Chapter 52

פרק נב

In the previous chapter, the Alter Rebbe began to expound upon the theme of the indwelling of the Shechinah, which resided in the Holy of Holies and likewise in other places. He asked: “Is not the whole world filled with His glory?” Since there is no place void of Him, what do we mean when we say that G‑d chose a specific place for the Shechinah to rest?

He explained this according to the text: “From my flesh, I see G‑d,” using the analogy of the soul, which pervades all the 248 organs of the body, yet its principal habitation is in the brain. This cannot be said to apply to the soul’s essence, for that is found equally in all 248 organs, from the highest, the brain, to the lowest in the feet. Rather, this refers to the general flow of the soul’s vitality into the body and its revelation there before it is diffused and drawn down into all the bodily organs, each according to its particular capacity.

Concerning this general aspect, we say that its principal province and indwelling is in the brain; from there, a mere glimmer of this vitality is drawn down and revealed in the other bodily organs.

The same is true, the Alter Rebbe explains, in the analogue of G‑dliness and the world: The core and essence of the Ein Sof is the same in the higher and lower Worlds—He is concealed from them all equally, for even in the higher Worlds, no thought can apprehend Him at all. At the same time, He is equally to be found both in the higher and lower Worlds.

The difference between the higher and lower Worlds—as in the analogy of the bodily organs—subsists only with regard to the stream of vitality which flows and is revealed from the Ein Sof in order to create and vitalize the Worlds and their creatures. Concerning this level of revelation, we say that in the higher Worlds, G‑dliness is revealed to a greater degree and in the lower Worlds to a lesser degree.

In the present chapter, the Alter Rebbe goes on to further explain how the analogue of G‑dliness and its place in the world relates to the analogy, in which the individual’s vitality in its undiffused state resides in the brain.

And just as in the human soul, the principal manifestation of the undiffused vitality is in the brain while all the organs receive merely a light and potency which radiates to them from the source of the manifestation of the said vitality in the brain,

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁבְּנִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם עִיקַּר גִּילּוּי כְּלָלוּת הַחַיּוּת – הוּא בַּמּוֹחִין, וְכָל הָאֵבָרִים, מְקַבְּלִים אוֹר וְכֹחַ לְבַד, הַמֵּאִיר לָהֶם מִמְּקוֹר גִּילּוּי הַחַיּוּת שֶׁבַּמּוֹחִין –

so indeed, figuratively speaking, is the essential manifestation of the general stream of vitality, animating the Worlds and the creatures therein, clothed and contained in His blessed will, wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, which are called the “intelligence,”

כָּכָה מַמָּשׁ, עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, עִיקַּר גִּילּוּי כְּלָלוּת הַמְשָׁכַת הַחַיּוּת, לְהַחֲיוֹת הָעוֹלָמוֹת וְהַבְּרוּאִים שֶׁבָּהֶם – הוּא מְלוּבָּשׁ וְנִכְלָל בִּרְצוֹנוֹ וְחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ וְדַעְתּוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, הַנִּקְרָאִין בְּשֵׁם "מוֹחִין",

The sefirot of keter (will), chochmah, binah, and daat as they exist Above are collectively called “intelligence.” Within them is enclothed the stream of undiffused vitality, which is the first revelation of the Ein Sof in the Worlds.

and these (will, chochmah, binah, and daat) are clothed in the Torah and its mitzvot.

וְהֵן הֵן הַמְלוּבָּשִׁים בַּתּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹתֶיהָ.

This is their abode, for Torah law and the mitzvot are themselves the will of G‑d, desiring as He does that the law in a particular case should be specifically one way and not the other and that a particular mitzvah be performed in a certain manner and not otherwise. Understanding the laws and knowing the reasons for the mitzvot—this belongs to the divine levels of chochmah and binah. Thus, within Torah and the mitzvot is enclothed the “intelligence” of Above, and in it is to be found the undiffused stream of vitality that descends into the Worlds.

The manifestation of this general flow of life, which is similar to the undiffused stream of vitality found in the brain, takes place—as the Alter Rebbe will soon say—when the flow from “intelligence” descends into the sefirah of malchut. This manifestation

וְגִילּוּי כְּלָלוּת הַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ –

is the source of the vitality which the Worlds receive, each one in particular receiving but a diffused glow that shines forth from this source,

הוּא מְקוֹר הַחַיּוּת, אֲשֶׁר הָעוֹלָמוֹת מְקַבְּלִים כָּל אֶחָד בִּפְרָטוּת. רַק הֶאָרָה מִתְפַּשֶּׁטֶת וּמְאִירָה מִמָּקוֹר זֶה,

This refers not to the general stream of vitality found in “intelligence” but to its revelation. This revelation is the source of the vitality received by all Worlds and their creatures, each according to its particular level. The diffused glow that shines forth is:

in a similar manner to the light that radiates from the sun, by way of example, where the rays are but a diffused glimmer of the sun’s essence, or as the faculties of the organs of the body derive from the brain, as discussed above, in the previous chapter.

כְּדִמְיוֹן אוֹר הַמִּתְפַּשֵּׁט מֵהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, וְכֹחוֹת אֵבְרֵי הַגּוּף מֵהַמּוֹחַ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל.

It is this source (this source being a revelation from the general stream of vitality found within “intelligence”) which is called in the Kabbalah the “world of manifestation,” because—as the Alter Rebbe will soon say—it is here that G‑dliness first becomes manifest in the Worlds,

וּמָקוֹר זֶה, הוּא הַנִּקְרָא "עָלְמָא דְאִתְגַלְּיָא",

and it is also called matrunita (Aramaic for “queen”), for the “queen” receives her vitality from Kudsha Brich Hu (Aramaic for “the Holy One, blessed be He”), the “king,


and it is also known as the “nether mother,” the lower level of “mother”—for binah, too, is known as “mother” (as the verse says, “Allude to binah as mother”1). Binah, however, is the higher level of “mother,” while malchut is the “nether mother,”

וְ"אִימָּא תַּתָּאָה",

and is called the Shechinah, from the Scriptural phrase, “…and I will dwell among them,”2 for its Hebrew root means: to dwell and be revealed.3

וּ"שְׁכִינָה" מִלְּשׁוֹן "וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם",

As the Rebbe explains, the Alter Rebbe now goes on to explain the meaning and character of each of the above-listed names as well as their particular effect.

The abovementioned source is called the “world of manifestation”: For this source is the beginning of the revelation of the light of the Ein Sof, and since the source itself constitutes a revelation, it is itself known as the “world of manifestation” because of its own nature and not because it vitalizes the revealed Worlds.

עַל שֵׁם, שֶׁמָּקוֹר זֶה הוּא רֵאשִׁית הִתְגַּלּוּת אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף,

It is called “queen” because it is this level which extends to and illumines the Worlds in a revealed manner—similar to a queen, for through her, the wishes of the king are revealed.

אֲשֶׁר מַמְשִׁיךְ וּמֵאִיר לָעוֹלָמוֹת בִּבְחִינַת גִּילּוּי,

Thus, the source of life, i.e., the first revelation of the light of the Ein Sof, is first manifest in the “queen.”

From this source, there extends to each individual thing, World, or creature the particular light and vitality suitable for it, for which reason it is called the “nether mother,” for it is the “mother” and source of the particular form of vitality of each and every creature,

וּמִמָּקוֹר זֶה, נִמְשָׁךְ לְכָל אֶחָד הָאוֹר וְחַיּוּת פְּרָטִי הָרָאוּי לוֹ

and it (the light) dwells and is clothed in them (in the Worlds and their respective creatures), thereby animating them.

וְשׁוֹכֵן וּמִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכָם לְהַחֲיוֹתָם.

Since it dwells, animates, and is enclothed in every World and creature, it is called Shechinah, which as previously explained means “indwelling.”

Until now, the Alter Rebbe has clarified how the light is the source of the Worlds and creatures in general. He now goes on to explain how it is also the source of Jewish souls.

Therefore, it is figuratively called “mother of the children’’ i.e., of Jewish souls, and is also called “community of Israel,” for from this source, the souls of Atzilut have emanated, these being “emanations” and not “creations,” and the souls of Beriah have been created, and so forth,

וְלָכֵן נִקְרָא "אֵם הַבָּנִים" עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, וּ"כְנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל", שֶׁמִּמָּקוֹר זֶה, נֶאֶצְלוּ נְשָׁמוֹת דַּאֲצִילוּת וְנִבְרְאוּ נְשָׁמוֹת דִּבְרִיאָה וְכוּ'.

all of them—all the Worlds, creatures, and souls—being derived only from the extension of the vitality and light which extends and streams forth from this source, which is called Shechinah,

וְכוּלָּן אֵינָן, רַק מֵהִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת הַחַיּוּת וְהָאוֹר מֵהַמָּקוֹר הַזֶּה הַנִּקְרָא "שְׁכִינָה",

in a manner resembling the radiance of light from the sun, this radiance being but a ray from its source.

כְּהִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת הָאוֹר מֵהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ.

But as for the Shechinah itself, namely, the origin and core of the manifestation whereby the blessed Ein Sof illumines the Worlds in a revealed form and which is the source of all streams of vitality in the Worlds,

אֲבָל הַשְּׁכִינָה עַצְמָהּ, שֶׁהִיא רֵאשִׁית הַגִּילּוּי וְעִיקָּרוֹ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מֵאִיר לָעוֹלָמוֹת בִּבְחִינַת גִּילּוּי, וְהִיא מְקוֹר כָּל הַמְשָׁכוֹת הַחַיּוּת שֶׁבְּכָל הָעוֹלָמוֹת

(4their entire vitality being no more than the light which is diffused from it like the light radiated from the sun)—

[שֶׁכָּל הַחַיּוּת שֶׁבָּהֶם, אֵינוֹ רַק אוֹר הַמִּתְפַּשֵּׁט מִמֶּנָּה – כָּאוֹר הַמִּתְפַּשֵּׁט מֵהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ]

concerning the Shechinah itself, the source of all vitality for the worlds: the worlds cannot endure or receive the light of this Shechinah, that it might actually dwell and enclothe itself in them, without a “garment” to screen and conceal its light from them,

אִי אֶפְשָׁר לָעוֹלָמוֹת לִסְבּוֹל וּלְקַבֵּל אוֹר שְׁכִינָתָהּ, שֶׁתִּשְׁכּוֹן וְתִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכָם מַמָּשׁ, בְּלֹא לְבוּשׁ הַמַּעֲלִים וּמַסְתִּיר אוֹרָהּ מֵהֶם,

so that they may not become entirely nullified and lose their identity within their source, just as the light of the sun is nullified in its source, namely, in the sun itself—where this light cannot be seen but only the integral mass of the sun itself.

שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּטְּלוּ בִּמְצִיאוּת לְגַמְרֵי בִּמְקוֹרָם, כְּבִיטּוּל אוֹר הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּמְקוֹרוֹ בְּגוּף הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, שֶׁאֵין נִרְאֶה שָׁם אוֹר זֶה, רַק עֶצֶם גּוּף הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּלְבָד.

So, too, since the Shechinah is the source of vitality of the whole of creation, all of which receives but a ray of the Shechinah, then if the Shechinah itself—the actual source—would be manifest, all created beings would be nullified in that source. Their situation would be exactly similar to the sun’s rays as they are found within the orb of the sun, where they are completely nullified.

In order for the Shechinah to dwell within the Worlds and their creatures, there must therefore be a “garment” which serves to conceal its light. Only then can creation receive the Shechinah and not be nullified out of existence.

But what manner of “garment” can possibly conceal the Shechinah and yet itself not be affected by it so that it, too, will not become nullified? Since the Shechinah is the source of all creation, it is of course the source of the concealing “garment” too.

In other words: If the Shechinah is manifest in the “garment,” i.e., if the garment is enveloped by its source, then it follows that it should be nullified out of existence, just as the sun’s rays cease to exist within the body of the sun. In effect, this would make the “garment” cease serving as a “garment” to conceal the Shechinah.

The Alter Rebbe anticipates this question by stating that the “garment” is G‑d’s will and wisdom, which are enclothed in Torah and the mitzvot. Since this “garment” belongs to a plane even higher than (the source of the world’s vitality known as) the Shechinah, it is not nullified by it.

However, asks the Rebbe, according to this explanation, the question becomes even stronger: If creation cannot receive the light of the Shechinah, then surely it cannot receive the light of the “garment,” which is even higher than the Shechinah.

This, the Rebbe says, is answered by the Alter Rebbe when he says, “only that it has descended by means of obscuring gradations.” This means to say: Since G‑d’s will and wisdom as found in Torah and the mitzvot “descended” in the gradations of the Worlds, being able to clothe themselves even in material things, they therefore can serve as a “garment” to conceal the light of the Shechinah.

We now understand why the “garment” itself is not nullified by the light of the Shechinah as well as how created beings can receive this “garment” within themselves, for it is none other than G‑d’s will and wisdom which He enclothed in Torah and the mitzvot, as shall presently be explained.

But what is this “garment” which is able to conceal and clothe it (the Shechinah) yet will not itself be completely nullified within its light? This is His blessed will and wisdom, and so forth (“and so forth” referring to the levels of binah and daat, which are part of “intelligence” Above, as mentioned earlier), which are clothed in the Torah and its mitzvot that are revealed to us and our children,

וּמַהוּ הַלְּבוּשׁ שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהַסְתִּירָהּ וּלְהַלְבִּישָׁהּ, וְלֹא יִתְבַּטֵּל בִּמְצִיאוּת בְּאוֹרָהּ? הוּא רְצוֹנוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ וְחָכְמָתוֹ וְכוּ' הַמְלוּבָּשִׁים בַּתּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹתֶיהָ, הַנִּגְלֵית לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ,

Why are G‑d’s will and wisdom and so forth able to act as a concealing “garment” for the light of the Shechinah without themselves being nullified by it?

for “the Torah issues from wisdom,” namely chochmah Ila’ah (“supernal wisdom,” which is the level of chochmah of Atzilut), that is immeasurably higher than the world of manifestation (which is the Shechinah),

דְּ"אוֹרַיְיתָא מֵחָכְמָה נָפְקַת", הִיא חָכְמָה עִילָּאָה, דִּלְעֵילָּא לְעֵילָּא מֵעָלְמָא דְאִתְגַּלְיָא,

As mentioned earlier, Shechinah refers to the initial stage of revelation, for which reason it is called the “world of manifestation.” Since chochmah Ila’ah is entirely beyond the pale of revelation, it is therefore immeasurably higher than the Shechinah.

for “He is wise,” with the wisdom of chochmah of Atzilut, “but not with a knowable wisdom,” and so forth.

דְּאִיהוּ חַכִּים וְלָא בְחָכְמָה יְדִיעָה וְכוּ',

And as has previously been explained, the [infinite] light of the blessed Ein Sof is clothed in and united with the supernal wisdom—and He and His wisdom are One.

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל, שֶׁאוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מְלוּבָּשׁ וּמְיוּחָד בְּחָכְמָה עִילָּאָה, וְהוּא יִתְבָּרֵךְ וְחָכְמָתוֹ אֶחָד.

Thus, chochmah as well as the other levels of Divine “intelligence” (such as binah and daat) are far superior to the level of the light of the Shechinah. They are therefore able to serve as a “garment” concealing the Shechinah without being nullified by its light. But how can Divine “intelligence” serve as a “garment”, and how can created beings accept this garment when it is in fact loftier than the Shechinah itself? The Alter Rebbe now answers this question.

Only this is because it (supernal wisdom and the Torah5) has descended by means of obscuring gradations, from a higher grade to a lower grade, with the descent of the Worlds, until it (the Torah) has clothed itself in material things, namely, the 613 commandments of the Torah.

רַק שֶׁיָּרְדָה בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגוֹת מִמַּדְרֵיגָה לְמַדְרֵיגָה בְּהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת הָעוֹלָמוֹת, עַד שֶׁנִּתְלַבְּשָׁה בִּדְבָרִים גַּשְׁמִיִּים, שֶׁהֵן תַּרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת הַתּוֹרָה.

As [this wisdom] came down by progressive descents from World to World, the Shechinah, too, came down and clothed itself in it in each World.

וּבִירִידָתָהּ בְּהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת מֵעוֹלָם לְעוֹלָם – גַּם הַשְּׁכִינָה יָרְדָה וְנִתְלַבְּשָׁה בָּהּ בְּכָל עוֹלָם וְעוֹלָם,

Thus, within the supernal wisdom which descends into each World is to be found the Shechinah of that World.

This is the shrine of the “Holy of Holies,” which is contained in each World.

וְזֶהוּ הֵיכַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים שֶׁבְּכָל עוֹלָם וְעוֹלָם,

I.e., the Shechinah resides with the “Holy of Holies” of each World, this being the Divine “intelligence” enclothed in the Torah of each particular World.

So also has it been stated in the Zohar and Etz Chaim, that the Shechinah, which is malchut of Atzilut (6being the manifestation of the light and vitality of the blessed Ein Sof, which illumine the worlds, wherefore i.e., since it is a revelation it is called “G‑d’s speech” and the “breath of His mouth,” as it were, for the purpose of speech is to reveal that which was concealed in thought,

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּזֹּהַר וְעֵץ חַיִּים, שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה, שֶׁהִיא מַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת [שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת גִּילּוּי אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא וְחַיּוּת שֶׁמֵּאִיר לָעוֹלָמוֹת, וְלָכֵן הִיא נִקְרֵאת "דְּבַר ה'" וְ"רוּחַ פִּיו", כִּבְיָכוֹל

as in the case of a person, by way of example, speech reveals to the hearers the speaker’s concealed and hidden thought),

עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁבָּאָדָם הַדִּבּוּר הוּא מְגַלֶּה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הַסְּתוּמָה וְנֶעְלָמָה לְהַשּׁוֹמְעִים]

The same applies Above: malchut of Atzilut, the level at which the light of the Ein Sof and the previously concealed vitality becomes manifest, is called “G‑d’s speech,” for it reveals G‑dliness to the Worlds. This level of Shechinah, which is malchut of Atzilut:

clothes itself in the shrine of the Holy of Holies of Beriah, namely, the chochmah, binah, and daat of Beriah. Through the fact that [the latter sefirot] clothe themselves in the malchut of Beriah, the souls and angels which exist in the World of Beriah have been created.

הִיא מִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים דִּבְרִיאָה, שֶׁהִיא חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת דִּבְרִיאָה, וּבְהִתְלַבְּשׁוּתָן בְּמַלְכוּת דִּבְרִיאָה – נִבְרְאוּ הַנְּשָׁמוֹת וְהַמַּלְאָכִים שֶׁבַּבְּרִיאָה.

At this point, the Rebbe notes: “[The ChaBaD of Beriah clothe themselves in the malchut of Beriah] together with the malchut of Atzilut, which is within them, for, as stated earlier [in this chapter], ‘from this source…have been created….’”

The souls and angels of the World of Beriah are created beings. Unlike the sefirot of any particular World, they are not the G‑dliness of their World but are created from the level of malchut therein. Thus, the souls and angels of the World of Beriah are created from malchut of that World.7

And from there also—from malchut of Beriah, in which is enclothed the Shechinah, i.e., malchut of Atzilut, which previously had clothed itself in the chochmah, binah, and daat of the World of Beriah, after which the latter are clothed in malchut of the World of Beriah—derives the Talmud that we possess.8

וְגַם מִשָּׁם נִמְשָׁךְ הַתַּלְמוּד שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ,

And as has previously been explained in the name of the Tikkunim,

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל בְּשֵׁם הַתִּיקּוּנִים,

that in the World of Beriah, there shine and flow forth the chochmah, binah, and daat of the Ein Sof in a powerfully contracted manner in order that the souls and the angels, which are finite beings, shall be able to receive influence from these categories of ChaBaD.

שֶׁבְּעוֹלַם הַבְּרִיאָה, מְאִירוֹת וּמַשְׁפִּיעוֹת שָׁם חָכְמָתוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ וְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא בִּבְחִינַת צִמְצוּם עָצוּם, בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ הַנְּשָׁמוֹת וְהַמַּלְאָכִים, שֶׁהֵם בַּעֲלֵי גְבוּל וְתַכְלִית, לְקַבֵּל הַשְׁפָּעָה מִבְּחִינַת חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת אֵלּוּ,

Souls and angels in the World of Beriah are unable to receive influence from ChaBaD as it exists in its essential state in Atzilut. Only after ChaBaD descends in a powerfully contracted manner into Beriah are they able to receive its influence.

Therefore, the Talmud (not the Mishnah but the Gemara) also originates from there—from the World of Beriah, for it (the Talmud) is also of the category of ChaBaD, for the Talmud is i.e., it consists of the clearly defined reasons of the halachot, and the reasons being rational are from the category of ChaBaD (“intelligence”).

וְלָכֵן נִמְשָׁךְ מִשָּׁם הַתַּלְמוּד, שֶׁהוּא גַם כֵּן בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת, שֶׁהַתַּלְמוּד הוּא טַעֲמֵי הַהֲלָכוֹת עַל בּוּרְיָין, וְהַטְּעָמִים – הֵם בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת,

And the laws themselves found in the Mishnah derive from the middot (the emotive attributes) of the Ein Sof, namely, kindness, severity, mercy, and so on,

וְהַהֲלָכוֹת עַצְמָן – הֵן מִמִּדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, שֶׁהֵן: חֶסֶד דִּין רַחֲמִים כוּ',

from which originate permission and prohibition, permission deriving from kindness and prohibition from severity, ritual validity and invalidity, liability and blamelessness, ritual validity and blamelessness originating from the attribute of kindness, and ritual invalidity and liability originating from the attribute of severity,

שֶׁמֵּהֶן נִמְשָׁךְ הַהֶיתֵּר וְהָאִיסּוּר, וְהַכָּשֵׁר וְהַפָּסוּל, וְהַחִיּוּב וְהַפְּטוּר,

as is explained in the Tikkunim.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתִּיקּוּנִים.

By virtue of the clothing of malchut of Atzilut in malchut of Beriah,9 it then clothes itself in the shrine of the Holy of Holies of Yetzirah, this being the ChaBaD of Yetzirahthe chochmah, binah, and daat of Yetzirah. It is in this manner that the Shechinah of malchut of Atzilut ultimately comes to reside in the World of Yetzirah.

וּבְהִתְלַבְּשׁוּת מַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת בְּמַלְכוּת דִּבְרִיאָה, מִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים דִּיצִירָה שֶׁהוּא חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת דִּיצִירָה.

When later on the latter (malchut of Atzilut, together with the sefirot in which it is enclothed—in malchut of Beriah and in ChaBaD of Yetzirah) are clothed in malchut of Yetzirah, the souls, which are called ruchot, are created,

וּבְהִתְלַבְּשׁוּתָן בְּמַלְכוּת דִּיצִירָה – נוֹצְרוּ הָרוּחוֹת

For the three levels of souls, nefesh, ruach (singular of ruchot), and neshamah, correspond to the three lower Worlds: nefesh originates in Asiyah, ruach in Yetzirah, and neshamah in Beriah. With regard to neshamot, the Alter Rebbe has said previously that they are created from malchut of Beriah. In now discussing the level of malchut of Yetzirah, he writes that souls of the level of ruach are created,

and the angels, which are of the World of Yetzirah.

וְהַמַּלְאָכִים שֶׁבִּיצִירָה.

From there, too, from malchut of Yetzirah, comes the Mishnah that we possess, which comprises the legal decisions that are likewise derived from ChaBaD of the blessed Ein Sof.10

וְגַם מִשָּׁם הִיא הַמִּשְׁנָה שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ, שֶׁהִיא הֲלָכוֹת פְּסוּקוֹת, הַנִּמְשָׁכוֹת גַּם כֵּן מֵחָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת שֶׁל אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא.

Not only the Gemara within the Talmud but the Mishnah, too, derives from the “intelligence” of the Ein Sof. Even though it was stated earlier that the Mishnah derives from middot, yet since within the Mishnah there is concealed the rationale of the laws, they, too, emanate from the ChaBaD of the Ein Sof.

Only that the categories of ChaBaD, that is, the reasons and interpretations of the halachot, are clothed and hidden within the laws themselves and are not in a revealed form,

רַק שֶׁבְּחִינוֹת חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת שֶׁהֵם טַעֲמֵי הַהֲלָכוֹת, הֵם מְלוּבָּשִׁים וּגְנוּזִים בְּגוּפֵי הַהֲלָכוֹת, וְלֹא בִּבְחִינַת גִּילּוּי.

In the Gemara, the reasons for the laws are revealed, whereas in the Mishnah, all that is revealed is the actual law itself, not the reasons underlying it.

while the elements of the halachot, which are in a revealed form in the Mishnah, are the very reflection of the middot of the blessed Ein Sof in their revealed form.

וְגוּפֵי הַהֲלָכוֹת שֶׁהֵן בִּבְחִינַת גִּילּוּי – הֵן הֵן הֶאָרַת מִדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא בִּבְחִינַת גִּילּוּי,

As mentioned earlier, the actual halachic decision that something is permissible derives from the divine attribute of kindness and that something is prohibited derives from the attribute of severity.

Thus, it has been explained above in the name of the Tikkunim that six sefirot nest in Yetzirah. They, the six sefirot or middot, comprise, in general, two extensions—right and left, right representing kindness and left severity—

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל בְּשֵׁם הַתִּיקּוּנִים דְּ"שִׁית סְפִירָן מְקַנְּנִין בִּיצִירָה", שֶׁהֵן דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל שְׁנֵי קַוִּין, יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל –

acting with forbearance deriving from the aspect of kindness, which results in adjudicating leniently, that is to say, to permit [a thing] to ascend to G‑d,

לְהָקֵל מִסִּטְרָא דְחֶסֶד, דְּהַיְינוּ, לְהַתִּיר – שֶׁיּוּכַל לַעֲלוֹת אֶל ה',

For only that which is permitted to a Jew can ascend to G‑d. Thus, when a ruling is lenient and the object in question is permitted for use, it enables the individual, through utilizing it in the performance of a mitzvah, to cause it to ascend to G‑d. This, of course, is an act of kindness.

or acting in a stringent manner, and so on, declaring the object to be forbidden for use and thereby precluding its elevation to holiness. This is an act of severity. These two traits, kindness and severity, represent the two general directions of the emotive attributes as they exist Above and from which the halachot of the Mishnah derive.

אוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר כוּ';

And all this, both the Mishnah and Talmud, is according to the supernal chochmah of Atzilut, and binah and daat are comprised in it (i.e., in chochmah),

וְהַכֹּל, עַל פִּי חָכְמָה עִילָּאָה דַאֲצִילוּת, וּבִינָה וָדַעַת כְּלוּלוֹת בָּהּ,

and they (the Mishnah and Talmud and the illumination of ChaBaD and middot found in them) are united with the blessed Ein Sof, for in all of them are clothed ChaBaD of Atzilut, with which the light of the blessed Ein Sof is united in a perfect union.

וּמְיוּחָדוֹת בְּאֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, כִּי בְּתוֹךְ כּוּלָּן מְלוּבָּשׁוֹת חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת דַּאֲצִילוּת, שֶׁאוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מְיוּחָד בָּהֶן בְּתַכְלִית הַיִּחוּד.

Thus, when the Shechinah enclothes itself in the shrine of the Holy of Holies of the World of Yetzirah and thereafter in malchut of Yetzirah, that part of Torah, which is called the Mishnah, is drawn down, this being the receptacle for the light of the Shechinah as it is revealed in the World of Yetzirah.

In like manner, i.e., in the same manner that the Shechinah first clothed itself in the level of malchut of Yetzirah, the Shechinah then descended and clothed itself in the shrine of the Holy of Holies of Asiyah.

וְכֵן בְּדֶרֶךְ זֶה, יָרְדָה הַשְּׁכִינָה וְנִתְלַבְּשָׁה בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים דַּעֲשִׂיָּה.

And each of these three Worlds, Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah, is subdivided into myriads of gradations, which are also called particular worlds,

וְכָל עוֹלָם מִג' עוֹלָמוֹת אֵלּוּ מִתְחַלֵּק לְרִבְבוֹת מַדְרֵיגוֹת, הַנִּקְרָאוֹת גַּם כֵּן עוֹלָמוֹת פְּרָטִים,

and malchut of Atzilut (the level of Shechinah) is clothed in (a) the level of malchut of each particular World; (b) moreover, through the abovementioned enclothing it descends and (c) enclothes itself in the shrine of the Holy of Holies, namely, the ChaBaD, which is in the World below it in rank.

וּמַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת מְלוּבֶּשֶׁת בַּמַּלְכוּת שֶׁל כָּל עוֹלָם פְּרָטִי – יוֹרֶדֶת וּמִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, שֶׁהוּא חָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם שֶׁלְּמַטָה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּמַדְרֵגָה.

We thus have malchut of Atzilut as it is enclothed in malchut of a World of higher rank, descending into the ChaBad of a World of lesser rank.11

This will enable us to understand the wording of the verse: “Your kingdom is the kingdom of all Worlds.”

וּבָזֶה יוּבַן לְשׁוֹן הַכָּתוּב: "מַלְכוּתְךָ מַלְכוּת כָּל עוֹלָמִים":

The text seems to imply that there is one level of kingship called “Your kingdom” and another level of kingship known as “the kingdom of all Worlds.” The Alter Rebbe therefore explains that the verse is telling us that “Your kingdom” is the innermost aspect of “the kingdom of all the Worlds.” Within them all is enclothed “Your kingdom”—malchut of Atzilut.

It is from the Shechinah, which is clothed in the shrine of the Holy of Holies of each and every general or particular World, that light and vitality are extended and diffused to that whole World and the creatures contained therein—the souls, angels, and so forth,

וְהִנֵּה, מֵהַשְּׁכִינָה הַמְלוּבֶּשֶׁת בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים שֶׁל כָּל עוֹלָם וְעוֹלָם, כְּלָלִי אוֹ פְּרָטִי, נִמְשָׁךְ וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט מִמֶּנָּה אוֹר וְחַיּוּת לְכָל הָעוֹלָם וְהַבְּרוּאִים שֶׁבּוֹ, נְשָׁמוֹת וּמַלְאָכִים וְכוּ',

The last phrase refers to the other beings of each World, such as the heichalot; they all receive light and vitality from the Shechinah as it is enclothed in the shrine of the Holy of Holies of that particular World.

for they were all created by the ten Divine utterances of creation,12 these being G‑d’s speech, which is termed the Shechinah.

כִּי כּוּלָּם נִבְרְאוּ בַּעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת שֶׁבְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, שֶׁהֵם "דְּבַר ה'" הַנִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "שְׁכִינָה":

Divine speech revealed that which was previously concealed. This is also the purpose of the Shechinah—revealing to the world a light which is essentially higher than the world. Therefore, malchut of Atzilut (which is termed the Shechinah and which is G‑d’s speech as revealed in the ten Divine utterances of creation) is the level from which life and vitality are drawn down and revealed to all Worlds and created beings.

And all this is accomplished through Torah, for Torah is the shrine of the Holy of Holies (in which the Shechinah first resides) in every World. Thus, as mentioned earlier, it serves as a “garment” to the Shechinah.