1

What does the mitzvah of chalitzah entail? The yevamah goes to the yavam's place of residence1 and approaches the judges. They call the yavam and give him advice that is appropriate for him and for her.

If the appropriate advice is for them to perform yibbum, they advise him2 to perform yibbum.3 If the appropriate advice is for them to perform chalitzah - e.g., she is young and he is older, or she is older and he is young4 - they advise him to perform chalitzah.

א

כֵּיצַד מִצְוַת חֲלִיצָה. הַיְבָמָה הוֹלֶכֶת אַחַר הַיָּבָם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא שָׁם וּבָאָה לַדַּיָּנִין. וְהֵן קוֹרְאִין לוֹ וְנוֹתְנִין לוֹ עֵצָה הַהוֹגֶנֶת לוֹ וְלָהּ. אִם עֵצָה טוֹבָה לְיַבֵּם יוֹעֲצִין אוֹתוֹ לְיַבֵּם. וְאִם עֵצָה טוֹבָה לַחֲלֹץ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה הִיא יַלְדָּה וְהוּא זָקֵן אוֹ הִיא זְקֵנָה וְהוּא יֶלֶד יוֹעֲצִין אוֹתוֹ לַחֲלֹץ:

2

The judges should first establish the place where they will hold session,5 and then she should perform chalitzah there in their presence, as [Deuteronomy 25:7] states: "And his yevamah shall ascend to the gate, [where] the elders [hold court]...."

If [the judges] did not speak about the matter, nor did they establish a place, and [the yevamah] and [the yavam] chanced upon them and performed chalitzah, the chalitzah is acceptable.

ב

וּצְרִיכִין הַדַּיָּנִין לִקְבֹּעַ מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשְׁבוּ בּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ תַּחֲלֹץ שָׁם בִּפְנֵיהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה ז) ״וְעָלְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ הַשַּׁעְרָה אֶל הַזְּקֵנִים״‎‎ וְגוֹ'. לֹא נוֹעֲדוּ וְלֹא קָבְעוּ מָקוֹם אֶלָּא נִקְרוּ נִקְרָה וְנִקְרֵאת הִיא וְהוּא לִפְנֵיהֶן וְחָלְצוּ חֲלִיצָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה:

3

Both [the yevamah] and the yavam should be taught to read until they are familiar [with the words they must recite].6

The yevamah should be trained to say lo avah in one breath, [pause,] and say yabmi, so that her words cannot be interpreted to mean avah yabmi.7

ג

וּמְלַמְּדִין אוֹתָהּ וְאֶת הַיָּבָם לִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁהוּא וְהִיא יִהְיוּ רְגִילִין וְתִהְיֶה יְכוֹלָה לִקְרוֹת (דברים כה ז) ״לֹא אָבָה״‎‎ בִּנְשִׁימָה אַחַת וְאַחַר כָּךְ תֹּאמַר יַבְּמִי. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מַשְׁמַע דְּבָרֶיהָ אָבָה יַבְּמִי:

4

If the yevamah is familiar [with the phrase] she must recite, we are not fastidious about her reading [the above phrase] in one breath. If, however, she is unable [to read], we should train her until she does so [properly].

ד

וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁתִּהְיֶה רְגִילָה לִקְרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָרְאָה בִּנְשִׁימָה אַחַת אֵין מַקְפִּידִין עַל זֶה. אֲבָל אִם אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה מַרְגִּילִין אוֹתָהּ עַד שֶׁתֵּדַע:

5

Chalitzah must be performed during the day and not at night.8 [The rite] must be performed in the presence of [at least] three individuals9 who know how to read.10

If one of the three individuals is a convert, [the chalitzah] is unacceptable. Even a man whose father is a convert, and his mother a native-born Jewess,11 should not participate in the chalitzah ceremony. [Instead, it is necessary,] that both his father and his mother be native-born Jews.12

It is a mitzvah for five men [to observe the rite], so that the matter will be publicized.13 The other two may even be common people.14

ה

וְהַחֲלִיצָה בַּיּוֹם וְלֹא בַּלַּיְלָה. וּבִפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁיּוֹדְעִין לְהַקְרוֹת. וְאִם אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה גֵּר פָּסוּל. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה אָבִיו גֵּר וְאִמּוֹ יִשְׂרְאֵלִית לֹא תַּחֲלֹץ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וּמִצְוָתָהּ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה כְּדֵי לְפַרְסֵם הַדָּבָר. וְאוֹתָן הַשְּׁנַיִם אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ:

6

How is the rite of chalitzah performed? A leather15 shoe16 with a heel, that is not sewn with linen threads,17 is brought to [the yavam].18 He places it on his right foot and ties its straps around his foot.19

Both [the yavam] and [the yevamah] stand before the court.20 The phrase [Deuteronomy 25:7], Me'ein yevami.... ("My yavam refuses....") is read in Hebrew for the yevamah to repeat. Afterwards, the phrase [ibid.:8], Lo chafatzti lekachtah ("I do not desire to take her") is read for the yavam to repeat.

He then presses his foot to the ground.21 She sits [on the ground],22 extends her hand before the court, loosens the straps of his shoe, removes it,23 and throws it to the ground.24 At the moment she removes the majority of the heel [of the shoe from his foot], she becomes free to marry another man.

ו

כֵּיצַד חוֹלְצִין. מְבִיאִין לוֹ מִנְעָל שֶׁל עוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עָקֵב וְאֵינוֹ תָּפוּר בְּפִשְׁתָּן וְלוֹבְשׁוֹ בְּיָמִין וְקוֹשֵׁר רְצוּעוֹתָיו עַל רַגְלוֹ. וְעוֹמֵד הוּא וְהִיא בִּפְנֵי בֵּית דִּין וּמַקְרִין לַיְבָמָה בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ (דברים כה ז) ״מֵאֵן יְבָמִי״‎‎ וְגוֹ'. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקְרִין לַיָּבָם (דברים כה ח) ״לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ״‎‎. וְנוֹעֵץ רַגְלוֹ בָּאָרֶץ וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת וּפוֹשֶׁטֶת יָדָהּ בִּפְנֵי בֵּית דִּין וּמַתֶּרֶת רְצוּעוֹת הַמִּנְעָל מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְחוֹלֶצֶת הַמִּנְעָל וּמַשְׁלֶכֶת אוֹתוֹ לָאָרֶץ וּמִשֶּׁיִּשָּׁמֵט רֹב הֶעָקֵב הֻתְּרָה הַיְבָמָה לְזָר:

7

Afterwards, she stands and spits on the earth before his face,25 in a manner that the spittle can be seen by the judges. For the mitzvah of chalitzah requires that both [the yevamah and the yavam] should stand when they recite [the phrases they must say] and when she spits. The judges must see the spittle that emerges from her mouth.26

Afterwards, the phrase Kachah ye'aseh..., "This is what should be done to a man who does not build his brother's household. And his [family] shall be called within Israel 'the household of the one whose shoe was removed' [Deuteronomy 25:9-10] is read for the yevamah to repeat.

ז

וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹמֶדֶת וְיוֹרֶקֶת בָּאָרֶץ כְּנֶגֶד פָּנָיו רֹק הַנִּרְאֶה לַדַּיָּנִין. שֶׁמִּצְוַת חֲלִיצָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן עוֹמְדִין בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאָה וּבִשְׁעַת רְקִיקָה וּצְרִיכִין הַדַּיָּנִין לִרְאוֹת הָרֹק הַיּוֹצֵא מִפִּיהָ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקְרִין לָהּ (דברים כה ט) ״כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִבְנֶה אֶת בֵּית אָחִיו״‎‎ (דברים כה י) ״וְנִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּית חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל״‎‎:

8

All [the statements mentioned] above should be made in Hebrew. This is derived from the phrase "This is what" [in the above verse, which is interpreted] to mean "with these words."

All those seated27 in attendance recite chalutz hana'al, "the one whose shoe was removed," three times.28

The yevamah must remove his shoe with willful intent, and [the yavam] must have the intent that he performs this rite on her behalf. They must perform these acts with the intent of enabling her to marry other men.29

A blind man30 should not perform chalitzah,31 for [Deuteronomy 25:9] states: "[She] shall spit before his face," and he cannot see her spittle.

ח

הַכּל בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה ט) ״כָּכָה״‎‎ בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה. וְכָל הַיּוֹשְׁבִין שָׁם עוֹנִים אַחֲרֶיהָ (דברים כה י) ״חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל״‎‎ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּתְכַּוֵּן הַיְבָמָה שֶׁתַּחֲלֹץ לוֹ וְיִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא שֶׁיַּחֲלֹץ לָהּ. וְיַעֲשׂוּ מַעֲשִׂים אֵלּוּ לִשְׁמָן. וְהַסּוּמָא אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵץ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה ט) ״וְיָרְקָה בְּפָנָיו״‎‎ וְאֵין זֶה רוֹאֶה הָרֹק:

9

Thus, the order of chalitzah should be as follows: First she recites: "My yavam refuses to perpetuate his brother's name within Israel. My yavam did not desire [to marry me].

Afterwards, [the yavam] says: "I do not desire to take her." At which point, she removes his shoe and then spits. Afterwards, she recites: "This is what should be done to a man who does not build his brother's household. And his [family] shall be called within Israel 'the household of the one whose shoe was removed.'

ט

נִמְצָא סֵדֶר הַחֲלִיצָה כָּךְ הוּא. קוֹרְאָה הִיא תְּחִלָּה (דברים כה ז) ״מֵאֵן יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי״‎‎. וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים כה ח) ״לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ״‎‎. וְאַחַר כָּךְ תַּחֲלֹץ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ תָּרֹק. וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּקְרָא (דברים כה ט) ״כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִבְנֶה אֶת בֵּית אָחִיו״‎‎ (דברים כה י) ״וְנִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּית חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל״‎‎:

10

This order is not, however, an absolute requirement. Instead, even though neither [the yevamah], nor [the yavam] recited [the required phrases], she spit and then removed his shoe, or she recited [the phrases] and then spit, the chalitzah is acceptable.

י

וְאֵין הַסֵּדֶר מְעַכֵּב אֶלָּא אִם לֹא קָרְאָה בַּתְּחִלָּה לֹא הִיא וְלֹא הוּא אוֹ שֶׁרָקְקָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָלְצָה אוֹ שֶׁקָּרְאָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָקְקָה חֲלִיצָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה:

11

Why, [in the above instance,] should she not spit [again], [so that all the required activities] will be performed in the proper order? Lest people [mistakenly] think that spitting alone is of no consequence, and [they err and think] that it does not prevent [the yavam's] other brothers [from performing yibbum with the yevamah].32

יא

וְלָמָּה לֹא תַּחֲזֹר וְתָרֹק עַל הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ רְקִיקָה לְבַדָּהּ אֵינָהּ כְּלוּם וְאֵינָהּ פּוֹסֶלֶת מִן הָאַחִין:

12

[Even if] she merely removed his shoe, did not recite [the required phrases], and did not spit, the chalitzah is acceptable. Needless to say, if she removed his shoe and recited the required phrases, but did not spit, or if she removed his shoe and spat, but did not recite the required phrases, the chalitzah is acceptable.33

יב

חָלְצָה בִּלְבַד וְלֹא קָרְאָה וְלֹא רָקְקָה חֲלִיצָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁחָלְצָה וְקָרְאָה וְלֹא רָקְקָה אוֹ שֶׁחָלְצָה וְרָקְקָה וְלֹא קָרְאָה שֶׁחֲלִיצָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה:

13

When does the above apply? When [the yevamah and the yavam] are able to speak, for then they are able to recite [the appropriate phrases].34 When, however, [the yevamah] or [the yavam] is dumb, they may not perform chalitzah, and if they do perform chalitzah, the chalitzah is not acceptable.35

[Their deeds are, nevertheless, effective to a certain degree.] They are not comparable to a chalitzah performed by [a yevamah] or [a yavam] who was a deaf-mute, in which case their deeds are of no consequence whatsoever,36 for a deaf-mute is not of sufficient mental capacity to take responsibility for his [or her] actions.

יג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לְדַבֵּר שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן רְאוּיִין לִקְרוֹת. אֲבָל אִלֶּמֶת אוֹ אִלֵּם אֵינָן חוֹלְצִין וְאִם חָלְצוּ חֲלִיצָתָן פְּסוּלָה. וְאֵינָן כְּחֵרֵשׁ וְחֵרֶשֶׁת שֶׁחָלְצוּ שֶׁלֹּא עָשׂוּ כְּלוּם. לְפִי שֶׁהַחֵרֵשׁ אוֹ הַחֵרֶשֶׁת אֵינָן בְּנֵי דַּעַת:

14

If [the yevamah] only spits, without removing [the yavam's shoe] or reciting [the appropriate phrases], or spits and recites [the appropriate phrases], without removing [the yavam's shoe], it is as if she has performed an unacceptable chalitzah.37

If both [the yevamah and the yavam] recite [the appropriate phrases], but the yevamah does not remove [the yavam's shoe] or spit, they have not accomplished anything.38 [This is implied by the verse:] "This is what should be done to a man" - i.e., a deed removing the shoe or spitting has an effect. The recitation of the verses, by contrast, is not an absolute requirement, nor does it have any effect [on its own].39

יד

רָקְקָה בִּלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא חָלְצָה וְלֹא קָרְאָה. אוֹ שֶׁרָקְקָה וְקָרְאָה וְלֹא חָלְצָה הֲרֵי זוֹ כַּחֲלִיצָה פְּסוּלָה. קָרְאָה הִיא וְהוּא וְלֹא חָלְצָה וְלֹא רָקְקָה לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה ט) ״כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ״‎‎. שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהוּא הַחֲלִיצָה וְהָרְקִיקָה הוּא שֶׁמּוֹעִיל אֲבָל הַקְּרִיאָה אֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת וְאֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת:

15

If [the yevamah] removes [the yavam's shoe], spits and recites [the appropriate phrases] while they are sitting, or lying on their sides,40 if the straps of the [yavam's] shoe are tied on his leg below the knee,41 or if she performed chalitzah in the presence of three common people who are not able to read the verses [which the two recite],42 the chalitzah is acceptable. Similarly, if [a yavam who is] blind43 performs chalitzah, [the chalitzah is acceptable].

טו

חָלְצָה וְרָקְקָה וְקָרְאָה וְהֵם יוֹשְׁבִין אוֹ מֻטִּין עַל צִדֵּיהֶן. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה שְׂרוֹךְ הַנַּעַל קָשׁוּר עַל שׁוֹקוֹ מִן הָאַרְכֻּבָּה וּלְמַטָּה. אוֹ שֶׁחָלְצָה בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִין לְהַקְרוֹת. וְכֵן הַסּוּמָא שֶׁחָלַץ. חֲלִיצָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

16

Chalitzah is unacceptable [in the following instances]:

a) a woman performed chalitzah at night,44

b) she performed chalitzah in the presence of two judges or in the presence of three judges, and one of them was a relative or [otherwise] disqualified [from serving in this capacity,45

c) the shoe was tied above his knee,46

d) he untied the shoe and she removed it,47 or she untied the shoe and he removed it,

e) she had the intent of performing [these acts to release herself from her obligation to her yavam] but he did not, or he had the intent of performing [these acts to release her from her obligation to her yavam] but she did not,48

f) or a girl below the age of majority removed the shoe of an adult.49

Similarly, if a woman performs chalitzah in the presence of one judge, or even if chalitzah is performed at night by [the yevamah and the yavam] while they are alone, the chalitzah is unacceptable.50 When, however, chalitzah is performed by a deaf-mute, a mentally incapable person, or a minor,51 and similarly, when a man performs chalitzah with a woman who is not obligated to perform chalitzah or yibbum,52 the chalitzah is of no consequence.

טז

חָלְצָה בַּלַּיְלָה אוֹ שֶׁחָלְצָה בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם אוֹ בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה וְנִמְצָא אֶחָד מֵהֶן קָרוֹב אוֹ פָּסוּל. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּנְעָל קָשׁוּר לְמַעְלָה מִן הָאַרְכֻּבָּה. אוֹ שֶׁהִתִּיר הוּא וְשָׁמְטָה הִיא אוֹ שֶׁהִתִּירָה הִיא וְשָׁמַט הוּא. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוְּנָה הִיא וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן הוּא וְלֹא נִתְכַּוְּנָה הִיא. וְכֵן קְטַנָּה שֶׁחָלְצָה לְגָדוֹל. חֲלִיצָתָן פְּסוּלָה. וְכֵן אִם חָלְצָה בִּפְנֵי יָחִיד וַאֲפִלּוּ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ וּבַלַּיְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲלִיצָה פְּסוּלָה. אֲבָל חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן שֶׁחָלְצוּ וְכָל הַחוֹלֵץ לְמִי שֶׁהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִן הַחֲלִיצָה וּמִן הַיִּבּוּם אֵינָהּ חֲלִיצָה:

17

When a yavam's right leg is cut off, he should not perform chalitzah with his left leg.53 If he performs chalitzah with his left leg, the chalitzah is unacceptable.

If [the yavam] is bowlegged, his foot turns to his side, or he always walks on the tips of his toes, she should not perform chalitzah, for the man performing chalitzah must press his heel to the ground, and such a person is incapable of this. If a person with such a disability in his legs performs chalitzah, the chalitzah is unacceptable.54

יז

יָבָם שֶׁרַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית חֲתוּכָה אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵץ בִּשְׂמֹאל וְאִם חָלְצָה מֵעַל שְׂמֹאלוֹ חֲלִיצָתָהּ פְּסוּלָה. הָיְתָה רַגְלוֹ עֲקֻמָּה לְאָחוֹר אוֹ הֲפוּכָה עַל צִדָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ עַל רָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹת רַגְלָיו הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵץ שֶׁהַחוֹלֵץ צָרִיךְ לִנְעֹץ עֲקֵבוֹ בָּאָרֶץ וְזֶה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל. וְאִם חָלְצָה לְמִי שֶׁרַגְלוֹ כָּךְ הֲרֵי חֲלִיצָתָהּ פְּסוּלָה:

18

A yevamah whose hands are cut off may perform chalitzah. A priori, [it is acceptable,] even if [she must remove the shoe] with her teeth, for the verse does not say that she will remove it with her hands.

If she removes a shoe made from cloth, she has not performed chalitzah.55 If, however, she removes a shoe that does not have a heel, [a shoe] that was sewn with linen threads, a shoe made from goats' hair, the inner bark of a palm tree, cork or wood, the chalitzah is unacceptable.56

[This same ruling applies if] the shoe is so large that [the yavam] could not walk in it, if it is so small that it does not cover the majority of his foot, it is torn to the extent that it does not cover the majority of his foot, or the sole is opened to the extent that it does not cover the majority of his foot.

יח

וִיבָמָה שֶׁיָּדֶיהָ חֲתוּכוֹת חוֹלֶצֶת לְכַתְּחִלָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשִׁנֶּיהָ שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר וְחָלְצָה בְּיָדָהּ. חָלְצָה בְּמִנְעָל שֶׁל בֶּגֶד אֵינָהּ חֲלִיצָה. אֲבָל אִם חָלְצָה בְּמִנְעָל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עָקֵב. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה תָּפוּר בְּפִשְׁתָּן. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מִנְעָל שֶׁל שֵׂעָר אוֹ שֶׁל סִיב אוֹ שֶׁל שַׁעַם אוֹ שֶׁל עֵץ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מִנְעָל גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ אוֹ קָטָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹפֶה אֶת רֹב רַגְלוֹ. אוֹ מִנְעָל פָּרוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹפֶה רֹב הָרֶגֶל אוֹ נִפְחַת שֶׁאֵין מְקַבֵּל רֹב הָרֶגֶל. חֲלִיצָתָהּ פְּסוּלָה:

19

Chalitzah is acceptable,57 however, in the following instances:

a) a sandal was made of wood58 and covered with leather, or its soles were leather, and its sides were made from goats' hair,

b) [the yevamah] removed a left shoe from [the yavam's] right foot,

c) the shoe did not belong to the [the yavam],59

d) it was oversized, but he could still walk while wearing it,

e) it was small, but it covered the majority of his foot,

f) it was torn, but it covered the majority of his foot, or

g) the sole was opened, but it covered the majority of his foot.

יט

חָלְצָה בְּסַנְדָּל שֶׁל עֵץ וּמְחֻפֶּה עוֹר אוֹ הָיְתָה קַרְקָעִיתוֹ עוֹר וּלְחָיָיו שֶׁל שֵׂעָר. אוֹ שֶׁחָלְצָה סַנְדָּל שֶׁל שְׂמֹאל מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַמִּנְעָל שֶׁלּוֹ אוֹ (שֶׁלֹּא) הָיָה גָּדוֹל שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ. אוֹ קָטָן שֶׁחוֹפֶה אֶת רֹב רַגְלוֹ אוֹ נִפְרַם שֶׁחוֹפֶה אֶת רֹב הָרֶגֶל אוֹ נִפְחַת שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל רֹב הָרֶגֶל. חֲלִיצָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

20

When it is questionable that a sandal is affected by tzara'at, or it has definitely been established that this is the case,60 and a sandal belonging to a false deity - i.e., one placed on the feet of an image61 - should not be used for chalitzah.62 If, however, it is used for that purpose, the chalitzah is acceptable, despite the fact that deriving benefit from [the sandal] is forbidden.63

[Different rules apply with regard to a sandal that was made from an animal] offered to a false deity,64 one from an apostate city,65 or one that was made to be worn by a corpse when it is buried. If [such a sandal] is used for chalitzah, the chalitzah is unacceptable. [The rationale is] that such a sandal was not made for a person to wear while walking.

כ

סַנְדָּל הַמֻּסְגָּר וְהַמֻּחְלָט וְשֶׁל עַכּוּ״‎ם שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ בְּרַגְלֵי הַצּוּרָה לֹא תַּחֲלֹץ בּוֹ. וְאִם חָלְצָה חֲלִיצָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה. אֲבָל סַנְדָּל שֶׁל תִּקְרֹבֶת עַכּוּ״‎ם וְשֶׁל עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת. אוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לְמֵת שֶׁיִּקָבֵר בּוֹ. אִם חָלְצָה בּוֹ חֲלִיצָתָהּ פְּסוּלָה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ:

21

If [the yevamah] tears the shoe off [the yavam's] foot or burns it, the chalitzah is unacceptable.66 [The same ruling applies if the yavam] is wearing two shoes [on his right foot, one on top of the other,] and the yevamah removes [only] the upper one [in the ordinary manner]. Even if she tears off the lower one so that his foot is revealed, the chalitzah is unacceptable.

כא

קָרְעָה הַמִּנְעָל מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשְּׂרָפַתּוּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לָבוּשׁ שְׁתֵּי מִנְעָלִין וְחָלְצָה הָעֶלְיוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּרְעָה הַתַּחְתּוֹן עַד שֶׁנִּתְגַּלְּתָה רַגְלוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲלִיצָה פְּסוּלָה:

22

When a yevamah eats garlic, mustard,67 or other similar condiments that increase a person's spittle, and spittle was dripping from her mouth, [the spitting] is of no consequence.68 [Instead,] the spittle must be produced without any external cause.

כב

יְבָמָה שֶׁאָכְלָה שׁוּם אוֹ גַּרְגִּיר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁמַּרְבִּין אֶת הָרֹק וְהָיָה הָרֹק זָב מִפִּיהָ אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָרֹק מֵעַצְמוֹ:

23

If [a yevamah] spits blood,69 or if blood is dripping from her mouth, [the spitting] is of no consequence. If she sucks [the wound] and then spits, it is acceptable, for it is impossible that there will be blood that was sucked out without some drops of spittle.70

If she spits, and the wind blows away the spittle before it passed before his face - e.g., she is tall and he is short - [the spitting] is of no consequence. If [the wind blows] the spittle [away] after it passes before his face, but before it lands on the ground, it is acceptable.71

If the judges do not see the spittle emerge from [the yevamah's] mouth,72 it is acceptable.

כג

רָקְקָה דָּם אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹתֵת מִפִּיהָ אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם. וְאִם מָצְצָה וְרָקְקָה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְדָם שֶׁנִּמְצָץ בְּלֹא צִחְצוּחֵי רֹק. רָקְקָה וּקְלָטַתּוּ הָרוּחַ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִכְנֶגֶד פָּנָיו כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲרֻכָּה וְהוּא קָצָר אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם. וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְנֶגֶד פָּנָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן אִם לֹא רָאוּ הַדַּיָּנִין הָרֹק כְּשֶׁיָּצָא מִפִּיהָ כָּשֵׁר:

24

Chalitzah performed under mistaken premises is unacceptable.

What is implied? For example, [if the yavam] was told: "Perform chalitzah for her; this is the manner in which you acquire her as a wife," "Perform chalitzah for her. It is a mitzvah, and you do not lose any rights. If you later desire to perform yibbum, you may,"73 or the like, [the chalitzah] is unacceptable.74

If, however, he was deceived and was told: "Perform chalitzah for her on the condition the she give you 200 zuz" - or "...under any other condition" - the chalitzah is acceptable,75 even though she did not give [him the money] or fulfill the condition.76 [The rationale is that] he had the intent [of releasing her from her obligation] when he performed chalitzah.

כד

חֲלִיצָה מֻטְעֵית פְּסוּלָה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמְרוּ לוֹ חֲלֹץ לָהּ וּבְכָךְ אַתָּה כּוֹנְסָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ לוֹ חֲלֹץ לָהּ שֶׁזּוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא וְאֵינָהּ מַפְסֶדֶת עָלֶיךָ כְּלוּם וְאִם תִּרְצֶה אַחַר כָּךְ לְיַבֵּם תְּיַבֵּם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלָה. אֲבָל אִם הִטְעוּהוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ חֲלֹץ לָהּ עַל מְנָת שֶׁתִּתֵּן לְךָ מָאתַיִם זוּז אוֹ עַל תְּנַאי כָּךְ וְכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתְנָה וְלֹא נִתְקַיֵּם הַתְּנַאי חֲלִיצָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְכַּוֵּן לַחֲלֹץ לָהּ:

25

When [a man] issues a protest77 with regard to chalitzah, the chalitzah is not acceptable.78 Therefore, it is proper for the judges to tell [the yavam] to nullify all protests [before he performs chalitzah], as they do with regard to a get.79

[The following rules apply when] Jews compel [a yavam] and beat him until he performs chalitzah:80 If they act according to law,81 the chalitzah is acceptable.82 If they do not act according to law - e.g., they were commoners or they erred [in judgment] - the chalitzah is not acceptable.

If gentiles force [a yavam to perform chalitzah] on their own initiative,83 but the law would require that chalitzah be performed, the chalitzah is unacceptable. If they do not act according to law, the chalitzah is of no substance.

כה

הַמּוֹסֵר מוֹדָעָא עַל הַחֲלִיצָה חֲלִיצָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. לְפִיכָךְ רָאוּי לַדַּיָּנִין לוֹמַר לוֹ לְבַטֵּל הַמּוֹדָעָא כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּגֵט. לְחָצוּהוּ יִשְׂרְאֵלִים וְהִכּוּהוּ עַד שֶׁחָלַץ אִם כַּדִּין עָשׂוּ חֲלִיצָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאִם שֶׁלֹּא כַּדִּין עָשׂוּ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ הֶדְיוֹטוֹת אוֹ שֶׁטָּעוּ חֲלִיצָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְאִם הָעַכּוּ״‎ם אֲנָסוּהוּ מֵעַצְמָן. אִם הָיָה הַדִּין נוֹתֵן שֶׁיַּחֲלֹץ חֲלִיצָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְאִם שֶׁלֹּא כַּדִּין אֵינָהּ חֲלִיצָה:

26

Whenever we have used the terms, "the chalitzah is of no substance," "his actions are of no consequence," or "nothing has been accomplished," the intent is that it is as if the chalitzah had not been performed at all. He does not become forbidden to her relatives,84 nor is she forbidden to the priesthood, and she is permitted to perform yibbum.

Whenever we have used the term, "the chalitzah is unacceptable,"85 he becomes forbidden to her relatives, and she becomes forbidden to the priesthood. She also becomes forbidden to all the brothers, and she may not perform yibbum. She may not marry another man, however, until she performs an acceptable chalitzah.

כו

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ אֵינָהּ חֲלִיצָה אוֹ לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם אוֹ אֵינָהּ כְּלוּם הֲרֵי הִיא כְּאִלּוּ לֹא נֶחְלְצָה לוֹ וְלֹא נֶאֶסְרוּ עָלָיו קְרוֹבוֹתֶיהָ וְלֹא נִפְסְלָה מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְהִתְיַבֵּם. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ חֲלִיצָתָהּ פְּסוּלָה נֶאֶסְרוּ עָלָיו קְרוֹבוֹתֶיהָ וְנִפְסְלָה מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה וְנֶאֶסְרָה עַל הָאַחִין וְאֵינָהּ מִתְיַבֶּמֶת וְאֵינָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְזָר עַד שֶׁתַּחֲלֹץ חֲלִיצָה כְּשֵׁרָה:

27

If she transgresses and marries [another man], [the yavam] should perform an acceptable chalitzah with her. She is allowed to remain married to her husband; she is not sent away from him.86

כז

עָבְרָה וְנִשֵּׂאת הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹלֵץ לָהּ חֲלִיצָה כְּשֵׁרָה וְהִיא תַּחַת בַּעְלָהּ וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִיָּדוֹ:

28

When a yevamah grows up together with [her deceased husband's] brothers, she is permitted to perform yibbum. We do not suspect that she performed chalitzah with one of them alone and thus became forbidden to them.87

If, however, we see that she removed the shoe of one [of the brothers], she is disqualified [from yibbum], lest she have intended to perform chalitzah.88 An acceptable chalitzah must, however, be performed to enable her to marry another man.

כח

יְבָמָה שֶׁגָּדְלָה בֵּין הָאַחִין הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת לְהִתְיַבֵּם וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהּ שֶׁמָּא חָלְצָה לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ וְנִפְסְלָה עֲלֵיהֶן. אֲבָל אִם רְאִינוּהָ שֶׁחָלְצָה נַעֲלוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִפְסְלָה שֶׁמָּא נִתְכַּוְּנָה לַחֲלִיצָה וּצְרִיכָה חֲלִיצָה כְּשֵׁרָה לְהַתִּירָהּ לְזָר:

29

The document recording the chalitzah that we compose is merely a legal record,89 so that a woman will have at hand proof that she performed chalitzah.

Judges do not preside over chalitzah unless they know the identity [of the yevamah and the yavam]. Therefore, a person who observes chalitzah can write a document recording the chalitzah although he does not know90 that the woman is so and so's daughter, that her deceased husband was so and so, and that the person who performed chalitzah with her was [her husband's] brother. [He can assume] that the judges who presided over the chalitzah clarified these matters and afterwards had the chalitzah performed.

כט

גֵּט חֲלִיצָה שֶׁאָנוּ כּוֹתְבִין לָהּ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מַעֲשֵׂה בֵּית דִּין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּיָדָהּ רְאָיָה שֶׁנֶּחְלְצָה וְאֵין הַדַּיָּנִין חוֹלְצִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַכִּירִין. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁרָאָה זֹאת שֶׁנֶּחְלְצָה כּוֹתְבִין לָהּ גֵּט חֲלִיצָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן מַכִּירִין שֶׁזּוֹ הִיא בַּת פְּלוֹנִי וְאֵשֶׁת פְּלוֹנִי וְשֶׁזֶּה שֶׁחָלַץ לָהּ אָחִיו הוּא. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדַּיָּנִין שֶׁחָלְצָה בִּפְנֵיהֶם הִכִּירוּ זֶה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָלְצָה:

30

This is the formal text of the document recording the chalitzah that is employed at present:

On this day of the week and on this day of the month, in this year from the time of creation, according to the reckoning that is followed in this and this place, we, the judges, of whom several have signed below,91 sat in a session of three in court. So and so, the widow of so and so, the daughter of so and so, approached us, as did a man named so and so, the son of so and so.

And this woman told us: "So and so, the son of so and so, [is] the paternal brother of so and so, my husband. [My husband,] to whom I was married, died, leaving life to the Sages and to the entire Jewish people. He did not leave a son or a daughter to inherit him and to perpetuate his name within Israel. So and so, his brother is fit to perform yibbum with me.

"Rabbis, tell that man: 'If you desire to perform yibbum, do so.' If not, let him place his right foot before me, and I will remove his shoe from his foot and spit before him."

We clarified the identity of so and so and that he is the paternal brother of so and so, and we told him: "If you desire to perform yibbum, do so. If not, place your right foot before us, so that she can remove your shoe from your foot and spit before you." He answered us: "I do not desire to perform yibbum."

Immediately, we had this woman recite after us:92 "My yavam refuses to raise a name for his brother within Israel. My yavam does not desire [to perform yibbum]."

And then, we had the man recite after us:93 "I do not desire to take her." He then placed his right foot forward. She removed his shoe from his foot and spit before him, emitting spittle that could be seen by us from her mouth to the ground.

We then had her recite after us:94 "This is what should be done to a man who does not build his brother's household. And his [family] shall be called within Israel 'the household of the one whose shoe was removed.' And we the judges, and all those sitting before us, answered after her: "the one whose shoe was removed," "the one whose shoe was removed," "the one whose shoe was removed," three times.

When this act was performed before us, we granted license for so and so to marry whomever she desires; no man has the right to raise a protest from this day onward.

So and so made a request for a legal record of this chalitzah. [Hence,] we wrote it up, signed it and gave to her as proof according to the faith of Moses and Israel.

Signed so and so the son of so and so, a witness;

so and so the son of so and so, a witness.95

ל

וזהו נוסח גט חליצה שנהגו בו העם: בְּיוֹם פְּלוֹנִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ לְיֶרַח פְּלוֹנִי שְׁנַת כָּךְ וְכָךְ לִבְרִיאַת עָלְמָא לְמִנְיָנָא דְּרָגִילְנָא לְמִימְנֵי בָּהּ בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אֲנַחְנָא דַּיָּנֵי דְּמִקְצָתְנָא חֲתִימִין לְתַתָּא בְּמוֹתַב תְּלָתָא כַּחֲדָא הֲוֵינָא יָתְבִין בְּבֵי דִּינָא וּסְלִיקָא לָקֳדָמָנָא פְּלוֹנִית בָּרַת פְּלוֹנִי אַרְמְלָתָא דִּפְלוֹנִי. וְקָרְבַת לָקֳדָמָנָא גְּבַר חַד דִּשְׁמֵיהּ פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי. וְכֵן אָמְרָה לָנָא פְּלוֹנִית דָּא. פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי דְּנָא אֲחוּהָ דִּפְלוֹנִי בַּעְלִי מֵאֲבוּהָּ הֲוָה דַּהֲוֵינָא נְסִיבָא לֵיהּ וְשָׁכִיב וְחַיֵּי לְרַבָּנָן וּלְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׁבַק. וּבַר וּבָרַת יָרִית וּמַחְסִין וּמוֹקִים שְׁמָא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁבַק. וְהָדֵין פְּלוֹנִי אֲחוֹהִי חָזִי לְיִבּוּמִי יָתִי. כְּעַן רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִי צָבִי לְיִבּוּמִי יָתִי יְיַבֵּם וְאִי לֹא יִטְלַע לִי רַגְלֵיהּ דִּימִינָא קָדֳמֵיכוֹן וְאַשְׁרֵי סֵינֵיהּ מֵעַל רַגְלֵיהּ וְאֵרֹק בְּאַנְפּוֹהִי. וְאִשְׁתְּמוֹדַעְנוּהוּ לִפְלוֹנִי דְּנָא דַּאֲחוֹהִי דִּפְלוֹנִי מִיתְנָא מֵאֲבוּהִי הוּא וַאֲמַרְנָא לֵיהּ אִי צָבִית לְיִבּוּמֵי יָתָהּ יַבֵּם וְאִי לֹא אַטְלַע לָהּ קָדֳמָנָא רַגְלָךְ דִּימִינָא וְתִשְׁרֵי סֵינָךְ מֵעַל רַגְלָךְ וְתָרֹק בְּאַנְפָּךְ. וְעָנִי וְאָמַר לָנָא לֵית אֲנָא צָבִי לְיִבּוּמֵי יָתָהּ. מִיַּד אַקְרִינוּהָ לִפְלוֹנִית דָּא מֵאֵן יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי. וְאַף לְהַאי פְּלוֹנִי אַקְרִינוּהוּ לֵיהּ לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ. וְאַטְלַע לָהּ רַגְלֵיהּ דִּימִינָא וְשָׁרַת סֵינֵיהּ מֵעַל רַגְלֵיהּ וְרָקַת בְּאַנְפּוֹהִי רֹקָא דְּאִיתְחֲזִי לָנָא מִפּוּמָהּ עַל אַרְעָא. וְתוּב אַקְרִינוּהָ לִפְלוֹנִית דָּא כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִבְנֶה אֶת בֵּית אָחִיו וְנִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּית חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל. וַאֲנַחְנָא דַּיָּנֵי וְכָל דְּהַוּוּ יָתְבִין קָדֳמָנָא עֲנֵינָן בַּתְרֵיהּ חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל תְּלַת זִמְנִין. וּמִדְּאִיתְעֲבִיד עֻבְדָּא דָּא קָדֳמָנָא שָׁרִינוּהָ לִפְלוֹנִית דָּא לִמְהָךְ לְהִתְנַסְבָּא לְכָל מַאן דְּתִצְבֵּי וְאִינַשׁ לֹא יִמְחֶה בְּיֳדָהּ מִן יוֹמָא דְּנָן וּלְעָלַם. וּבָעִית מִנָּנָא פְּלוֹנִית דָּא גִּטָּא דַּחֲלִיצוּתָא דָּא וּכְתַבְנָא וַחֲתַמְנָא וִיהַבְנָא לָהּ לִזְכוּ כְּדַת משֶׁה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל. פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי עֵד. פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי עֵד:

31

The three judges, two of the three judges, or two other individuals who witnessed the chalitzah, but who did not serve as the judges presiding over the chalitzah, may testify concerning the matter, as we have explained.96

Even [the testimony of] a woman, a servant or a minor who is perceptive and understanding is accepted if they say that "This is so and so, the brother of so and so, and this is his yevamah." We may then perform chalitzah on this basis. This does not apply with regard to other forms of testimony required by the Torah - neither testimony required in questions of monetary law nor testimony required with regard to prohibitions.

[The rationale for this distinction is that this is a matter that will likely be revealed, and it is possible to know the truth of the matter without relying on their testimony, as we have explained at the conclusion of Hilchot Gittin.97

If the yavam desires to perform yibbum, he should consecrate her, perform yibbum and write her a ketubah, as we have explained.98

לא

וּמְעִידִין עָלָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹ שְׁנַיִם מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה אוֹ שְׁנַיִם שֶׁרָאוּ הַחֲלִיצָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן הַדַּיָּנִין שֶׁחָלְצָה בִּפְנֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִשָּׁה אוֹ עֶבֶד אוֹ קָטָן שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר וְנָבוֹן נֶאֱמָנִין לוֹמַר זֶה פְּלוֹנִי אֲחִי פְּלוֹנִי וְזוֹ הִיא יְבִמְתּוֹ וְחוֹלְצִין עַל פִּיהֶן. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר עֵדֻיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין לְעֵדוּת מָמוֹן בֵּין לְעֵדוּת אִסּוּר. שֶׁזֶּה דָּבָר הֶעָשׂוּי לְהִגָּלוֹת הוּא אֶפְשָׁר לֵידַע אֲמִתַּת הַדָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא מִפִּיהֶן כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּסוֹף הִלְכוֹת גֵּרוּשִׁין. וְאִם רָצָה הַיָּבָם לְיַבֵּם מְקַדֵּשׁ וּמְיַבֵּם וְכוֹתֵב לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוֹדַעְנוּ:

The following is the text of the ketubah given to yevamot that is customarily employed at present:

32

On this day of the week and on this day of the month, in this year according to the reckoning that is followed in this and this place, [we the undersigned testify] that so and so, the son of so and so, appeared before us and told us: "My paternal brother died, leaving life to the Sages and to all of Israel. He did not leave a son or a daughter to inherit him and to perpetuate his name within Israel. He did, however, leave a woman so and so, the daughter of so and so. According to the Torah, she is fit to perform yibbum with me, as it is written in the Torah scroll of Moses: 'A yavam will engage in relations with her.' This woman consented and performed yibbum with so and so, the son of so and so, her yavam, to perpetuate [her deceased husband's] name within Israel, as it is written: "The first-born that she bears will arise in the name of his brother who is deceased."99

So and so, the yavam, has written [a marriage contract for] two hundred silver zuzim, as befits her, as was written in the marriage contract written to her by her first husband,100 and he adds to this pledge from his own resources this and this amount. This is the dowry with which she entered the household... [continuing as in] the ordinary text of a ketubah.

לב

וזהו נוסח כתובת יבמין שנהגו העם: בְּיוֹם פְּלוֹנִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ לְיֶרַח פְּלוֹנִי שְׁנַת כָּךְ וְכָךְ לְמִנְיַן פְּלוֹנִי לְמִנְיָנָא דְּרָגִילְנָא לְמִימְנֵי בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אֵיךְ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי אָתָא לָקֳדָמָנָא וְכֵן אָמַר לָנָא. אָחִי דְּמִן אַבָּא שָׁכִיב וְחַיֵּי לְרַבָּנָן וּלְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׁבַק. וּבַר וּבָרַת יָרִית וּמַחְסִין וּמוֹקִים שְׁמָא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁבַק. וְשָׁבַק הַהִיא אִתְּתָא דִּשְׁמָהּ פְּלוֹנִית בַּת פְּלוֹנִי וְחָזִי לִי מִן אוֹרַיְתָא לְיִבּוּמֵי יָתָהּ כְּדִכְתִיב בְּסֵפֶר אוֹרַיְתָא דְּמשֶׁה יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ. וּצְבִיאַת פְּלוֹנִית דָּא וְאִתְיַבְּמַת לִפְלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי יְבָמָהּ לְאוֹקוּמֵי שְׁמָא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּדִכְתִיב וְהָיָה הַבְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד יָקוּם עַל שֵׁם אָחִיו הַמֵּת וְגוֹ'. וְכָתַב לָהּ פְּלוֹנִי יְבָמָהּ לִפְלוֹנִית יְבִמְתֵּיהּ כֶּסֶף זוּזֵי מָאתָן דְּחָזוּ לָהּ דַּהֲווּ כְּתִיבִין בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ דְּכָתַב לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ קַדְמָאָה וְאוֹסִיף לָהּ מִדִּילֵיהּ כָּךְ וְכָךְ וְדָא נְדוּנְיָא דְּהַנְעָלַת לֵיהּ וְכוּ' כִּשְׁאָר טָפְסֵי כְּתֻבּוֹת:

The text of the ketubah101

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On this day of the week..., [we the undersigned testify] that so and so, the son of so and so, told so and so, the daughter of so and so, a virgin bride: "Become my wife according to the faith of Moses and the Jewish people. And I, with the help of God, will work to honor you, sustain you, nourish you, provide for you and clothe you according to the custom of Jewish men who faithfully honor, sustain, nurture, provide for and clothe their wives.

"And as a dowry fit for a virgin, I will give you 200 silver zuzim, which are equivalent to 25 zuzim of [pure] silver,102 which are fit for you according to the Torah,103 your sustenance, your clothing and your other needs, and I will give you conjugal rights."104

So and so agreed and became the wife of so and so. He consented and added to the essential requirement of the marriage contract, reaching a total sum of such and such. This is the sum of the value of the dowry that she brought to the household, such and such. The groom received this entire amount. It entered his domain and came under his jurisdiction, and he accepted responsibility for the entire amount as a loan and a debt.

Similarly, the groom has told us, "I accept responsibility for the entire [sum mentioned in] this marriage contract: the essential requirement of the marriage contract, the dowry, the additional amount, and all the stipulations of the marriage contract.105

"[This responsibility I accept upon myself,] my heirs and on all the valuable and desirable property and assets that I own beneath the heavens. [This includes] those that I already own and those that I will acquire and includes landed property and movable property that is acquired via the acquisition of landed property. All of them will be liable and accountable for the entire sum of this marriage contract: the essential requirement of the marriage contract, the dowry and the additions that payment be made from them in my lifetime and after my death, including even the cloak I wear on my shoulders."

We have formalized all that is written and explicitly stated above with a comprehensive kinyan.106 It should not be considered as an asmachta107 or as a sample text for legal documents that is not binding. Instead, it is binding with all the power and rigor of marriage contracts that are customarily accepted among the Jewish people, as ordained by our Rabbis of blessed memory. We signed this marriage contract on the date mentioned above. Everything is clear, forceful and viable.

לג

טופס הכתובה: בְּיוֹם פְּלוֹנִי כוּ'. אֵיךְ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי אָמַר לִפְלוֹנִית בַּת פְּלוֹנִי בְּתֻלְתָּא כַּלָּתָא הֱוִי לִי לְאִנְתּוּ כְּדַת משֶׁה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנָא בְּמֵימַר דִּשְׁמַיָּא אֶפְלַח וְאוֹקִיר וַאֲסוֹבַר וְאֵיזוּן וַאֲפַרְנֵס וְאִכְסֵי יָתִיכִי כְּהִלְכוֹת גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאִין דְּמוֹקְרִין וּמְסוֹבְרִין וְזָנִין וּמְפַרְנְסִין וּמְכַסִּין יָת נְשֵׁיהוֹן בְּקֻשְׁטָא. וְיָהִיבְנָא לֵיכִי מֹהַר בְּתֻלֵּיכִי כֶּסֶף זוּזֵי מָאתָן דְּאִינוּן מִזּוּזֵי כַּסְפָּא כ״‎ה דְּחָזוּ לֵיכִי מִדְּאוֹרַיְתָא וּמְזוֹנַיְכִי וּכְסוּתַיְכִי וְסִפּוּקַיְכִי. וּמֵעַל עָלַיְכִי כְּאֹרַח כָּל אַרְעָא. וּצְבִיאַת פְּלוֹנִית דָּא וַהֲוַת לֵיהּ לְאִנְתּוּ לִפְלוֹנִי דְּנָא. וְרָצָה וְהוֹסִיף לָהּ תּוֹסֶפֶת עַל עִקַּר כְּתֻבָּתָהּ עַד מִשְׁלַם כָּךְ וְכָךְ וְדָא נְדוּנְיָא דְּהַנְעָלַת לֵיהּ כָּךְ וְכָךְ הַכּל נִתְקַבֵּל חָתָן זֶה וּבָא לְיָדוֹ וְנַעֲשֶׂה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְזָקַף הַכּל עַל עַצְמוֹ כְּמִלְוֶה וּרְשׁוּ. וְכֵן אָמַר לָנָא פְּלוֹנִי חֲתָנָא דְּנָא אַחֲרָיוּת כְּתֻבְתָּא כּלָא עִקַּר כְּתֻבָּה וּנְדוּנְיָא וְתוֹסֶפֶת וּשְׁאָר תְּנָאֵי כְּתֻבָּה קַבָּלִית עָלַי וְעַל יַרְתַי בַּתְרָאִי וְעַל כָּל שְׁפַר אֲרַג נִכְסִין וְקִנְיָנִין דְּאִית לִי תְּחוֹת [כָּל] שְׁמַיָּא דְּקַנָּאִי וּדְעָתִיד אֲנָא לְמִיקְנָה מִמְּקַרְקְעֵי וּמִמִּטַּלְטְלֵי אַגַּב מְקַרְקְעֵי כֻּלְּהוֹן יֵהוֹן אַחְרָאִין וְעַרְבָאִין לִכְתֻבָּה דָּא כּלָא עִקָּר וּנְדוּנְיָא וְתוֹסֶפֶת לְאִתְפָּרְעָא מִנְּהוֹן בְּחַיַּי וּבָתַר מוֹתִי וַאֲפִלּוּ מִגְּלִימָא דְּעַל כַּתְפָאִי. וְקָנִינָן מִפְּלוֹנִי דָּא מִכָּל מַאי דִּכְתִיב וּמְפָרַשׁ לְעֵילָא קִנְיָן שָׁלֵם דְּלֹא כְּאַסְמַכְתָּא וּדְלָא כְּטֹפְסָא דִּשְׁטָרֵי אֶלָּא כְּחֹזֶק וּכְחֹמֶר כָּל שִׁטְרֵי כְּתֻבּוֹת הַנּוֹהֲגוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְכַהֹגֶן וּכְתִקּוּן רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זַ״‎ל וְחָתַמְנוּ עַל שְׁטַר כְּתֻבָּה זוֹ בַּזְּמַן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל וְהַכּל בָּרִיר וְשָׁרִיר וְקַיָּם:

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If the marriage contract is written for a widow, it should mention [the woman's name as] "so and so, the widow."108 If the marriage contract is written for a divorcee, it should mention [the woman's name as] "so and so, the divorcee."109 Similarly, if she had been taken captive [by gentiles], one should write "so and so, who was taken captive," so that a priest will not err [and marry] her.110

[In these instances,] it is written: "And as a dowry, I will give you 100 silver zuzim, which are equivalent to 12 1/2 zuzim of [pure] silver, which are fit for you...."111

לד

וְאִם הָיְתָה כְּתֻבַּת אַלְמָנָה כּוֹתֵב פְּלוֹנִית אַלְמְנָתָא. וְאִם הָיְתָה כְּתֻבַּת גְּרוּשָׁה כּוֹתֵב פְּלוֹנִית הַגְּרוּשָׁה. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה שְׁבוּיָה כּוֹתֵב פְּלוֹנִית הַשְּׁבוּיָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשֵׁל בָּהּ כֹּהֵן. וְכוֹתֵב וְיָהִיבְנָא לֵיכִי מֹהַרַיְכִי כֶּסֶף זוּזֵי מֵאָה דְּאִינוּן מִזּוּזֵי כַּסְפָּא תְּרֵיסַר וּפַלְגָּא דְּחָזוּ לֵיכִי וְכוּ':

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When a legal record of the chalitzah or a ketubah for a yevamah is written, the place where the verses [from the Torah] are written should be ruled with a stylus, for it is forbidden to write three words [from the Torah] without ruling [the surface on which one writes].112

A yevamah who performs chalitzah is permitted to marry on the same day on which she performed chalitzah, for she should not perform chalitzah until 90 days have passed [since her husband's death].113

לה

כְּשֶׁכּוֹתְבִין גֵּט יְבָמִין אוֹ כְּתֻבַּת יְבָמִין מְשַׂרְטֵט מְקוֹם הַפְּסוּקִים. שֶׁאָסוּר לִכְתֹּב שָׁלֹשׁ תֵּבוֹת בְּלֹא שִׂרְטוּט. וִיבָמָה שֶׁחָלְצָה מֻתֶּרֶת לְהִנָּשֵׂא בְּיוֹם חֲלִיצָתָהּ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ חוֹלֶצֶת עַד שֶׁתַּשְׁלִים תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם: