1

The fine of 50 silver pieces represents merely the payment for the pleasure of sexual relations. In addition, a seducer is obligated to pay for embarrassment and damages1 in addition to the fixed amount mentioned by the Torah.

A rapist, moreover, also pays for the pain [he caused the girl]. [A seducer is not required to make this payment,] because a girl who willingly engages in relations does not [suffer] pain. A girl who is raped does, as reflected by [Deuteronomy 22:29]: "because he violated her."2

א

חֲמִשִׁים כֶּסֶף שֶׁל קְנָס הֵם דְּמֵי הֲנָאַת שְׁכִיבָה בִּלְבַד. וְחַיָּב הַמְפַתֶּה לִתֵּן בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם יוֹתֵר עַל הַקְּנָס הַקָּצוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. יֶתֶר עָלָיו הָאוֹנֵס שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן אֶת הַצַּעַר. שֶׁהַנִּבְעֶלֶת בִּרְצוֹנָהּ אֵין לָהּ צַעַר וַאֲנוּסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ צַעַר. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בַּאֲנוּסָה (דברים כב כט) "תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנָּהּ":

2

Thus, a seducer makes three payments: the fine, and compensation for embarrassment and damages. A rapist makes four payments: the fine, and compensation for embarrassment, pain and damages.

ב

נִמְצָא הַמְפַתֶּה מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים קְנָס וּבֹשֶׁת וּפְגָם. וְהָאוֹנֵס אַרְבָּעָה קְנָס וּבֹשֶׁת וְצַעַר וּפְגָם:

3

The fine is the same in all instances. Whether one has relations with the daughter of the High Priest, or the daughter of a convert or a bastard,3 the fine is 50 silver pieces. The amount paid for embarrassment, damages and pain is not uniform, however. Instead, the amount must be evaluated [by the court].

ג

קְנָס שָׁוֶה בַּכּל. אֶחָד הַבָּא עַל בַּת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד הַבָּא עַל בַּת גֵּר אוֹ מַמְזֵר קְנָסָהּ חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף. אֲבָל הַבּשֶׁת וְהַפְּגָם וְהַצַּעַר אֵינָן שָׁוִין לַכּל וּצְרִיכִין שׁוּמָא:

4

How is this evaluation made? With regard to embarrassment, everything is dependent on the identity of the person who is embarrassed, and the identity of the person who embarrasses her. The embarrassment suffered by a girl of high repute from a family of known lineage cannot be compared to the embarrassment suffered by a poor, ignoble maiden.4 And the embarrassment suffered at the hands of an important person of great stature cannot be compared to that suffered at the hands of a base and empty fellow.5

ד

כֵּיצַד שָׁמִין הַבּשֶׁת. הַכּל לְפִי הַמְבַיֵּשׁ וְהַמִּתְבַּיֵּשׁ. שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מְבַיֵּשׁ נַעֲרָה חֲשׁוּבָה וּמִמִּשְׁפָּחָה מְיֻחָסָה לִמְבַיֵּשׁ קְטַנָּה עֲנִיָּה בְּזוּיָה. וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָדָם חָשׁוּב וְגָדוֹל לְמִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאֶחָד מֵהַנְּבָלִים וְקַל מִן הַקַּלִּים:

5

On this basis, the judges consider the stature of [the rapist or the seducer] and his victim. They evaluate how much a father and the girl's family would give to prevent [these relations] from taking place with this individual. This is the amount [the man] is obligated to pay.

ה

וּלְפִי זֶה רוֹאִין הַדַּיָּנִין מַעֲלָתוֹ וּמַעֲלָתָהּ וְשָׁמִין כַּמָּה מָמוֹן רָאוּי לְאָבִיהָ וּלְמִשְׁפַּחְתָּהּ לִתֵּן וְלֹא יֶאֱרַע לָהֶן דָּבָר זֶה מֵאָדָם זֶה וְכָמוֹהוּ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם:

6

Damages [are evaluated] according to [the girl's] beauty. We look at her as if she were a maid-servant being sold in the marketplace: what price would she fetch as a virgin, and what price would she fetch as a non-virgin. For a man would like to buy a virgin maid-servant to give him to his servant, whose welfare and satisfaction he desires. [The rapist or the seducer] should pay the difference in the price.

The compensation for pain is evaluated based on her youth and the size of her body, and his age and the size of his body.6 We evaluate how much a father would be willing to pay so that such [a daughter] would not suffer pain from such [a man], and [the rapist is obligated to] pay [this amount].

ו

פְּגָם לְפִי יָפְיָהּ. רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא שִׁפְחָה נִמְכֶּרֶת בַּשּׁוּק כַּמָּה הִיא שָׁוָה בְּעוּלָה וְכַמָּה הָיְתָה שָׁוָה בְּתוּלָה. שֶׁאָדָם רוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹת שִׁפְחָה בְּתוּלָה לִתְּנָהּ לְעַבְדּוֹ שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה בַּהֲנָיָתוֹ וְטוֹבָתוֹ. וְרוֹאִין כַּמָּה פָּחֲתָה וִישַׁלֵּם צַעַר לְפִי קַטְנוּתָהּ וּבִנְיַן גּוּפָהּ. וּלְפִי שָׁנָיו וְגוּפוֹ אוֹמְדִין כַּמָּה הָאָב רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן וְלֹא תִּצְטַעֵר זוֹ מִזֶּה וְיִתֵּן:

7

A seducer must compensate [the girl's father] for the embarrassment and damages immediately. He is not, however, required to pay the fine unless he does not marry [the girl], as [Exodus 22:16] states: "If her father refuses to allow him to marry her, then he must pay...."

A rapist, by contrast, must make all four payments and marry her immediately. Therefore, whenever the woman desires to divorce7 or when she becomes widowed, she does not receive anything.8

ז

הַמְפַתֶּה נוֹתֵן בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם מִיָּד וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן הַקְּנָס אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן לֹא נְשָׂאָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב טז) "וְאִם מָאֵן יְמָאֵן אָבִיהָ לְתִתָּהּ לוֹ כֶּסֶף יִשְׁקל". אֲבָל הָאוֹנֵס נוֹתֵן אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים מִיָּד וְכוֹנֵס. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁתִּרְצֶה לְהִתְגָּרֵשׁ אוֹ תִּתְאַלְמֵן אֵין לָהּ כְּלוּם:

8

[The following laws apply when] two men entered into relations with her, one through vaginal intercourse and one through anal intercourse. If the man who had anal intercourse with her was first, he is liable for embarrassment and for damages.9 If he was second, he is liable only for embarrassment, because she has already suffered damages.

The one who engaged in vaginal intercourse, whether first or last, is liable for the fine and all other payments. Nevertheless, the embarrassment and damages to a girl who had never engaged in relations at all cannot be compared to the embarrassment and damages to a girl who has engaged in anal intercourse.

ח

בָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם אֶחָד כְּדַרְכָּהּ וְאֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ זֶה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ אִם הוּא רִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב בְּבשֶׁת וּפְגָם וְאִם הוּא אַחֲרוֹן חַיָּב בְּבשֶׁת בִּלְבַד שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְגְּמָה. וְזֶה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ כְּדַרְכָּהּ בֵּין רִאשׁוֹן בֵּין אַחֲרוֹן חַיָּב בִּקְנָס וּבִשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים. אֲבָל אֵין בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם שֶׁל בַּת שֶׁלֹּא נִבְעֲלָה כְּלָל כְּבשֶׁת וּפְגָם זוֹ שֶׁנִּבְעֲלָה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ:

9

We have already mentioned10 the girls for whom a fine need not be paid: They are ten: A bogeret, a girl who dissolved her marriage via mi'un, one who was divorced, an aylonit, a mentally incompetent girl, a deaf mute, a convert, a girl who had been taken captive, a freed slave, and one who has a tarnished reputation. A fine must be paid for all other girls.

ט

כְּבָר הוֹדַעְנוּ הַבָּנוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס וְעֶשֶׂר הֵן. הַבּוֹגֶרֶת. וְהַמְמָאֶנֶת. וְהַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְהָאַיְלוֹנִית. וְהַשּׁוֹטָה. וְהַחֵרֶשֶׁת. וְהַגִּיֹּרֶת. וְהַשְּׁבוּיָה. וְהַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת. וְהַיּוֹצֵא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע. וּשְׁאָר הַבָּנוֹת יֵשׁ לָהֶן קְנָס:

10

Whenever a fine is required to be paid for a girl, compensation is also required for embarrassment and damages, and if she was raped she must also be compensated for the pain.

Conversely, whenever a fine is not required to be paid for her, she is not entitled to compensation for embarrassment and damages11 if she is seduced or raped. Exceptions to this are a bogeret, a girl who had dissolved her marriage via mi'un, a mentally incompetent girl and a deaf mute. [If they are seduced, no payment is required at all.]

י

כָּל בַּת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ קְנָס יֵשׁ לָהּ בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם. וְאִם הָיְתָה אֲנוּסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ צַעַר. וְכָל בַּת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ קְנָס כָּךְ אֵין לָהּ לֹא בּשֶׁת וְלֹא פְּגָם אִם נִתְפַּתְּתָה וְכֵן אִם נֶאֶנְסָה חוּץ מִבּוֹגֶרֶת וּמְמָאֶנֶת וְשׁוֹטָה וְחֵרֶשֶׁת:

11

What is implied? If a man rapes a bogeret or a girl who had dissolved her marriage via mi'un, although a fine is not required to be paid, compensation is also required for embarrassment damages and pain.12 And a man who rapes a mentally incompetent girl or a deaf mute is required to make compensation for pain.13 One who seduces any of these girls is not liable at all.14

יא

כֵּיצַד. הָאוֹנֵס אֶת הַבּוֹגֶרֶת וְאֶת הַמְמָאֶנֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס יֵשׁ לָהֶן בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם וְצַעַר. וְהָאוֹנֵס שׁוֹטָה אוֹ חֵרֶשֶׁת מְשַׁלֵּם צַעַר בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל הַמְפַתֶּה אֶת כֻּלָּן פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם:

12

A person is not ever liable to pay a fine because of his own admission. Instead, he is made liable by the testimony of witnesses.15 Therefore, [if a man] says: "I raped or seduced the daughter of so and so," he is not liable to pay a fine. He must, however, make restitution for the embarrassment and the damages [he caused].16

Similarly, when a maiden files a legal claim against a man, saying "You raped me," or "You seduced me," and he denies the matter entirely, he is required to take a Rabbinic oath17 to support his claim, for if he admits his culpability, he would be liable for the embarrassment, the damages and the pain.18

יב

אֵין אָדָם מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס בְּכָל מָקוֹם בְּהוֹדָאַת פִּיו אֶלָּא עַל פִּי עֵדִים. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹמֵר אָנַסְתִּי אוֹ פִּתִּיתִי בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס אֲבָל מְשַׁלֵּם בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם בְּהוֹדָאַת פִּיו. וְכֵן בַּת שֶׁתָּבְעָה אִישׁ בַּדִּין וְאָמְרָה לוֹ אָנַסְתָּ אוֹ פִּתִּיתָ אוֹתִי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא הָיוּ דְּבָרִים מֵעוֹלָם הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁאִלּוּ הוֹדָה הָיָה מְשַׁלֵּם לָהּ בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם וְצַעַר עַל פִּי עַצְמוֹ:

13

If a girl claims, "You raped me," and the man claims, "No, I seduced you," he is required to take an oath mandated by Scriptural law with regard to [the compensation for] the pain, and he must pay the damages and the embarrassment. [The oath is required] because he admitted a portion of the claim [made against him], as will be explained in [the section dealing with that subject].19

יג

אָמְרָה לוֹ אָנַסְתָּ אוֹתִי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא כִּי אֶלָּא פִּתִּיתִי הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה עַל דְּמֵי הַצַּעַר וּמְשַׁלֵּם בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת הַטַּעֲנָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

14

The three payments made because of seduction, and the four payments made because of rape are made to the girl's father, for all the monetary benefit that accrues during a girl's youth belongs to her father.20

If her father is no longer alive [at the time of the rape or the seduction], [these payments are made] to her.21

יד

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים שֶׁל מְפַתֶּה וְאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁל אוֹנֵס הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אָב שֶׁכָּל שֶׁבַח נְעוּרִים לוֹ. וְאִם אֵין לָהּ אָב הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל עַצְמָהּ:

15

When a girl who was raped or seduced does not file a claim until [either] she reaches bagrut, she marries, or her father dies,22 she herself is entitled to the three or four payments [mentioned above].23

If she appeared in court and filed a claim for payment, and then she reached bagrut or she married, the father is entitled to the payments. If the father dies after she files a claim for payment in court, the payments belong to her brothers, for they are her father's heirs. [The rationale is that] once she files a claim for payment in court, her father is considered to have acquired the payments.

טו

מְפֻתָּה אוֹ אֲנוּסָה שֶׁלֹּא תָּבְעָה עַד שֶׁבָּגְרָה אוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת אוֹ עַד שֶׁמֵּת הָאָב הָאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים אוֹ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁלָּהּ. עָמְדָה בַּדִּין וְתָבְעָה אוֹתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּגְרָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אָב. וְאִם מֵת הָאָב אַחַר עֲמִידָתָהּ בַּדִּין הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אַחִין שֶׁהֵן יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאָב. שֶׁמֵּעֵת שֶׁעָמְדָה בְּדִין זָכָה בָּהֶן הָאָב:

16

When a girl was consecrated and then divorced, she is entitled to the fine, but only that.24 If she was raped or seduced, and afterwards, she becomes consecrated to another [man], her father is entitled to the fine and the damages, for consecration does not take a girl out of her father's domain [and nullify his rights over her].

טז

הַבַּת שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה וְנִתְגָּרְשָׁה קְנָסָהּ לְבַדּוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ. נֶאֶנְסָה אוֹ נִתְפַּתְּתָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר קְנָסָהּ וּשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים לְאָבִיהָ. שֶׁאֵין הָאֵרוּסִין מוֹצִיאִין מֵרְשׁוּת אָב:

17

I maintain that [the intent of] the Torah's statement [Leviticus 19:29], "Do not defile your daughter to have her play the harlot," is that a father should not say: "Since the obligation of the Torah for a seducer or a rapist was solely that he should give the father money, I will hire my virgin daughter to someone to have relations with her for whatever price I desire, or I will allow him to have relations for her without charge. For a man has the right to forgo monetary rights to him to any person he desires." To counter such thoughts, it is written: "Do not defile your daughter."

The Torah obligates a rapist and a seducer to pay money rather than be punished by lashes when the matter happened by chance, without the knowledge of [the girl's] father, and she did not ready herself for [the relations]. For this is an extraordinary and uncommon matter.

If, however, a person leaves his virgin daughter accessible for anyone to engage in relations with her, this will cause the entire earth to be filled with sexual immorality.25 For [ultimately], a father will marry his daughter and a brother his sister, [for in a sexually permissive society] a [girl] may become pregnant and give birth without knowing who the child's father is.

When a person has his daughter act in this manner, she is considered to be a harlot, and both the man and the girl who engage in relations should be punished by lashes, as [Deuteronomy 23:18] states: "There shall not be a harlot."26

[In such an instance,] the man is not required to pay a fine, for the Torah prescribed a fine only in the instance of seduction or rape. When a girl prepares herself [for relations] either on her initiative or on that of her father, she is a harlot. And the prohibition against harlotry applies both with regard to a virgin and a non-virgin.

For this reason our Sages stated that a girl who was reputed to have conducted herself immodestly while young is not entitled to a fine, as we have explained,27 for we can assume that she willingly opened herself to this experience.

יז

אֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא יט כט) "אַל תְּחַלֵּל אֶת בִּתְּךָ לְהַזְנוֹתָהּ". שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר הָאָב הוֹאִיל וְלֹא חִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה מְפַתֶּה וְאוֹנֵס אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּתֵּן מָמוֹן לָאָב הֲרֵינִי שׂוֹכֵר בִּתִּי הַבְּתוּלָה לָזֶה לָבוֹא עָלֶיהָ בְּכָל מָמוֹן שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אוֹ אָנִיחַ זֶה לָבוֹא עָלֶיהָ בְּחִנָּם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לָאָדָם לִמְחל מָמוֹנוֹ לְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר אַל תְּחַלֵּל אֶת בִּתְּךָ. שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁחִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה לָאוֹנֵס וְלַמְפַתֶּה מָמוֹן וְלֹא מַלְקוֹת בְּשֶׁאֵרַע הַדָּבָר מִקְרֶה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת אָבִיהָ וְלֹא הֵכִינָה עַצְמָהּ לְכָךְ שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה אֵינוֹ הוֹוֶה תָּמִיד וְאֵינוֹ מָצוּי. אֲבָל אִם הֵנִיחַ בִּתּוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה מוּכֶנֶת לְכָל מִי שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ גּוֹרֵם שֶׁתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ זִמָּה וְנִמְצָא הָאָב נוֹשֵׂא בִּתּוֹ וְהָאָח נוֹשֵׂא אֲחוֹתוֹ שֶׁאִם תִּתְעַבֵּר וְתֵלֵד לֹא יִוָּדַע בֶּן מִי הוּא. וְהַמֵּכִין בִּתּוֹ לְכָךְ הֲרֵי הִיא קְדֵשָׁה וְלוֹקֶה הַבּוֹעֵל וְהַנִּבְעֶלֶת מִשּׁוּם (דברים כג יח) "לֹא תִהְיֶה קְדֵשָׁה". וְאֵין קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה קְנָס אֶלָּא לְאוֹנֵס וּמְפַתֶּה אֲבָל זוֹ שֶׁהֵכִינָה עַצְמָהּ לְכָךְ בֵּין מִדַּעְתָּהּ בֵּין מִדַּעַת אָבִיהָ הֲרֵי זוֹ קְדֵשָׁה. וְאִסּוּר קְדֵשָׁה אֶחָד הוּא בֵּין בִּבְתוּלָה בֵּין בִּבְעוּלָה לְפִיכָךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע בְּיַלְדוּתָהּ אֵין לָהּ קְנָס כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהִפְקִירָה עַצְמָהּ לְדָבָר זֶה בִּרְצוֹנָהּ: