Chapter 47

1Then he brought me back to the entrance of the House, and behold there was water coming out from under the threshold of the House toward the east, for the House faced eastward, and the water was descending from below, from the right side of the House, from the south of the altar.   אוַיְשִׁבֵנִי֘ אֶל־פֶּ֣תַח הַבַּיִת֒ וְהִנֵּה־מַ֣יִם יֹֽצְאִ֗ים מִתַּ֨חַת מִפְתַּ֚ן הַבַּ֙יִת֙ קָדִ֔ימָה כִּֽי־פְנֵ֥י הַבַּ֖יִת קָדִ֑ים וְהַמַּ֣יִם יֹֽרְדִ֗ים מִתַּ֜חַת מִכֶּ֚תֶף הַבַּ֙יִת֙ הַיְמָנִ֔ית מִנֶּ֖גֶב לַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
Then he brought me back: into the Inner Court. To the entrance of the House. And the water was descending from under the right side of the House, flowing from under the threshold, which was in the center of the east[ern side] and [going] diagonally toward the right, and going out of the Court at the south of the altar, and proceeding out of the city. In Tractate Yoma we learned (77b): Said Rabbi Phinehas in the name of Rab Huna of Sepphoris: The fountain emanating from the Holy of Holies at first resembles the points of rocks. As soon as it reaches the entrance of the Hall, it becomes like a woof thread. When it reaches the entrance of the Heichal, it becomes like a warp thread. When it reaches the entrance of the Court, it becomes like the mouth of a small jug.  
2And he took me out by way of the Northern Gate and led me around by way of the outside to the Outer Gate, the way that faces east, and behold, water was trickling from the right side.   בוַיּֽוֹצִאֵנִי֘ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר צָפוֹנָה֒ וַיְסִבֵּ֙נִי֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ ח֔וּץ אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר הַח֔וּץ דֶּ֖רֶךְ הַפּוֹנֶ֣ה קָדִ֑ים וְהִנֵּה־מַ֣יִם מְפַכִּ֔ים מִן־הַכָּתֵ֖ף הַיְמָנִֽית:
And he took me out: of the Inner Court to the Outer Court through the northern gate.  
and led me around: around the inner wall within the outer one.  
to the… Gate: The outer [gate] that faces eastward.  
water was trickling: [Heb. מְפַכִּים,] buient in O.F., dripping, trickling, as wide as the width of the mouth of a jug. So did our Sages explain it, as above.  
3When the man went out eastward with a cord in his hand, he measured one thousand cubits, and he led me through the water, water reaching the ankles.   גבְּצֵאת־הָאִ֥ישׁ קָדִ֖ים וְקָ֣ו בְּיָד֑וֹ וַיָּ֚מָד אֶ֙לֶף֙ בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֥נִי בַמַּ֖יִם מֵ֥י אָפְסָֽיִם:
he measured one thousand cubits: outside the wall. For those thousand cubits, the stream did not swell to the extent of being deep up to the אֳפְסָיִם; the ankles, called chevilles in Fr.  
4And he measured one thousand and led me through the water, water reaching the knees, and he measured one thousand and he led me though water that reached the loins.   דוַיָּ֣מָד אֶ֔לֶף וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֥נִי בַמַּ֖יִם מַ֣יִם בִּרְכָּ֑יִם וַיָּ֣מָד אֶ֔לֶף וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֖נִי מֵ֥י מָתְנָֽיִם:
And he measured one thousand: another [one thousand cubits], and they deepened up to the knees, and another thousand, and they deepened up to the loins. From here on, it was a stream that I could not cross. From here we learn that one should not enter water from the loins and higher, lest the water over power him. As soon as he came to the water reaching the loins, he went out upon the bank of the river and measured another thousand before him, a stream that cannot be crossed, and his feet were standing on dry land. This is what is written (v. 6): “and he brought me back [upon] the bank of the stream,” i.e., near the bank of the stream that is where he had been standing.  
5And he measured one thousand [cubits], a stream that I could not cross, for the water was so high that it was water for swimming, a stream that could not be crossed.   הוַיָּ֣מָד אֶ֔לֶף נַ֕חַל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־אוּכַ֖ל לַֽעֲבֹ֑ר כִּֽי־גָא֚וּ הַמַּ֙יִם֙ מֵ֣י שָׂ֔חוּ נַ֖חַל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יֵעָבֵֽר:
for the water was so high: [Heb. גָאוּ,lit. became haughty,] like גָדְלוּ, became large.  
water for swimming: [Heb. שָׂחוּ,] noer in 0.F., to swim, water that one must swim in and not cross by foot lest it overpower him. שָׂחוּ means swimming, like (Isa. 25:11): “as the swimmer spreads out [his hands] to swim הַשׂחֶה לִשְׂחוֹת.”  
6And he said to me, "Have you seen, Son of man?" And he led me and brought me back upon the bank of the stream.   ווַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלַ֖י הֲרָאִ֣יתָ בֶן־אָדָ֑ם וַיּֽוֹלִכֵ֥נִי וַיְשִׁבֵ֖נִי עַל שְׂפַ֥ת הַנָּֽחַל:
Have you seen, Son of man: how much this stream has swelled?  
7When I returned, and behold, upon the bank of the stream was a very great profusion of trees on either side.   זבְּשׁוּבֵ֕נִי וְהִנֵּה֙ אֶל־שְׂפַ֣ת הַנַּ֔חַל עֵ֖ץ רַ֣ב מְאֹ֑ד מִזֶּ֖ה וּמִזֶּֽה:
and behold, upon the bank of the stream, etc.: While he led me and brought me back, a very great profusion of trees had grown on the banks of the stream on each side.  
profusion of trees: [Heb. עֵץ,] abres; erbeiz in Old French, trees, vegetation.  
8And he said to me, "This water is going out to the eastern frontier, and will descend upon the plain, and come to the sea, to the sea that is brought out, and the waters will be healed.   חוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י הַמַּ֚יִם הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ יֽוֹצְאִ֗ים אֶל־הַגְּלִילָה֙ הַקַּדְמוֹנָ֔ה וְיָֽרְד֖וּ עַל־הָֽעֲרָבָ֑ה וּבָ֣אוּ הַיָּ֔מָּה אֶל־הַיָּ֥מָּה הַמּֽוּצָאִ֖ים וְנִרְפּ֥וּ (כתיב וְנִרְפּ֥אוּ) הַמָּֽיִם:
to the… frontier: [Heb. הֳגְלִילָה,] la marche, frontier (province).  
the eastern: [Heb. הֳקֳדְוֹמנָה,] the eastern. Our Rabbis taught in the Tosefta of Succah (3:3): Where do they flow? To the Sea of Tiberias (Kinnereth), the Sea of Sodom (Dead Sea), and to the Great Sea, to heal their salty waters and to sweeten them. [“Will descend upon the plain”] this is the Sea of Tiberias. [“And come to the sea”] this is the Sea of Sodom.  
to the sea that is brought out: This is the אוֹקיַינוּס ocean, which is brought out from civilization to encompass the world. And [it will come] to heal the waters of their saltiness. The Midrash Aggadah [says] Yerushalmi Shekalim (6:2): Why does he call them הַמוּצָאִים (in the plural)? Because of the two times that they went out.  
9And every living creature that will swarm wherever the two streams will go, will live, and the fish will be very abundant, for these waters have come there, and wherever the stream flows, they shall be healed and live.   טוְהָיָ֣ה כָל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֣ה | אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁרֹ֡ץ אֶ֣ל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר֩ יָב֨וֹא שָׁ֚ם נַֽחֲלַ֙יִם֙ יִֽחְיֶ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה הַדָּגָ֖ה רַבָּ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד כִּי֩ בָ֨אוּ שָׁ֜מָּה הַמַּ֣יִם הָאֵ֗לֶּה וְיֵרָֽפְאוּ֙ וָחָ֔י כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יָ֥בוֹא שָׁ֖מָּה הַנָּֽחַל:
wherever the two streams will go: This stream, which divides into many streams, sweetens the seas into which it mingles, and their fish, which swarm in them, are alive and sweet.  
10And it will be [a place] beside which fishermen will stand, from Ein-gedi to Ein-eglaim; a place for spreading nets they will be; their fish will be of many kinds, like the fish of the Great Sea, very many.   יוְהָיָה֩ עָֽמְד֨וּ (כתיב יעָֽמְד֨וּ) עָלָ֜יו דַּוָּגִ֗ים מֵעֵ֥ין גֶּ֙דִי֙ וְעַד־עֵ֣ין עֶגְלַ֔יִם מִשְׁט֥וֹחַ לַֽחֲרָמִ֖ים יִֽהְי֑וּ לְמִינָה֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה דְגָתָ֔ם כִּדְגַ֛ת הַיָּ֥ם הַגָּד֖וֹל רַבָּ֥ה מְאֹֽד:
And it will be [a place] beside which fishermen will stand etc., nets: [Heb. לַחֲרָמִים,] for nets  
their fish will be of many kinds: לְמִינָה.] This does not have a “mappik hey,” and it means that its fish will be of many kinds of many kinds.  
of many kinds: [Heb. לְמִינָה,] a form of the word to denote a profusion of kinds, as in (Exod. 7:21): “And the fish וְהֲדָּגָה in the river” ; (Isa. 21:2): “All sighs (אָנְחָתָה) have I brought to an end.”  
11Its marshes and its pools will not be healed; they will be set aside for salt [mines].   יאבִּצֹּאתָ֧יו (כתיב בִּצֹּאתָ֧ו) וּגְבָאָ֛יו וְלֹ֥א יֵרָֽפְא֖וּ לְמֶ֥לַח נִתָּֽנוּ:
Its marshes: [The marshes] of the sea, as in (Job 8:11): “Can papyrus shoot up without a marsh (בִצָה) ?” This is maresc in Old French, a marsh.  
and its pools: [Heb. וּגְבָאָיו,] like (II Kings 3:16): “This valley will be full of pools.” The בִּצִים are the marshes around it, and the גֵבִים are ditches in which water is gathered.  
will not be healed: to be turned sweet. Why? Because “they will be set aside for salt [mines].” וְלא יִרָפְאוּ This “vav” is subordinate and superfluous.  
12But by the stream, on its bank from either side, will grow every tree for food; its leaf will not wither, neither will its fruit end; month after month its fruits will ripen, for its waters will emanate from the Sanctuary, and its fruit shall be for food and its leaves for a cure.   יבוְעַל־הַנַּ֣חַל יַֽעֲלֶ֣ה עַל־שְׂפָת֣וֹ מִזֶּ֣ה | וּמִזֶּ֣ה | כָּל־עֵץ־מַֽ֠אֲכָל לֹֽא־יִבּ֨וֹל עָלֵ֜הוּ וְלֹֽא־יִתֹּ֣ם פִּרְי֗וֹ לָֽחֳדָשָׁיו֙ יְבַכֵּ֔ר כִּ֣י מֵימָ֔יו מִן־הַמִּקְדָּ֖שׁ הֵ֣מָּה יֽוֹצְאִ֑ים וְהָיָ֚ה (כתיב וְהָיָ֚ו) פִרְיוֹ֙ לְמַֽאֲכָ֔ל וְעָלֵ֖הוּ לִתְרוּפָֽה:
month after month its fruits will ripen: From month to month its fruits will ripen.  
for a cure: [Heb. לִתְרוּפָה.] Our Sages of blessed memory explained: to unlock the mouth (לְהָתִיר פֶה) of the dumb and the mouth [of the womb] of the barren (Men. 98a), but its apparent meaning is a word for healing, as in (Jer. 6:14): “And they healed (וַיְרַפְאוּ) the breach of My people easily.” And so did Menahem connect it.  
13So said the Lord God: This is the border whereby you shall divide the land for inheritance to the twelve tribes of Israel, Joseph [taking two] portions.   יגכֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה גֵּ֚ה גְבוּל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתְנַֽחֲל֣וּ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ לִשְׁנֵ֥י עָשָׂ֖ר שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יוֹסֵ֖ף חֲבָלִֽים:
This is the border: [Heb. גֵּה גְבוּל.] Jonathan renders: This is the border, just like זֶה גְבוּל; and so too (above 25:7): “and I have given you for plunder (לבג) to the nations,” is like לְבַז. It may also be interpreted as a form of the word for valley (גַיְא).  
Joseph portions: Joseph shall take two portions, one for Manasseh and one for Ephraim.  
14And you shall inherit it, one as another, being that I lifted up My hand to give it to your forefathers, and this land shall be to you an inheritance.   ידוּנְחַלְתֶּ֚ם אוֹתָהּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ כְּאָחִ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֚ר נָשָׂ֙אתִי֙ אֶת־יָדִ֔י לְתִתָּ֖הּ לַֽאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם וְנָ֨פְלָ֜ה הָאָ֧רֶץ הַזֹּ֛את לָכֶ֖ם בְּנַֽחֲלָֽה:
as one another: and not like the first one (Num. 26: 54): “to each according to his numbered ones.” Now, instead, all the tribes will be equal, and every portion will be like a row in a vineyard from the eastern border until the ocean to the west, as is explained in the account, and no two tribes will be in strip.  
15And this is the border of the land: to the northern side, from the Great Sea the way to Hethlon to the road [leading] to Zedad.   טווְזֶ֖ה גְּב֣וּל הָאָ֑רֶץ לִפְאַ֨ת צָפ֜וֹנָה מִן־הַיָּ֧ם הַגָּד֛וֹל הַדֶּ֥רֶךְ חֶתְלֹ֖ן לְב֥וֹא צְדָֽדָה:
And this is the border of the land: the boundaries of the Land of Israel.  
to the northern side: [Heb. לִפְאַתצָפוֹנָה,] the northern direction.  
from the Great Sea: which is the western border.  
the way to Hethlon: It comes to the east to Hethlon, to Zedad, to Hamath, Berothah, and Sibraim. All these cities are on the northern border.  
16Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is between the border of Damascus and the border of Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, which is by the border of Hauran.   טזחֲמָ֚ת | בֵּר֙וֹתָה֙ סִבְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁר֙ בֵּין־גְּב֣וּל דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וּבֵ֖ין גְּב֣וּל חֲמָ֑ת חָצֵר֙ הַתִּיכ֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֶל־גְּב֥וּל חַוְרָֽן:
Hazer-hatticon: Jonathan renders: the pond of the Agebeans.  
which is by the border of Hauran: The border of Damascus is in the east, near the corner.  
17And the border shall be from the sea to Hazer-enon, the border of Damascus, and in the north northward is the border of Hamath; this is the northern side.   יזוְהָיָ֨ה גְב֜וּל מִן־הַיָּ֗ם חֲצַ֚ר עֵינוֹן֙ גְּב֣וּל דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְצָפ֥וֹן | צָפ֖וֹנָה וּגְב֣וּל חֲמָ֑ת וְאֵ֖ת פְּאַ֥ת צָפֽוֹן:
And the border shall be from the sea to Hazer-enon: The northern border shall be from the sea until Hazer-enon.  
the border of Damascus: [i.e.,] which is on the border of Damascus, i.e., Hazer-enon is on the northeastern corner, as is explicated in the [description of] the boundaries which Moses, our master, may he rest in peace, wrote (Num. 34:9-10f.): “and its ends shall be Hazer -as your eastern border [the territory] from Hazer- enan, etc.” The border of Damascus is in the northeastern corner beside Hazer-enan, as is stated above: “Hazer-enan” and “the border of Damascus.” The border of Hamath is at the northwestern corner, as is stated (ibid. v. 7f.): “And this shall be your northern border: from the Great Sea you shall draw a line extending to the road [leading] to Hamath, and from there to Zedad.”  
and in the north northward is the border of Hamath: i.e., the entire northern border delineated in the Torah, and the border of Hamath-which is also on the northern border as is stated (ibid. verse 7f.): “And this shall be your northern border: from the Great Sea you shall draw a line extending to Mount Hor. From Mount Hor you shall draw a line extending to the road [leading] to Hamath, and the ends of the border shall be toward Zedad.” That is the Zedad mentioned here: “the way to Hethlon to the road [leading] to Zedad.”  
this is the northern side: [Lit. and the northern side.] And here you have the northern side.  
18And the eastern side is between Hauran and Damascus, between Gilead and the Land of Israel is the Jordan; from the border by the eastern sea shall you measure; this is the eastern side.   יחוּפְאַ֣ת קָדִ֡ים מִבֵּ֣ין חַוְרָ֣ן וּמִבֵּ֣ין־דַּמֶּשֶׂק֩ וּמִבֵּ֨ין הַגִּלְעָ֜ד וּמִבֵּ֨ין אֶ֚רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן מִגְּב֛וּל עַל־הַיָּ֥ם הַקַּדְמוֹנִ֖י תָּמֹ֑דּוּ וְאֵ֖ת פְּאַ֥ת קָדִֽימָה:
between Gilead and the land of Israel: The eastern border of the land of Canaan. Trans-Jordan is not included within these borders; only the land of Canaan. Similarly, the borders demarcated in the Torah do not include Trans Jordan. And this is the meaning of this verse: And from the eastern border of the land of Canaan, which is between Hauran and Damascus which are situated on its northeastern corner, as is stated above in this section, and between Gilead and the land of Israel that is on the eastern side of the Jordan.  
is the Jordan; from the border by the eastern sea shall you measure: The Jordan is its eastern border from the boundary of the northern cornerthat is the Hazer-enan delineated above, until the eastern sea, the Dead Sea, which is in the south- eastern corner. This shall you measure as the length of the eastern border. In the Torah, too, the eastern boundary is delineated in this manner (Num. 34:12): “and its ends shall be the Salt Sea” in the southern corner.  
this is the eastern side: As if to say, [as translated,] this is the eastern side.  
19And the southern side is from Tamar until the water of Meriboth Kadesh to the stream [that falls] into the Great Sea; this is the southern side.   יטוּפְאַת֙ נֶ֣גֶב תֵּימָ֔נָה מִתָּמָ֗ר עַד־מֵי֙ מְרִיב֣וֹת קָדֵ֔שׁ נַֽחֲלָ֖ה אֶל־הַיָּ֣ם הַגָּד֑וֹל וְאֵ֥ת פְּאַת־תֵּימָ֖נָה נֶֽגְבָּה:
from Tamar: From Jericho, which is the city of date palms, (Deut. 33:3), and so did Jonathan render it.  
until the water of Meriboth Kadesh: that is the desert of Zin. (Num 27:14)  
to the stream [that falls] into the Great Sea: And from there the border proceeds until the stream of Egypt, which falls into the Great Sea in the southwestern corner. Moses, too, delineated the southern boundary in this way, from the desert of Zin alongside Edom, and he proceeds and counts until (ibid. 34: 5): “from Atzmon to the stream of Egypt, and its ends shall be at the sea.” [Accordingly,] נַחֲלָה stated here is like לַנַחַל, to the stream. I found it, however, translated [by Jonathan] as אַחֲסָנָא, an inheritance, and were it not for the fact that the accent is on the last syllable, and [that] the Masorah states that there is no other instance in which the accent is on the first syllable, I would have said that it is an error, and that Jonathan did not translate it that way, only erring readers.  
20And the western side is the Great Sea from the border until opposite the road [leading] to Hamath; this is the western side.   כוּפְאַת־יָם֙ הַיָּ֣ם הַגָּד֔וֹל מִגְּב֕וּל עַד־נֹ֖כַח לְב֣וֹא חֲמָ֑ת זֹ֖את פְּאַת־יָֽם:
And the western side: the western border.  
the Great Sea from the border until opposite the road [leading] to Hamath: from the southern corner, which is the stream of Egypt, until opposite the way [leading] to Hamath, until the northwestern corner, which is Mount Hor, opposite the road [leading] to Hamath, for Hamath is in the northwest corner alongside Mount Hor, as is written (Num. 34:7f.): “From the Great Sea you shall draw a line extending to Mount Hor. From Mount Hor you shall draw a line extending to the road [leading] to Hamath.”  
21And you shall divide this land among yourselves according to the tribes of Israel.   כאוְחִלַּקְתֶּ֞ם אֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ הַזֹּ֛את לָכֶ֖ם לְשִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
22And that will be what you allot as a heritage, for yourselves and for the strangers who dwell in your midst, who will beget sons in your midst, and they will be to you as citizens among the children of Israel; with you they will inherit of the inheritance in the midst of the tribes of Israel.   כבוְהָיָ֗ה תַּפִּ֣לוּ אוֹתָהּ֘ בְּנַֽחֲלָה֒ לָכֶ֗ם וּלְהַגֵּרִים֙ הַגָּרִ֣ים בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹלִ֥דוּ בָנִ֖ים בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֑ם וְהָי֣וּ לָכֶ֗ם כְּאֶזְרָח֙ בִּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אִתְּכֶם֙ יִפְּל֣וּ בְנַֽחֲלָ֔ה בְּת֖וֹךְ שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
23And it shall be in the tribe with which the stranger sojourns, there you shall give his inheritance, says the Lord God.   כגוְהָיָ֣ה בַשֵּׁ֔בֶט אֲשֶׁר־גָּ֥ר הַגֵּ֖ר אִתּ֑וֹ שָׁם תִּתְּנ֣וּ נַֽחֲלָת֔וֹ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
with which the stranger sojourns: who became proselytized in exile within that tribe.