"And David made a name." In the sacred Zohar this is interpreted in relation to the verse "and David performed justice and tzedakah with all his people .. ." : "Rabbi Shimon wept and said: Who makes the Holy Name, every day? He who gives charity unto the poor,,.." This will be understood by first explaining the comment of our sages, of blessed memory, on the verse "For by Yud-Hai, the Lord is the tzur of the worlds": "This world was created by the hoi, the world to come was created by the yud ." This means that the delight which the souls of the righteous derive and enjoy from the splendour of the Shechinah which radiates in the upper and lower Gardens of Eden, consists of their delighting in their apprenhension and conception, for they conceive, know and attain some apprehension of the light and vitality which effuses there— in a state of manifestation— from the blessed En Sof to their soul and their spirit of understanding, so that each and every one can understand and attain some perception according to his level and his deeds. That is why in the sacred Zohar the world to come (olam habah) is referred to as binah (understanding). And this flow issues from the plane of the Supreme chochmah, which is the source of the conception and apprehension referred to as binah. For chochmah is the primordium of the intellect, antecedent to apprehension and understanding becoming manifest, rather, still in a state of hiding and concealment, except for some trifle here and there flowing forth and issuing thence to the faculty of binah, making it possible to understand and to apprehend the hidden intellect. In the sacred Zohar, chochmah is, therefore, referred to as "the dot in the palace;" and this is the form of the yud of the blessed Tetragrammaton (Havayah), and is called Eden— of which it is said: "No eye has seen it.. ," And it is referred to as "The Father (abba) who founded the Daughter ( barta ) ." This means:

The formation of the letters of speech which issue from the five organs of articulation is not an intellectual capacity. It is also not inherent in the nature of these organs to pronounce the letters— [by means of the breath and the sound that strikes them]— by either a natural faculty or by an intellectual faculty. With the lips, for example, through which are uttered the letters B-V-M-P, neither nature nor the intellect compels the utterance of the four varying types of pronunciation of these letters in accordance with the variations in the movement of the lips— which are moved by the same breath and the same sound that strikes them equally. On the contrary: the change in the movements of the lips depends on the difference in pronunciation of the letters the soul wishes to utter by means of the lips— when it is (the soul's) will to speak the letters ב , or ו , or מ , or פ . It is not the other way around, that it is the will and intention of the soul to make a change in the motions of the lips— as they are moving now in the utterances of these four letters, as is empirically evident that the soul does not intend or know to intend at all the change in the motions of the lips, of those changes. This is even more evident with the utterance of the vowels. For when it is the wish of the soul to articulate the vowel o, then, of themselves, the lips become compressed; and with the a— the lips are opened. Thus, it is definitely not because of the will of the soul to compress or to open, and there is no need to go any further into this matter which is simple, comprehensible, and intelligible to every intelligent person, namely, that the pronunciation of the letters and vowels transcends fhe apprehended and comprehended intellect, and is, rather, from the hidden intellect, and the primordium of the intellect which is in the articulate soul. That is why an infant cannot speak, even though it understands everything.

However, the letters are on planes of "matter" and "form", referred to as "internal" and "external." Their source in the primordium of the intellect and the will of the soul is but the "form" of the change in pronunciation which there is among the twenty-two letters. The aspect of the "matter" and "body" of their formation, however, i.e. the aspect of their "externality," is the breath issuing from the heart. For from this breath is formed the simple sound that issues from the throat, and is consequently divided into the twenty-two enunciations, and the expression of the twenty-two letters through the five known organs [aleph-chet-hai-ayin through the throat; gimmel-yud-kaf-kuf through the palate etc.], while the breath (itself) is uttered by the letter hai— "the light letter.. .", which is the source of the "matter" and "body" of the letters prior to their division into twenty-two. And that is why our sages, of blessed memory, said that "This world was created by the hai."

Now, though this is the "lower hai" [the latter hai of the Tetragrammaton ], while our sages, of blessed memory, related this to the verse "For by Yud-Hai," this is because its source, and the beginning of its egression into a state of manifestation from the concealment of the yud , is influenced and issued forth from the rank of the "upper hai." This hai has dimensions of "length" and "width" to indicate the faculty of binah, which is the expansion of the "concealed intellect" into a state of manifestation and apprehension, with an extension of da'at and its diffusion culminates in the heart, as mentioned in the Tikunim that "binah— that is the heart, and therewith the heart understands." And from there issues the breath, the original manifestation of the "body" of the letters of speech which become revealed from the concealment of the yud through the five organs. The form of the "lower hai", which, in its written form, also has dimensions of length and width, indicates the extension of the aspect of His blessed Sovereignty, "The sovereignty of all worlds"— above and below, and in the four directions, which extend and issue from the letters of the "word of the Lord," as it is written in Kohelet:* "Wherever the king's word is regnant," as explained elsewhere. [ As for understanding somewhat the concept and nature of "letters of speech" in relation to Divinity, inasmuch as He has no form of a body, nor of soul, Heaven forfend, this was already explained in a more or less elaborate way ( in Likutei Amarim, part II: chs. 11 and 12, see there)].

As for an exposition of the idea why our sages, of blessed memory, said that this world was created by the hai: it is known to all the wise of heart that the multitude of the worlds and hechalot [which are innumerable, as it is written: "Is there then a number unto His hosts?", and in every hechal and host there are a thousand thousands and myriad myriads of angels, and also nefesh-ruach-neshamah-chayah-yechidah, rungs to no end, and (likewise) in every world; and (moreover) hechalot from che multitude of the hechalot that are in Atzilut, Beriah, Yetzirah].

Now, all these multitudes, one multitude after another ad infinitum, all this issues and effuses from the multitude of combinations of the twenty-two letters of the "word of the Lord," which, in turn, divide into many (more) combinations, truly ad infinitum, as stated in Sefer Yetzirah: "Seven stones build five thousand and forty houses; from here onwards go and count what the mouth is not able to express .. ," Though there are among the rungs and levels of the angels and souls so many different kinds of levels and rungs ad infinitum, one surpassing the other, all issues according to the permutations in combinations, and the substitutions of aleph-tav, bet-shin, .. . ( as mentioned in ch. 12 ). But in a general way they all possess wisdom and knowledge, and they know their Creator, because their vivification stems from the "inwardness" of the letters which issue from the rank of the Supreme chochmah, as mentioned above.

This lowly world, however, with its vivification, is too small to contain and endure the light and vivification from the aspect of the "form" of the letters and their "inwardness"— radiating and diffusing in it without any garment and concealment as they shine and effuse to the souls and angels. Rather, the radiation and diffusion comes and effuses to this world from the level of the "matter" and "body" of the letters, and of their "externality" [which is the aspect of the breath which divides into the seven "breaths" of Kohelet on which the world stands, as mentioned in the sacred Zohar ]. And this is the "Utterance from the mouth of the Lord" which vests itself in this world and all its hosts to animate them; but in it is vested the aspect of the "form" of the letters of speech and thought, (emanating) from His holy attributes, and His will and wisdom.... which are totally united in the blessed En Sof. ( And this is what Rabbi Isaac Luria, of blessed memory, stated that the aspect of the chitzoniyut of the vessels of malchut of Atzilut— [alluded to by the hai of the blessed Tetragrammaton]— descended and became the soul for the world of Asiyah). And thus it is stated in the Tikunim, that the yud is in Atzilut .... and the lower hai nests in Asiyah.

Now, with terrestrial man, for example, when one who is so great a sage as to comprehend the wonders of wisdom contracts his intellect and thought to a single letter of his speech, this is an immense contraction (tzimtzum) and a great descent for his wondrous wisdom. Metaphorically speaking, precisely so, and infinitely more so, there was an immensely great and mighty contraction (tzimtzum) when during the six days of creation "The heavens were made by the word of the Lord, and all their hosts by the breath of His mouth"— i.e. by the letter hai of the blessed Tetragrammaton [the "easy letter"] as it is written: "בהבראם," (which means): בה' בראם ("when He created them," He created them, by the hai) It is the source of the nine fiats which issued from the first fiat: בראשית — which is also a fiat, (and identical with) the aspect of chochmah which is called ראשית. But at that time this efflux and descent was without any arousal from below whatever— "For there was no man to work ...." but solely "Because He delights in chesed" and "The world was built by chesed" And this is the meaning of באברהם:בהבראם (when He created them— because of Abraham), for "chesed is to Abraham."

But after the creation of "man to work on it...." every arousal from above, to arouse the attribute of the Supreme chesed, depends on an arousal from below, i.e. the charity and kindness which Israelites perform in this world. That is why our sages, of blessed memory, said: "Whoever says that he has nothing but Torah— thus no deeds of kindness— he has not even Torah; rather, one is to busy himself with Torah and the performance of kindness." For though the "Torah derives from chochmah" and the world subsists by virtue of the Torah and those who discourse in it, because by their speech they elicit illuminations and effusions from the Supreme chochmah [the source of Torah] to the plane of the letters of speech [wherewith the world was created, as our sages, of blessed memory, said: "Do not read בניך (your children) but בוניך (your builders)"], this efflux, however, is really of the category of a great descent. Therefore it is necessary to arouse the Supreme chesed whichj like water, is drawn from a high place to a low place by means of an arousal from below: through charity and the nether chesed, diffusing life and kindness "To revive the spirit of the humble and downcast."

And this is the meaning of the verse: "Let not the wise glorify himself in his chochmah ... , but in this let him glory ... for I am the Lord who does chesed... ," For it is chesed that causes the vitality of chochmah to issue downwards, and without that it is called "His chochmah" only— without any efflux of life from it, Heaven forfend.

Hereby will be understood the statement of R. Isaac Luria, of blessed memory, that there are two kinds of souls among Israel: the souls of Torah scholars— who occupy themselves with Torah all their lives; and the souls of those who perform the commandments— who occupy themselves with charity and the performance of kindness. Now it would seem that scholars, too, need to occupy themselves with the performance of kindness, as our sages, of blessed memory, said that (otherwise) "He has not even Torah." However, as regards scholars of Torah whose study of the Torah is their principal (occupation) [and most of their time is spent in it, and but a small part of their time with the performance of kindness], the effect of their arousal from below, to arouse the Supreme chesed to call forth and bring downward the infinite light vested in the Supreme chochmah [the source of G‑d's Torah which is in their mouths], extends only to the realm of the souls that are in Beriah [through their occupation with Gemara], and to the angels that are in Yetzirah [through their occupation with Mishnah]. For the vivifications of the souls and angels effuse from the combinations of the letters of speech, i.e. the Oral Torah. But the origin of the letters is in the Supreme chochmah, as mentioned above. Thus in order to call forth and bring downward an illumination and verification from the level of the Supreme Breath [the "lower hai " ] to this lowly world, which implies an extremely great contraction (tzimtzum), the arousal from below by the scholars of Torah [who for but a small part of their time occupy themselves with charity and the performance of kindness] is not sufficient. (This is effected) only through the arousal by those who perform the commandments, i.e. they who are occupied with charity and the performance of kindness for the major part of their life ( and as explained in Likutei Amarim, part I: ch. 34). That is why they are called the "supporters of Torah." They are the categories and levels of netzach and hod, because they cause the light of Torah to issue downwards to the world of Asiyah.

Now it is clear why charity is referred to as an "act," as it is written: "And the act of tzedakah will be peace." For the effect (of charity) is to elicit the light of G‑d to the world of Asiyah. And that is the meaning of the subtle phraseology of the sacred Zohar— "He who makes the Holy Name," expressly saying "who makes." For by an arousal from below [through charity and the nether chesed] one arouses the Supreme chesed to elicit an infinite light from the rank of the Supreme chochmah [the yud of the Name], to the hai of the Name [the aspect of "speech" and "breath" of His blessed mouth]— to diffuse to the world of Asiyah. And, analogously speaking, though not to be compared in the least, just as a human being speaks only to others ( and not when he is alone), and then [when speaking to them] he contracts his intellect and thought. And the intelligent will understand.