וְאוּלָם, כָּל הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, הוּא לִגְמַר הַכַּפָּרָה וּמֵירוּק הַנֶּפֶשׁ לַה' אַחַר הַתְּשׁוּבָה,

Certain penitential fasts, then, are to be actually endured while others are to be redeemed through charity.

However, all we have said refers to the culmination of the atonement—to polishing the soul clean before G‑d so that no vestige of former sin remains after repentance,

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל מֵהַגְּמָרָא פֶּרֶק קַמָּא דִזְבָחִים, דְּעוֹלָה, דּוֹרוֹן הִיא לְאַחַר שֶׁרִיצָּה הַפְּרַקְלִיט וְכוּ'.

as cited above1 from the Talmud, ch. 1 of Zevachim, where the olah sacrifice brought for transgressing a positive command is described as the gift offered to the offended party after an intercessor’s successful plea.

אָמְנָם, הַתְחָלַת מִצְוַת הַתְּשׁוּבָה וְעִיקָּרָהּ,

The abovementioned fasts (or their counterpart in charity) serve a similar function.

But the beginning of the mitzvah of teshuvah and its core

לָשׁוּב עַד ה' בֶּאֱמֶת וּבְלֵב שָׁלֵם,

is a true and wholehearted return to G‑d.

הַהֶכְרֵחַ לְבָאֵר הֵיטֵב בְּהַרְחָבַת הַבֵּיאוּר,

As will soon become apparent, this “return (lit.:) until G‑d” means returning until the point that one has restored completeness to Havayah, the Four-Letter Name of G‑d, that is to be found within every Jewish soul.

The letters that comprise the Tetragrammaton are (in descending order) yud and hey, and vav and hey.

This must now be explained thoroughly and comprehensively.

בְּהַקְדִּים מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּזּוֹהַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בְּבֵיאוּר מִלַּת "תְּשׁוּבָה" עַל דֶּרֶךְ הַסּוֹד:

Let us begin with the Zohar’s interpretation2 of teshuvah according to sod, the mystical interpretation of the Torah:

"תָּשׁוּב ה'",

“[Teshuvah is] tashuv hey (‘the hey shall return’);

ה' תַּתָּאָה – "תְּשׁוּבָה תַּתָּאָה",

The function of teshuvah is to return the letter hey of the Divine Name Havayah—to reattach it to the level represented by the letter that precedes it, just as it was attached to it before the individual sinned.

[the reconnection of] the latter hey [to the preceding letter vav] is teshuvah tataah (lower-level teshuvah);

ה' עִילָּאָה – "תְּשׁוּבָה עִילָּאָה".

[the reconnection of] the former hey [to the preceding letter yud] is teshuvah ilaah (higher-level teshuvah).”

וְגַם, מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּזּוֹהַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת, שֶׁאֵין תְּשׁוּבָה מוֹעֶלֶת לְפוֹגֵם בְּרִיתוֹ וּמוֹצִיא זֶרַע לְבַטָּלָה,

We must also note that the Zohar states several times3 that teshuvah is ineffective for violation of the covenant and for the wasteful emission of semen.

וְהוּא דָבָר תָּמוּהַּ מְאֹד, שֶׁ"אֵין לְךָ דָבָר עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי הַתְּשׁוּבָה" וַאֲפִילוּ עֲבוֹדָה־זָרָה וְגִלּוּי־עֲרָיוֹת וְכוּ'.

This is most astonishing, for “nothing can stand in the way of teshuvah,”4 even idolatry, incest, and so on.

וּפֵירֵשׁ בְּ"רֵאשִׁית חָכְמָה", שֶׁכַּוָּנַת הַזֹּהַר שֶׁאֵין מוֹעֶלֶת תְּשׁוּבָה תַּתָּאָה, כִּי אִם תְּשׁוּבָה עִילָּאָה וְכוּ'.

Jews are commanded to give up their lives rather than transgress these prohibitions, yet repentance atones even for them. How, then, can it be that there are other sins for which repentance is ineffective?

The Reishit Chochmah explains5 that the intention of the Zohar is that though teshuvah tataah (the conventional level of repentance) is not effective, teshuvah ilaah is.

הִנֵּה, לְהָבִין זֹאת מְעַט מִזְּעֵיר,

To grasp even a minute glimmer6 of this,

צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִּים מַה שֶּׁמְּבוֹאָר מֵהַכָּתוּב וּמִדִּבְרֵי רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה עִנְיַן הַכָּרֵת וּמִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם,

we must preface what Scripture and our Sages say about [what is entailed by] excision and death by Divine agency.

כְּשֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵירָה שֶׁחַיָּיבִים עָלֶיהָ כָּרֵת – הָיָה מֵת מַמָּשׁ קוֹדֶם חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה,

A violator of a sin punishable by excision would actually7 die before his fiftieth year.8

וּבְמִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם – מֵת מַמָּשׁ קוֹדֶם שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה,

In the case of death by Divine agency, he would actually9 die before sixty,

כַּחֲנַנְיָה בֶּן עַזּוּר הַנָּבִיא בְּיִרְמְיָה

like the prophet Chananiah ben Azur in Jeremiah.10

(וְלִפְעָמִים, גַּם בְּמִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם נִפְרָעִין לְאַלְתַּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בְּעֵר וְאוֹנָן).

As a result of his false prophecy, G‑d told him, “I shall banish you from the face of the earth….” This resulted in his actual death.

(11Indeed, there have been instances in which the punishment of death by Divine agency was also meted out instantly, as with Er and Onan.)

וַהֲרֵי, נִמְצְאוּ בְּכָל דּוֹר כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה חַיָּיבֵי כְּרֵיתוֹת וּמִיתוֹת, וְהֶאֱרִיכוּ יְמֵיהֶם וּשְׁנוֹתֵיהֶם בַּנְּעִימִים?

This involved a sin incurring death by Divine agency.12 In any event, both Scripture and the Sages attest that those guilty of sins punishable by excision or death by Divine agency would actually die before they reached the age of fifty or sixty. This leads to the following question:

However, in every generation, there are so many individuals liable to excision and death who nevertheless enjoy extended and pleasant13 days and years!

The key to this will be found in the phrase, “For [G‑d’s] people are part of G‑d…”14;

חֵלֶק מִשֵּׁם הַוָיָ' בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

[they are] part of the Four-Letter Name of G‑d.

כְּדִכְתִיב: "וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים",

Thus, describing G-d’s infusion of a soul into the body of Adam, it is written: “And He blew into his nostrils a soul of life,”15

וּ"מַאן דְּנָפַח מִתּוֹכוֹ נָפַח וְכוּ'".

and, as the Zohar comments,16 “He who blows does so from within him, etc.”17

וְאַף שֶׁ"אֵין לוֹ דְמוּת הַגּוּף וְכוּ'" חַס וְשָׁלוֹם,

The metaphor of blowing signifies that the soul of a Jew originates in the innermost aspect of G‑dliness—in the Tetragrammaton, as shall be soon explained.

Now, [G‑d] has no bodily form, and so on,18 G‑d forbid.

אַךְ "דִּבְּרָה תוֹרָה כִּלְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם".

How, then, is it possible to say that G‑d “blew” and to speak of a “part” of Himself?

However, the Torah “speaks as in the language of men,”19 i.e., anthropomorphically.

כִּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ וְהֶבְדֵּל גָּדוֹל בָּאָדָם הַתַּחְתּוֹן, עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, בֵּין הַהֶבֶל שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מִפִּיו בְּדִיבּוּרוֹ לַהֶבֶל הַיּוֹצֵא עַל־יְדֵי נְפִיחָה,

By way of analogy: There exists a vast difference in the case of mortal man between the breath issuing from his mouth while speaking and the breath of forceful blowing.

שֶׁבַּיּוֹצֵא בְּדִיבּוּרוֹ – מְלוּבָּשׁ בּוֹ כֹּחַ וְחַיּוּת מְעַט מִזְּעֵיר,

The breath that issues with his speech embodies the soul’s power and life-force only minimally,

וְהוּא בְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת מִנֶּפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה שֶׁבְּקִרְבּוֹ,

and that is only from the superficial aspect of the soul that dwells within him.

אֲבָל בַּיּוֹצֵא בְּכֹחַ הַנּוֹפֵחַ, דְּמִתּוֹכוֹ נָפַח –

But the breath that issues when he blows forcefully, from deep within himself,

מְלוּבָּשׁ בּוֹ כֹּחַ וְחַיּוּת פְּנִימִית מִבְּחִינַת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה וְכוּ'.

embodies the internal power and life-force of the vivifying soul….

כָּכָה מַמָּשׁ עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, הַמַּבְדִּיל הַבְדָּלוֹת לְאֵין קֵץ,

Just as there exists a vast difference between man’s speaking and forceful blowing:

Precisely so in the analogy [of Creation], allowing for the infinite differentiations involved [between Creator and created],

יֵשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ עָצוּם מְאֹד לְמַעְלָה,

there exists a prodigious difference Above,

בֵּין כָּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם, וַאֲפִילוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים, שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ מֵאַיִן לְיֵשׁ,

between all the hosts of heaven, even the spiritual beings like angels, who were created ex nihilo, [and the soul of man].

וְחַיִּים וְקַיָּימִים מִבְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת הַחַיּוּת וְהַשֶּׁפַע שֶׁמַּשְׁפִּיעַ אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא לְהַחֲיוֹת הָעוֹלָמוֹת,

They derive their life and existence from the external aspect of the life-force issuing forth from the Infinite One to vitalize creation.

וּבְחִינָה זוֹ נִקְרֵאת בְּשֵׁם "רוּחַ פִּיו" עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל צְבָאָם",

This [external] aspect of the life-giving power is called the “breath of His mouth,” as it were, as the verse states: “By the breath of His mouth, all their hosts [were created].”20

וְהִיא בְּחִינַת חַיּוּת הַמְלוּבֶּשֶׁת בָּאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁבַּעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת

This is the creative power embodied in the letters of the ten utterances

(שֶׁהֵן בְּחִינַת כֵּלִים וְהַמְשָׁכוֹת וְכוּ', כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּלִקּוּטֵי־אֲמָרִים חֵלֶק ב׳ פֶּרֶק י"א);

(21these letters being in the nature of vessels, and a drawing down and so forth of the life-force, as explained in Likkutei Amarim, Part II, ch. 11).

וּבֵין נִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם, שֶׁנִּמְשְׁכָה תְּחִלָּה מִבְּחִינַת פְּנִימִיּוּת הַחַיּוּת וְהַשֶּׁפַע שֶׁמַּשְׁפִּיעַ אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

In contrast, the soul of man derives initially from the innermost dimension of the life-force and flow issuing from the Infinite One,

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "וַיִּפַּח וְכוּ'",

as in the verse quoted above, “And He blew….”

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָרְדָה בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה, גַּם כֵּן, עַל־יְדֵי בְּחִינַת הָאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁבְּמַאֲמַר "נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם" וְכוּ'

As mentioned earlier, this verb indicates the internal aspect of the Divine flow of life-force, for “he who blows does so from his innermost being.”

Thus, the soul originated in the internal aspect of the life-force and flow issuing from G‑d. It is only afterward, in order to enable it to be invested within the body, that the soul descended to a more external level, as the Alter Rebbe now goes on to say.

It then descended through ever more concealing planes, also (like the angels who were created by means of “letters”) by means of the letters that comprise the Divine utterance, “Let us make man…,”22

כְּדֵי לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּגוּף עוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַתַּחְתּוֹן.

in order that it could eventually be invested in a body in this inferior, [physical] world.

וְלָכֵן נִקְרְאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים בְּשֵׁם "אֱלֹקִים" בַּכָּתוּב,

This, then, is the difference between souls and angels: Souls derive from the innermost aspect of G‑dliness, the Tetragrammaton, while angels are rooted in the external aspect of G‑dliness, the Divine Name Elokim, as is now explained.

For this reason, Scripture calls the angels “Elokim,

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "כִּי ה' אֱלֹקֵיכֶם [הוּא] אֱלֹקֵי הָאֱלֹקִים גוֹ'"

as23 in the phrase, “For the L-rd your G‑d, He24 is the G‑d of G‑ds (Elokim)…,”25 the last word here referring to angels,

"הוֹדוּ לֵאלֹקֵי הָאֱלֹקִים גוֹ'"

[and likewise], “Praise the G‑d of G‑ds (Elokim)…,”26 once again referring to angels by the name “Elokim,

"וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹקִים לְהִתְיַיצֵּב גוֹ'" –

and (in yet another reference to angels), “The sons of G‑d (Elokim) came to present themselves….”27

לְפִי שֶׁיְּנִיקַת חַיּוּתָם הִיא מִבְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת הָאוֹתִיּוֹת לְבַד,

The Name Elokim is applied to angels:

Because they derive their nurture from the external degree [of G‑dliness], which is merely the state of “letters.”

וְשֵׁם אֱלֹקִים הוּא בְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת לְגַבֵּי שֵׁם הַוָיָ' בָּרוּךְ־הוּא.

Similarly, the Name Elokim is an external state relative to the Tetragrammaton.

אֲבָל נִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם, שֶׁהִיא מִבְּחִינַת פְּנִימִיּוּת הַחַיּוּת – הִיא חֵלֶק שֵׁם הַוָיָ' בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

But the soul of man, deriving from the internal aspect of the G‑dly vivifying power, is a part of the Tetragrammaton,

כִּי שֵׁם הַוָיָ' מוֹרֶה עַל פְּנִימִיּוּת הַחַיּוּת, שֶׁהִיא לְמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה מִבְּחִינַת הָאוֹתִיּוֹת.

for the Tetragrammaton indicates the innermost dimension of the life-giving power, which far transcends the state of letters.

To explain:

כַּנּוֹדָע מִמַּאֲמַר אֵלִיָּהוּ: "אַנְתְּ הוּא דְאַפִּיקַת עֲשַׂר תִּיקּוּנִין, וְקָרִינָן לְהוֹן עֲשַׂר סְפִירָן, לְאַנְהָגָא בְהוֹן עָלְמִין סְתִימִין וְכוּ',

What characteristics of the soul also characterize Havayah, the Four-Letter Name of G‑d, and thus indicate that the soul is indeed a part of that Name? In answer to this question, the Alter Rebbe now explains that just as the ten sefirot are included within the Tetragrammaton, so, too, there are ten corresponding faculties that are intrinsic to the soul.

There is a well-known statement of Eliyahu, in the passage entitled Patach Eliyahu, in the introduction to Tikkunei Zohar: “You are He Who elicited the ten tikkunim (lit., ‘garments’), which we call the ten sefirot, by which to conduct the concealed worlds…[and the revealed worlds…].28

אַנְתְּ חַכִּים וְלָא בְחָכְמָה יְדִיעָא,

You are wise but not with a knowable attribute of wisdom;

אַנְתְּ מֵבִין וְלָא בְּבִינָה יְדִיעָא וְכוּ'".

You understand but not with a knowable attribute of understanding; and so on”—with regard to the remaining sefirot.

וְכָל הַי' סְפִירוֹת נִכְלָלוֹת וְנִרְמָזוֹת בְּשֵׁם הַוָיָ' בָּרוּךְ־הוּא.

All the ten sefirot are included and represented in their source, the Tetragrammaton.

כִּי הַיּוּ"ד, שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת נְקוּדָּה לְבַד, מְרַמֶּזֶת לְחָכְמָתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

The Alter Rebbe now shows how the various sefirot find expression in the four letters that comprise this Divine Name, Havayah.

The yud, which is a simple point, extending in neither length nor breadth, indicates G‑d’s wisdom, the sefirah of chochmah,

שֶׁהִיא בִּבְחִינַת הֶעְלֵם וְהֶסְתֵּר קוֹדֶם שֶׁבָּאָה לִבְחִינַת הִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת וְגִילּוּי הַהַשָּׂגָה וְהַהֲבָנָה

which is the state of concealment and obscurity before it develops into a state of expansion and revelation in comprehension and understanding.

(וְהַקּוֹץ שֶׁעַל הַיּוּ"ד רוֹמֵז לִבְחִינַת רָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה מִמַּדְרֵגַת בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה עִילָּאָה, כַּנּוֹדָע).

(29The “thorn” above30 the yud indicates the supreme will, this being the level of keter, which transcends by far the level of chochmah ila’ah, supernal wisdom, as is known.)

וְאַחַר שֶׁבָּאָה לִבְחִינַת הִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת וְגִילּוּי הַהַשָּׂגָה וְהַהֲבָנָה לְעָלְמִין סְתִימִין

When [the seminal “point” of chochmah] is eventually amplified and revealed as something comprehensible to the concealed worlds, i.e., when it descends to the level and sefirah of binah,

נִכְלֶלֶת וְנִרְמֶזֶת בְּאוֹת הֵ"א, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בְּחִינַת הִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת לָרוֹחַב, הַמּוֹרֶה וּמְרַמֵּז עַל הַרְחָבַת הַבֵּיאוּר וְהַהֲבָנָה,

it is then contained and represented in the letter hey of the Tetragrammaton. This letter extends in breadth, implying a breadth of explanation and understanding, which is the function of binah.

וְגַם לָאוֹרֶךְ, הַמּוֹרֶה עַל בְּחִינַת הַהַמְשָׁכָה וְהַהַשְׁפָּעָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה לְעָלְמִין סְתִימִין.

[The letter hey] also extends in length to indicate extension and flow downward into the concealed worlds.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ, כְּשֶׁנִּמְשֶׁכֶת הַמְשָׁכָה וְהַשְׁפָּעָה זוֹ יוֹתֵר לְמַטָּה לְעָלְמִין דְּאִתְגַּלְיָין,

The hidden worlds are nourished from the level of binah so that they may have an understanding of G‑dliness.

In the next stage, when this extension and flow are drawn still lower into the revealed worlds,

וּכְמוֹ הָאָדָם שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְגַלּוֹת חָכְמָתוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים עַל־יְדֵי דִיבּוּרוֹ עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל –

which may be compared, by way of analogy, to one who wishes31 to reveal his thoughts to another through his speech,

נִכְלֶלֶת וְנִרְמֶזֶת הַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ בְּאוֹתִיּוֹת ו"ה,

this extension is contained and represented in the [final] letters vav and hey [of the Tetragrammaton],

כִּי הַוָּי"ו מוֹרָה עַל הַהַמְשָׁכָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה.

for the letter vav, which is shaped like a vertical line, indicates downward extension.

וְגַם הַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ הִיא עַל־יְדֵי מִדַּת חַסְדּוֹ וְטוּבוֹ וּשְׁאָר מִדּוֹתָיו הַקְּדוֹשׁוֹת, הַנִּכְלָלוֹת בְּדֶרֶךְ כְּלָל בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁשׁ, שֶׁבַּפָּסוּק: לְךָ ה' הַגְּדוּלָּה וְכוּ'" עַד "לְךָ ה' הַמַּמְלָכָה וְכוּ'", וְלֹא "עַד" בִּכְלָל.

There is another connection between this stage and the letter vav:

Also, this downward flow into the revealed worlds is effected through the Divine traits of benevolence and goodness and [G‑d’s] other holy traits, included in general terms in the six attributes, the numerical equivalent of vav, in the verse, “Yours, O G‑d, is greatness…”32 until “Yours, O G‑d, is sovereignty…,” but not including it.

כִּי מִדַּת מַלְכוּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ נִקְרֵאת בְּשֵׁם "דְּבַר ה'",

For His attribute of sovereignty is called the “Word of G‑d” (and speech is not one of the middot, the spiritual emotive attributes),

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "בַּאֲשֶׁר דְּבַר מֶלֶךְ שִׁלְטוֹן",

as in the verse, “Wherever the word of the king holds sway.”33

וְנִכְלֶלֶת וְנִרְמֶזֶת בְּאוֹת הֵ"א אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁל שֵׁם הַוָיָ',

Supernal speech, then, is related to malchut, G‑d’s sovereignty.

This [attribute of sovereignty] is contained and represented in the final hey of the Tetragrammaton, in the following manner:

כִּי פְּנִימִיּוּת וּמְקוֹר הַדִּיבּוּר, הוּא הַהֶבֶל הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַלֵּב וּמִתְחַלֵּק לְה' מוֹצָאוֹת הַפֶּה: אחה"ע מֵהַגָּרוֹן וְכוּ',

The internal aspect and the source of speech is the breath that rises from the heart, then is particularized into the five oral articulations (five being the numerical equivalent of the letter hey). [One of these produces the bracket of letters] alef, chet, hey, and ayin from the throat, another produces the bracket of letters beit, vav, mem, and pey from the lips, and so on.

וְגַם הֲבָרַת הַהֵ"א הִיא בְּחִינַת הֶבֶל לְבַד,

At any rate, the internal aspect of speech is breath.

In particular, the enunciation of the letter hey is solely unvocalized breath,

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּקְרֵאת: "אָתָא קַלִּילָא דְּלֵית בָּהּ מְשָׁשָׁא".

as in the phrase, “A light letter without substance.”34

וְאַף שֶׁאֵין לוֹ דְמוּת הַגּוּף חַס וְשָׁלוֹם,

Emanating, as it does, solely from the breath, it alludes to the level of malchut and speech, whose internal aspect is “breath.”

Now “He has no corporeal form,” G‑d forbid.

אַךְ דִּבְּרָה תוֹרָה כִּלְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם,

How, then, can one differentiate Above between those letters that possess substance and those that do not?

Nevertheless, “the Torah speaks as in the language of men.”

בְּשֶׁגַּם,

Since on the mortal plane, this differentiation exists, it is also applied to the Divine plane, for spiritually, too, there exists a corresponding difference between the letter hey and the other letters.

Moreover (i.e., there is yet another reason why this analogy is apt, notwithstanding the fact that G‑d has no corporeal form):

שֶׁגַּם "דְּבַר ה'" – כ"ב אוֹתִיּוֹת, הַמִּתְחַלְּקוֹת לְה' חֶלְקֵי הַמּוֹצָאוֹת, וּבָהֶן נִבְרָא כָּל הַיְצוּר

for G‑d’s speech as well consists, as it were, of twenty-two letters that separate into the five articulations that produce the Divine speech from which all beings were created.

(וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּלִקּוּטֵי־אֲמָרִים חֵלֶק ב׳ פֶּרֶק י"א, בֵּיאוּר עִנְיַן אוֹתִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ).

(35For a discussion of these letters and their significance, see Likkutei Amarim, Part II, ch. 11.)

We thus see that all the ten sefirot are included and represented within the Tetragrammaton. The Alter Rebbe now goes on to explain that likewise within the soul, which is part of the Tetragrammaton, there exist ten corresponding levels or faculties.

Analogously, exactly the same applies to the soul of man, again keeping in mind the infinite separation between the Creator and the created soul,

שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת נֶפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹקִית – דְּמִתּוֹכֵיהּ נָפַח,

which is the divine soul which “He blew from within Himself.”

יֵשׁ בָּהּ בְּחִינַת שֵׂכֶל הַנֶּעְלָם, הַמְרוּמָּז בְּאוֹת יוּ"ד,

Since the soul derives from the internal aspect of G‑dliness, the Tetragrammaton, which comprises the ten sefirot, the soul likewise comprises the following characteristics:

There is [the initial state of chochmah,] the hidden concept alluded to by the letter yud,

שֶׁבְּכֹחוֹ לָצֵאת אֶל הַגִּילּוּי, לְהָבִין וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ וּבִגְדוּלָּתוֹ וְכוּ',

Just as the letter yud lacks length and breadth and is but a simple point, so, too, is chochmah a faculty that lacks intellectual length and breadth, merely—

possessing the potential of being revealed and thereby understanding and conceiving G‑d’s true existence and greatness,

כָּל חַד וְחַד לְפוּם שִׁיעוּרָא דִּילֵיהּ, לְפִי רוֹחַב שִׂכְלוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ.

in each person according to his measure, according to the breadth of his intellect and understanding.

וּכְפִי אֲשֶׁר מַעֲמִיק שִׂכְלוֹ וּמַרְחִיב דַּעְתּוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בִּגְדוּלָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

While the degree of one’s comprehension of G‑dliness depends on the breadth of one’s intellect, a Jew’s essential ability to find G‑d’s true being and greatness securely integrated in his mind stems from the soul’s attribute of chochmah, alluded to in the letter yud.

As a man deepens his intelligence, as he broadens his mind and comprehension to contemplate G‑d’s greatness,

אֲזַי – מְרוּמֶּזֶת בִּינָתוֹ בְּאוֹת הֵ"א, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ רוֹחַב,

his now developed understanding, the faculty of binah, is alluded to by the letter hey, that has breadth, indicating the breadth of his understanding.

וְגַם אוֹרֶךְ, הַמּוֹרֶה עַל הַהַמְשָׁכָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה,

[The hey] also has length, to indicate downward extension,

לְהוֹלִיד מִבִּינָתוֹ וְהִתְבּוֹנְנוּתוֹ בִּגְדוּלַּת ה' אַהֲבָה וְיִרְאָה וְתוֹלְדוֹתֵיהֶן

so that from his understanding and contemplation of G‑d’s greatness, he arouses love and fear and their offspring, i.e., the other emotive attributes, which are termed the offspring or branches of love and fear,

בְּמוֹחוֹ וְתַעֲלוּמוֹת לִבּוֹ,

in his mind and in the recesses of his heart,

וְאַחַר כָּךְ – בִּבְחִינַת הִתְגַּלּוּת לִבּוֹ.

At this early stage in the generation of the spiritual emotions of love and fear, and so on, they are not yet manifest.

until ultimately, they find overt expression in his heart.

וּמִזֶּה נִמְשְׁכָה עֲבוֹדָה הָאֲמִיתִּית בְּעֵסֶק הַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוֹת, בְּקוֹל וְדִבּוּר אוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה,

The downward progression of intellect into the realm of emotions is thus indicated by the vertical length of the letter hey.

These [spiritual emotions] lead to the true service of G‑d, in Torah study and mitzvah observance, with voice and speech or with deed.

הֵן אוֹתִיּוֹת וָא"ו הֵ"א וְכוּ'.

True divine service is that which is motivated by the love and awe of G‑d, as explained above in Part I, ch. 4.

This is the import of the [final] letters vav and hey [of the Four-Letter Name, Havayah]…, for vav alludes to voice and speech while hey alludes to action.

וְגַם הַהִתְבּוֹנְנוּת לְהָבִין וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתָּתוֹ וּגְדוּלָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, נִמְשְׁכָה גַם כֵּן מֵהַתּוֹרָה,

Furthermore, contemplation that endeavors to understand and conceive of G‑d’s true being also derives from the Torah,

דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא מֵחָכְמָה נָפְקָא, הִיא בְּחִינַת יוּ"ד שֶׁל שֵׁם הַוָיָ' וְכוּ':

I.e., such contemplation must necessarily be preceded by the study of the Torah,

for “Torah proceeds from chochmah,”36 which is the yud of the Tetragrammaton.