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Adam - Adam, the first man; in general - Man. 
Adam Kadmon - A mystic primordial level within the G‑dhead. 
ahava - Love, affection. 
ahavat yisrael - Love of fellow Jew. 
aleinu - Concluding prayer of each of the daily services. 
aliya - Being called to the Torah-reading. 
Amoraim -Sages who compiled the Gemara (Talmud). 
anash - Members of the Lubavitch community. 
aravot - Willow twigs (of the etrog-lulav set). 
areiv kablan - Third party guarantor. 
Atzilut - The "World" of Emanation. (T.I.N.). 
avoda - Service (of G‑d); striving. 
avoda sheb'leiv - Service of the heart; prayer. 
Avot - Short for Pirkei Avot, Ethics of the Fathers
Avraham - Abraham.

baalei teshuva - Repentants, returnees to Jewish practice. 
Bamidbar - Numbers. (Fourth book of Pentateuch). 
b'dikat chametz - Search for leaven (chametz). 
beit hamidrash - Synagogue; literally "study hall." 
beit hamikdash - The Jerusalem Sanctuary. 
bina - Comprehension, grasp. Second stage of intellect. (T.I.N.). 
Bereishit - Genesis. (First book of Pentateuch). 
b'hidur - With hidur. See hidur
birkat hachama - Blessing of the sun once every 28 years. 
birkat hamazon - Grace after meals
birurim - Elements of spiritual refinement and purification latent within all material things. 
bitul - Nullification (usually of self). 
Bracha - (Plural: b'rachot) - Blessing recited before food, mitzva-performance etc. 
brit mila - Circumcision. 
bulach - Clod (Russian).

Chabad - An acrostic formed from the initial letters of the words Chochma, ("wisdom"), Bina ("comprehension"), Da'at ("knowledge"). (T.I.N.). 
chalukat hashass - Apportioning the tractates of the Talmud for yearly study. 
chametz - Leaven, (Re: Passover non-use of). 
chamishi - Fifth portion (parsha) of the weekly Torah reading. 
Chanuka-gelt - Money gifts given on Chanuka
chassid (Plural: chassidim) - Follower of the Rebbe, adherent of the chassidic life style. (T.I.N.)
Chassidus - Chassidic teachings and philosophy. (T.I.N.
chazan - Cantor; or, one who leads the congregation in prayer. 
cheder - Torah-school for young children. 
Chessed - "Kindness." First Divine attribute. (T.I.N.
Chevra Kadisha - Literally "Sacred Society." Burial society. 
chibut hakever - "Purgatory of the grave." 
chochma - Conception; first stage of intellect. (T.I.N.
chomer - The material (opp. tzura, the spiritual). 
chumash - Pentateuch.

Devarim - Deuteronomy. (Fifth book of Pentateuch). 
davening - Praying, prayer. 
Divrei Hayamim - Chronicles. (Book of). 
duchening - Blessing of the kohanim (Yiddish). 
d'veikut - Profound concentration; a communion with the Divine that removes one from physical awareness.

Elokim - Divine name relating to G‑dliness immanent within the world. (T.I.N.
En Sof - The ultimate Infinitude; G‑d (T.I.N.
erev - The eve of; e.g., Erev Pesach, Erev Shabbat
eiruv tavshilin - Special "mixture of foods" permitting preparation (of food etc.) on yomtov for Shabbat, when yomtov occurs on Thursday and Friday, or on Friday and Shabbat. 
etrog - Citron fruit used on Sukot. 
etzem - "Essence." The core; the indivisible. (T.I.N.)

farbreng (verb) - To gather in the chassidic spirit. 
farbrengen - Chassidic gathering. 
frum - Devout (Yiddish).

gabai - Official of synagogue or religious organization. 
Gan Eden - "Garden of Eden." Paradise; the spiritual Hereafter. 
G'vura - "Severity"; Second Divine attribute. (T.I.N.
gaon - Pre'eminent Torah scholar and sage.

ha'ara - Radiance or shine (as opposed to the full intensity of the light itself or the light-source). 
hadassim - Myrtle twigs of the etrog-lulav set. 
hadran - Lecture traditionally delivered at the conclusion-celebration (siyum) of a Talmudic tractate. 
haftora - Reading from the Prophets, etc. at the conclusion of the weekly Torah-reading. 
hakafot - Circuitous Simchat Torah dancing. 
halacha - Torah law. 
hamotzi - "He who brings forth (bread from the ground)." The blessing over bread. 
Hashem - G‑d. 
hashgacha pratit - Individual Divine providence. 
Havayeh - "The Name of Being"; Divine name relating to transcendent Divinity. (T.I.N.
havdala - Service concluding the Shabbat and Festivals. 
Hayom Yom - "From day to day." Literally "today is the ...day." Before the psalm of the day (Siddur pp. 76-79), we say on Sunday: Hayom, yom rishon ba'Shabbat, "Today is the first day of the week"; on Monday: Hayom, yom sheini etc., "Today is the second ...etc."
hemshech - A series of maamarim
hidur - "Beauty." Performance of a mitzva beyond minimal requirements. 
hiluch - Progress. 
hitbon'nut - Contemplation, meditation. 
hitkashrut - The bond between chassid and Rebbe. 
hoda'a - Acknowledgement, thanks. 
Hosha'ana Raba - Seventh day of Sukot.

ibur - Gestation; in spiritual sense - interrelationship of souls. 
Iyov - Job. (Book of).

kabala - The mystic "inner core" of Torah teachings. 
kabalat ol - "Accepting the yoke." Simple submissiveness, subjugation to the Divine. (T.I.N.
kaf hakela - "The hollow of a sling" Process of purgatory. 
kaparot - Pre-Yom Kippur atonement prayer (said while holding a fowl). 
kaporet - The gold lid of the Holy Ark in the sanctuary. 
kashrut - Observance of the kosher laws. Dietary propriety of foods by Torah law. 
kavana (plural: kavanot) - Inner meaning, intent, mystic intent - of prayers. 
kavod - Honor. 
kelipa (plural: kelipot) - "Shells (i.e. forces) of evil," analogous to a shell which covers the inner; so does the kelipa conceal goodness and G‑dliness. (T.I.N.
kelipat noga - "Shell of Brightness." The fourth kelipa which does not totally obscure the inner (goodness or G‑dliness) but allows it to shine through partially. 
kiddush - Prayer over wine introducing Shabbat and yomtov
kiddush hachodesh - Sanctification of the new moon. 
kinot - Prayer-poems of mourning recited on Tisha B'Av
kohein (plural: kohanim) - Descendants of Aharon, who minister in the Jerusalem sanctuary. Often called the "Priestly Order." 
Kohelet - Ecclesiastes (Book of). 
kolel (plural: kolel-im) - Advanced yeshiva for young married men. 
Kotel - The Western Wall of the Jerusalem sanctuary.

Lag Ba'omer - 33rd day of the Omer; a festival. 
lashon hara - "The evil tongue"; slander, gossip. 
latkes - Potato pancakes traditionally served on Chanuka. 
leivi - A Levite
Lubavitch - a town in White Russia, center of the Chabad-Lubavitch chassidic movement for over a century. 
lulav - Date-palm branch used on Sukot.

maamar (plural: maamarim) - Formal discourse of chassidic teachings, delivered by the Rebbe.
Maariv - Night service. 
Maggid - Teacher or "preacher." 
Maharash - Acrostic: Moreinu Harav Shmuel, fourth Chabad leader. 
makif - Encompassing. (T.I.N.
Malchut - "Royalty." Tenth Divine attribute. (T.I.N.
mamash - Literally; actually; tangibly; palpably. 
maor - Light source, luminary. 
Maot chitim - Literally, "money for wheat." Charity specifically for prePassover (and other festivals) distribution. 
Mashiach - Messiah
mashkeh - Strong drink, liquor. 
mashpia (plural: mashpi'im - men; mashpi'ot - women) Literally, "influencer." Usually an elder chassid charged with the education and character-development of other chassidim. 
maskil - Intellect-oriented chassid. 
mayim acharonim - "After-waters," used to wash the fingertips before Grace after Meals. 
mehaleich - One who progresses. 
meshalei'ach - One who designates and sends an emissary (see shaliach).
mesirat nefesh - Total devotion, self-sacrifice. 
Micha - Micha (the prophet). 
mida (plural: midot) - The emotive attributes (of the Divine; or in man). 
mikva (plural: mikva'ot) - Immersion pool built to rigid specifications of Torah-law. Used primarily by married women as part of "Family Purity" laws.
Mincha - Afternoon services. 
minyan - Quorum of ten adult males gathered for prayer. 
Mishlei - Proverbs (Book of). 
Mitzrayim - Egypt. 
mivtza (plural: mivtza'im) - Campaign. Specifically, campaign for observance of a precept. 
modeh ani - "I acknowledge..." First prayer on arising. 
Moshe - Moses
Musaf - "Additional service" on Shabbat and yomtov.

Nechemya - Nehemiah (Book of). 
neshama - Soul (T.I.N.
nefesh - One aspect of the soul. (T.I.N.
ner (plural: neirot) - Lamps. 
nigleh - "Revealed aspect" of Torah; Talmud, Halacha, etc. 
niggun - Melody; particularly chassidic song. 
Nittel - A non-Jewish winter festival; usually occurs December 25. 
Noach - Noah
nusach - Text or version, usually of prayer.

ohn ayin hora - "An evil eye should not be cast upon him." 
olam haba - "The Coming World"; the spiritual Hereafter. 
omer - A measure. Denotes the period between Pesach and Shavuot
Onkelos - Translator of the Torah into Aramaic. 
opsherenish - First haircut of 3-year-old boy. 
or - Light. (T.I.N.)
orla - The thick (insensitive) "layer" of heart. (Lit. "foreskin"). 
oveid - Chassid oriented to service through worship and emotional refinement.

parsha - Daily portion of the weekly Torah-reading. 
partzuf (plural: partzufim) - Divine "configurations." (T.I.N.
Pesach - Passover. 
Pesach Sheini - Second or minor Passover, on Iyar 14. 
peyot - Sidelocks. 
p'nimi - Inner aspect; or, an "inwardly-oriented" person. 

Rashab - Acrostic: Rav Shalom Dov-Ber, fifth leader of Chabad. 
Rashi - Preeminent Torah commentator on the entire Torah and Talmud. 
ratzo - Approach, surge. 
ratzon - Will, desire. (T.I.N.)
rav - Senior practicing rabbi. 
Rebbe (plural: Rebbe'im) - Leader and head of the chassidim. 
revi'i - Fourth portion (parsha) of the weekly Torah-reading. 
rishon - First portion (parsha) of the weekly Torah-reading. 
Rosh Chodesh - First day of the new month. 
ruach - One aspect of the soul. (T.I.N.
ruach hakodesh - "The Divine Spirit." Prophetic inspiration.

sedra - The weekly Torah-reading. 
sefirat ha'omer - Counting of the omer
Shabbat - Sabbath (Saturday). 
Shabbat mevarchim - The Sabbath on which the forthcoming new month is blessed. 
Shacharit - Morning service. 
Shechina - The Divine Presence. 
shehecheyanu - Blessing pronounced at advent of festivals, before performing a mitzva for the first time in the season, etc.
sheini - Second portion (parsha) of the weekly Torah-reading. 
Sheimot - Divine names. 
shevi'i
- Seventh portion (parsha) of the weekly Torah-reading. 
Shir Hashirim - Song of Songs (Book of). 
shishi - Sixth portion (parsha) of the weekly Torah-reading. 
shi'ur (plural: shi'urim) - Study session; class; lesson. 
sh'lita - Acrostic; Sheyichyeh Leyamim Tovim Aruchim; "May he live for long happy years." 
Shlomo - Solomon
sh'ma - The "Hear-O-Israel" prayer. 
sh'mona essrei - The weekday silent devotional prayer said (while standing) in all prayer services. 
Sh'mot - Exodus (Book of). 
shocheit (plural: shochtim) - Toral-law animal slaughterer. 
shov - Return, retreat. 
sht'lita - Feminine form of sh'lita
shul - Synagogue. 
Shulchan Aruch - Code of Torah Law. 
sh'vua - An oath.
sicha (plural: sichot) - Informal talks by the Rebbe. 
siddur - Prayer book. 
sitra achra - Lit. "The other side," i.e. the side of evil. (T.I.N.
s'lichot - Pre-Rosh Hashana supplication prayer-service. 
sova - Satiety. 
s'uda - Festive meal, repast. 
s'uda shlishit - The third Shabbat meal. 
suka - Outdoor booth used on Sukot. 
Sukot - Tabernacles (Festival of).

ta'anug - Delight (particularly, spiritual delight). (T.I.N.) t
achanun - Supplication prayers following Shacharit or Mincha. 
tahara - Purity. Sometimes used as an abbreviated term for Taharat hamishpacha
taharat hamishpacha - "Family Purity." See mikva
tallit - Prayer-shawl. T. gadol, "Large tallit" wrapped around body for prayer. T. katan, "small tallit," rectangular undergarment worn continuously. 
tamei - Ritually impure. 
tamim (plural: t'mimim) - A present or former student of the Lubavitcher yeshivot
Tanach - Acronym for Torah (Pentateuch), Nevi'im (Prophets), Ketuvim (Writings). The word is often used colloquially for the latter two sections, the "post-Mosaic Bible." 
Tanaim - Sages who compiled the Mishna
Tanya - Scource-text of Chabad. Authored by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1813). 
tefillat haderech - The prayer for travelers. 
tefilla - Prayer. 
tefillin - Phylacteries
tehillim - Psalms (Book of). 
teshuva - Repentance, return. (T.I.N.
tikun chatzot - Midnight prayer bewailing the destruction of the Jerusalem sanctuary. 
t'mimut - Earnestness, simplicity. 
t'reifa - Non-kosher. 
tzadik (plural: tzadikim) - Righteous, saintly individual. 
tzavta - Joining, attachment, communion. 
tzedaka - Charity. 
tzimtzum - Contraction, condensation of Divinity. 
tzitzit - Fringes on tallit katan or tallit gadol
Tzivot Hashem - G‑d's army. 
tzura - "Form"; the spiritual dimension (opp. chomer, "the material") (T.I.N.

Vayikra - Leviticus (Third book of Pentateuch).

Yaakov - Jacob
yadin-yadin - Advanced level of rabbinic ordination. yahrzeit - Anniversary of the passing. 
Yechezkeil - Ezekiel. (The prophet. Book of.)
yechida - Highest aspect of the soul. (T.I.N.)
yechidus - Audience with the Rebbe. yehi ratzon - "May it be your will." Prayer beginning with these words. 
Yehoshua - Joshua (Book of). 
Yeshayahu - Isaiah. (The prophet. Book of.) 
yeshiva - School of advanced Torah-study. 
yeshut - Awareness of self; ego. 
yetzer hara - The inner inclination to evil. 
yetzer tov - The inner inclination to good. 
yichudim - Unification of supernal elements in (and by) one's mystical devotions in prayer. 
yid - Jew (Yiddish). 
yiddishkeit - Torah-Judaism. 
yir'a - Fear, awe. 
yirat Shamayim - Fear of heaven. 
Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah. (The prophet. Book of.) Yitzchak - Isaac
Yona - Jonah. (The prophet. Book of.) 
yud - Smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Basically a dot.

Z'a - An acronym for Zeir Anpin. "The Minor Visage," representing six Divine attributes. (T.I.N.
zeida - Grandfather.