However, as long as he has not re-studied that subject "For its own sake," his study does not ascend even into the Ten Sefirot which shine in the worlds of Yetzirah and Asiyah. For the Sefirot are a category of G‑dliness, and in them is clothed and united the light of the blessed En Sof itself, and "Without fear and love it cannot rise and stand before G‑d," as is written in the Tikunim. But his study ascends into the hechalot and abodes which are the externalities of the worlds, wherein the angels stand. Thus Rabbi Chayim Vital, of blessed memory, writes in "The Gate of Prophecy," ch. 2, that from Torah studied without kavanah angels are created in the world of Yetzirah, whilst from commandments performed without kavanah, angels are created in the world of Asiyah— and all angels are possessed of matter and form.

However, Torah which is studied "Not for its own sake" indeed, as, for example, for the purpose of becoming a scholar, and the like, it does not at all ascend on high even to the hechalot and abodes of the angels of Holiness, but it remains below in this material world which is the dwelling-place of the kelipot

Note: As explained in the Zohar, Part III, pp. 31b and 121b, where note: "That word ascends and breaks through the heavens... and evokes what it evokes if good— good,. .." note there. Also page 105a: "From a word of the Torah is formed a sound which ascends,..." Also page 168b: "The voices of Torah and Prayer rend the heavens . . ."

as commented in the Zohar on the verse: "What profit hath a man of all his toil which he labours under the sun?" : "Even with the toil of Torah, if he does it for his own glory. . . ." This is also the meaning of the statement: "Happy is he who conies here with his learning in his hand," which means that it was not left behind in this world below.

[The reason Torah requires kavanah to ascend on high] albeit the Torah and the Holy One, blessed be He, are altogether One, for He and His will are One [is as follows.] Although the Holy One, blessed be He, fills all worlds alike, nevertheless the worlds are not all of equal rank. The difference is due to the recipients in two respects: Firstly, in that the higher worlds receive a radiance infinitely greater than the lower; and, secondly, in that they receive it without as many "garments" and "screens" as the lower. And this world is the lowest world in both aspects, for the radiance that is in it is greatly contracted unto the utmost limit; hence it is corporeal and material. And even this [contracted radiance] comes in many "garments" and "screens" until it is clothed in the kelipat nogah, to animate all clean things in this world, including the vivifying, articulate soul in man. [Consider,] therefore, [this animal soul] as it utters words of Torah and prayer without kavanah. These are holy letters, of course, and the kelipat nogah in the vivifying soul constitutes no separating curtain in any degree concealing and covering His blessed Holiness clothed in them, as it conceals and covers His blessed Holiness in the vivifying soul when it speaks idle words, or as in the vivifying soul of any of the other living creatures that are clean. And though there is no place that is void of Him, yet He is the "Most hidden One of all the hidden," and is called the "Hidden G‑d." So too, the radiance and extension of vitality from Him, may He be blessed, is hidden in the many dense "garments" and "screens" until it is clothed and concealed in the garment of nogah. This is not, however, the case with the holy letters in the words of Torah and Prayer, wherein, oh the contrary, the kelipat nogah is converted to good and is absorbed into this Holiness, as is discussed above. Nevertheless the glow of His blessed Holiness that is in them is in a state of tzimtzum to the utmost limit, since the voice and speech are material.

But in the case of prayer with kavanah and Torah with kavanah "For its own sake," the kavanah is clothed in the letters of the speech because it is their source and root, since by reason and cause of it he speaks these letters. Therefore it elevates them to its level in the Ten Sefirot of Yetzirah or Beriah, according to whether the kavanah is inspired by intelligent or natural fear and love,... as has been discussed above. There the light of the blessed En Sof, namely, the blessed Higher Will which is clothed in the letters of the Torah which he studies and in their kavanah, or in the prayer and its kavanah, or in the commandment and its kavanah, shines forth and is revealed with a great and infinite brightness that cannot shine forth and be revealed at all in any manner or form as long as the letters and the commandment are still in this material world, until the era of the end of days, when the world will be uplifted from its materiality, "And the glory of the Lord will be revealed,..." as has been previously discussed at length.

Note: And there [in the Ten Sefirot] shines forth and is revealed also the Supernal Union (Yichud Elyon) that is produced by each commandment and by Torah study, this being the union of His blessed attributes which coalesce into one another, Gevurot (the "stem" attributes) are sweetened by Chasadim (benevolent attributes) through the Supernal Propitious Time of the blessed En Sof which shines forth and reveals itself in a manner of a great and intense manifestation by reason of the "impulse" from below, namely, the performance of the commandment, or the occupation in Torah, wherein the Higher Will of the blessed En Sof is clothed.

But the essential Union takes place far higher, in the world of Atzilut, where the core and essence of His blessed attributes arc united with their Emanator, the blessed En Sof, and there is the core and essence of the Supreme Will of the blessed En Sof, while only a glow from them shines in Beriah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, in each of these worlds according to its rank. And although the soul of the person who occupies himself in the Torah and in the commandment does not derive from Atzilut, nevertheless the Higher Will that is clothed in this commandment and which is identical with the very halachah or word of the Torah in which he is occupied, is G‑dliness and light of the blessed En Sof, the Emanator, for He and His will are One, and by His blessed will He has caused His attributes to emanate from Him yet they are united with Him, may He be blessed. By the revelation of His will, which becomes manifest through this occupation with the Torah and the particular commandment they [the attributes] coalesce into one another and the Gevurot are sweetened by Chasidim at this propitious moment.

In the light of the above it will be clearly understood why fear and love are figuratively called "wings," as is written: "And with twain did he fly," (and as Rabbi Chayim Vital, of blessed memory, explained in Shaar ha-Yichudim, ch. n), that the wings are to a bird what arms are to a man.... And in Tikunim it is explained that they who occupy themselves with Torah and commandments in fear and love are called "children"; otherwise they are called "fledglings" that cannot fly.

Note: In Tikun 45 it is written that the [figure of a] bird represents Metatron. His head is the letter yod, and the body is the letter vav and the two wings are the two [letters] hai, and so forth. This refers to the world of Yetzirah which is identified with Metatron, wherein are the "bodies" of the halachot of the Mishnah; his head symbolises the intellectual aspects, the chochmah, binah, da'at (ChaBaD), that is the inwardness of the halachot, their esoteric meaning and their reasons; whilst the two wings— fear and love— refer to the higher hai, which is love, and the lower hai, ivhich is the lower fear fyirah tattaahj, namely, the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and the dread of G‑d, like the awe one feels in the presence of a king,.for example; for this is an external and exposed fear, unlike the higher fear (yirah ilaah), which is a feeling of shame, which is of "The hidden things belonging to the Lord our G‑d" and it is found in the Higher Wisdom (chochmah ilaah), symbolising the letter yod of the blessed Name [Tetragrammaton], as is explained in Ra'aya Mehemna.

For just as the wings of a bird are not the essential parts of it, and its vitality does not depend on them at all— as we have learned, that "If its wings have been removed, it is kasher" (ritually clean), the essential parts being its head and entire body, while the wings merely serve the head and body, enabling it to fly with their aid— so, by way of example, are the Torah and commandments the essential aspect of the Higher Union through the manifestation of the Higher Will that is revealed through them, while the fear and love raise them to that place where the Will, the light of the blessed En Sof, and the union (Yichud), are revealed, namely, the worlds of Yetzirah and Beriah.

Note: Or even in [the world of] Asiyah, in the ten Sefirot of holiness, the abode of the active commandments and also of [the study of] Holy Writ. But in the case of the Mishnah, the Yichud and light of the blessed En Sof are revealed in [the world of] Yetzirah; and, in the case of Talmud, in [the world of] Beriah. This means that when one studies Holy Writ, the Yichud and light of the blessed En Sof are diffused from Atzilut to Asiyah; and in [the study of] Mishnah [they reach] to Yetzirah only; and in [the case of] Talmud— to Beriah only. For they are all in Atzilut. As for Kabbalah, it is not diffused at all from Atzilut to Beriah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, as is explained in Peri Etz Chayim.

And although fear and love also form part of the 613 commandments, nevertheless they are called "wings," for the consummation of love is the service out of love, and love without service is a "love of delights" delighting in G‑d, which is of the nature of the world to come and the receiving of reward, as it is written, "This day— to do them," "and tomorrow" [in the world to come] — to receive one's reward. But he who has not attained this dimension of savouring the nature of the world to come, but whose soul still yearns and thirsts for G‑d and goes out to Him all day, yet he does not quench his thirst with the water of the Torah that is in front of him— such a man is like one who stands in a river and cries: "Water! Water to drink!" Thus the prophet laments over such a man: "Ho, every one that thirsteth, go ye to the waters." For in its simple meaning the verse makes no sense: Surely, he who is thirsty and longs to learn will study of his own accord; why, then, does the prophet need to rebuke him "Ho?" This is explained at length elsewhere.