Chapter 10

1O Lord, why do You stand from afar? [Why do] You hide in times of distress?   אלָמָ֣ה יְ֖הֹוָה תַּֽעֲמֹ֣ד בְּרָח֑וֹק תַּ֜עְלִ֗ים לְעִתּ֥וֹת בַּצָּֽרָה:
You hide in times of distress: You hide Your eyes in times of distress.  
2With the haughtiness of the wicked man, he pursues the poor man. They are caught in the plots that they have devised.   בבְּגַֽאֲוַת־רָ֖שָׁע יִדְלַ֣ק עָנִ֑י יִתָּֽפְשׂ֓וּ | בִּמְזִמּ֖וֹת ז֥וּ חָשָֽׁבוּ:
he pursues: Heb. ידלק, he pursues, as (in Gen. 31: 36): “that you pursued (דלקת) me?”  
they are caught: The poor are caught in the plots that the wicked devise against them.  
3For the wicked man boasts about the desire of his soul, and the robber congratulates himself for having blasphemed the Lord.   גכִּֽי־הִלֵּ֣ל רָ֖שָׁע עַל־תַּֽאֲוַ֣ת נַפְשׁ֑וֹ וּבֹצֵ֥עַ בֵּ֜רֵ֗ךְ נִ֘אֵ֥ץ | יְהֹוָֽה:
For the wicked man boasts: This refers to “O Lord, why do You stand from afar,” for now the wicked man boasts that he achieves all the desire of his soul.  
and the robber congratulates himself for having blasphemed the Lord: And the robber praises himself, saying that he has blasphemed the Lord, yet he will have peace.  
congratulates: Heb. בֵּרֵך, like בֵּרַך, an expression of the past tense. You should know [that this is so,] for if it were a noun, the accent would be on the first letter and it would be vowelized with a “pattah” [meaning a “seggol” under the “resh”], but this one is vowelized with a small “kamatz” [i.e., with a “tzereh”] and it is accented below on the “resh.” Do not wonder about בֵּרֵך, that he did not say: בֵּרַך, because many words spelled with a “resh” are vowelized in this manner, e.g. (below 74:18), “an enemy blasphemed (חֵרֵף) the Lord,” and it does not say חֵרַף.  
blasphemed: Heb. נאץ, like חֵרֵף and Menachem interpreted every expression of נאוץ in this manner.  
4A wicked man at the height of his anger; "He will not seek; there is no God," [say] all his thoughts.   דרָשָׁ֗ע כְּגֹ֣בַהּ אַ֖פּוֹ בַּל־יִדְרֹ֑שׁ אֵ֥ין אֱ֜לֹהִ֗ים כָּל־מְזִמּוֹתָֽיו:
A wicked man at the height of his anger: When he is haughty, and he lifts up and holds his face erect, and his anger is at its height.  
He will not seek: All his thoughts tell him, “The Holy One, blessed be He, will not seek anything that I may do because there is no judgment.”  
there is no God: There is no judgment, and there is no judge.  
5His ways prosper at all times; Your judgments are far removed from him. All his adversaries-he blows at them.   היָ֘חִ֚ילוּ דְרָכָ֨יו | (כתיב דְרָכָ֨ו) בְּכָל־עֵ֗ת מָר֣וֹם מִ֖שְׁפָּטֶיךָ מִנֶּגְדּ֑וֹ כָּל־צֽ֜וֹרְרָ֗יו יָ֘פִ֥יחַ בָּהֶֽם:
prosper: Heb. יחילו, prosper, and similar to this is (in Job 20:21): “therefore shall his goods not prosper (יחיל).” Others explain יחילו like (II Sam. 3:29): “May it rest (יחולו) upon the head of Joab.”  
Your judgments are far removed from him: Your judgments of pains and punishments are removed and distanced from him, for they do not come upon him.  
All his adversarieshe blows at them: With a blowing of wind, he blows at them, and they fall before him.  
6He says to himself, "I will not fall; for all generations I will not be in adversity."   ואָמַ֣ר בְּ֖לִבּוֹ בַּל־אֶמּ֑וֹט לְדֹ֥ר וָ֜דֹ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־בְרָֽע:
“for all generations I will not be in adversity”: Adversity will not befall me throughout my generations.  
7His mouth is full of oaths and deceits and guile; under his tongue is mischief and iniquity.   זאָלָ֚ה | פִּ֣יהוּ מָ֖לֵא וּמִרְמ֣וֹת וָתֹ֑ךְ תַּ֥חַת לְ֜שׁוֹנ֗וֹ עָמָ֥ל וָאָֽוֶן:
and guile: Heb. ותך, an expression of an evil thought that lodges constantly in his midst.  
8He sits in the lurking-places of the villages; in hidden places he slays the innocent; his eyes spy on Your army.   חיֵשֵׁ֚ב | בְּמַֽאֲרַ֬ב חֲצֵרִ֗ים בַּ֖מִּסְתָּרִים יַֽהֲרֹ֣ג נָקִ֑י עֵ֜ינָ֗יו לְחֵֽלְכָ֥ה יִצְפֹּֽנוּ:
his eyes spy on Your army: The eyes of Esau lurk for Israel, who are Your army.  
on Your army: Heb. לחלכה; (verse 14), “upon You Your army (חלכה) leaves.” Both of them are in the masorah as words spelled with כה instead of ך, like (Exod. 7:29), “upon you (ובכה) and upon your people” ; (Prov. 2:11), “discretion shall guard you (תנצרכה) (Exod. 29:35),” I commanded you (אתכה) “ ; (I Sam. 1:26),” who was standing with you (עמכה).“ We learn from the masorah that חלכה is like חילך, Your army. But Menachem (p.89) interprets לחלכה יצפנו and so יעזב חלכה like (verse 10),” and helpless ones (חלכאים) shall fall into his power," a word meaning humble and moaning. Accordingly, כה is [part of] the radical.  
9He lurks in a hidden place; like a lion in his den, he lurks to seize a poor man; he seizes a poor man when he draws his net.   טיֶֽאֱרֹ֬ב בַּמִּסְתָּ֨ר | כְּאַרְיֵ֬ה בְסֻכֹּ֗ה יֶֽ֖אֱרֹב לַֽחֲט֣וֹף עָנִ֑י יַחְטֹ֥ף עָ֜נִ֗י בְּמָשְׁכ֥וֹ בְרִשְׁתּֽוֹ:
10He crouches, he bows down, and an army of broken people shall fall by his signals.   ייִדְכֶּ֥ה (כתיב וִדְכֶּ֥ה) יָשֹׁ֑חַ וְנָפַ֥ל בַּֽ֜עֲצוּמָ֗יו חֵ֣יל כָּאִֽים (כתיב חֵ֣לְכָּאִֽים) :
He crouches, he bows down: So is the habit of the lurker; he crouches and lowers [himself] and makes himself small in order to be inconspicuous.  
and an army of broken people fall by his signals: Heb. חלכאם, an army of broken people. I saw in the great masorah that חלכאים is one of fifteen words that are written as one word and read as two words, as is בגד in the verse (Gen. 30:11) commencing “And Leah said.” Also (in Deut. 33:2), “a fiery Law (אשדת) is to them” ; (Isa. 3:15), “What do you mean (מלכם) that you crush My people?” Also this word means חל כאים, an army of broken people. כאים is an expression of (below 109:16) “and a broken- hearted one (ונכאה לבב) to kill.” If you say that the “nun” is the radical, (Ezek. 13:22) “Because you have broken (הכאות) the heart of the righteous” will prove that [it is not]. We learn that the “nun” of נראה is like the “nun” of (I Sam. 15:9) נמבזה and the “nun” of (Jer. 6:14) נקלה, and so is its interpretation: and… fall by the signals of this wicked man, with his hints and his winks, an expression of (Isa. 41:21) “present your signals (עצמותיכם).” and (ibid. 33:15) “and closes (ועצם) his eyes,” an army of poor people. Another explanation: בעצומיו, by his mighty men. Said Rabbi Simon: This wicked man puts into his “callirus,” meaning army, only mighty men like himself, as it is said (in Dan. 3:20): “And he commanded the mighty warriors who were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego” (Mid. Ps. 10:5). However, Menachem, (p. 89) interprets חלכאים as “poor and weak (וחלך) ,” the “chaf” being a radical.  
11He says in his heart, "God has forgotten; He has hidden His face, He never sees."   יאאָמַ֣ר בְּ֖לִבּוֹ שָׁ֣כַֽח אֵ֑ל הִסְתִּ֥יר פָּ֜נָ֗יו בַּל־רָאָ֥ה לָנֶֽצַח:
12Arise, O Lord God, lift up Your hand; do not forget the humble.   יבקוּמָ֚ה יְהֹוָ֗ה אֵ֖ל נְשָׂ֣א יָדֶ֑ךָ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּ֥ח עֲנָוִֽים (כתיב עֲנָיִֽים) :
13Why did a wicked man blaspheme God? He said in his heart that You do not seek.   יגעַל־מֶ֚ה | נִאֵ֖ץ רָשָׁ֥ע | אֱלֹהִ֑ים אָמַ֥ר בְּ֜לִבּ֗וֹ לֹ֣א תִדְרֹֽשׁ:
Why did a wicked man blaspheme: the Holy One, blessed be He? Because he said in his heart that You do not seek.  
14You saw, for You look at mischief and provocation to give with Your power; upon You Your army leaves [its burden]; You would help the orphan.   ידרָאִ֡תָה כִּֽי־אַתָּ֨ה | עָ֘מָ֚ל וָכַ֨עַס | תַּבִּיט֘ לָתֵ֪ת בְּיָ֫דֶ֥ךָ עָ֖לֶיךָ יַֽעֲזֹ֣ב חֵלֶ֑כָה יָ֜ת֗וֹם אַתָּ֚ה | הָיִ֡יתָ עוֹזֵֽר:
You saw: what he does, and You remain silent.  
for You: So is Your custom, that You look at mischief and provocation.  
to give with Your power: With Your power, You lend a hand to the wicked to prosper with their wickedness.  
upon You Your army leaves: Your people Israel, who are Your army, leave the burden upon You that You should execute justice upon the wicked. Menachem (p. 132) interprets יעזב as an expression of help, as (in Exod. 23:5): “you shall help תעזב) (עזב with him.” He interprets חלכה as an expression of “poor and weak (חלך) ,” the “chaf” being a radical.  
You would help the orphan: in the early days.  
15Break the arm of the wicked, but as for the evil one-You will seek his wickedness and not find [it].   טושְׁבֹר זְר֣וֹעַ רָשָׁ֑ע וָ֜רָ֗ע תִּדְרֽוֹשׁ־רִשְׁע֥וֹ בַל־תִּמְצָֽא:
Break the arm: of the wicked Esau.  
but as for the evil oneYou will seek his wickedness and not find [it]: As for the wicked of Israel, when they see the wicked [of the nations] prospering, their heart inspires them to deal wickedly, but when You break the arm of the wicked, if You were to come [then] to seek the wickedness of the wicked of Israel, You would not find it.  
16The Lord is King forever and ever; nations perish from His land.   טזיְהֹוָ֣ה מֶ֖לֶךְ עוֹלָ֣ם וָעֶ֑ד אָֽבְד֥וּ ג֜וֹיִ֗ם מֵֽאַרְצֽוֹ:
The Lord is King forever and ever: after the nations perish from His land.  
17You shall hear the desire of the humble, O Lord; may You prepare their heart, may Your ear hearken.   יזתַּֽאֲוַ֣ת עֲ֖נָוִים שָׁמַ֣עְתָּ יְהֹוָ֑ה תָּ֘כִ֥ין לִ֜בָּ֗ם תַּקְשִׁ֥יב אָזְנֶֽךָ:
18To judge the orphan and the crushed one, that he no longer continue to break the weak from the earth.   יחלִשְׁפֹּ֥ט יָת֗וֹם וָ֫דָ֥ךְ בַּל־יוֹסִ֥יף ע֑וֹד לַֽעֲרֹ֥ץ אֱ֜נ֗וֹשׁ מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ:
To judge the orphan: To perform judgments for Israel, the orphans, and crushed people.  
that he no longer continue: Ishmael and Esau.  
to break the weak: To crush and break the weak and sick.