[The prohibition against partaking of] the gid hanesheh1 applies with regard to kosher2 domesticated animals and wild beasts,3 even nevelot and trefot.4 It applies to a fetus5 and to animals that have been consecrated, both those consecrated [for sacrifices] of which we partake and for sacrifices of which we do not partake. It applies to [the gid] on the right thigh and that on the left thigh.6

According to Scriptural Law, only [the gid] on the hip socket is forbidden, as [Genesis 32:33] states: "which is on the hip-socket." The remainder of the gid which is above the socket or below the socket - and similarly, the fat which is on the gid - are forbidden only according to Rabbinic decree.7 There are two giddim. The inner one next to the bone is forbidden according to Scriptural Law. The entire outer one is forbidden by Rabbinic decree.


גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה נוֹהֵג בִּבְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה הַטְּהוֹרִין וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּנְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן. וְנוֹהֵג בְּשָׁלִיל וּבְמֻקְדָּשִׁין בֵּין קָדָשִׁים הַנֶּאֱכָלִים בֵּין קָדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין. וְנוֹהֵג בְּיָרֵךְ שֶׁל יָמִין וּבְיָרֵךְ שֶׁל שְׂמֹאל. וְאֵין אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא שֶׁעַל כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לב לג) "אֲשֶׁר עַל כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ". אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַגִּיד שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִן הַכַּף וְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה עַד סוֹפוֹ וְכֵן חֵלֶב שֶׁעַל הַגִּיד אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וּשְׁנֵי גִּידִין הֵן. הַפְּנִימִי הַסָּמוּךְ לָעֶצֶם אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְהָעֶלְיוֹן כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם:


When a person partakes of the inner gid hanesheh on the socket, he is liable for lashes.8 If he partakes of the fat [of the gid], the remainder of the inner gid, or the entire outer one, he is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.9

What is the measure of which one must partake to be liable? An olive-sized portion. If one ate the entire gid on the socket, one is liable, even though it is less than an olive in size. The rationale is that it is considered as a self-contained entity.10


הָאוֹכֵל מִגִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה הַפְּנִימִי מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁעַל הַכַּף לוֹקֶה. וְאִם אָכַל מֵחֶלְבּוֹ אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר הַגִּיד הַפְּנִימִי אוֹ מִכָּל הַחִיצוֹן מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּר אֲכִילָה. כְּזַיִת. וְאִם אָכַל הַגִּיד שֶׁעַל הַכַּף כֻּלּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת לוֹקֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּבְרִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ:


When a person eats an olive-sized portion of the gid on the right side and an olive-sized portion of the gid on the left side, or he ate two entire giddim even if they are not the size of an olive, he receives 80 lashes. He is given lashes for every gid independently.11


אָכַל כְּזַיִת מִגִּיד שֶׁל יָמִין וּכְזַיִת מִגִּיד שֶׁל שְׂמֹאל. אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל שְׁנֵי גִּידִים כֻּלָּן. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן כְּזַיִת לוֹקֶה שְׁמוֹנִים. (וְכֵן הוּא לוֹקֶה עַל כָּל גִּיד וְגִיד):


The prohibition against gid hanesheh does not apply with regard to a fowl, because it does not have a [round]12 hip-socket. Instead, its thigh is long [and flat]. If there is a fowl whose thigh is shaped like that of the thigh of an animal, i.e., it has a hip-socket, its gid hanesheh is forbidden, but one is not liable for lashes, because of it. Similarly, when there is an animal whose thigh is long like that of a fowl, its gid hanesheh is forbidden, but one is not liable for lashes for it.13


הָעוֹף אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כַּף יָרֵךְ אֶלָּא יְרֵכוֹ אָרֹךְ. וְאִם נִמְצָא עוֹף שֶׁיְּרֵכוֹ כְּיֶרֶךְ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ כַּף גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה שֶׁלּוֹ אָסוּר וְאֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו. וְכֵן בְּהֵמָה שֶׁכַּף יְרֵכָהּ אָרֹךְ כְּשֶׁל עוֹף גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה שֶׁלָּהּ אָסוּר וְאֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו:


When a person eats the gid hanesheh from a non-kosher domesticated animal or wild beast, he is not liable.14 [The rationale is that this prohibition] does not apply with regard to a non-kosher animal,15 only with regard to an animal that is entirely permitted. Nor is he considered as one who partook of the remainder of its body, for the gid is not included as meat, as we explained.16 If, however, one partakes of the fat on the gid [of a non-kosher] animal, it is considered as if one ate from its meat.


הָאוֹכֵל גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה מִבְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה הַטְּמֵאִים פָּטוּר לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בִּטְמֵאָה אֶלָּא בִּבְהֵמָה שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ מֻתֶּרֶת. וְאֵינוֹ כְּאוֹכֵל מִשְּׁאָר גּוּפָהּ שֶׁאֵין הַגִּידִים מִכְּלַל הַבָּשָׂר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם אָכַל מֵחֵלֶב שֶׁעַל הַגִּיד הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאוֹכֵל מִבְּשָׂרָהּ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When a person partakes of a gid hanesheh from a nevelah, a trefe, or an animal consecrated as a burnt offering, he is liable for two [sets of lashes]. Since [the prohibition]17 includes the remainder of its body which was permitted, it also includes the gid and causes another prohibition to be added to it.18


הָאוֹכֵל גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה שֶׁל נְבֵלָה אוֹ שֶׁל טְרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָה חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנִּכְלָל בְּאִסּוּר שְׁאָר גּוּפָהּ שֶׁהָיָה מֻתָּר נִכְלָל גַּם הַגִּיד וְנוֹסָף עָלָיו אִסּוּר אַחֵר:


One who removes the gid hanesheh must ferret out all traces of it until nothing remains.19 A butcher's word is accepted with regard to the gid hanesheh,20 just as it is accepted with regard to forbidden fat. [Accordingly,] we do not purchase meat from every butcher, [only from] an upright man who has established a reputation for observance.21 If he slaughters meat himself and sells it, his word is accepted.


הַנּוֹטֵל גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה צָרִיךְ לְחַטֵּט אַחֲרָיו עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁאִיר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם. וְנֶאֱמָן הַטַּבָּח עַל גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמָן עַל הַחֵלֶב. וְאֵין לוֹקְחִין בָּשָׂר מִכָּל טַבָּח אֶלָּא אִם הָיָה אָדָם כָּשֵׁר וּמֻחְזָק בְּכַשְׁרוּת הוּא שֶׁשּׁוֹחֵט לְעַצְמוֹ וּמוֹכֵר וְנֶאֱמָן:


Where does the above apply? In the Diaspora. In Eretz Yisrael, by contrast, when it is populated entirely by [Torah-observant] Jews, meat may be purchased from anyone.22


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. אֲבָל בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּזְמַן שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹקְחִין מִכָּל אָדָם:


[The following rules apply when] a butcher is considered as trustworthy to sell meat, but it is discovered that he sold meat that was nevelah or trefe. He must return the money to its owners.23 He is placed under a ban of ostracism and is removed from his position.24

There is no way that he can correct [his act] so that people [will be allowed] to purchase meat from him until he goes to a place where his identity is unknown25and returns a lost object of significant worth or slaughters an animal for his own self and has it declared trefe although it involves a significant financial loss. For these actions indicate that he certainly repented without any [intent to] deceive.26


טַבָּח הַנֶּאֱמָן לִמְכֹּר בָּשָׂר וְנִמְצָא בְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה אוֹ בְּשַׂר טְרֵפָה יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ. מַחֲזִיר אֶת הַדָּמִים לַבְּעָלִים ומְשַׁמְּתִין אוֹתוֹ וּמַעֲבִירִין אוֹתוֹ. וְאֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה לְעוֹלָם לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ בָּשָׂר עַד שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ וְיַחֲזִיר אֲבֵדָה בְּדָבָר חָשׁוּב אוֹ יִשְׁחֹט לְעַצְמוֹ וְיוֹצִיא טְרֵפָה לְעַצְמוֹ בְּמָמוֹן חָשׁוּב שֶׁוַּדַּאי עָשָׂה תְּשׁוּבָה בְּלֹא הַעֲרָמָה:


When a person purchases meat and sends it via a common person, [the latter's] word is accepted with regard to it. Although he has not established a reputation for Torah observance,27 we do not suspect that he will exchange [the meat for a non-kosher cut].28 Even the servants and maidservants29 of the Jews are trusted with regard to such a matter. A gentile, by contrast, is not [trusted], for we fear that he will exchange [the meat].30


הַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּשָׂר וּשְׁלָחוֹ בְּיַד אֶחָד מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה נֶאֱמָן עָלָיו. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻחְזָק בְּכַשְׁרוּת אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲלִיף. וַאֲפִלּוּ עַבְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַמְהוֹתֵיהֶן נֶאֱמָנִין בְּדָבָר זֶה. אֲבָל לֹא עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁמָּא יַחֲלִיף:


[The following rule applies when there are] ten stores, nine sell kosher meat and one sells nevelot.31 If one purchased meat from one of these stores and did not know which one he purchased from, [the meat] is forbidden. [The rationale is that] whenever [the presence of a forbidden entity] is firmly established, the situation is considered as half and half.32

If, however, meat is found cast away in the street,33 [it is judged] according to the majority. For [we follow the assumption:] Anything that was separated, separated from the majority.34 If the majority of sellers were gentile, [the meat] is forbidden. If the majority were Jewish, it is permitted.


עֶשֶׂר חֲנֻיּוֹת תֵּשַׁע מוֹכְרוֹת בְּשַׂר שְׁחוּטָה וְאַחַת מוֹכֶרֶת נְבֵלוֹת וְלָקַח בָּשָׂר מֵאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מֵאֵיזֶה מֵהֶן לָקַח הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁכָּל קָבוּעַ כְּמֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה דָּמִי. אֲבָל בָּשָׂר הַנִּמְצָא מֻשְׁלָךְ בַּשּׁוּק הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הָרֹב דְּכָל דְּפָרִישׁ מֵרֻבָּא פָּרִישׁ. אִם הָיוּ רֹב הַמּוֹכְרִים עַכּוּ''ם אָסוּר. וְאִם הָיוּ רֹב הַמּוֹכְרִים יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר:


Similarly, when meat is found in the hand of a gentile and it is not known from where he purchased it, if [the majority of] the sellers of meat were Jewish, it is permitted.

This reflects the ruling according to Scriptural Law. [Nevertheless,] our Sages have already forbidden any meat found in the marketplace or in the possession of a gentile35 even though all the slaughterers and all the sellers are Jewish. Moreover, even if one purchased meat, left it in his house, and it disappeared from one's sight, it is forbidden36 unless it had a distinguishing mark, he was familiar with it and could recognize it definitely as [the piece of meat lost],37 or it was bound and sealed.


וְכֵן בָּשָׂר הַנִּמְצָא בְּיַד עַכּוּ''ם וְאֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ מִמִּי לָקַח אִם הָיוּ מוֹכְרֵי הַבָּשָׂר יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר. זֶה הוּא דִּין תּוֹרָה. וּכְבָר אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים כָּל הַבָּשָׂר הַנִּמְצָא בֵּין בַּשּׁוּק בֵּין בְּיַד עַכּוּ''ם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַשּׁוֹחֲטִין וְכָל הַמּוֹכְרִין יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא הַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּשָׂר וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ וְנֶעֱלַם מִן הָעַיִן אָסוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה לוֹ בּוֹ סִימָן אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בּוֹ טְבִיעַת עַיִן וְהוּא מַכִּירוֹ וַדַּאי שֶׁהוּא זֶה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה צָרוּר וְחָתוּם:


[The following rule applies when] one hung a container filled with pieces of meat, the container broke, and the pieces fell to the earth.38 If there is no distinguishing mark [on the meat] and he was not able to recognize it, it is forbidden. [The rationale is that] it is possible to say that the meat that was in the container was dragged away by a wild beast or creeping animal and this is other meat.


תָּלָה כְּלִי מָלֵא חֲתִיכוֹת בָּשָׂר וְנִשְׁבַּר הַכְּלִי וְנָפְלוּ הַחֲתִיכוֹת לָאָרֶץ וּבָא וּמָצָא חֲתִיכוֹת וְאֵין לוֹ בָּהֶן סִימָן וְלֹא טְבִיעַת עַיִן הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹמַר אוֹתוֹ בָּשָׂר שֶׁהָיָה בַּכְּלִי גְּרָרַתּוּ חַיָּה אוֹ שֶׁרֶץ וְזֶה בָּשָׂר אַחֵר הוּא:


It is permitted to derive benefit from a gid hanesheh.39 Therefore it is permissible for a person to send a thigh which contains a gid hanesheh to a gentile.40 He may give him the entire thigh intact in the presence of a Jew. We do not suspect that [the other] Jew will partake of this meat before the gid is removed, because its place is recognizable.41 Accordingly, if the thigh was cut into pieces, he should not give it to a gentile in the presence of a Jew, lest the other Jew partake of it.42


גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה. לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לִשְׁלֹחַ לְעַכּוּ''ם יָרֵךְ שֶׁגִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה בְּתוֹכָהּ. וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ הַיָּרֵךְ שְׁלֵמָה בִּפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יֹאכַל מִמֶּנָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּנָּטֵל הַגִּיד שֶׁהֲרֵי מְקוֹמוֹ נִכָּר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה הַיָּרֵךְ חֲתוּכָה לֹא יִתְּנֶנָּה לְעַכּוּ''ם בִּפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד שֶׁיִּטּל הַגִּיד שֶׁמָּא יֹאכַל מִמֶּנָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל:


Wherever the Torah states: "Do not eat," "You shall not eat,"43 "They shall not eat," or "It shall not be eaten," the intent is that it is forbidden both to partake of or benefit from the forbidden entity44 unless:

a) a verse explicitly states otherwise, as it does with regard to a nevelah [Deuteronomy 14:21]: "Give it to the stranger in your gate and he shall partake of it," or with regard to forbidden fat [Leviticus 7:24]: "You may use it for any task"; or

b) the Oral Law states explicitly that it is permitted to benefit from it, as is the case with regarding to teeming animals, swarming animals, blood, a limb from a living animal, and the gid hanesheh. For according to the Oral Tradition, it is permitted to benefit from all these prohibited entities, even though it is forbidden to partake of them.


כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה לֹא תֹאכַל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ לֹא יֵאָכֵל אֶחָד אִסּוּר אֲכִילָה וְאֶחָד אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה בְּמַשְׁמָע עַד שֶׁיִּפְרֹט לְךָ הַכָּתוּב כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁפֵּרֵט לְךָ בִּנְבֵלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד כא) "לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ" וְכַחֵלֶב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא ז כד) "יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל מְלָאכָה". אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתְפָּרֵשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה. כְּגוֹן שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים וְדָם וְאֵיבָר מִן הַחַי וְגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה:


Whenever it is forbidden to benefit from a substance, if a person derives benefit without partaking of it, e.g., he sold or gave to a gentile or gave it to dogs, he is not liable for lashes.45 He should, however, be given stripes for rebellious conduct. The money [he received] is permitted.46

Whenever it is forbidden to partake of a substance, but it is permitted to benefit from it, even though it is permitted to benefit from it, it is forbidden do business with such articles or establish oneself in a profession that involves forbidden entities.47 [There is] an exception, forbidden fat, for concerning it, it is written: "You may use it for any task." For this reason, we do not do business with nevelot, trefot, teeming animals, and swarming animals.


כָּל מַאֲכָל שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה אִם נֶהֱנָה וְלֹא אָכַל כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּכַר אוֹ נָתַן לְעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ לִכְלָבִים אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. וּמַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת וְהַדָּמִים מֻתָּרִין. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ סְחוֹרָה וּלְכַוֵּן מְלַאכְתּוֹ בִּדְבָרִים אֲסוּרִים חוּץ מִן הַחֵלֶב שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא ז כד) "יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל מְלָאכָה". לְפִיכָךְ אֵין עוֹשִׂין סְחוֹרָה לֹא בִּנְבֵלוֹת וְלֹא בִּטְרֵפוֹת וְלֹא בִּשְׁקָצִים וְלֹא בִּרְמָשִׂים:


When a trapper happens upon a non-kosher wild animal, fowl, or fish, and he snares them or he traps both kosher and non-kosher animals, he may sell them.48 He may not, however, intend to have his profession concern non-kosher species.

It is, however, permitted to do business with milk that was milked by a gentile without being observed by a Jew, cheeses made by gentiles, and the like.


הַצַּיָּד שֶׁנִּזְדַּמְּנוּ לוֹ חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף וְדָג טְמֵאִים וְצָדָן אוֹ שֶׁנִּצּוֹדוּ לוֹ טְמֵאִים וּטְהוֹרִים מֻתָּר לְמָכְרָן. אֲבָל לֹא יְכַוֵּן מְלַאכְתּוֹ לִטְמֵאִים. וּמֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת סְחוֹרָה בְּחָלָב שֶׁחֲלָבוֹ עַכּוּ''ם וְאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל רוֹאֵהוּ וּבִגְבִינוֹת הָעַכּוּ''ם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:


This is the general principle: Whenever a prohibition is forbidden by Scriptural Law, it is forbidden to do business with it. Whenever the prohibition is Rabbinic in origin, it is permitted do business with it, whether we are certain of the existence of the prohibition or it is a matter of question.


זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ סְחוֹרָה וְכָל שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ סְחוֹרָה בֵּין בִּסְפֵקוֹ בֵּין בְּוַדָּאוֹ: