Chapter 25

1The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim son of Josiah, king of Judah-that is the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon.   אהַדָּבָ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־הָיָ֚ה עַל־יִרְמְיָ֙הוּ֙ עַל־כָּל־עַ֣ם יְהוּדָ֔ה בַּשָּׁנָה֙ הָֽרְבִעִ֔ית לִיהֽוֹיָקִ֥ים בֶּן־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֖הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה הִ֗יא הַשָּׁנָה֙ הָֽרִ֣אשֹׁנִ֔ית לִנְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל:
in the fourth year: The year that their decree was sealed that they be exiled and that they drink the cup of wrath, as he says in this section (v. 15): “Take the cup, etc.,” and before the decree He commanded the prophet to reprove them, perhaps they would repent, and their decree would not be sealed.  
2Which Jeremiah the prophet spoke to all the people of Judah and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying:   באֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֜ר יִרְמְיָ֚הוּ הַנָּבִיא֙ עַל־כָּל־עַ֣ם יְהוּדָ֔ה וְאֶ֛ל כָּל־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֥י יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
3From the thirteenth year of Josiah son of Amon, king of Judah, until this day, these twenty- three years the word of the Lord has come to me, and I spoke to you, arising early and speaking, but you did not hearken.   גמִן־שְׁלֹ֣שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֡ה לְיֹֽאשִׁיָּ֣הוּ בֶן־אָמוֹן֩ מֶ֨לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֜ה וְעַ֣ד | הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה זֶה שָׁל֚שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י וָֽאֲדַבֵּ֧ר אֲלֵיכֶ֛ם אַשְׁכֵּ֥ים וְדַבֵּ֖ר וְלֹ֥א שְׁמַעְתֶּֽם:
twenty-three years: Josiah reigned thirty-one years (II Kings 22:1). Subtract twelve years from them (Jer. 1:2). This leaves nineteen, and four of his son amount to twenty-three.  
arising early: This is a present tense. I would arise early and speak constantly.  
4And the Lord sent to you all His servants, the prophets, sending them early, but you did not hearken and you did not incline your ear[s] to listen.   דוְשָׁלַח֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֲלֵיכֶ֜ם אֶת־כָּל־עֲבָדָ֧יו הַנְּבִאִ֛ים הַשְׁכֵּ֥ם וְשָׁלֹ֖חַ וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם וְלֹֽא־הִטִּיתֶ֥ם אֶת־אָזְנְכֶ֖ם לִשְׁמֹֽעַ:
5Saying; Repent now, each man of his evil way and of the evil of your deeds, and dwell on the land that the Lord gave you and your forefathers from days of yore and forever.   הלֵאמֹ֗ר שֻֽׁבוּ־נָ֞א אִ֣ישׁ מִדַּרְכּ֚וֹ הָֽרָעָה֙ וּמֵרֹ֣עַ מַֽעַלְלֵיכֶ֔ם וּשְׁבוּ֙ עַל־הָֽ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֧ן יְהֹוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם וְלַֽאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם לְמִן־עוֹלָ֖ם וְעַד־עוֹלָֽם:
6And do not go after other gods to worship them and to prostrate yourselves to them, and you shall not provoke Me with the work of your hands, and I will not harm you.   ווְאַל־תֵּֽלְכ֗וּ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים לְעָבְדָ֖ם וּלְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֣ת לָהֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תַכְעִ֚יסוּ אוֹתִי֙ בְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יְדֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א אָרַ֖ע לָכֶֽם:
7But you did not hearken to Me, says the Lord, in order to provoke Me with the work of your hands for your harm.   זוְלֹֽא־שְׁמַעְתֶּ֥ם אֵלָ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה לְמַ֧עַן הַכְעִיסֵ֛נִי (כתיב הַכְעִסֵ֛ונִי) בְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיכֶ֖ם לְרַ֥ע לָכֶֽם:
8Therefore, so said the Lord of Hosts: Since you have not hearkened to My words,   חלָכֵ֕ן כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת יַ֕עַן אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־שְׁמַעְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־דְּבָרָֽי:
9Behold, I send and I will take all the families of the north, says the Lord, and to Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, My servant, and I will bring them upon this land and upon its inhabitants and upon all these nations around, and I will destroy them and make them for a desolation and for a hissing and for perpetual ruins.   טהִֽנְנִ֣י שֹׁלֵ֡חַ וְלָֽקַחְתִּי֩ אֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפְּח֨וֹת צָפ֜וֹן נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֗ה וְאֶל־נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֣ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶל֘ עַבְדִּי֒ וַֽהֲבִ֨אֹתִ֜ים עַל־הָאָ֚רֶץ הַזֹּאת֙ וְעַל־י֣שְׁבֶ֔יהָ וְעַ֛ל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֥ם הָאֵ֖לֶּה סָבִ֑יב וְהַֽ֣חֲרַמְתִּ֔ים וְשַׂמְתִּים֙ לְשַׁמָּ֣ה וְלִשְׁרֵקָ֔ה וּלְחָרְב֖וֹת עוֹלָֽם:
10And I will cause to cease from them a voice of mirth and a voice of joy, the sound of a bridegroom and the sound of a bride, the sound of a mill and the light of a candle.   יוְהַֽאֲבַדְתִּ֣י מֵהֶ֗ם ק֚וֹל שָׂשׂוֹן֙ וְק֣וֹל שִׂמְחָ֔ה ק֥וֹל חָתָ֖ן וְק֣וֹל כַּלָּ֑ה ק֥וֹל רֵחַ֖יִם וְא֥וֹר נֵֽר:
the sound of a mill: That is an indication of a circumcision feast, since they would grind and crush ingredients for healing the wound.  
the light of a candle: An indication of a feast. So we learned in Sanhedrin (32b).  
11And all this land shall become waste [and] desolation, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon for seventy years.   יאוְהָֽיְתָה֙ כָּל־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את לְחָרְבָּ֖ה לְשַׁמָּ֑ה וְעָ֨בְד֜וּ הַגּוֹיִ֥ם הָאֵ֛לֶּה אֶת־מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶ֖ל שִׁבְעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה:
12And it shall be at the completion of seventy years, I will visit upon the king of Babylon and upon that nation, says the Lord, their iniquity, and upon the land of the Chaldeans, and I will make it for everlasting desolations.   יבוְהָיָ֣ה כִמְלֹ֣אות שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֡ה אֶפְקֹ֣ד עַל־מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶל֩ וְעַל־הַגּ֨וֹי הַה֧וּא נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָ֖ם וְעַל־אֶ֣רֶץ כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים וְשַׂמְתִּ֥י אֹת֖וֹ לְשִֽׁמְמ֥וֹת עוֹלָֽם:
13And I will bring upon that land all My words that I have spoken about it, all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah prophesied concerning all the nations.   יגוְהֵֽבֵאתִי֙ (כתיב וְהֵֽבֵאותִי֙) עַל־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַהִ֔יא אֶת־כָּל־דְּבָרַ֖י אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֣רְתִּי עָלֶ֑יהָ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַכָּתוּב֙ בַּסֵּ֣פֶר הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נִבָּ֥א יִרְמְיָ֖הוּ עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם:
all that is written: concerning Babylon.  
in this Book: at its end.  
14For many nations and great kings will enslave them too, and I will recompense them according to their deed and according to the work of their hands.   ידכִּ֣י עָֽבְדוּ־בָ֚ם גַּם־הֵ֙מָּה֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים וּמְלָכִ֖ים גְּדוֹלִ֑ים וְשִׁלַּמְתִּ֥י לָהֶ֛ם כְּפָֽעֳלָ֖ם וּכְמַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיהֶֽם:
For… will enslave them: Like ‘For… shall enslave them,’ i.e., shall enslave the people of Babylon.  
many nations… too: Viz. Media and Persia.  
15For so said the Lord God of Israel to me; Take this cup of the wine of fury from My hand, and you shall give it to all the nations to whom I send you, to drink.   טוכִּ֣י כֹה֩ אָמַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֚י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֵלַ֔י קַ֠ח אֶת־כּ֨וֹס הַיַּ֧יִן הַֽחֵמָ֛ה הַזֹּ֖את מִיָּדִ֑י וְהִשְׁקִיתָ֚ה אוֹתוֹ֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י שֹׁלֵ֥חַ אֽוֹתְךָ֖ אֲלֵיהֶֽם:
cup of the wine of fury: The prophecy of retribution  
and you shall give… to drink it: Prophesy to them that it will no longer be retracted for any repentance.  
16And they shall drink and reel to and fro and be like madmen because of the sword that I am sending among them.   טזוְשָׁת֕וּ וְהִתְגֹּֽעֲשׁ֖וּ וְהִתְהֹלָ֑לוּ מִפְּנֵ֣י הַחֶ֔רֶב אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י שֹׁלֵ֖חַ בֵּֽינֹתָֽם:
and reel to and fro: Jonathan renders: and they shall be confused.  
and be like madmen: an expression of madness, they shall be mad.  
17And I took the cup from the hand of the Lord, and I gave it to all the nations to whom the Lord had sent me, to drink.   יזוָֽאֶקַּ֥ח אֶת־הַכּ֖וֹס מִיַּ֣ד יְהֹוָ֑ה וָֽאַשְׁקֶה֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחַ֥נִי יְהֹוָ֖ה אֲלֵיהֶֽם:
18Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, and its kings and its princes, to make them a waste, a desolation, a hissing, and a curse, as of this day.   יחאֶת־יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ וְאֶת־עָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וְאֶת־מְלָכֶ֖יהָ אֶת־שָׂרֶ֑יהָ לָתֵ֨ת אֹתָ֜ם לְחָרְבָּ֧ה לְשַׁמָּ֛ה לִשְׁרֵקָ֥ה וְלִקְלָלָ֖ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
as of this day: As they are today. Jeremiah wrote his Book after the destruction.  
19Pharaoh the king of Egypt and his servants and his princes and all his people.   יטאֶת־פַּרְעֹ֧ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֛יִם וְאֶת־עֲבָדָ֥יו וְאֶת־שָׂרָ֖יו וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמּֽוֹ:
20And all the allies and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines and Ashkelon and Gaza and Ekron and the remnant of Ashdod.   כוְאֵת֙ כָּל־הָעֶ֔רֶב וְאֵ֕ת כָּל־מַלְכֵ֖י אֶ֣רֶץ הָע֑וּץ וְאֵ֗ת כָּל־מַלְכֵי֙ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְאֶת־אַשְׁקְל֚וֹן וְאֶת־עַזָּה֙ וְאֶת־עֶקְר֔וֹן וְאֵ֖ת שְׁאֵרִ֥ית אַשְׁדּֽוֹד:
And all the allies: All the supports (סוּמְכְוָתָא) which are Pharaoh’s guarantee, and he leans upon them for aid.  
the allies: Garantie in French.  
21And Edom and Moab and the children of Ammon.   כאאֶת־אֱד֥וֹם וְאֶת־מוֹאָ֖ב וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן:
22And all the kings of Tyre and all the kings of Sidon and the kings of the isle that is on the other side of the area.   כבוְאֵת֙ כָּל־מַלְכֵי־צֹ֔ר וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י צִיד֑וֹן וְאֵת֙ מַלְכֵ֣י הָאִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֥בֶר הַיָּֽם:
and the kings of the isle: All these that he counts (ֹשֶמוֹנֶה) until here are neighbors of Eretz Israel.  
23Dedan and Tema and Buz and all those separated in that corner.   כגוְאֶת־דְּדָ֚ן וְאֶת־תֵּימָא֙ וְאֶת־בּ֔וּז וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־קְצוּצֵ֥י פֵאָֽה:
and all those separated in that corner: those separated at the end of that corner.  
24And all the kings of Arabia and all the kings of the allies who dwell in the desert.   כדוְאֵ֖ת כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י עֲרָ֑ב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י הָעֶ֔רֶב הַשֹּֽׁכְנִ֖ים בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
the kings of Arabia: Heb. עֲרָב, Arabia.  
and all the kings of the allies: The allies of the Arabs.  
25And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam and all the kings of Media.   כהוְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י זִמְרִ֗י וְאֵת֙ כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י עֵילָ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־מַלְכֵ֥י מָדָֽי:
Sheshach: That is ‘Babylon’ in אתבש.  
26And all the kings of the north, both near and far, one after the other, and all the kingdoms of the earth that are upon the face of the earth; and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them.   כווְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י הַצָּפ֗וֹן הַקְּרֹבִ֚ים וְהָֽרְחֹקִים֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֔יו וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַמַּמְלְכ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וּמֶ֥לֶךְ שֵׁשַׁ֖ךְ יִשְׁתֶּ֥ה אַֽחֲרֵיהֶֽם:
27And you shall say to them: So said the Lord God of Israel; Drink, become drunk, and vomit, fall and you shall not rise, because of the sword that I am sending among you.   כזוְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֡ם כֹּֽה־אָמַר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שְׁת֚וּ וְשִׁכְרוּ֙ וּקְי֔וּ וְנִפְל֖וּ וְלֹ֣א תָק֑וּמוּ מִפְּנֵ֣י הַחֶ֔רֶב אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י שֹׁלֵ֖חַ בֵּינֵיכֶֽם:
and vomit: Like a person who drinks too much, who vomits.  
the sword: the strife of war.  
28And it shall be, if they refuse to take the cup from your hand to drink, that you shall say to them: So said the Lord of Hosts: You shall surely drink.   כחוְהָיָ֗ה כִּ֧י יְמָֽאֲנ֛וּ לָקַֽחַת־הַכּ֥וֹס מִיָּֽדְךָ֖ לִשְׁתּ֑וֹת וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שָׁת֥וֹ תִשְׁתּֽוּ:
29For behold, with the city upon which My name is called, I commence to bring evil, and shall you be cleared? You shall not be cleared, for I call a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, says the Lord of Hosts.   כטכִּי֩ הִנֵּ֨ה בָעִ֜יר אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָ֧א־שְׁמִ֣י עָלֶ֗יהָ אָֽנֹכִי֙ מֵחֵ֣ל לְהָרַ֔ע וְאַתֶּ֖ם הִנָּקֵ֣ה תִנָּק֑וּ לֹ֣א תִנָּק֔וּ כִּ֣י חֶ֗רֶב אֲנִ֚י קֹרֵא֙ עַל־כָּל־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ נְאֻ֖ם יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת:
commence: מֵחֵל.  
30And you prophesy to them all these words, and you shall say to them: The Lord shall roar from above, and from His Holy Habitation He shall give forth His voice; He shall roar over His habitation; "Hedad!" He shall call out like those who tread grapes, to all the inhabitants of the earth.   לוְאַתָּה֙ תִּנָּבֵ֣א אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם יְהֹוָ֞ה מִמָּר֚וֹם יִשְׁאָג֙ וּמִמְּע֚וֹן קָדְשׁוֹ֙ יִתֵּ֣ן קוֹל֔וֹ שָׁאֹ֚ג יִשְׁאַג֙ עַל־נָוֵ֔הוּ הֵידָד֙ כְּדֹֽרְכִ֣ים יַֽעֲנֶ֔ה אֶ֥ל כָּל־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֖י הָאָֽרֶץ:
over His habitation: He mourns over the destruction of His house.  
“Hedad!”: A cry of “Ha!” that those engaged in hard work cry out aloud to urge each other on to strengthen themselves, and those who tread the winepresses are accustomed to it.  
He shall call out: Every expression of עֲנִיָה, is an expression of a cry with a loud voice.  
31A stirring has come until the end of the earth, for God has a controversy with the nations; He contends with all flesh. The wicked He has delivered to the sword, says the Lord.   לאבָּ֚א שָׁאוֹן֙ עַד־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּ֣י רִ֚יב לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם נִשְׁפָּ֥ט ה֖וּא לְכָל־בָּשָׂ֑ר הָֽרְשָׁעִ֛ים נְתָנָ֥ם לַחֶ֖רֶב נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
He contends: He contends in judgment.  
32So said the Lord of Hosts: Behold evil goes forth from nation to nation, and a great storm shall be awakened from the ends of the earth.   לבכֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הִנֵּ֥ה רָעָ֛ה יֹצֵ֖את מִגּ֣וֹי אֶל־גּ֑וֹי וְסַ֣עַר גָּד֔וֹל יֵע֖וֹר מִיַּרְכְּתֵי־אָֽרֶץ:
from nation to nation: whom I incite against one another.  
from the ends: as the Targum renders it: מִסְיָפֵי, from the ends of.  
33And those slain by the Lord shall be on that day from the end of the earth to the end of the earth; they shall not be lamented; neither gathered nor buried. They shall be as dung on the face of the earth.   לגוְהָי֞וּ חַלְלֵ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא מִקְצֵ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ לֹ֣א יִסָּֽפְד֗וּ וְלֹ֚א יֵאָֽסְפוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יִקָּבֵ֔רוּ לְדֹ֛מֶן עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָ֖ה יִֽהְיֽוּ:
34Howl, O you shepherds, and cry out, and roll, you mighty of the sheep, for your days have filled to slaughter, and your scatterings, and you shall fall as a precious vessel.   לדהֵילִ֨ילוּ הָֽרֹעִ֜ים וְזַֽעֲק֗וּ וְהִֽתְפַּלְּשׁוּ֙ אַדִּירֵ֣י הַצֹּ֔אן כִּי־מָֽלְא֥וּ יְמֵיכֶ֖ם לִטְבּ֑וֹחַ וּתְפוֹצ֣וֹתִיכֶ֔ם וּנְפַלְתֶּ֖ם כִּכְלִ֥י חֶמְדָּֽה:
Howl: an expression of יְלָלָה, howling.  
and roll: i.e., roll in the dust (se vautrer in French).  
and your scatterings: This is a short verse; i.e., to say: and your scatterings shall come near.  
like a precious vessel: That is to say: If you say, “We are important,” there are many precious glass vessels that fall, break, and are lost.  
35And flight shall fail the shepherds and deliverance the mighty of the flock.   להוְאָבַ֥ד מָנ֖וֹס מִן־הָֽרֹעִ֑ים וּפְלֵיטָ֖ה מֵֽאַדִּירֵ֥י הַצֹּֽאן:
36Hark! the cry of the shepherds and the howling of the mighty of the flocks, for the Lord plunders their pasture.   לוקוֹל צַֽעֲקַ֣ת הָֽרֹעִ֔ים וִֽילְלַ֖ת אַדִּירֵ֣י הַצֹּ֑אן כִּֽי־שֹׁדֵ֥ד יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־מַרְעִיתָֽם:
37And the tranquil abodes shall be destroyed because of the Lord's furious wrath.   לזוְנָדַ֖מּוּ נְא֣וֹת הַשָּׁל֑וֹם מִפְּנֵ֖י חֲר֥וֹן אַף־יְהֹוָֽה:
shall be destroyed: an expression of destruction, an expression related to ‘has silenced us (הֲדִמָּנוּ).’ ‘and there let us sit in silence (וְנִדְּמָה).’  
38He has left His hut like a young lion, for their land has become waste, because of the wrath of the oppressing sword, and because of His furious wrath.   לחעָזַ֥ב כַּכְּפִ֖יר סֻכּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־הָֽיְתָ֚ה אַרְצָם֙ לְשַׁמָּ֔ה מִפְּנֵי֙ חֲר֣וֹן הַיּוֹנָ֔ה וּמִפְּנֵ֖י חֲר֥וֹן אַפּֽוֹ:
He has left his hut like a young lion: The king has gone in exile from his city like a young lion that leaves his hut.  
because of the wrath of the oppressing sword: drunk from wine. So did Jonathan translate. Another explanation: It is an expression of oppression (אוֹנָאָה).