Chapter 4

1Hearken to this word, O cows of Bashan which are on Mount Samaria, who oppress the poor, who crush the needy, who say to their lords, "Bring that we may drink."   אשִׁמְע֞וּ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה פָּר֚וֹת הַבָּשָׁן֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּהַ֣ר שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן הָעֹֽשְׁק֣וֹת דַּלִּ֔ים הָרֹֽצְצ֖וֹת אֶבְיוֹנִ֑ים הָאֹֽמְר֥וֹת לַֽאֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֖ם הָבִ֥יאָה וְנִשְׁתֶּֽה:
cows of Bashan: This refers to the wives of the princes and the officers. Jonathan renders: wealthy in property.  
2The Lord God has sworn by His holy [abode] that, behold, days are coming upon you, and you shall be borne on shields, and your posterity in fishing boats.   בנִשְׁבַּ֨ע אֲדֹנָ֚י יֱהֹוִה֙ בְּקָדְשׁ֔וֹ כִּ֛י הִנֵּ֥ה יָמִ֖ים בָּאִ֣ים עֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְנִשָּׂ֚א אֶתְכֶם֙ בְּצִנּ֔וֹת וְאַֽחֲרִֽיתְכֶ֖ן בְּסִיר֥וֹת דּוּגָֽה:
and you shall be borne on shields: Heb. בְּצִנּוֹת. And the nations shall bear you on their shields.  
and your posterity in fishing boats: Heb. דּוּגָה בְּסִירוֹת. [Jonathan renders:] And your daughters in fishermen’s boats. That is a small boat used by fishermen, and, since it is small, he calls it סִיר, a pot, and in Mishnaic Hebrew, it is called דּוּגִית in Baba Bathra 73a.  
your posterity: Heb. וְאַחֲרִיתְכֶן, lit., your end. Dunash ben Livrat (Teshuvoth p. 50): We find a person’s descendants called ‘his end.’ Cf. (Daniel 11:4) “And when he stands up, his kingdom shall be broken, and it shall be divided to the four winds of the heaven, and not to his posterity (לְאַחֲרִיתוֹ).” I. e, he will not leave over his kingdom to his son.  
3And [through the] breaches they shall emerge, each woman straight before her, and you shall cast off the haughtiness, says the Lord.   גוּפְרָצִ֥ים תֵּצֶ֖אנָה אִשָּׁ֣ה נֶגְדָּ֑הּ וְהִשְׁלַכְתֶּ֥נָה הַֽהַרְמ֖וֹנָה נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
And [through the] breaches they shall emerge, each woman straight before her: And in the breaches of the wall they shall emerge there to flee.  
each woman straight before her: In the breach that she will find straight before her. Cf. (Josh. 6:5) “And the people shall go up, every man opposite him (נֶגְדוֹ),” for there will be many breaches, and they will not find it necessary to search for entrances.  
and you shall cast off the haughtiness: Heb. הַהַרְמוֹנָה. And you shall cast off yourselves the haughtiness and the authority that you took. This is an Aramaism in the Talmud: (Baba Mezia 84) “ הַר ְמָנָה דְמ ַלְכָּא, It is the king’s command.” And Jonathan renders: “And they shall exile you beyond the טורֵי חַר ְמִינֵי ”. They are the mountains of darkness, an expression of destruction (חֵרֶם) and waste.  
4Come to Bethel and rebel, to Gilgal and multiply rebellion, and bring your sacrifices in the morning, every three days your tithes.   דבֹּ֚אוּ בֵֽית־אֵל֙ וּפִשְׁע֔וּ הַגִּלְגָּ֖ל הַרְבּ֣וּ לִפְשֹׁ֑עַ וְהָבִ֚יאוּ לַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ זִבְחֵיכֶ֔ם לִשְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים מַעְשְׂרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
Come to Bethel etc.: Like a man who says to a scoundrel, “Do [as you please] until your measure [of sin] is full.”  
and bring your sacrifices in the morning: The priests of Baal say to them, “Idolatry is liberal and does not impose stringent regulations upon you. The Torah states: (Exodus 34:25) ‘Shall not stay overnight,’ but for idolatry, ‘And bring in the morning. ’ The Torah states concerning sacrifices of lesser sanctity: (Lev. 19:6) ‘On the day of your sacrifice, it may be eaten, and on the morrow, ’ but idolatry, ‘after three days your tithes of cattle.’ The Torah states: (Lev. 2: 11) ‘Leaven… you shall not offer up,’ but idolatry, (verse 5) ‘And offer up a thanksgiving offering of leaven. ’ The Torah states: (Deut. 23:22) ‘You shall not delay its payment,’ but idolatry, ‘and proclaim and publish the free will offerings.’ Proclaim: ‘Whoever vowed and forgot, shall give it thought and remember.’” (Yerushalemi, Avodah Zarah 1:1) And Jonathan renders: And offer up from robbery. Cf. (Isa. 1: 17) “Strengthen the robbed (חָמוֹץ) ;” (Psalms 71:3) “From the hand of the unrighteous and the robbers (וּמ ְחַמֵּץ).”  
5And offer up a thanksgiving offering of leaven, and proclaim and publish the freewill offerings, for so you love, O children of Israel, says the Lord God.   הוְקַטֵּ֚ר מֵֽחָמֵץ֙ תּוֹדָ֔ה וְקִרְא֥וּ נְדָב֖וֹת הַשְׁמִ֑יעוּ כִּ֣י כֵ֚ן אֲהַבְתֶּם֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
and proclaim and publish the freewill offerings: with a song, and say that this sacrifice is desirable and acceptable as a freewill offering. So did Jonathan render.  
6And also I have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities, and lack of bread in all your places, but you have not returned to Me, says the Lord.   ווְגַם־אֲנִי֩ נָתַ֨תִּי לָכֶ֜ם נִקְי֚וֹן שִׁנַּ֙יִם֙ בְּכָל־עָ֣רֵיכֶ֔ם וְחֹ֣סֶר לֶ֔חֶם בְּכֹ֖ל מְקוֹמֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
Cleanness of teeth: Heb. נִקְיוֹן שׁ ִנַּיִם. Setting your teeth on edge. [I.e, they would have nothing to eat, and their teeth would be set on edge.] Another explanation: cleanness of teeth. This denotes the lack of meat, which goes between the teeth, as it is stated: (Num. 11:33) “The meat was still between their teeth.”  
7And I also withheld the rain from you when there were yet three months before the harvest, and I will cause to rain on one city, and on one city I will not cause to rain; one field shall receive rain, and the field upon which no rain shall fall, shall wither.   זוְגַ֣ם אָֽנֹכִי֩ מָנַ֨עְתִּי מִכֶּ֜ם אֶת־הַגֶּ֗שֶׁם בְּע֨וֹד שְׁלֹשָׁ֚ה חֳדָשִׁים֙ לַקָּצִ֔יר וְהִמְטַרְתִּי֙ עַל־עִ֣יר אֶחָ֔ת וְעַל־עִ֥יר אַחַ֖ת לֹ֣א אַמְטִ֑יר חֶלְקָ֚ה אַחַת֙ תִּמָּטֵ֔ר וְחֶלְקָ֛ה אֲשֶֽׁר־לֹֽא־תַמְטִ֥יר עָלֶ֖יהָ תִּיבָֽשׁ:
when there were yet three months before the harvest: Until the harvest. I.e, three months before the harvest.  
field: Heb. חֶלְקָה, a fielded plain, campagne in French.  
shall receive rain: Heb. תִמָּטֵר, shall be a place of rain. The master stated: Both of them are for a curse; this one will rot, and this one will wither. [from Taanith 6b]  
and the field upon which no rain shall fall: That will not show itself rained upon.  
8And two or three cities wandered into one city to drink water, but they shall not be sated, but you have not returned to Me, says the Lord.   חוְנָע֡וּ שְׁתַּיִם֩ שָׁלֹ֨שׁ עָרִ֜ים אֶל־עִ֥יר אַחַ֛ת לִשְׁתּ֥וֹת מַ֖יִם וְלֹ֣א יִשְׂבָּ֑עוּ וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
9I smote you with blast and with yellowing; the increase of your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees the shearing locust has devoured, but you have not returned to Me, says the Lord.   טהִכֵּ֣יתִי אֶתְכֶם֘ בַּשִּׁדָּפ֣וֹן וּבַיֵּֽרָקוֹן֒ הַרְבּ֨וֹת גַּנּֽוֹתֵיכֶ֧ם וְכַרְמֵיכֶ֛ם וּתְאֵֽנֵיכֶ֥ם וְזֵֽיתֵיכֶ֖ם יֹאכַ֣ל הַגָּזָ֑ם וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
the increase of your gardens: That you are engaged in increasing your gardens.  
the shearing locust has devoured: Heb. יֹאכַל, lit., shall devour. Has devoured.  
10I sent a pestilence upon you after the manner of Egypt; I slew your young men with the sword, with the captivity of your horses, and I caused the stench of your camps to rise, and in your nostrils, but you have not returned to Me, says the Lord.   ישִׁלַּ֨חְתִּי בָכֶ֥ם דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם הָרַ֚גְתִּי בַחֶ֙רֶב֙ בַּח֣וּרֵיכֶ֔ם עִ֖ם שְׁבִ֣י סֽוּסֵיכֶ֑ם וָאַֽעֲלֶ֞ה בְּאֹ֚שׁ מַֽחֲנֵיכֶם֙ וּֽבְאַפְּכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
after the manner of Egypt: Just as I sent upon you in the desert when you left Egypt.  
with the captivity of your horses: For they slay the horses as well.  
and I caused the stench of your camps to rise: The smell of your corpses would raise a stench, and I caused it to rise into your nostrils.  
11I have overthrown some of you like God's overthrow of Sodom and Gemorrah, and you were like a brand plucked from burning, but you have not returned to Me, says the Lord.   יאהָפַ֣כְתִּי בָכֶ֗ם כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֚ת אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־סְדֹ֣ם וְאֶת־עֲמֹרָ֔ה וַתִּֽהְי֕וּ כְּא֖וּד מֻצָּ֣ל מִשְּׂרֵפָ֑ה וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
like a brand: Heb. כְּאוּד, tison in French, an ember; i.e, black and dark and burnt black.  
12Therefore, so will I do to you, O Israel; because I will do this to you, prepare yourself to meet your God, O Israel.   יבלָכֵ֕ן כֹּ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לְּךָ֖ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עֵקֶב כִּי־זֹ֣את אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּ֔ךְ הִכּ֥וֹן לִקְרַאת־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Therefore: Since you did not return to Me.  
because I will do this to you: as all these evils.  
because: Since you hear from the mouth of My prophets that I will do this to you, prepare to meet Me, to repent of your wickedness.  
13For behold, He forms mountains and creates the wind, and declares to man what his speech is; He makes dawn into darkness, and treads on the high places of the earth; the Lord God of Hosts is His Name.   יגכִּ֡י הִנֵּ֩ה יוֹצֵ֨ר הָרִ֜ים וּבֹרֵ֣א ר֗וּחַ וּמַגִּ֚יד לְאָדָם֙ מַה־שֵּׂח֔וֹ עֹשֵׂ֥ה שַׁ֙חַר֙ עֵיפָ֔ה וְדֹרֵ֖ךְ עַל־בָּ֣מֳתֵי אָ֑רֶץ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ:
what his speech is: All his deeds are related in detail before him at the time of his death.  
He makes dawn: for the righteous like a bright light.  
darkness: He turns the brightness of the wicked into darkness. Cf. (Isa. 8:22) “And behold, distress and darkness, darkness (מְעוּף) of oppression.” Similarly, (Job 10: 22) “Land of darkness (עֵפָתָה) ” ; (ibid. 11:17) “Darkness (תָּעֻפָה) shall be like morning.” Your darkness shall shine like the morning.  
and treads upon the high places of the earth: He humbles the high and haughty.