To understand the statement in Shaar Hayichudim, ch. 2, that through Torah without proper intention (kavana) angels are created in the World of Yetzirah: There he quotes Zohar Shlach, "There is no voice lost... except the voice of Torah and worship that ascends and pierces ..." Through intention in worship angels are created in the World of Beriah, as with intention in Torah. Without intention it is repelled, hurled down utterly. So it is stated in Zohar Pekudei 245b, "In the lowest firmament ... that are called invalid prayers..." See also Vayakhel 201b, "If it is a seemly word ..."

However the difference between Torah and worship without intention is obvious. For in the study of Torah he knows and comprehends what he is learning, for otherwise it is not called study at all. It is only that he is learning simply, without intention "for its sake," out of the manifest love of G‑d in his heart, but only out of the latent natural love. But he does not study with an actual negative purpose, for his aggrandisement... "For this does not ascend higher than the sun," as stated in Vayechi 223b. That is because his thought and intention are clothed within the utterances of speech and prevent them from ascending.

So, too, with worship without intention, where he entertains alien thoughts. (But since his intention is for Heaven therefore it is easily corrected, that it may still rise when he worships with proper intention, even one full prayer gathered piece-meal from the prayers of the entire year. See Mikdash Melech on Pekudei.)

To return to the quotation from Zohar Pekudei, "In the lowest firmament," while in Vayakhel the implication is that only if it is a "Seemly word does it ascend with it to the atmosphere of the firmaments above ..." This seeming contradiction is no problem. The expression in Pekudei, "The inferior firmament of those firmaments that conduct the world," refers to Malchut of Asiyah. In Vayakhel the reference is to the Minor Visage of Asiyah. This is supported by Etz Chayim, Shaar Hashemot, ch. 3, in reference to the Minor Visage of Asiyah, check there.

The apparent reference may be drawn from Pekudei that even invalid prayer ascends to the First Chamber, whence it is hurled down, but it does attain to the Minor Visage of Beriah. This is no difficulty, for even palpable sins, minor and grave, ascend to there, even to the Fourth Chamber, as noted on page 252a. It is certain, therefore, that the ascensions are not identical, and there can be no comparison or similarity between them except for the common name. This will suffice for the knowing.

This will also aid us in grasping the passage on page 247 that in the Second Chamber are the garments that clothe the soul as a result of performance of mitzvot, though they are in the Lower Gan Eden of Asiyah, as stated on page 210.

Invalid worship is superior to Torah studied with distinctly improper intention, for such Torah attains to a position lower than the sun, while worship is "On the firmament ..." But simple Torah, without negative intention but merely of the latent innate love, is not inferior to the "Breath of the mouths of studying children" which ascends because it is "Breath untainted by sin." It ascends though it may be of clearly negative intention, fear of punishment by the teacher. Examine 255b: the angels elevate the breath of studying children to Atzilut.