Chapter 46

1So says the Lord God: The gate of the Inner Court that faces toward the east shall remain closed the six working days, but on the Sabbath it shall be opened, and on the New Moon it shall be opened.   אכֹּֽה־אָמַר֘ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִה֒ שַׁ֜עַר הֶֽחָצֵ֚ר הַפְּנִימִית֙ הַפֹּנֶ֣ה קָדִ֔ים יִֽהְיֶ֣ה סָג֔וּר שֵׁ֖שֶׁת יְמֵ֣י הַמַּֽעֲשֶׂ֑ה וּבְי֚וֹם הַשַּׁבָּת֙ יִפָּתֵ֔חַ וּבְי֥וֹם הַחֹ֖דֶשׁ יִפָּתֵֽחַ:
The gate of the Inner Court that faces toward the east, etc.: Our Rabbis learned in Tractate Middoth (4:2): The gate of the Heichal had two wickets, one in the south and one in the north. Concerning the one in the south it is explained in the post Mosaic Scriptures (above 44:2): “and no man shall come through it… and it shall be closed.”  
2And the prince shall enter by way of the vestibule of the gate without, and he shall stand at the doorpost of the gate, and the priests shall offer his burnt-offering and his peace-offering, and he shall prostrate himself at the threshold of the gate, and go out, but the gate shall not be closed until the evening.   בוּבָ֣א הַנָּשִׂ֡יא דֶּרֶךְ֩ אוּלָ֨ם הַשַּׁ֜עַר מִח֗וּץ וְעָמַד֙ עַל־מְזוּזַ֣ת הַשַּׁ֔עַר וְעָשׂ֣וּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֗ים אֶת־עֽוֹלָתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָ֔יו וְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲוָ֛ה עַל־מִפְתַּ֥ן הַשַּׁ֖עַר וְיָצָ֑א וְהַשַּׁ֥עַר לֹֽא־יִסָּגֵ֖ר עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
by way of the vestibule of the gate without: as he states above (40:31): “And its halls were to the Outer Court.” By way of the vestibule of the Gate of the Court, i.e., he shall enter by way of the Eastern Gate, which serves for entry and exit, and come to that wicket.  
and he shall stand at the doorpost of the gate: That small gate is the wicket.  
his burnt offering and his peace offering: The burnt offering for appearing in the Temple and the peace offering for celebrating the festivals; this verse refers to the festivals.  
and he shall stand at the doorposts of the gate: The inner gate; this is the wicket, as the master stated (Taanith 4: 2): “Is it possible for a person’s sacrifice to be offered up when he is not standing over it?”  
shall not be closed until the evening: Now why should it not be closed ?  
3And the people of the land shall [also] prostrate themselves at the entrance of that gate on the Sabbaths and on the New Moons, before the Lord.   גוְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו֣וּ עַם־הָאָ֗רֶץ פֶּתַח הַשַּׁ֣עַר הַה֔וּא בַּשַּׁבָּת֖וֹת וּבֶֽחֳדָשִׁ֑ים לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
And the people of the land shall prostrate themselves: all day, and whoever comes, too, and in the evening they shall close it.  
4And the burnt- offering which the prince offers to the Lord; On the Sabbath shall be six lambs without blemish and a ram without blemish.   דוְהָ֣עֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִ֥ב הַנָּשִׂ֖יא לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֗ת שִׁשָּׁ֧ה כְבָשִׂ֛ים תְּמִימִ֖ם וְאַ֥יִל תָּמִֽים:
On the Sabbath day shall be six lambs: I do not know why, for the Torah said (Num. 28:9): “two lambs,” and “on the Sabbath Day” means either the Sabbath commemorating the Creation or a festival. I, therefore, say that this Sabbath is not the Sabbath commemorating the Creation, but a festival that requires seven lambs and two rams. Scripture comes and teaches you that [the absence of one] does not render the other one invalid, and if he does not find seven, he should bring six, and if he does not find two rams, he should bring one, as our Rabbis expounded regarding the New Moon.  
5And as a meal- offering: one ephah for the ram; and for the lambs, a meal-offering as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah.   הוּמִנְחָה֙ אֵיפָ֣ה לָאַ֔יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֥ים מִנְחָ֖ה מַתַּ֣ת יָד֑וֹ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָאֵיפָֽה:
as he is able to give: This teaches that the meal-offerings do not render each other invalid [in each other’s absence].  
6But on the New Moon; a young bull without blemish, and six lambs and a ram, without blemish are they to be.   ווּבְי֣וֹם הַחֹ֔דֶשׁ פַּ֥ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֖ר תְּמִימִ֑ם וְשֵׁ֧שֶׁת כְּבָשִׂ֛ים וָאַ֖יִל תְּמִימִ֥ם יִֽהְיֽוּ:
But on the New Moon: a young bull without blemish: Our Rabbis expounded upon this verse in Menahoth (45a): Why does it say, “a young bull” ? Since it is stated in the Torah (Num. 28:11): “And at the beginnings of your months, etc., two young bulls,” how do you know that if he did not find two, he should bring one? Because it is stated: “a bull.”  
and six lambs: Why is it necessary to state this? Since it is said in the Torah, “seven,” how do you know that if he did not find seven, he should bring six? Because it is stated: “and six lambs.” And how do you know [that he should bring] even one? Because the Torah says, “but for the lambs as much as he can afford.”  
7And an ephah for the bull and an ephah for the ram he shall bring as a meal-offering, but for the lambs as much as he can afford, and of oil a hin to an ephah.   זוְאֵיפָ֨ה לַפָּ֜ר וְאֵיפָ֚ה לָאַ֙יִל֙ יַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה מִנְחָ֔ה וְלַ֨כְּבָשִׂ֔ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּשִּׂ֖יג יָד֑וֹ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָאֵיפָֽה:
8And whenever the prince goes in, he shall go in by way of the vestibule of the gate, and by the same way shall he go out.   חוּבְב֖וֹא הַנָּשִׂ֑יא דֶּ֣רֶךְ אוּלָ֚ם הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ יָב֔וֹא וּבְדַרְכּ֖וֹ יֵצֵֽא:
And whenever the prince goes in: on the New Moon and on the Sabbath of Creation, when Israel is not commanded to appear at the Temple, and he comes in to prostrate himself.  
he shall go in by way of the vestibule of the gate, and by the same way shall he go out: Through the very same gate he shall go out, and he is not commanded to make the Court a short-cut. But on the festivals, concerning which it is stated (Deut. 16:16): “shall all your males appear,” he is required to make it a short-cut like the rest of the people. That is what is written (verse 10): “goes in among them when they go in, and when they go out, they [the prince and people together] go out.”  
9But when the people of the land come before the Lord on the times fixed for meeting, he who enters by way of the north gate to prostrate himself shall go out by way of the south gate, and he that enters by way of the south gate shall go out by way of the north gate; he shall not return by way of the gate whereby he came in, but he shall go out by that which is opposite it.   טוּבְב֨וֹא עַם־הָאָ֜רֶץ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָה֘ בַּמּֽוֹעֲדִים֒ הַבָּ֡א דֶּרֶ֩ךְ־שַׁ֨עַר צָפ֜וֹן לְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֗ת יֵצֵא֙ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר נֶ֔גֶב וְהַבָּא֙ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר נֶ֔גֶב יֵצֵ֖א דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֣עַר צָפ֑וֹנָה לֹ֣א יָשׁ֗וּב דֶּ֚רֶךְ הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣א ב֔וֹ כִּ֥י נִכְח֖וֹ יֵצֵֽא (כתיב יֵצֵֽאו) :
But when the people of the land come, etc., by way of the north gate, etc., but he shall go out by that which is opposite it: It is incumbent upon them to be seen in full view in the Court.  
10The prince also [then] enters among them when they go in, and when they go out, they [the prince and the people together] go out.   יוְהַנָּשִׂ֑יא בְּתוֹכָ֚ם בְּבוֹאָם֙ יָב֔וֹא וּבְצֵאתָ֖ם יֵצֵֽאוּ:
The prince: When he enters the Temple Court through the southern wicket of the Heichal to prostrate himself, he too must make the Temple Court a short-cut. He shall enter by way of the northern gate and leave by way of the southern gate with the rest of the people of the land. This is the meaning of “enters in their midst when they go in, and when they go out, they go out” all of them, the prince with the rest of the people. And he shall not enter by way of the eastern gate as he regularly does on the New Moon and on the Sabbath of Creation, for the eastern gate has no gate opposite it in the west.  
11And on the Festivals and on the times fixed for meeting, the meal-offering shall consist of an ephah for a bull and an ephah for a ram, but for the lambs a gift which is in accordance with his means, and oil, a hin to an ephah.   יאוּבַֽחַגִּ֣ים וּבַמּֽוֹעֲדִ֗ים תִּהְיֶ֚ה הַמִּנְחָה֙ אֵיפָ֚ה לַפָּר֙ וְאֵיפָ֣ה לָאַ֔יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֖ים מַתַּ֣ת יָד֑וֹ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן הִ֥ין לָֽאֵיפָֽה:
12And when the prince brings a free will-offering, a burnt-offering or a peace- offering as a free will-offering to the Lord, one shall then open for him the gate that faces east, and he shall bring his burnt-offering and his peace-offering as he does on the Sabbath day, and after he has gone out, one shall close the gate.   יבוְכִי־יַֽעֲשֶׂה֩ הַנָּשִׂ֨יא נְדָבָ֜ה עוֹלָ֣ה אֽוֹ־שְׁלָמִים֘ נְדָבָ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָה֒ וּפָ֣תַח ל֗וֹ אֶת־הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ הַפֹּנֶ֣ה קָדִ֔ים וְעָשָׂ֚ה אֶת־עֹֽלָתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָ֔יו כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֑ת וְיָצָ֛א וְסָגַ֥ר אֶת־הַשַּׁ֖עַר אַֽחֲרֵ֥י צֵאתֽוֹ:
And when the prince brings a freewill offering: on the six working days.  
one shall then open for him the gate, etc.: Not to enter the Heichal through it, but he shall stand there, and the priests shall make his burnt offering and his peace- offering, and he shall prostrate himself and leave, as it is said: “as he would do on the Sabbath day.” Now what is stated regarding the Sabbath day (here)? (Verse 2) “And he shall stand at the doorpost of the gate, and the priests shall offer his burnt offering, etc.”  
after he has gone out: He does not say here: “but the gate shall not be closed until the evening,” as he says regarding the Sabbath day. For regarding the Sabbath day it says (verse 3): “And the people of the land shall prostrate themselves at the entrance of that gate.” Therefore, it is left open. But on weekdays it is not customary for them to come to prostrate themselves, for everyone is occupied with work; therefore, “after he has gone out, one shall close the gate.”  
13And a lamb of the first year, without blemish shall you bring as a burnt-offering daily to the Lord, every morning shall you bring it.   יגוְכֶ֨בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָת֜וֹ תָּמִ֗ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה עוֹלָ֛ה לַיּ֖וֹם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה בַּבֹּ֥קֶר בַּבֹּ֖קֶר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתֽוֹ:
And a lamb of the first year: the daily sacrifice.  
14And as a meal-offering you shall bring for it every morning a sixth of an ephah and a third of a hin of oil to stir [with] the fine flour; a meal-offering to the Lord, according to the perpetual ordinance.   ידוּמִנְחָה֩ תַֽעֲשֶׂ֨ה עָלָ֜יו בַּבֹּ֚קֶר בַּבֹּ֙קֶר֙ שִׁשִּׁ֣ית הָֽאֵיפָ֔ה וְשֶׁ֛מֶן שְׁלִישִׁ֥ית הַהִ֖ין לָרֹ֣ס אֶת־הַסֹּ֑לֶת מִנְחָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה חֻקּ֥וֹת עוֹלָ֖ם תָּמִֽיד:
a sixth of an ephah: of the [post-Exodus] Jerusalemite measure, which is a fifth of the [Mosaic] “measure of the desert,” equaling two tenth parts, one for the daily meal-offering and one for the pancakes. And although the pancakes were offered up by halves, he brings a complete tenth part in the morning and divides it in half, as we learned in Menahoth (4:5)  
to stir [with] the fine flour: [Heb. לָרֹם,] asperger in French, to moisten, besprinkle. Manuscripts read: ameller in Old French, to mix. לָרֹם אֶתהַסֹלֶת, to crush and mix with it the fine flour, a form of word for crushing (רִסוּם) , as in (Amos 6:11): “and he shall smite the great house into splinters (רְסִיסִים),” and in the language of the Mishnah (Shab. 8:6): If it was thick or cracked (מְרֻסָם).  
15Thus shall they bring the lamb and the meal-offering and the oil every morning, a continual burnt offering.   טויַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ (כתיב וַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ) אֶת־הַכֶּ֧בֶשׂ וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֛ה וְאֶת־הַשֶּׁ֖מֶן בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֑קֶר עוֹלַ֖ת תָּמִֽיד:
16So says the Lord God: If the prince give a gift to any of his sons, it is his inheritance and remains in his sons' possession; it is their property by inheritance   טזכֹּה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה כִּֽי־יִתֵּ֨ן הַנָּשִׂ֚יא מַתָּנָה֙ לְאִ֣ישׁ מִבָּנָ֔יו נַֽחֲלָת֥וֹ הִ֖יא לְבָנָ֣יו תִּֽהְיֶ֑ה אֲחֻזָּתָ֥ם הִ֖יא בְּנַֽחֲלָֽה:
17But if he gives a gift of his inheritance to one of his servants, then it shall be his until the year of liberty, and then it comes back to the prince; only to his sons shall his inheritance belong.   יזוְכִֽי־יִתֵּ֨ן מַתָּנָ֜ה מִנַּֽחֲלָת֗וֹ לְאַחַד֙ מֵֽעֲבָדָ֔יו וְהָ֚יְתָה לּוֹ֙ עַד־שְׁנַ֣ת הַדְּר֔וֹר וְשָׁבַ֖ת לַנָּשִׂ֑יא אַךְ נַֽחֲלָת֔וֹ בָּנָ֖יו לָהֶ֥ם תִּהְיֶֽה:
the year of liberty: the Jubilee year.  
and then it comes back: [Heb. וְשָּׁבָת, like וְשָּׁבָה.  
only to his sons shall his inheritance belong: [Only his inheritancehas sons, to them it shall be.] This is like: only to his sons shall his inheritance belong, and it shall not be given permanently to anyone else.  
18But the prince may not take of the people's inheritance to force them out of their possessions, only from his own possessions shall he give his sons inheritance, so that My people not be scattered each man from his inheritance.   יחוְלֹֽא־יִקַּ֨ח הַנָּשִׂ֜יא מִנַּֽחֲלַ֣ת הָעָ֗ם לְהֽוֹנֹתָם֙ מֵֽאֲחֻזָּתָ֔ם מֵֽאֲחֻזָּת֖וֹ יַנְחִ֣ל אֶת־בָּנָ֑יו לְמַ֙עַן֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יָפֻ֣צוּ עַמִּ֔י אִ֖ישׁ מֵֽאֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
19Now he brought me through the entry that was on the side of the gate to the chambers of the Sanctuary of the priests, which face northward, and behold there was a place at the end toward the west.   יטוַיְבִיאֵ֣נִי בַמָּבוֹא֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־כֶּ֣תֶף הַשַּׁעַר֒ אֶל־הַלִּֽשְׁכ֚וֹת הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ אֶל־הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֔ים הַפֹּנ֖וֹת צָפ֑וֹנָה וְהִנֵּה־שָׁ֣ם מָק֔וֹם בַּיַּרְכָתַ֖יִם (כתיב בַּיַּרְכָתִַ֖ם) יָֽמָּה:
Now he brought me through the entry: by way of the cubit at the corner of the depository of the knives, by which they enter the space of twenty [cubits] that is between the chambers in the north and the cells of the Heichal.  
that was on the side of the gate: the northern gate; the side of the gate that is west of the gate.  
which face northward: Which have entrances to the side of the Outer Court to the north; and they had entrances to the space of twenty [cubits].  
at the end toward the west: at the end of the chambers to the west.  
20And he said to me; This is the place where the priests shall cook the guilt-offering and the sin-offering and bake the meal-offering, so as not to bring [them] out to the Outer Court to mingle with the people.   כוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י זֶ֣ה הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֚ר יְבַשְּׁלוּ־שָׁם֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אֶת־הָֽאָשָׁ֖ם וְאֶת־הַֽחַטָּ֑את אֲשֶׁ֚ר יֹאפוּ֙ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה לְבִלְתִּ֥י הוֹצִ֛יא אֶל־הֶֽחָצֵ֥ר הַחִֽיצוֹנָ֖ה לְקַדֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־הָעָֽם:
so as not to bring [them] out: [Heb. הוֹצִיא,] like לְהוֹצִיא, for the “most holy sacrifices” become disqualified by being taken out.  
to mingle with the people: [Heb. לְקַדֵשׁ אֶתהָעָם lit. to sanctify the people.] Jonathan renders: to mingle with the people.  
21And he took me out to the Outer Court, and he led me past the four corners of the Court, and behold a court in the corner of the Court.   כאוַיּֽוֹצִיאֵ֗נִי אֶל־הֶֽחָצֵר֙ הַחִ֣יצֹנָ֔ה וַיַּ֣עֲבִרֵ֔נִי אֶל־אַרְבַּ֖עַת מִקְצוֹעֵ֣י הֶֽחָצֵ֑ר וְהִנֵּ֚ה חָצֵר֙ בְּמִקְצֹ֣עַ הֶֽחָצֵ֔ר חָצֵ֖ר בְּמִקְצֹ֥עַ הֶֽחָצֵֽר:
corners [Heb.: מִקְצוֹעֵי,] angles in French, corners.  
22In the four corners of the Court were open enclosures, forty in length and thirty in width, one measure for the four of them in the corners.   כבבְּאַרְבַּ֜עַת מִקְצֹעֹ֚ת הֶֽחָצֵר֙ חֲצֵר֣וֹת קְטֻר֔וֹת אַרְבָּעִ֣ים אֹ֔רֶךְ וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֖ים רֹ֑חַב מִדָּ֣ה אַחַ֔ת לְאַרְבַּעְתָּ֖ם מְ֗הֻ֗קְ֗צָ֗עֽ֗וֹ֗ת֗:
open enclosures: We learned in Tractate Middoth (2:5): קְטֻרוֹת means that they had no roofs, and there it is explained what they were used for.  
in the corners: in the corners of the Court.  
23And a row [of masonry] around in them, around all four of them, and a place for cooking was made under the rows [of masonry] around.   כגוְט֨וּר סָבִ֥יב בָּהֶ֛ם סָבִ֖יב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּ֑ם וּמְבַשְּׁל֣וֹת עָשׂ֔וּי מִתַּ֥חַת הַטִּיר֖וֹת סָבִֽיב:
And a row around in them: A row of masonry, a wall of stones protruding from the wall, near the ground, in which there were holes, a place to stand pots. Below the row [of masonry] was a space in which to kindle a fire and the pots [would be heated] above it.  
and a place for cooking was made: that is the space below the placing of the pots.  
24And he said to me, "These are the cooking places where the ministrants of the House will cook the people's sacrifices."   כדוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלָ֑י אֵלֶּה בֵּ֣ית הַֽמְבַשְּׁלִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר יְבַשְּׁלוּ־שָׁ֛ם מְשָֽׁרְתֵ֥י הַבַּ֖יִת אֶת־זֶ֥בַח הָעָֽם:
the people’s sacrifices: The breast and the thigh of the peace offering, which do not become unfit by going out of the Israelites’ Court as do the sin-offering and the guilt-offering.