Chapter 6

פרק ו

In the previous chapters, the Alter Rebbe discussed the divine soul; its ten faculties—three intellectual and seven emotional—and its three garments by which it expresses itself, namely, the thought, speech, and action of Torah and the mitzvot.

He explained that the garments of the divine soul are actually on a higher level than the soul itself, inasmuch as Torah and G‑d are one, and that by “clothing” itself in these garments, i.e., by studying the Torah and by performing the mitzvot, the soul is united with G‑d. This is particularly true of Torah study, in which the soul both embraces and is embraced by the G‑dliness contained in Torah.

In ch. 6, the Alter Rebbe begins to discuss the animal soul. He explains that its structure exactly parallels that of the divine soul; it too has ten faculties and three garments; only, unlike the divine soul, the substance of the animal soul is kelipah, and its faculties and garments are impurity. By clothing itself in these garments, the animal soul descends to an even lower state of impurity.

Concerning the concept of kelipah, we have noted in ch. 1 that although all existence was created by and receives its life from G‑dliness, yet, in order that man be able to choose between good and evil and that he earn his reward by serving his Creator by his own effort, G‑d created forces of impurity which conceal the G‑dliness in all of creation. These forces are called kelipah (plural: kelipot), literally meaning “shells” or “peels”: Just as the shell conceals the fruit, so do the forces of kelipah conceal the G‑dliness in every created being.

There are two categories in kelipot: kelipat nogah (lit., “a kelipah [inclusive] of light”) and “the three unclean kelipot.”

The first category, kelipat nogah, contains some measure of good. It is thus an intermediary level between the realms of good and evil, and whatever receives its vitality via the concealing screen of this kelipah may be utilized for either good or evil. To this category belong all permitted physical objects; they may be used for a mitzvah and ascend thereby to the realm of holiness, or they may be used sinfully, G‑d forbid, and thereby be further degraded.

The second category—consisting of the “three impure kelipot”—is wholly evil. Whatever receives its vitality via the concealment of this type of kelipah cannot be transformed into holiness, nor, in some cases, may it even be used in the service of holiness. To this category belong all forbidden physical objects, whether forbidden only for consumption, in which case they cannot be transformed into holiness but they may serve it, or whether forbidden for any form of benefit, in which case they cannot even serve any holy purpose.

“The Almighty has created one thing opposite the other.”1

וְהִנֵּה, זֶה לְעוּמַּת זֶה עָשָׂה אֱלֹהִים.

Everything in the realm of holiness has its counterpart in kelipah. In our context, the animal soul, with its faculties and garments, is the counterpart (in kelipah) of the divine soul, with its faculties and garments.

Just as the divine soul consists of ten holy [faculties, which correspond to the ten supernal] sefirot, and is clothed in three holy garments, i.e., the thought, speech, and action of Torah and the mitzvot,

כִּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹהִית כְּלוּלָה מֵעֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת קְדוֹשׁוֹת, וּמִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה לְבוּשִׁים קְדוֹשִׁים,

so, too, the soul of sitra achara (defined further in this chapter) derived from kelipat nogah, which is clothed in man’s blood—as explained in ch. 1, the animal soul is clothed in the blood and thereby animates the body—this soul too

כָּךְ הַנֶּפֶשׁ דְּסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא מִקְּלִיפּוֹת נוֹגַהּ הַמְלוּבֶּשֶׁת בְּדַם הָאָדָם,

consists of ten “crowns of impurity,”2 i.e., the faculties of kelipah, called “crowns” in Kabbalistic terminology.

כְּלוּלָה מֵעֶשֶׂר כִּתְרִין דִּמְסָאֲבוּתָא,

These ten faculties are: seven evil middot (seven emotional traits),

שֶׁהֵן: שֶׁבַע מִדּוֹת רָעוֹת

e.g., lust, the equivalent in kelipah of the middah of chesed (“kindness”); anger, which expresses the middah of gevurah (“severity”); boastfulness, the equivalent of tiferet (“beauty”); and so forth,

which stem from the four evil elements mentioned above (in ch. 1),

הַבָּאוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע יְסוֹדוֹת רָעִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל,

Spiritual entities have their “elements” as physical objects do; in this case evil elements, since this is a soul of kelipah.

and the intellect (seichel), which gives birth to these [seven evil middot], which is subdivided into three, viz., chochmah, binah, and daat, the source of the middot.

וְשֵׂכֶל הַמּוֹלִידָן הַנֶּחְלָק לְשָׁלֹשׁ, שֶׁהֵן חָכְמָה בִּינָה וָדַעַת – מְקוֹר הַמִּדּוֹת,

The intellectual faculties are described as the source of the evil middot for the middot are commensurate with the quality of one’s intellect.

כִּי הַמִּדּוֹת הֵן לְפִי עֵרֶךְ הַשֵּׂכֶל,

A child desires and loves (i.e., he expresses his middah of chesed toward) petty things of little value, for his intellect is too immature and deficient to appreciate more valuable things.

כִּי הַקָּטָן חוֹשֵׁק וְאוֹהֵב דְּבָרִים קְטַנִּים פְּחוּתֵי הָעֵרֶךְ, לְפִי שֶׁשִּׂכְלוֹ קָטָן וְקָצָר לְהַשִּׂיג דְּבָרִים יְקָרִים יוֹתֵר מֵהֶם,

Similarly, with regard to the middah of gevurah: he is angered and vexed by trivial things, and likewise with regard to boastfulness (which expresses the middah of tiferet), and other middot.

וְכֵן מִתְכַּעֵס וּמִתְקַצֵּף מִדְּבָרִים קְטַנִּים, וְכֵן בְּהִתְפָּאֲרוּת וּשְׁאָר מִדּוֹת.

This correlation between middot and intellect indicates that the intellect affects the nature and expression of middot, and for this reason, the three intellectual faculties are said to be the source of the seven middot.3

Now these ten unclean categories, when a person thinks [thoughts originating from] them (e.g., when he thinks of ways of obtaining something he desires) or speaks words originating from them or does an act which serves or expresses them,

וְעֶשֶׂר בְּחִינוֹת אֵלּוּ הַטְּמֵאוֹת, כְּשֶׁאָדָם מְחַשֵּׁב בָּהֶן אוֹ מְדַבֵּר אוֹ עוֹשֶׂה,

then the thought in his brain, the words in his mouth, and the power of action in his hands and other organs are called “impure garments” for these ten unclean categories,

הֲרֵי מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ שֶׁבְּמוֹחוֹ וְדִבּוּרוֹ שֶׁבְּפִיו וְכֹחַ הַמַּעֲשִׂיי שֶׁבְּיָדָיו וּשְׁאָר אֵיבָרָיו, נִקְרָאִים "לְבוּשֵׁי מְסָאֲבוּ" לְעֶשֶׂר בְּחִינוֹת אֵלּוּ הַטְּמֵאוֹת,

which clothe themselves in these garments during the act, speech, or thought.

שֶׁמִּתְלַבְּשׁוֹת בָּהֶן בִּשְׁעַת מַעֲשֶׂה אוֹ דִּבּוּר אוֹ מַחֲשָׁבָה.

But what sort of thoughts, words, and actions are the “garments” of the animal soul? Earlier, in ch. 4, we learned that the divine soul has specific thoughts, etc., in which it clothes itself, namely, thought, speech, and action, in matters of Torah and the mitzvot. Are we then to understand that the animal soul, too, has specific garments—sinful thoughts, words, or actions, perhaps?

Not so, states the Alter Rebbe presently. All thoughts, words, and acts that are not directed toward G‑d and the service of G‑d, even though they are not actually sinful, are garments of the kelipah, and hence, of the animal soul.

In his words:

These garments of the animal soul comprise all the deeds that are done under the sun (i.e., all mundane actions),

וְהֵן הֵם כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשִׂים תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ,

which are all “vanity and an affliction of the spirit,”4 as the Zohar (Parashat Beshalach)5 interprets this: “a ruination of the spirit [of holiness].”

אֲשֶׁר "הַכֹּל הֶבֶל וּרְעוּת רוּחַ", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּזֹּהַר בְּשַׁלַּח, שֶׁהֵן "תְּבִירוּ דְרוּחָא כוּ'",

Similarly, all words and all thoughts that are not directed to G‑d and to His will and His service are all garments for the animal soul,

וְכֵן כָּל הַדִּבּוּרִים וְכָל הַמַּחֲשָׁבוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא לַה' הֵמָּה וְלִרְצוֹנוֹ וְלַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ,

for this is the meaning of the term sitra achara—literally “the other side,” i.e., not the side of holiness.

שֶׁזֶּהוּ פֵּירוּשׁ לְשׁוֹן "סִטְרָא אָחֳרָא", פֵּירוּשׁ – צַד אַחֵר, שֶׁאֵינוֹ צַד הַקְּדוּשָּׁה.

Thus, whatever does not belong to the realm of holiness is sitra achara. But what, in fact, does the realm of holiness encompass?

The side of holiness is nothing but the indwelling and extension of G‑d’s holiness.

וְצַד הַקְּדוּשָּׁה –אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא הַשְׁרָאָה וְהַמְשָׁכָה מִקְּדוּשָּׁתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

Now, G‑d dwells only on that which is surrendered to Him, whether [the surrender is an] actual [one] (and visible even in that surrendered being’s external aspects), as is the case with the supernal angels, whose entire being is constantly and openly surrendered to G‑d,

וְאֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא שׁוֹרֶה אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁבָּטֵל אֶצְלוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, בֵּין בְּפוֹעַל מַמָּשׁ – כְּמַלְאָכִים עֶלְיוֹנִים,

or whether [it is a] potential [surrender], as in the case of every Jew here below in this physical world, who has the capacity for surrendering himself completely before G‑d through martyrdom for the sanctification of G‑d’s Name.

בֵּין בְּכֹחַ – כְּכָל אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַטָּה, שֶׁבְּכֹחוֹ לִהְיוֹת בָּטֵל מַמָּשׁ לְגַבֵּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא בִּמְסִירַת נַפְשׁוֹ עַל קְדוּשַּׁת ה'.

As explained further in the Tanya, every Jew has the capacity for such self-sacrifice; in the face of an attempt to coerce him to forsake Judaism, he will willingly suffer martyrdom. Thus, every Jew possesses internally within his soul the potential for surrender to G‑d, whatever his external state; this potential, however, may reveal itself only in the act of martyrdom. Because he is surrendered to G‑d, G‑d’s holiness rests upon him.

That is why our Sages have said that “if even one individual sits and engages in Torah study, the Divine Presence rests upon him.”6

וְלָכֵן אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה, שֶׁאֲפִילוּ אֶחָד שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה – שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה כוּ',

For when one engages in Torah study, his surrender to G‑dliness emerges to affect him on a revealed, external level, since such study entails setting aside one’s own notions and presumptions in order to understand and accept G‑d’s wisdom and will as expressed in Torah. It is this surrender to G‑dliness that causes the Divine Presence to rest upon the Torah student.

Also, “On each gathering of ten [Jews], the Divine Presence rests”7 always; together, ten Jews form a “congregation of Israel,” which is a fit abode for the Divine Presence.

וְ"כָל בֵּי עֲשָׂרָה שְׁכִינְתָּא שַׁרְיָא" לְעוֹלָם.

Anything, however, that does not surrender itself to G‑d but [considers itself as if it] is a thing separate unto itself does not receive its life from the holiness of G‑d—

אֲבָל כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל אֶצְלוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, אֶלָּא הוּא דָּבָר נִפְרָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל חַיּוּת מִקְּדוּשָּׁתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא

But where else would it receive its vitality? G‑dliness and holiness is the source of vitality for every existing being, as it is written, “You give life to them all” (Nehemiah 9:6). The Alter Rebbe goes on to qualify his previous remark, stating that those beings which do not surrender themselves to G‑d receive their vitality only from a superficial, external level of G‑dliness, and from this level, too, only when it descends degree by degree through numerous “contractions” of the life-force.

To return to the Alter Rebbe’s words: The self-styled separate being does not receive its vitality from the pnimiyut, the inner aspect of holiness, from its very essence and core but from its achorayim, its “hind-part,” so to speak.

מִבְּחִינַת פְּנִימִית הַקְּדוּשָּׁה וּמַהוּתָהּ וְעַצְמוּתָהּ בִּכְבוֹדָהּ וּבְעַצְמָהּ, אֶלָּא מִבְּחִינַת אֲחוֹרַיִים,

To bestow from one’s “pnimiyut” (literally, one’s “face”) means, as explained in ch. 22, to give with a pleasurable will and desire; “achorayim” (literally, “behind one’s back”) means to bestow without desire or pleasure out of some extenuating factor. The giver’s attitude will be apparent, in either case, in his manner of giving. If one gives something to his enemy, for example, he will avert his face from him, for one’s face represents his inner feelings; since the giver’s heart is not in his gift, he turns his face away, presenting his enemy with his back. Thus, pnimiyut and achorayim in the sense of internal and external aspects (of one’s will) are related to their literal meanings of “face” and “rear.”

In our context, everything in the realm of holiness, whose existence and life G‑d desires, receives its life from the pnimiyut of G‑dliness, while the kelipot, in which G‑d has no desire (since He created them only for the reasons given in the paragraphs introducing this chapter), receive their life from the achorayim of G‑dliness.

This limited form of life-force reaches the kelipot by descending degree by degree through myriads of levels, in the chain-like descent of the worlds, in the manner of cause and effect.

שֶׁיּוֹרְדִים מִמַּדְרֵגָה לְמַדְרֵגָה רִבְבוֹת מַדְרֵגוֹת, בְּהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת הָעוֹלָמוֹת דֶּרֶךְ עִלָּה וְעָלוּל

The higher level is the “cause” for the lower level which emerges from it. However, in a descent which is a sequence of cause and effect, the effect, although lower, is always comparable to the cause. Such descents, no matter how numerous, would be insufficient to produce the low level of vitality bestowed upon kelipot. This can be produced only by the descent of the vitality through tzimtzum, as the Alter Rebbe now continues:

The vitality descends also through many tzimtzumim, or contractions—and this process diminishes the vitality to the point where it is incomparably lower than in its original state.

וְצִמְצוּמִים רַבִּים,

So greatly diminished does the light and life-force become, diminution after diminution, until it is able to become contracted and clothed in a manner of exile, meaning that instead of being surrendered to the Divine life-force, the object in which the vitality is clothed masters it; as, for example, a captive in exile is mastered by his captors.

עַד שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט כָּל כָּךְ הָאוֹר וְהַחַיּוּת, מִיעוּט אַחַר מִיעוּט, עַד שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהִתְצַמְצֵם וּלְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בִּבְחִינַת גָּלוּת

The vitality is thus in a state of exile within that object which is (i.e., which considers itself) separate from holiness, giving it vitality and existence, causing that object to pass from nonexistence to existence,

תּוֹךְ אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר הַנִּפְרָד, לְהַחֲיוֹתוֹ וּלְקַיְּימוֹ מֵאַיִן לְיֵשׁ,

so that it does not return to its original state of nonexistence, as it was before it was created by the vitality clothed in it.

שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזוֹר לִהְיוֹת אַיִן וָאֶפֶס כְּבַתְּחִלָּה מִקּוֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְרָא.

In brief: All that is not surrendered to G‑d but considers itself separate from Him receives its vitality from the achorayim of G‑dliness by way of numerous descents and various contractions. The Divine life-force is concealed within it in a state of exile; thus, it belongs to the realm of kelipah. It is now clear why any thought, word, or action not directed toward [serving] G‑d—hence, not surrendered to G‑dliness—is a garment of the animal soul that derives from kelipah, even if that thought, word, or deed is not actually evil.

That is why this world with all it contains is called the world of kelipot and sitra acharadespite the fact that this world, too, receives its vitality from G‑d’s holiness.

וְלָכֵן נִקְרָא עוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּמְלוֹאוֹ, עוֹלַם הַקְּלִיפּוֹת וְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא.

Since the creatures of this physical world feel themselves to be independent, separate beings and their surrender to G‑dliness is not apparent, they automatically belong to the realm of kelipah.

This is also why all affairs of this world are severe and evil, and the wicked prevail in it (as is written in Etz Chaim, Portal 42, end of ch. 4).

וְלָכֵן כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה עוֹלָם הַזֶּה קָשִׁים וְרָעִים, וְהָרְשָׁעִים גּוֹבְרִים בּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּעֵץ חַיִּים שַׁעַר מ"ב סוֹף פֶּרֶק ד'.

In the following note, referring to his previous statement that this is a world of kelipot, the Alter Rebbe writes that this is so notwithstanding the fact that G‑dliness pervades all existence; or, stated in the terminology of the Kabbalah, that G‑d’s infinite light (Or Ein Sof) clothes itself in the sefirot of the four Worlds—Atzilut, Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah, and thereby, even this physical world is filled with the Or Ein Sof; yet, despite all this, it is still a world of kelipot.

To be sure, this world contains the ten sefirot of (the World of) Asiyah, as is written in Etz Chaim, Portal 43.

ﬠִם הֱיוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ ﬠֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת דַּﬠֲשִׂיָּה דִקְדוּשָּׁה, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּﬠֵץ חַיִּים שַׁﬠַר מ"ג,

The World of Asiyah comprises both our physical world and the spiritual World of Asiyah. The sefirot of the spiritual Asiyah are, however, contained in the physical Asiyah as well.

Now, within these ten sefirot of Asiyah are [contained] the ten sefirot of the World of Yetzirah, and within them the ten sefirot of the World of Beriah, and in them the ten sefirot of the World of Atzilut, in which abides the Or Ein Sof.

וּבְתוֹךְ ﬠֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת דַּﬠֲשִׂיָּה אֵלּוּ הֵן ﬠֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת דִּיצִירָה, וּבְתוֹכָן ﬠֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת דִּבְרִיאָה, וּבְתוֹכָן ﬠֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת דַּאֲצִילוּת, שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא;

Thus, the Or Ein Sof pervades this entire lowest world by being clothed in the ten sefirot of the four Worlds—Atzilut, Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah,

וְנִמְצָא אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מָלֵא כָּל הָאָרֶץ הַלֵּזוּ הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה, ﬠַל יְדֵי הִתְלַבְּשׁוּתוֹ בְּﬠֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת דְּאַרְבַּע עוֹלָמוֹת: אֲצִילוּת־בְּרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־ﬠֲשִׂיָּה,

as is written in Etz Chaim, Portal 47, ch. 2, and in Sefer Gilgulim, ch. 20.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּﬠֵץ חַיִּים שַׁﬠַר מ"ז פֶּרֶק ב' וּבְסֵפֶר גִּלְגּוּלִים פֶּרֶק כ':

Yet, because the creatures of this world are not openly surrendered to G‑d, this is a world of kelipot and sitra achara.

Until here, it has been explained that all thoughts, utterances, and actions that are not directed toward holiness are sitra achara and that these are the garments by which the animal soul expresses itself.

But this merely places the garments on a par with the animal soul itself, which, like them, stems from the sitra achara. It was explained earlier, however, that the garments of the divine soul are of a higher spiritual level than the soul itself, and elevate it, and that the animal soul is structured as a mirror image of the divine soul. It follows, then, that the animal soul’s garments are on an even lower level than the animal soul itself and that they degrade it.

The Alter Rebbe goes on to explain that this is indeed the case. After a discussion of the two categories of kelipah (mentioned in the introduction to this chapter), he concludes that there are those garments of the animal soul that drag down the soul from the level of kelipat nogah—the soul’s natural state—to the level of the three completely impure kelipot. These are sinful thoughts and forbidden words and actions.8

However, the kelipot are divided into two categories, one lower than the other.

אֶלָּא שֶׁהַקְּלִיפּוֹת הֵן נֶחְלָקוֹת לִשְׁתֵּי מַדְרֵגוֹת, זוֹ לְמַטָּה מִזּוֹ.

The lower category consists of three completely unclean and evil kelipot, containing no good whatsoever.

הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה, הִיא שָׁלֹשׁ קְלִיפּוֹת הַטְּמֵאוֹת וְרָעוֹת לְגַמְרֵי, וְאֵין בָּהֶם טוֹב כְּלָל,

In the prophet Ezekiel’s vision of the Divine chariot in which he saw and described the forces that conceal G‑dliness they are described as “a stormwind,” “a great cloud,” and “a flaring fire,”9 representing these three wholly unclean kelipot.

וְנִקְרְאוּ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת יְחֶזְקֵאל "רוּחַ סְעָרָה" וְ"עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְגוֹ'".

From them flow and are derived the souls of all the nations of the world and the sustaining force of their bodies which sustains their existence, apart from the soul, which animates them.

וּמֵהֶן נִשְׁפָּעוֹת וְנִמְשָׁכוֹת נַפְשׁוֹת כָּל אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, וְקִיּוּם גּוּפָם,

Also derived from these kelipot are the souls of all living creatures that are unclean and forbidden to be eaten and the sustaining force of their bodies.

וְנַפְשׁוֹת כָּל בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים הַטְּמֵאִים וַאֲסוּרִים בַּאֲכִילָה, וְקִיּוּם גּוּפָם,

The existence and life of all forbidden vegetation, too, such as orlah (the first three years’ fruit of a tree), and a mixture of grain seeds in a vineyard, and so forth, are derived from these kelipot, as is written in Etz Chaim, Portal 49, ch. 6.

וְקִיּוּם וְחַיּוּת כָּל מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת מֵהַצּוֹמֵחַ, כְּמוֹ עָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם כוּ', וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּעֵץ חַיִּים שַׁעַר מ"ט פֶּרֶק ו',

Similarly, the existence and life of any act, utterance, or thought in violation of any one of the 365 [Biblical] prohibitions, as well as their [Rabbinic] offshoots, are all derived from these three impure kelipot, as is written there, end of ch. 5.

וְכֵן קִיּוּם וְחַיּוּת כָּל הַמַּעֲשֶׂה דִּבּוּר וּמַחֲשָׁבָה שֶׁל כָּל שַׁסַ"ה לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה וְעַנְפֵיהֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב שָׁם סוֹף פֶּרֶק ה':

The animal soul, on the other hand, is of kelipat nogah, which contains an element of good (as mentioned in ch. 1). These sinful garments, belonging to the realm of wholly impure kelipot, are thus lower than the animal soul itself and drag it down to their level, in exact opposition to the divine soul’s garments of the thought, speech, and action of Torah and the mitzvot which are higher than the soul and elevate it.