source

(11in the garbs of the ten sefirot of Asiyah, as Tikkunei Zohar12 writes, “You have fashioned garbs for [the sefirot], from which fly forth souls for man…”).

We thus see from Tikkunei Zohar that it is from the “garments” of the sefirot that souls emanate; when a soul is blemished through sin, these garments are blemished as well.

Therefore, there is no atonement for his own soul nor Above until Yom Kippur,

As will be explained a little later, “atonement” means cleansing that which was blemished. This requires not only repentance, but in addition, Yom Kippur:

concerning which it is written, “He shall atone for the holy place because of the impurities of the Children of Israel and because of their sins…; before Havayah shall you be purified.”13

Before G‑d” is stressed.

I.e., the purification granted by Yom Kippur emanates from a level that transcends the Divine Name Havayah and can even atone for a blemish that resulted from transgressing a prohibitive command.

At any rate, we have seen that in certain respects, transgressing a positive command has more serious consequences than transgressing a negative command.

Hence, one should not (G‑d forbid) infer any leniency in the positive commandments from this Baraita which states that one is immediately forgiven after repenting for having transgressed a positive command while transgressing a negative command requires in addition the atonement of Yom Kippur;

particularly ought one not infer any leniency in Torah study.

On the contrary, our Sages assert,14 “G‑d has in certain instances glossed over [even] idolatry, [incest, and murder,]” though excision and capital punishment are involved “but did not excuse the neglect of Torah Study.”)15

The Baraita with which this chapter opened is now resumed:

If one committed a sin [punishable by] excision or execution, repentance and Yom Kippur are tentative so that the individual is not punished, and sufferings scour

(16i.e., they complete the atonement. [The verb] memarkin denotes the final stage, namely, scouring and rinsing, in order to “polish” the soul,

for kaparah (“atonement”) is the term for the preceding stage of cleaning, removing the uncleanness of the sin),

Sins punishable by excision or execution are not cleaned away through repentance and Yom Kippur alone: the soul must also be scoured and rinsed through suffering, heaven forfend.

as it is written, “With a rod shall I remember their sin and with afflictions their iniquity.”17

Thus far, the Baraita with which this chapter opened.